How to use Bosporus in a sentence
In January 1902 the German group holding the Anatolian railway concession was granted a further concession for extending that railway from Konia, then its terminus, through the Taurus range and by way of the Euphrates, Nisibin, Mosul, the Tigris, Bagdad, Kerbela and Nejef to Basra, thus establishing railway communication between the Bosporus and the Persian Gulf.
This affair prompted the Ottoman Government to close the Darda nelles and Bosporus against all shipping, a course which caused immense loss and inconvenience to neutral Powers and produced such vigorous protest, particularly from Russia, that the straits were reopened in May.
He consented to pay an increased tribute to the Avars and allowed the Persians, who had declared war in 604 under Chosroes II., to overrun the Asiatic provinces and to penetrate to the Bosporus.
It contains a description of the southern coast of the Euxine from the Thracian Bosporus to the river Iris in Pontus.
After the victory of Nicopolis the siege of Constantinople was resumed, and the tower of Anatoli Hissar, on the Asiatic side of the Bosporus, was now built.Advertisement
Tradition avers that but forty days were needed for the completion of the work, six thousand men being employed night and day; guns and troops were hurriedly put in, and all navigation of the Bosporus was stopped.
With Sebastiani's encouragement the Porte resisted these demands; in one day a thousand guns were ranged along both sides of the Bosporus; and after a stay of ten days the British fleet was ordered to leave, and was considerably damaged by the fire of the forts while passing down.
The Treaty of Adrianople, by which the Danubian principalities were erected into practically independent states, the treaty rights of Russia in the navigation of the Bosporus Anapa and Poti in Asia ceded to the tsar, included also a settlement of the Greek question on the terms of the protocol of the 22nd of March.
But upon the approach of the Russians to Constantinople the British reserves were called out and the fleet was despatched to the Bosporus.
To sum up the history of Scythia, the oldest inhabitants of whom we hear in Scythia were the Cimmerii; the nature of the country makes it probable that some of them were nomads, while others no doubt tilled some land in the river valleys and in the Crimea, where they left their name to ferries, earthworks and the Cimmerian Bosporus.Advertisement
Vertical interval British front /ine before authorities, an almost indispensable preliminary to the undertaking of warlike operations against Constantinople and the Bosporus by fighting forces coming from the west.
Even assuming that the fleet forced the Dardanelles, its communications would have to be safeguarded, and there would still be Constantinople and the Bosporus to be dealt with.
Usedom, who was also responsible for those of the Bosporus.
A Russian army destined for the Bosporus, which had been gathered near Odessa, obliging the Porte to keep strong bodies of troops about Constantinople, had been called to Galicia, thus liberating several Turkish divisions for service at the Dardanelles.
The Russian expedition to the Bosporus, the convention of Kutaiah, and the treaty of Unkiar Skelessi (July 8, 1833) followed.Advertisement
They beat down all opposition, wrested even Bosporus in the Crimea from the empire, and by the annihilation of the Ephthalites completed the ruin of the White Race of the plains from the Oxus to the Don.
The exchequer being drained by the payment of 10,000 pieces of gold to buy off the Gauls who had invaded their territories about 279 B.C., and by the imposition of an annual tribute which was ultimately raised to 80 talents, they were compelled to exact a toll on all the ships which passed the Bosporus - a measure which the Rhodians resented and avenged by a war, wherein the Byzantines were defeated.
A little later (January 1657) he suppressed with ruthless severity a rising of the spahis; a certain Sheik Salim, leader of the fanatical mob of the capital, was drowned in the Bosporus; and the Greek Patriarch, who had written to the voivode of Wallachia to announce the approaching downfall of Islam, was hanged.
In the 5th century B.C. a Greek colony was founded here and remained independent for three centuries, when it became part of the kingdom of the Bosporus, and subsequently tributary to Rome.
On sea the empire suffered under the ravages of the Cretan corsairs; and in 865 the first pillaging expedition of the Russians endangered the Bosporus.Advertisement
The Dardanelles, Bosporus, the Sea of Marmora, and the adjoining coastal areas, both in Europe and Asia, were demilitarized, and, to the extent necessary to ensure the freedom of the Straits, were placed under the control of an International Commission.
After assisting in the prosecution of his former colleagues he received the command of a squadron with which he helped to win the great victory at Cyzicus (410) and to recover the Bosporus.
But the broad tract which projects towards the west as far as the shores of the Bosporus, though hilly and covered with forests - the Turkish Aghatch Denizi, or "The Ocean of Trees" - is not traversed by any mountain chain.
They were incorporated by Croesus with the Lydian monarchy, with which they fell under the dominion of Persia (546 B.C.), and were included in the satrapy of Phrygia, which comprised all the countries up to the Hellespont and Bosporus.
