How to use Boroughs in a sentence
Even in the boroughs the average is below 13.
The area is second to that of Wandsworth among the metropolitan boroughs, but is not wholly built over.
No researches are permitted in boroughs and villages or in forests, pasturages, &c., if it be considered that they would interfere with public convenience.
In virtue of its being the shire-town, Cardiff acquired in 1535 the right to send one representative to parliament, which it did until 1832, from which date Cowbridge and Llantrisant have been joined with it as contributory boroughs returning one member.
The continual disputes between the two boroughs led to the passing of an act of union in 1571, the new borough being incorporated under the title of the "Mayor, Bailiffs and Burgesses" by James I.Advertisement
Melcombe Regis first returned two members to parliament in 1307, and Weymouth in 1319, four members being returned by the united boroughs until 1832, when the representation was reduced to two and ceased in 1885.
The twenty-eight remaining divisions are the Metropolitan Boroughs.
The buildings connected with local government in London are with one exception modern, and handsome town-halls have been erected for some of the boroughs.
The surface tramway system of London cannot be complete, as, within an area roughly represented by the boroughs of Chelsea, Kensington and Fulham, the city of Westminster and a considerable district north thereof, and the city of London, the ' Charing Cross station was the scene of a remarkable catastrophe on the 5th of December 1905, when a large part of the roof collapsed, and the falling debris did very serious damage to the Avenue theatre, which stands close to the station at a lower level.
The London County Council is a central sanitary authority; the City and metropolitan boroughs are sanitary districts, and the Corporation and borough councils are local sanitary authorities.Advertisement
The wealthier metropolitan parishes became discontented with the form of local government to which they remained subject, and in 1897 Kensington and Westminster petitioned to be created boroughs by the grant of charters under the Municipal Corporation Acts.
It brought into existence the twenty-eight Metropolitan boroughs enumerated at the outset of this article.
The parliamentary boroughs are thus in many cases named and bounded differently from the metropolitan boroughs.
The parliamentary arrangements of each metropolitan borough are indicated in the separate articles on the boroughs.
In the following list the boroughs which extend outside the administrative county of London are noted.Advertisement
The act of 1899 swept away all these distinctions, and constituted the new borough councils in every case the overseers for every parish within their respective boroughs, except that the town clerk of each borough performs the duties of overseers with respect to the registration of electors.'
A complete re-valuation of properties in the county of London is made every five years, valuation lists being prepared in duplicate by the borough councils acting as overseers of the parishes in their respective boroughs.
In fact it played a more conspicuous role in the small boroughs than in the large ones.
Though a distinct borough it is united on the west with Rochester and on the east with Gillingham, so that the three boroughs form, in appearance, a single town with a population which in 1901 exceeded 110,000.
In 1906 there were 1805 mandamenti and 8290 communes, and 4 boroughs in Sardinia not connected with communes.Advertisement
Rhayader constituted one of the group of boroughs comprising the Radnor parliamentary district until the Redistribution Act of 1885.
The boroughs of Derby, Chesterfield and Glossop have separate commissions of the peace, and that of Derby has also a separate court of quarter sessions.
This fund is raised by the rate of 6d.in the pound on the assessable value of the county of London, and redistributed among the boroughs in proportion to their population.
Neath is included in the Swansea parliamentary district of boroughs.
It spread rapidly in England, and from the reign of John onward we have evidence of its existence in many English boroughs.Advertisement
The old gild merchant remained longest intact and powerful in the smaller boroughs, in which, owing to the predominance of agriculture, few or no craft gilds were formed.
As a rule the craft gilds secured no dominant influence in the boroughs of England, but remained subordinate to the town government.
The town returned a member to parliament from 1536 to 1728, was again enfranchised in 1832, and now (with Llanfyllin, Llanidloes, Montgomery, Machynlleth and Newtown) forms the Montgomery district of parliamentary boroughs.
On the 18th of March 1867 the Tory Reform Bill, which ended in establishing Household Suffrage in the boroughs, was introduced, and was read a second time without a division.
