Borough sentence example
The county borough was created in 1888.
Accordingly, Edward III., by letters patent, granted them for ever the town and borough, a privilege confirmed by Edward IV.
It is noteworthy that John Hampden and Edmund Burke both represented the borough.
The mention of four burgesses at Bridlington (Brellington, Burlington) in the Domesday survey shows it to have been a borough before the Conquest.
The borough council consists of a mayor, 10 aldermen and 60 councillors.Advertisement
The borough subsequently decreased in importance.
Bath Springs are located just outside the borough limits; though not so famous as they were early in the 18th century, these springs are still well known for the medicinal properties of their chalybeate waters.
The borough includes almost the whole of Regent's Park, with a portion of Primrose Hill north of it.
Public baths and washhouses are provided by local authorities under various acts between 1846 and 1896, which have been adopted by all the borough councils.
At the close of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century a large number of electric light companies came into existence, and some of the metropolitan borough councils, and local authorities within Greater London, also undertook the supply.Advertisement
The administrative authorities of cemeteries for the county are the borough councils and the City Corporation and private companies.
Crematoria are provided at certain of the companies' cemeteries, and the Cremation Act 1902 enabled borough councils to provide crematoria.
The acts are extended to include the provisions of museums and art galleries, but the borough councils have not as a rule availed themselves of this extension.
Each division of each borough, or each borough where not divided, returns one member, save that the City of London returns two members.
A detached portion of the parliamentary division of Hornsey, Middlesex, is in the metropolitan borough of Hackney.Advertisement
Further, every precept sent by an authority in London for the purpose of obtaining money (these authorities include the London County Council, the receiver of the Metropolitan Police, the Central Unemployed Body and the Boards of Guardians) which has ultimately to be raised out of a rate within a borough is sent direct to the council of the borough instead of filtering through other authorities before reaching the overseers.
The metropolitan borough councils make one general rate, which includes the amount necessary to meet their own expenditure, as well as to meet the demands of the various precepting authorities.
A complete re-valuation of properties in the county of London is made every five years, valuation lists being prepared in duplicate by the borough councils acting as overseers of the parishes in their respective boroughs.
The governing charter in 1835 was that of Charles II., incorporating it under the title of the bailiffs and commonalty of the borough of Tamworth in the counties of Stafford and Warwick.
There is evidence to show that Fareham had become a borough before 1264, but no charter can be found.Advertisement
It was a mesne borough held of the bishop of Winchester, but it is probable that during the i 8th century the privileges of the burgesses were allowed to lapse, as by 1835 it had ceased to be a borough.
Among manufactures are foundry and machine-shop products, powder, stoves, furniture, hosiery, &c. The borough owns the water-works.
It was incorporated as a borough in 1833.
It contains a borough of the same name and the villages of Cos Cob, Riverside and Sound Beach, all served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railway; the township has steamboat and electric railway connexions with New York City.
Pop. of the township (1900) 12,172, of whom 3271 were foreign-born; (1910) 16,463; of the borough (1910) 3886.Advertisement
Some of the religious gilds supported schools, or helped to maintain roads, bridges and town-walls, or even came, in course of time, to be closely connected with the government of the borough; but, as a rule, they were simply private societies with a limited sphere of activity.
Its chief function was to regulate the trade monopoly conveyed to the borough by the royal grant of gilda mercatoria.
Much evidence has been produced to show that gild and borough, gildsmen and burgesses, were originally distinct conceptions, and that they continued to be discriminated in most towns throughout the middle ages.
The village was burned by the British under Governor Tryon on the 12th of July 1779, and the chair in which it is alleged Tryon sat, on Grumman's Hill, as he watched the flames, has been kept as a relic. Norwalk was incorporated as a borough in 1836 and was chartered as a city in 1893.
It falls within the metropolitan borough of Poplar.
Coal mining is an important industry, and the borough is supplied with natural gas.
Tarentum was first settled in 1796, was laid out in 1829 at the direction of Henry Marie Brackenridge (1786-187,), 2 who by marriage had come into possession of the site, and it was incorporated as a borough in 1842.
Allentown was first settled in 1751; in 1762 it was laid out as a town by James Allen, the son of a chief-justice of the province, in honour of whose family the city is named; in 1811 it was incorporated as a borough and its name was changed to Northampton; in 1812 it was made the county-seat; in 1838 the present name was again adopted; and in 1867 the first city charter was secured.