Thus the Bosporus and Dardanelles under the Treaty of Paris of 1856 and by the Treaty of London 1871 were and remain closed to the passage of foreign armed vessels in time of war, though the Porte may permit their passage in time of peace in certain cases.Advertisement
But they also penetrate to waters which may be termed inland, as the Bosporus, where they are known to the French-speaking part of the population as rimes damnees, it being held by the Turks that they are animated by condemned human souls.
After wintering at Zara the fleet set sail on the 7th of April 1203, and on the 23rd of June anchored in the Bosporus.
They inhabit the Black Sea littoral from Varna to the Bosporus, the shores of the Sea of Marmora and the Aegean, the Aegean archipelago, the mainland of Greece, Epirus and the western islands as far north as Corfu.
On the death of Galerius, in May 311, he shared the entire empire with Maximinus, the Hellespont and the Thracian Bosporus being the dividing line.
Harun then marched against Nicomedia, where he vanquished the domesticus, the chief commander of the Greek forces, and pitched his camp on the shores of the Bosporus.Advertisement
The first year of Leo's reign saw a memorable siege of his capital by the Saracens, who had taken advantage of the civil discord in the Roman empire to bring up a force of 80,000 men to the Bosporus.
The representatives of France and Great Britain made every effort to secure a reversal of this fatal step; but, while they were threatening and promising, Russia was acting, and on the 10th of February a Russian squadron entered the Bosporus.
The crisis was precipitated by the arrival on the 5th of April of a second division of the Russian fleet in the Bosporus, and of a Russian force of 6000 men, which landed on the Asiatic shore.
The emperor Nicholas was prepared to accept the views of Great Britain on the Turco-Egyptian question; to allow the Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi to lapse; to act henceforth in the Ottoman Empire only in concert with the other powers, in return for an agreement closing the Dardanelles to the war-ships of all nations and to extend the same principle to the Bosporus.
Devonian fossils have been found near the Bosporus and Carboniferous fossils at Balia Maden in Mysia.Advertisement
During the 3rd century, 278-277 B.C., certain Gallic tribes crossed the Bosporus and Hellespont, and established a Celtic power in central Asia Minor.
The shores of the Bosporus are composed in the northern portion of different volcanic rocks, such as dolerite, granite and trachyte; but along the remaining course of the channel the prevailing formations are Devonian, consisting of sandstones, marls, quartzose conglomerates, and calcareous deposits of various kinds.
The Bosporus is under Turkish dominion, and by treaty of 1841, confirmed by the treaty of Berlin in 1878 and at other times, no ship of war other than Turkish may pass through the strait (or through the Dardanelles) without the countenance of the Porte.
After defending itself against the kingdom of Bosporus, and the native Scythians and Tauri, and even extending its power over the west coast of the peninsula, it was compelled to call in the aid of Mithradates VI.
Soon she had 10,000 men under her charge, and the general superintendence of all the hospitals on the Bosporus.Advertisement
A great expedition under the command of Belisarius (in whose train was the historian Procopius) sailed from the Bosporus in June 533, and after touching at Catana in Sicily finally reached Africa in the beginning of September.
Archaic terracottas show it to have been inhabited in the 6th century B.C., but it is first heard of in history as resisting the attacks of Satyrus, ruler of the Cimmerian Bosporus, c. 390 B.C. His successor Leucon took it and made it a great port for shipping wheat to Greece, especially to Athens.
This in ancient times seems to have formed a group of islands intersected by arms of the Hypanis or Kuban and various sounds now silted up. The whole district was dotted with Greek cities; on the west side, Panticapaeum (Kerch, q.v.), the chief of all, often itself called Bosporus, and Nymphaeum (Eltegen); on the east Phanagoria (Sennaja),Cepi,Hermonassa,Portus Sindicus, Gorgippia (Anapa).
Mithradates the Great entrusted the Bosporus Cimmerius to his son Machares, who, however, deserted to the Romans.
But even when driven out of his own kingdom by Pompey, Mithradates was strong enough to regain the Bosporus Cimmerius, and Machares slew himself.Advertisement
In later times it seems in some sort to have been revived under Byzantine protection, and from time to time Byzantine officers built fortresses and exercised authority at Bosporus, which was constituted an archbishopric. They also held Ta Matarcha on the Asiatic side of the strait, a town which in the 10th and iith centuries became the seat of the Russian principality of Tmutarakan, which in its turn gave place to Tatar domination.
The two great aims he had in view were to prevent the establishment of Russia on the Bosporus and of France on the Nile, and he regarded the maintenance of the authority of the Porte as the chief barrier against both these aggressions.
In the following year, 1718, after some fruitless negotiations with a view to the conclusion of peace, he again took the field; but the treaty of Passarowitz (July 21, 1718) put an end to hostilities at the moment when the prince had well-founded hopes of obtaining still more important successes than those of the last campaign, and even of reaching Constantinople, and dictating a peace on the shores of the Bosporus.