He promulgated laws about the year 928, appointing a large number of " moneyers " or " mynteres," London being assigned eight, Canterbury seven, other important towns various numbers and all smaller boroughs one moneyer each.
The municipal boroughs are Bromley (pop. 27,354), Canterbury, a city and county borough (24,889), Chatham (37,057), Deal (10,581), Dover (4 1, 794), Faversham (11,290), Folkestone (30,650), Gillingham (42,530), Gravesend (27,196), Hythe (5557), Lydd (2675), Maidstone (33,516), Margate (23,118), New Romney (1328), Queenborough (1544), Ramsgate (2 7,733), Rochester, a city (30,590), Sandwich (3170), Tenterden (324.3), Tunbridge Wells (33,373) The urban districts are Ashford (12,808), Beckenham (26,331), Bexley (12,918), Broadstairs and St Peter's (6466), Cheriton (7091), Chislehurst (7429), Dartford (18,644), Erith (25,296), Foots Cray (5817), Herne Bay (6726), Milton (7086), Northfleet (12,906), Penge (22,465), Sandgate (2294), Sevenoaks (8106), Sheerness (18,179), Sittingbourne (8943), Southborough (6977), Tonbridge (12,736), Walmer (5614), Whitstable (7086), Wrotham (3571).
The municipal and parliamentary boroughs of Lynn are co-extensive; the parliamentary borough returns one member.
The historical origin of American municipal government is to be found in certain boroughs which had been chartered in the colonial period, after the fashion of English boroughs.
Round the abbey the town of Malmesbury grew up, and by the time of the Domesday Survey it had become one of the only two Wiltshire boroughs.
Since 1832 it has belonged to the Swansea parliamentary district of boroughs, uniting with Kenfig, Loughor, Neath and Swansea to return one member; but in 1885 the older portion of Swansea was given a separate member.
Salford has been to a large extent overshadowed by Manchester, and the two boroughs, in spite of their separate government, are so closely connected as to be one great urban area.
The Danish settlements at the end of the 9th century and the defensive system initiated by King Alfred gave birth to a new series of fortified towns, from which the boroughs of the middle ages are mainly descended.
Justices of the peace are elected in wards, districts, boroughs and townships.
All Mercia south of a line from Dore (near Sheffield), through Whitwell to the Humber, was now in Edmund's hands, and the five Danish boroughs, which had for some time been exposed to raids from the Norwegian kings of Northumbria, were now freed from that fear.
Those under small jurisdictions in the boroughs and under the petty corporate bodies continued open to the strongest reprobation, and thus remained until they were swept away by the measure which brought about the reform of the municipal corporations in 1835.
The early history of Bridgnorth is connected with IEthelfleda, lady of the Mercians, who raised a mound there in 912 as part of her offensive policy against the Danes of the five boroughs.
The total police force of England and Wales in 1908 was 30,376, almost equally divided between counties and boroughs; that of Scotland numbered 5575.
The parliament, composed of a single chamber, was to consist of 460 members-400 for England and Wales, and 30 each for Scotland and Ireland - and the representative system was entirely remodelled, growing towns sending members for the first time, and many small boroughs being disfranchised.
A large majority of the English members, 265 out of 400, were to be elected by the counties, where voters must possess land or personal property of the value of £ 200, while in the boroughs the franchise remained unaltered.
From 1535 to 1832 (with the exception of 1658-1659) Swansea was associated with the other boroughs of Glamorgan in sending one representative to Parliament.
In 1832 St John's, St Thomas and parts of the parishes of Llansamlet and Llangyf elach were added to the parliamentary borough of Swansea, to which along with the boroughs of Neath, Aberavon, Kenfig and Loughor a separate representative was given.
Meanwhile in 1885 the parliamentary constituency was made into two divisions with a member each, namely Swansea Town consisting of the original borough with St Thomas's, and Swansea District consisting of the remainder of the borough with the four contributory boroughs.