In 1305, only, it was represented in parliament by two members; but it was never incorporated, and was governed by appointees of the manor court, until the Ross Improvement Act of 1865 established elected commissioners of the borough.
It was constituted a free borough under the title of the mayor, aldermen and burgesses of Hadleigh.
At Christmas 1815 he was sent to the grammar school at Louth, his mother having kept up a connexion with this typical Lincolnshire borough, of which her father, the Rev. Stephen Fytche, had been vicar.
The Duke was anxious to obtain a capable candidate to aid him in regaining his ascendancy over the rebellious borough.
In 1768 Lord Holland bought the pocket borough of Midhurst for him, and he entered on his parliamentary career, and on London society, in 1769.
Across the Housatonic is the borough of Shelton (pop. 1900, 2837), which is closely related, socially and industrially, to Derby, the two having a joint board of trade.
In 1893 the borough of Birmingham, on the opposite side of the Naugatuck, was annexed to Derby, and Derby was chartered as a city.
The borough is served by the Pennsylvania and the Pittsburg & Lake Erie railways.
Bituminous coal, natural gas and oil abound in the vicinity; the river provides excellent water-power; the borough is a manufacturing centre of considerable importance, its products including iron and steel bridges, boilers, steam drills, carriages, saws, files, axes, shovels, wire netting, stoves, glass-ware, scales, chemicals, pottery, cork, decorative tile, bricks and typewriters.
Geneva College (Reformed Presbyterian, co-educational), established in 1849 at Northwood, Logan county, Ohio, was removed in 1880 to the borough of College Hill (pop. in 1900, 899), 1 m.
Beaver Falls was first settled in 1801; was laid out as a town and named Brighton in 1806; received its present name a few years later; and in 1868 was incorporated as a borough.
He was returned to parliament in 1701 for the family borough of Wootton Bassett in Wiltshire.
Ashburton (Essebretona, Asperton, Ashperton) is a borough by prescription and an ancient stannary town.
In 1552, as the two manors of Ashburton Borough and Ashburton Foreign, it was sold by the bishop, and subsequently became crown property.
Local tradition asserts that Frome was a medieval borough, and the reeve of Frome is, occasionally mentioned in documents after the reign of Edward I., but there is no direct evidence that Frome was a borough and no trace of any charter granted to it.
The boundaries of the borough were extended in 1733.
Under the Reform Act (1832) the borough became merged in the county.
His eldest son Robert represented the borough of Nottingham in six parliaments and died in 1714.
The town has no charter, but is mentioned as a borough in 1284-1285.
Accordingly he became a candidate for the borough of Poole, and was returned the 21st of May 1695.
In conformity with the passing of the Municipal Corporations Act of 1840 the constitution of the corporation was made to consist of ten aldermen and thirty councillors, under the style and title of " The Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Borough of Belfast."
Kingsbridge (Kyngysbrygge) was formerly included in the manor of Churchstow, the first trace of its separate existence being found in the Hundred Roll of 1276, which records that in the manor of Churchstow there is a new borough, which has a Friday market and a separate assize of bread and ale.
The borough is built on nearly level ground in the fertile valley of the Conewago, at the point of intersection of the turnpike roads leading to Baltimore, Carlisle, York and Frederick, from which places the principal streets - sections of these roads - are named.
The name was long regarded as a corruption of Caesaris Burgus (Caesar's Borough).
Bordentown was laid out by Joseph Borden, in whose honour it was named; was incorporated as a borough in 1825; was re-incorporated in 1849, and was chartered as a city in 1867.
In 1910 the corporation promoted a bill in parliament to add the Hampden Park district in the parish of Willingdon to the borough and to make Eastbourne, with this extension, a county borough.
The place was first settled about 1827; in 1838 it was laid out as a town and named Littleton; in 1858 the present name, in honour of William Bradford (1755-1795), was substituted; and Bradford was incorporated as a borough in 1873, and was chartered as a city in 1879.
Kendall borough was annexed to Bradford in 1893.
Aberystwyth was a contributory parliamentary borough until 1885, when its representation was merged in that of the county.
It was a royal borough before 1086, and a charter of Henry II.
The borough is situated about 910 ft.
Tyrone was laid out as a village in 1851, and was incorporated as a borough in 1857.