From about 438 B.C. till the conquest of this region by Mithradates the Great, king of Pontus, about 100 B.C., the town and territory formed the kingdom of the Bosporus, ruled over by an independent dynasty.
In the Kul-oba, or Mound of Cinders (opened in 1830-1831), was a similar tomb, in which were found what would appear to be the remains of one of the kings of Bosporus, of his queen, his horse and his groom.Advertisement
The catacombs on the northern slope of Mithradates Hill, of which nearly 200 have been explored since 1859, possess considerable interest, not only for the relics of old Greek art which some of them contain (although most were plundered in earlier times), but especially as material for the history and ethnography of the Cimmerian Bosporus.
In October the Porte, encouraged by the presence of the British fleet in the Bosporus, took the bold step of summoning the Russians to evacuate the principalities.
The city stands at the southern extremity of the Bosporus, upon a hilly promontory that runs out from the European or western side of the straits towards the opposite Asiatic bank, as though to stem the rush of waters from the Black Sea into the Sea of Marmora.
Thus the promontory has the latter sea on the south, and the bay of the Bosporus, forming the magnificent harbour known as the Golden Horn, some 4 m.
Roman law, Greek literature, the theology of the Christian church, for example, are intimately associated with the history of the city beside the Bosporus.
Foes advancing through Asia Minor would have their march arrested, and their blows kept beyond striking distance, by the moat which the waters of the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmora and the Dardanelles combine to form.
For all intents and purposes, Constantinople is now the collection of towns and villages situated on both sides of the Golden Horn and along the shores of the Bosporus, including Scutari and Kadikeui.
In summer the heat is tempered by the prevalence of a north-east wind that blows down the channel of the Bosporus.
Since 1885, a French company, La Compagnie des Eaux, has rendered a great service by bringing water to Stamboul, Pera, and the villages on the European side of the Bosporus, from Lake Dercos, which lies close to the shore of the Black Sea some 29 m.
His mother, Cleobule, was the daughter of Gylon, a citizen who had been active in procuring the protection of the kings of Bosporus for the Athenian colony of Nymphaeon in the Crimea, and whose wife was a native of that region.
The missionaries afterwards founded colleges on the Bosporus, at Kharput, Marsivan and Aintab, to supply the needs of higher university education, and they opened good schools for both sexes at all their stations.
Two days later Cesarini received the tidings that a fleet of galleys had set off for the Bosporus to prevent Murad (who, crushed by his recent disasters, had retired to Asia Minor) from recrossing into Europe, and the cardinal reminded the king that he had sworn to co-operate by land if the western powers attacked the Turks by sea.
In the east, off the Asiatic shore between the Bosporus and the Gulf of Ismid, are the Princes' Islands.
In the Sea of Marmora they had to face the competition of the Samians, with whom they waged a war concerning the town of Perinthus, and of Miletus; but on the Bosporus they established themselves by means of settlements at Chalcedon and, above all, Byzantium (founded, according to tradition, 675 and 658 respectively).
The coast in the direction of the Euxine also was greatly feared by sailors, as the harbours were few and the sea proverbially tempestuous; but the southern shore was more attractive to navigators, and here we find the Greek colonies of Abdera and Mesambria on the Aegean, Perinthus on the Propontis, and, the most famous of all, Byzantium, at the meeting-point of that sea and the Bosporus.
In 782 the Arabs under Harun al-Rashid penetrated as far as the Bosporus, and exacted an annual tribute as the price of an inglorious peace (see Caliphate, § C, 3 adiin.).
By the ancients this name, signifying a strait, was especially applied to the Bosporus Cimmerius (see below), and the Bosporus Thracius; but when used without any adjective it now denotes the latter, which unites the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmora and forms part of the boundary between Europe and Asia.
In return for his assistance against the Scythians, the Greeks of the Cimmerian Bosporus and the Tauric Chersonese recognized his suzerainty.
They fought their duel out upon the Bosporus, off Sardinia, and in the Morea, with various success.
These two divisions (which in spite of good treatment by Alexius began to commit excesses against the Greeks) united and crossed the Bosporus in August, Peter himself remaining in Constantinople.
By the beginning of May 10 9 7 the crusaders were crossing the Bosporus, and entering the dominions of Kilij Arslan.
The northern boundary is broken at Kertch by a strait entering into the Sea of Azov, and at the junction of the western and southern boundary is the Bosporus, which unites the Black Sea with the Mediterranean through the Sea of Marmora and the Dardanelles.
Andrusov, when the union of the Black Sea with the Mediterranean through the Bosporus took place, salt water rushed into it along the bottom of the Bosporus and killed the fauna of the less saline waters.
Similar currents exist in the Bosporus to those of the Strait of Gibraltar.