Wandsworth is the largest in area of the metropolitan boroughs, including the districts of Putney by the river, part of Clapham in the north-east, Streatham in the south-east, Balham and Upper and Lower Tooting in the centre and south.
The topographical or local series comprises the seals of cities„ of towns and boroughs and of corporate bodies.
For the purposes of local government the state is divided into counties, cities, townships, towns and boroughs.
Outside the county constituencies are the parliamentary boroughs.
In Wales there are io borough parliamentary areas, all of which, except Merthyr Tydfil and Swansea town division, consist of groups of several contributory boroughs.
The municipal boroughs (246 in England and Wales in 1832) were governed by mayor, aldermen, councillors and a close body of burgesses or freemen, a narrow oligarchy.
The largest area of local government is the county; next to that the sanitary district, urban or rural, including under this head municipal boroughs, all of which are urban districts.
In order to appreciate some of the points relating to the finance of a county council, it is necessary to indicate the relations between an administrative county and the boroughs which are locally situated within it.
The act of 1888 Relation of created a new division of boroughs into three classes; countyborou g hs to of these the first is the county borough.
A certain number of boroughs which either had a population of not less than 50,000, or were counties of themselves, were made counties independent of the county council and free from the payment of county rate.
In such boroughs the borough council have, in addition to their powers under the Municipal Corporations Act 1882, all the powers of a county council under the Local Government Act.
The boroughs thus constituted county boroughs enumerated in the schedule to the Local Government Act 1888 numbered sixty-one, but additional ones are created from time to time.
The larger quarter sessions boroughs, i.e.
The reason for this is that while in counties the powers and duties under various acts were entrusted to the county authority, in boroughs they were exercised by the borough councils.
In the class of boroughs now under consideration these powers and duties are retained by the borough council; the county council exercise no jurisdiction within the borough in respect of them, and the borough is not rated in respect of them to the county rate.
But for certain purposes these boroughs are part of the county and rateable to county rate, e.g.
The county councillors elected for one of these boroughs may not vote on any matter involving expenditure on account of which the borough is not assessed to county rate.
The third class of boroughs comprises those which have a separate court of quarter sessions, but had according to the census of 1881 a population of less than 10,000.
All such boroughs form part of the county for the purposes of pauper lunatics, analysts, reformatory and industrial schools, fish conservancy, explosives, and, of course, the purposes for which the larger quarter sessions boroughs also form part of the county, such as main roads, and are assessed to county rate accordingly.
And in a borough, whether a quarter sessions borough or not, which had in 1881 a population of less than io,000, all the powers which the borough council formerly possessed as to police, analysts, diseases of animals, gas meters, and weights and measures cease and are transferred to the county council, the boroughs becoming in fact part of the area of the county for these purposes.
It will be seen, therefore, that for some purposes, called in the act general county purposes, the entire county, including all boroughs other than county boroughs, is assessed to the county rate; while for others, called special county purposes, certain boroughs are now assessed.
Elaborate provision is made for the distribution of the surplus (if any), with a view to securing a due share being paid to the quarter sessions boroughs.
These cases include the alteration of the boundary of any county or borough, the union of a county borough with a county, the union of any counties or boroughs or the division of any county, the making of a borough into a county borough.
For higher education county councils and county boroughs are the sole education authorities, except that non-county boroughs and urban councils are given a concurrent power of levying a rate for higher education not exceeding id.
The councils of all administrative counties and county boroughs and the councils of a few specified quarter sessions boroughs, which before 1890 were independent areas for purposes of the Lunacy Acts, are local authorities for the purposes of the Lunacy Acts, and each of them is under an obligation to provide asylum accommodation for pauper lunatics.
In the year 1835 the Municipal Corporations Act was passed, which made The provision for the constitution and government of municipal certain boroughs which were enumerated in a schedule.
A few ancient corporations which were not enumerated in the schedule to the act of 1835 continued to exist after that year, but by an act of 1883 all of these, save such as should obtain charters before 1886, were abolished, the result being that all boroughs are now subject to the act of 1882.