In the parish of Tintagel is the hamlet of Bossiney which under the name of Tintagel received a charter (undated) from Richard king of the Romans, granting freedom to the borough and to the burgesses freedom from pontage and stallage throughout Cornwall, a market on Wednesdays and a three days' fair at Michaelmas.
In 1333 the burgesses, those who held tenements within the borough, numbered zoo.
The borough, which apparently owed its existence to the castle, shared its fortunes.
Provision was made for the administration of the borough.
Bossiney acquired the right of electing two members of parliament in 1553, the franchise being originally vested in the freeholders within the borough.
In 1832 there were ten resident legal voters within the borough and nine out-voters.
Stamford was chartered as a borough in 1830 and as a city in 1894.
Its importance continued in Saxon times, and in 1086 it was a royal borough with 107 burgesses.
The borough was incorporated in 1556, the fee farm being reduced to £8.
Midhurst is definitely called a borough in the reign of Edward I., but the borough-court and market were probably in existence much earlier.
It contains the villages of East Wallingford, Tracy and Yalesville, and the borough of Wallingford.
The borough is 12 m.
The borough has a public library (1881), a Masonic Home, the Gaylord Farm Sanatorium of the New Haven County Anti-Tuberculosis Association, the Phelps School (for girls) and the Choate School (1896, for boys).
Among the manufactures of the borough are sterling silver articles, plated and britannia ware, brass ware, rubber goods, cutlery and edge tools.
The borough of Wallingford was incorporated in 1853 and re-incorporated in 1868.
Howe, with a force of British and Loyalists vastly superior in equipment and numbers to Washington's untrained militia, landed in July on Staten Island and late in August defeated Washington at the battle of Long Island within the present limits of Brooklyn borough.
At the time of the Domesday Survey of 1086 it already ranked as a borough, with a castle, a market paying 4 shillings, and four burgesses.
Okehampton returned two members to parliament in 1300, and again in 1312 and 1313, after which there was an intermission till 1640, from which date two members were returned regularly until by the Reform Act of 1832 the borough was disfranchised.
The borough is governed by a mayor, six aldermen, and eighteen councillors.
About 1760 the town became known as Lebanon, and under this name it was incorporated as a borough in 1821 and chartered as a city in 1885.
In manufacturing districts and near large towns loads of 30 tons may come on road bridges, and county and borough authorities insist on provision being made for such loads.
Anthracite coal is mined here; there are railway repair and machine-shops; and among the borough's manufactures are hosiery, silk goods, underwear and adding machines.
Kingston was incorporated as a borough in 1857.
Previously to 1885 it formed part of the parliamentary borough of Stoke, but it is now included in that of Hanley.
It was included in the municipal borough of Stoke-onTrent under an act of 1908.
By the London Government Act of 1892 the borough of Greenwich was taken out of Kent and made one of the twenty-eight metropolitan boroughs of the county of London.
This was the population of the separate borough of Stoke-upon-Trent (area, 1882 acres) which existed until 1910.
In 1908 arrangements were made whereby Stoke-upon-Trent, Burslem, Fenton, Hanley, Longton and Tunstall should be amalgamated as one borough, under the name of Stoke-onTrent, from the 31st of March 1910.
Stoke-upon-Trent became the railway centre and head of the parliamentary borough of Stoke-upon-Trent, comprising the whole of the Staffordshire Potteries, which was created by the Reform Bill of 1832.
At the general election on March 1857, Palmer, finding that the independent part he had taken, especially in reference to the Chinese question, had alienated from him many of his constituents in Plymouth, abandoned the prospect of re-election for that borough, and did not seek for election elsewhere.
In July 1861 he accepted from Lord Palmerston the office of solicitor-general, a knighthood, and a safe seat for the borough of Richmond in Yorkshire, secured for him through the friendly action of Lord Zetland, and thus began the second spell of Palmer's membership of the House of Commons, which continued till his elevation to the woolsack and the peerage.
The municipal borough is under a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors.
Nevertheless it was raised to the rank of a free borough by Henry VII I.'s charter of 1546, confirmed by Edward VI.
In the north of the borough are the main waterworks and reservoirs of the New River Company, though the waterway continues to a head in; Finsbury.
Stoke Newington is partly in the north division of the parliamentary borough of Hackney, but the district of South Hornsey, included in the municipal borough, is in the Hornsey division of Middlesex.