As has already been stated when dealing with county councils, boroughs having a population of less than io,000 according to the census of 1881 can no longer have a separate police force.
In a few cases, those namely of county boroughs, the councils have the powers of county the district councils.
In the quarter sessions boroughs other than county boroughs they have some only of these powers.
Before the year 1848 there was not outside the municipal boroughs any system of district government in England.
It is true that in some populous places which were not corporate boroughs local acts of parliament had been passed appointing improvement commissioners for the government of these places.
In many boroughs similar acts had been obtained conferring various powers relating to sanitary matters, streets and highways and the like.
It provided for the formation of local boards in boroughs and populous places, such places outside boroughs being termed local government districts.
In boroughs the town council were generally appointed the local board for purposes of the act.
Urban districts include boroughs and places which were formerly under the jurisdiction of local boards or improvement commissioners.
First, in the case of boroughs where from the time of the first adoption of the Sanitary Acts these expenses have been paid out of the borough rate, the expenses continue to be so paid; and in an urban district which was formerly subject to an Improvement Act, the expenses may be payable out of the improvement rate authorized by that act.
In quarter sessions boroughs, however, where the council have the duty of appointing a public analyst, they are under an obligation to put the acts in force from time to time, as occasion may arise.
A movement to consolidate the cities of Pittsburg and Allegheny, together with some adjacent boroughs, was begun in 1853-1854.
The city comprises the parliamentary boroughs of the Strand, Westminster and St George's, Hanover Square, each returning one member.
The municipal boroughs are Bedford (pop. 35,144), Dunstable (5157) and Luton (36,404).
The boroughs of Bedford, Dunstable and Luton have separate commissions of the peace, and Bedford has a separate court of quarter-sessions.
The burgesses of Bedford and the prior of Dunstable claimed jurisdictional freedom in those two boroughs.
The three chief divisions of the Danelagh were (1) the kingdom of Northumbria, (2) the kingdom of East Anglia, (3) the district of the Five (Danish) Boroughs - lands grouped round Leicester, Nottingham, Derby, Stamford and Lincoln, and forming a loose confederacy.
More is known of the history of the five boroughs.
In 9 17 Derby was the first of the five boroughs to fall, followed by Leicester a few months later.
In 874 they harried Mercia so cruelly that King Burgred fled in despair to Rome; the victors divided up his realm, taking the eastern half for themselves, and establishing in it a confederacy, whose jarls occupied the five boroughs of Stamford, Lincoln, Derby, Nottingham and Leicester.
Of the rest of the invaders one section established I petty kingdom in Yorkshire, but those in the Midlands were fubject to no common sovereign but lived in a loose confederacy inder the jarls of the Five Boroughs already named above.
For a moment the curious phenomenon was seen of Canute reigning in Wessex, while Edmund was making head against him with the aid of the Anglo-Danes of the Five Boroughs and Northumbria.
The county voters were the freeholders; but in the towns, with some important exceptions, the electors were the richer inhabitants who formed the corporations of the boroughs, or a body of select householders more or less under the control of some neighboring landowner.
As Burke had wished the British parliament to be supreme over the colonies, in confidence that this supremacy would not be abused, so he wished the great landowning connection resting on the rotten boroughs to ruie over the unrepresented people, in confidence that this power would not be abused.
The effect of the Reform Bill, which abolished fifty-six rotten boroughs, and by reducing the representation of others set free 143 seats, which were in part conferred on the new industrial centres, was to transfer a large share of political power from the landed aristocracy to the middle classes.
There was nothing in a 10 franchise which was capable of permanent defence, and if it was at once applied to counties as well as boroughs it would sooner or later be certain to be extended.
But counties and boroughs were broken up into a number of small constituencies, for the most part returning only one member each; while the necessity of increasing the relative weight of Great Britain, and the reluctance to inflict disfranchisement on Ireland, led to an increase in the numbers of the House of Commons from 658 to 670 members.
In 1898 it was constituted one of the six county boroughs having separate county councils.
He was "thought of" for various boroughs, Marylebone among the number, but his democratic Toryism seems to have stood in his way in some places and his inborn dislike of Radicalism in others.
The system of frankpledge prevailed in some English boroughs.
Barnstaple (Berdestaple, Barnstapol, Barstaple, also Barum) ranks among the most ancient of royal boroughs.
Edgecumbe was a faithful follower of Sir Robert Walpole, in whose interests he managed the elections for the Cornish boroughs, and his elevation to the peerage, which took place in 1742, was designed to prevent him from giving evidence about Walpole's expenditure of the secret service money.
Until the Redistribution Act of 1885 Lampeter formed one of the group of boroughs comprising the Cardigan parliamentary district.
Twenty-two small boroughs were disfranchized.
As a result of these changes 85 members now represent the counties, 16 the boroughs, and 2 Dublin University-a total of 103.
The total number of electors (exclusive of Dublin University) in 1906 was 686,661; 11 3,595 for the boroughs and 573,066 for the counties.
Six towns-Dublin, Belfast, Cork, Limerick, Londonderry and Waterford-were constituted county boroughs governed by separate county councils; and five boroughs-Kilkenny, Sligo, Clonmel, Drogheda and Wexford-retained their former corporations.
The Irish Education Act of 1892 provided that the parents of children of not less than 6 nor more than 14 years of age should cause them to attend school in the absence of reasonable excuse on at least 150 days in the year in municipal boroughs and in towns or townships under commissioners; and provisions were made for the partial or total abolition of fees in specified circumstances, for a parliamentary school grant in lieu of abolished school fees, and for the augmentation of the salaries of the national teachers.
For the year ending the 31st of March 1905, the total receipts of the Irish county councils, exclusive of the county boroughs, were £2,964,298 and their total expenditure was £2,959,961, the two chief items of expenditure being " Union Charges " £1,002,620 and " Road Expenditure " £779 1 74.
According to a contemporary list, this parliament consisted of 3 archbishops, 17 bishops, 23 temporal peers, and members returned by 10 counties and 28 cities and boroughs.
The majority contained 29 members considered independent, 44 who expected to be bought, 44 placemen, 12 sitting for regular government boroughs, and 12 who were supposed to support the government on public grounds.
From 1799 to 1802 he represented the Monmouth boroughs in the House of Commons, and from 1803 to 1823 sat for Gloucestershire.
In the Parts of Kesteven the boroughs of Grantham and Stamford have each a separate commission of the peace and separate courts of quarter sessions, and there are 4 petty sessional divisions.
In the Parts of Lindsey the county boroughs of Grimsby and Lincoln have each a separate commission of the peace and a separate court of quarter sessions, while the municipal borough of Louth has a separate commission of the peace, and there are 14 petty sessional divisions.
The three administrative counties and the county boroughs contain together 761 civil parishes.
For parliamentary purposes the county is divided into seven divisions, namely, West Lindsey or Gainsborough, North Lindsey or Brigg, East Lindsey or Louth, South Lindsey or Horncastle, North Kesteven or Sleaford, South Kesteven or Stamford, and Holland or Spalding, and the parliamentary boroughs of Boston, Grantham, Grimsby and Lincoln, each returning one member.
At this period the Danish inroads upon the coast of Lindsey had already begun, and in 873 Healfdene wintered at Torksey, while in 878 Lincoln and Stamford were included among the five Danish boroughs, and the organization of the districts dependent upon them probably resulted about this time in the grouping of Lindsey, Kesteven and Holland to form the shire of Lincoln.
The extent and permanence of the Danish influence in Lincolnshire is still observable in the names of its towns and villages and in the local dialect, and, though about 918 the confederate boroughs were recaptured by Edward the Elder, in 993 a Viking fleet again entered the Humber and ravaged Lindsey, and in 1013 the district of the five boroughs acknowledged the supremacy of Sweyn.