In 1246 Nicholas obtained a grant of a Saturday market and a fair at the feast of the Assumption (both maintained up to the present day), and in 1275 South Molton appears for the' first time as a mesne borough under his overlordship. The borough subsequently passed to the Audleys, the Hollands, and in 1487 was granted for life to Margaret, duchess of Richmond, who in 1490 obtained a grant of a fair (which is still held) at the nativity of St John the Baptist.
Staten Island is connected by ferry with the borough of Manhattan, 5 m.
In 1898 Staten Island became the borough of Richmond in Greater New York.
The name is commonly applied to the southern part of the borough, which, however, includes the districts of Holloway in the north, Highbury in the east, part of Kingsland in the south-east, and Barnsbury and Canonbury in the south-central portion.
The borough has only some 40 acres of public grounds, the principal of which is Highbury Fields.
The parliamentary borough of Islington has north, south, east and west divisions, each returning one member.
Finsbury Park, of 120 acres, and other smaller public grounds, are within the borough.
The Zoological Park at Bronx Borough, New York City, opened in 1899, is one of the largest in the world.
In the same year it was made the countyseat of the newly constituted county of Dauphin, and its name was changed to Louisburg; but when, in 1791, it was incorporated as a borough, the present name was again adopted.
The parliamentary borough includes the adjacent municipal borough of Batley, and returns one member.
The municipal borough, incorporated in 1862, is under a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors.
The municipal borough, incorporated in 1890, is.
Other manufactures are flour and grist mill products, bricks, planingmill products, &c. In 1905 the total value of the borough's factory products was $15,745,628; the capital invested in manufacturing increased from $6,266,068 in 1900 to $18,642,853 in 1905, or 197.5%.
There is a large limestone quarry within the borough limits.
The place was laid out in 1866 under the name of Baldwin, but when it was incorporated as a borough, in 1880, the present name was adopted.
In England, it was a tenure whereby houses or tenements in an ancient borough were held of the king or other person as lord at a certain rent.
The municipal borough, incorporated in 1871, is under a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors.
There is no evidence to show that Romsey was a borough before the charter of incorporation granted by James I.
In 1761, as marquess of Titchfield, he became M.P. for the borough of Weobly (Hereford), but in May 1762 he was called to the upper house on the death of his father.
The municipal and parliamentary boroughs of Lynn are co-extensive; the parliamentary borough returns one member.
Herbert de Losinga (c. 1054-1119) granted its jurisdiction to the cathedral of Norwich but this right was resumed by a later bishop, John de Gray, who in 1204 had obtained from John a charter establishing Lynn as a free borough.
He was unseated, and afterwards returned for Malton, a borough in the interest of Lord Fitzwilliam.
The older part of the urban district is included in the parliamentary borough of Merthyr Tydfil, and also shares with Merthyr and Aberdare the services of a stipendiary magistrate.
Scranton was incorporated as a borough in 1854, was chartered as a city of the third class in 1866, and became a city of the second class in 1901.
Norristown is served by the Pennsylvania, the Philadelphia & Reading and the Stony Creek railways, by interurban electric railway to Philadelphia and Reading, and by the Schuylkill canal, and is connected by bridge with the borough of Bridgeport (pop. in 1900, 3095), where woollen and cotton goods are manufactured.
The borough has a large trade with the surrounding country, which is well adapted to agriculture and abounds in limestone.
Norristown was founded in 1785, and was named in honour of Isaac Norris (c. 1671-1735), a friend of William Penn and a member of the Pennsylvania legislature, who had owned the land on which the borough is built.
Norristown was incorporated as a borough in 1812, and its boundaries were extended in 1853.
He was elected to represent Lyme Regis in Elizabeth's second parliament of 1563 as well as for Banbury, and preferred to sit for the former borough.
The parliamentary borough returned two members from 1832 until 1885, when it was divided into three divisions, each returning one member.
Bradford was evidently a borough by prescription and was not incorporated until 1847.
Before the 19th century Bradford was never represented in parliament, but in 1832 it was created a parliamentary borough returning two members.
On the constitution of Dublin as a county borough in 1898, the positions and duties of its corporation were left practically unaltered.
A statue was erected in 1875 to the sixth earl of Mayo,, who represented the borough (abolished in 1885) from 1857 to 1868.
Waltheof probably built the castle, under the shelter of which the town grew up. Although it never received any royal charter, the earliest records relating to Cockermouth mention it as a borough.
The borough had also a separate court of quarter sessions till 1835.
The borough was placed under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, and until then the town of Llywel, which is io m.