In the southern and midland districts the parishes are for the most part subdivided into hamlets or other local divisions known as "tythings," "boroughs," and the like; the distinction between a parish and a subordinate district lies chiefly in the fact that the latter will be found to have never had a church or a constable to itself.
In 1900 there were 24 incorporated cities or boroughs with a population of more than 5000, and on this basis almost three-fifths of the total population of the state was urban.
In 1903 several populous suburban boroughs were amalgamated with the city.
Volunteer numbers 4. The MVP is working across 17 boroughs in London, and within the Specialist Crime Directorate as forensic accountants.
Pride of place went to the sportshall athletics team who managed a tremendous third place out of the 33 boroughs.
The logic behind the idea Our school is based in the heart of one of LondonÃ¢s most deprived boroughs.
This began through staff's close observation of their community in Richmond and surrounding boroughs.
A further consequence, however, is that participating boroughs are now more likely to identify potential immigration detainees.
Labor did well in the metropolitan boroughs of the north.
John will work across all five Olympic boroughs, developing partnerships between health and sport to drive health improvements across North East London.
Many of London's outer boroughs have dangerously high levels of pollution.
During the closure we are offering an outreach service to primary schools in inner-London boroughs, INSET sessions, and online teachers ' resources.
Table 48a showing the county boroughs arranged in order of percentages of increase or decrease of population between 1901 and 1911.
Only the boroughs of Brent and Newham had more license dodgers, maintaining the top-three positions from 2005.
Clear service and care Pathways for south Asian elders and their informal elder carers living in the above three boroughs.
Two Boroughs, Tower Hamlets and Sutton, did not have a homicide reported this financial year.
Most boroughs were slow to take advantage of the 1835 Act and remained grossly inadequate until after 1856.
This is particularly pertinent to North East London, with some of the most deprived boroughs in the country.
There was some disagreement about whether parish precepts affected the capping of the Boroughs council tax setting.
They were the only semblance of a public authority presence outside the Boroughs.
To commemorate the tercentenary in 1989, the County Boroughs each presented a bench seat and the Regiment commissioned new gates.
As a result 178 boroughs were granted permission to allow the townspeople to have their own councils.
Open for just over a year it occupies a disused warehouse in one of London's poorest boroughs, Hackney.
In 1580 commissioners sent to decide disputes between the fishermen and landsmen found that from time immemorial Brighton had been governed by two head boroughs sitting in the borough court, and assisted by a council called the Twelve.
A scheme of electoral reform had been Podia= carried by which members were taken from the small, and corrupt boroughs and given to the large hitherto diffi= unrepresented towns, and which provided for thirty for themselves its control.
East of it there is an abrupt transition to the district commonly known as the " East End," as distinguished from the wealthy " West End," a district of mean streets, roughly coincident with the boroughs of Stepney and Poplar, Shoreditch and Bethnal Green, and primarily (though by no means exclusively) associated with the problems attaching to the life of the poor.
In the United Kingdom a paid magistrate or justice of the peace, appointed by the Crown on the advice of the home secretary for certain boroughs are termed "stipendiaries" or "stipendiary magistrates" (see Justice Of The Peace).
Despite the ferocity of partisans in " the Douglas wars," an English envoy reported that the power of the country gentry and the boroughs had increased, while that of the great wavering nobles, Hamilton, Huntly and others, was diminishing.
The county council or the council of a county borough is now in every case the local education authority, except that non-county boroughs with a population of over 10,000, and urban districts with a population of over 20,000, may be the local education authorities for elementary education only, but they may relinquish their powers in favour of the county council.
The project has already been through an exhaustive consultation process and has been recommended for approval by both Greenwich and Newham boroughs.
God 's curse seems to be upon most of these rotten boroughs.
To commemorate the Tercentenary in 1989, the County Boroughs each presented a bench seat and the Regiment commissioned new gates.
This requires boroughs to increase the support they give to unaccompanied asylum seeking children.
Open for just over a year it occupies a disused warehouse in one of London 's poorest boroughs, Hackney.
Circle Line offers a three-hour full Manhattan cruise, which includes circumnavigating Manhattan Island and seeing seven major bridges and five New York boroughs, as well as 25 local landmarks.
The company serves people who live in the NY area, the five boroughs, Long Island, Westchester, and some of New Jersey.
The municipal boroughs are Chesterfield (pop. 27,185), Derby, a county borough and the county town (114,848), Glossop (21,526), Ilkeston (2 5,384).
Nevertheless, of the death of a man, and of a maihem done in great ships, being and hovering in the main stream of great rivers, only beneath the [[[bridges]]] of the same rivers [nigh] to the sea, and in none other places of the same rivers, the admiral shall have cognizance, and also to arrest ships in the great flotes for the great voyages of the king and of the realm; saving always to the king all manner of forfeitures and profits thereof coming; and he shall have also jurisdiction upon the said flotes, during the said voyages only; saving always to the lords, cities, and boroughs, their liberties and franchises."
After the 1920 census was taken the township of Chartiers, with a pop. of 5,000, was annexed, petitions were filed for the annexation of the borough of Homestead with a pop. of 20,452, and a movement was on foot for the merger of the boroughs of Wilkensburg (24,403), Ingram (4,000), Grafton (5934) and others.
It was also one of the chief Danish boroughs, and Earl Siward is said to have died there in 1055.
Besides these authorities, the London County Council, the Board of Trade, the Admiralty, the Metropolitan and City Police, police of riparian boroughs, Kent and Essex Fisheries Commissioners, all the dock companies and others played some part in the government and public services of the port.
Although the township exists throughout the state, in many cases it is organized only for school purposes and in many others its jurisdiction is so restricted as not to extend to the villages and boroughs within its limits.
The boroughs having separate commissions of the peace and courts of quarter sessions are Canterbury, Deal, Dover, Faversham, Folkestone, Gravesend, Hythe, Maidstone, Margate, Rochester, Sandwich and Tenterden; while those of Lydd, New Romney, Ramsgate and Tunbridge Wells have separate commissions of the peace.
The county (extra-metropolitan) is divided into 8 parliamentary divisions, namely, North-western or Dartford, Western or Sevenoaks, South-western or Tunbridge, Mid or Medway, North-eastern or Faversham, Southern or Ashford, Eastern or St Augustine's and the Isle of Thanet, each returning one member; while the boroughs of Canterbury, Chatham, Dover, Gravesend, Hythe, Maidstone and Rochester each return one member.
By the London Government Act of 1892 the borough of Greenwich was taken out of Kent and made one of the twenty-eight metropolitan boroughs of the county of London.
In the first county council elections for Carnarvonshire he played a strenuous part on the Radical side, and was chosen an alderman; and in 1890, at a by-election for Carnarvon Boroughs, he was returned to parliament by a majority of 18 over a strong Conservative opponent.
But he was again returned for Carnarvon Boroughs; and in the ensuing parliament he came still more to the front by his resistance to the Education Act of 1902.
The silk and cement industries are confined largely to the eastern cities and boroughs; the coke, tin and terne-plate, and pickling industries to the western; and the construction and repair of railway cars to Altoona, Meadville, Dunmore, and repair of railway cars to Altoona, Meadville, Dunmore, Chambersburg, Butler and Philadelphia.
The great majority of the people were excluded as Roman Catholics from the franchise; two-thirds of the members of the House of Commons were returned by small boroughs at the absolute disposal of single patrons, whose support was bought by a lavish distribution of peerages and pensions.
Under the Local Government Act of 1898 Limerick became one of the six county boroughs having a separate county council.
Until the beginning of the 14th century Berwick was one of the four royal boroughs of Scotland, and although it possesses no charter granted before that time, an inquisition taken in Edward III.'s reign shows that it was governed by a mayor and bailiffs in the reign of Alexander III., who granted the town to the said mayor and the commonalty for an annual rent.
Berwick was at first represented in the court of the four boroughs and in 1326 in Robert Bruce's parliament.