In 14th-century documents it is described as a town or borough governed by a portreeve, who frequently came into conflict with the parson of St John's church, who had become lord of the manor of Yeovil during the reign of Henry III.
Pop. of the township (1890) 3304; (1900) 3214, of whom 559 were foreign-born; of the borough (1890) 1058; (1900) 1120.
The borough is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford railroad.
On the southern border of the borough is Lake Bantam (about 900 acres, the largest lake in the state) whose falls, at its outlet, provide water power for factories of carriages and electrical appliances.
In 1751 it became the countyseat of Litchfield county, and at the same time the borough of Litchfield (incorporated in 1879) was laid out.
No charter granting self-government to Wiveliscombe has been found, and the only evidence for the traditional existence of a borough is that part of the town is called "the borough," and that until the middle of the 19th century a bailiff and a portreeve were annually chosen by the court leet.
In 1826 he fixed his residence at Cambridge, and in 1836 was elected coroner of the borough.
In 1849 he resigned the office of borough coroner on being elected to the town-clerkship, which he retained till his death on the 21st of March 1866.
This charter is the only one which gives Knutsford a claim to the title of borough.
Reading was incorporated as a borough in 1783, and was chartered as a city in 1847.
These American corporations had the usual English system of borough government, consisting of a mayor, aldermen and councilmen, who carried out the simple administrative and judicial functions needed br the then small communities.
A considerable but indefinite area adjoining Brompton is commonly called South Kensington; but the area known as West Kensington is within the borough of Fulham.
In the north the borough includes the cemetery of Kensal Green (with the exception of the Roman Catholic portion, which is in the borough of Hammersmith); it was opened in 1838, and great numbers of eminent persons are buried here.
The parliamentary borough of Kensington has north and south divisions, each returning one member.
In 1205 Farnham had bailiffs, and in 1207 it was definitely a mesne borough under the bishops of Winchester.
The burgesses surrendered the proceeds of the borough court and other rights in 1365 in return for respite of the fee farm rent; these were recovered in 1405 and rent again paid.
In resisting an attack made by the bishop in 1660 on their right of toll, the burgesses could only claim Farnham as a borough by prescription as their charters had been mislaid, but the charters were subsequently found, and after some litigation their rights were established.
In the 18th century the corporation, a close body, declined, its duties being performed by the vestry, and in 1789 the one survivor resigned and handed over the town papers to the bishop. Farnham sent representatives to parliament in 1311 and 1460, on both occasions being practically the bishop's pocket borough.
It was not incorporated, however, until 1645, when it was made a free borough under the title of "aldermen and burgesses of the borough of Malmesbury, County Wilts."
The borough returned two members to parliament from 12 9 5 to 1832 when the number was reduced to one.
There are tinplate and engineering works within the borough.
In modern times these charters were not acted `upon, the town being deemed a borough by prescription, but in 1861 it was incorporated under the Municipal Corporations Act.
The borough incorporated in 1877, is under a mayor, 7 aldermen and 21 councillors.
It became a mesne borough by the charter granted by John in 1201, which provided that the town should be a free borough, the burgesses to be free and quit of all tolls, and made William de Briwere overlord.
The parliamentary borough has three divisions, each returning a member.
The borough, composed of three townships identical with the ancient manors of Salford, Pendleton and Broughton, is for the most part separated from Manchester by the river Irwell, which is crossed by a series of bridges.
At the other extremity of Salford it joins the borough of Eccles.
Salford is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishopric, and its cathedral, St John's, with its spire of 240 ft., is the most noteworthy ecclesiastical building in the borough.
Peel Park, bought by public subscription in 1846, was the first public recreation ground in the borough.
This will be seen by an examination of the rateable value of the three townships now comprised in the borough.
Within the present borough area there have been found neolithic implements and British urns, as well as Roman coins.
In 1231 Ranulf de Blundeville, earl of Chester, granted a charter constituting Salford a "free borough."
In 1844 it received a municipal charter and became a county borough in 1889.
The borough was incorporated by Henry III., when the castle was enlarged, and was the scene of frequent contests between that king and Llewelyn the Great.
Drogheda ceased to be a parliamentary borough in 1885, and a county of a town in 1898.
Before reaching full age he was returned to the Irish parliament by the family borough of Trim.
This granted two weekly markets on Tuesday and Friday and a fair on the eve of St Augustine lasting thirty days; it made the town a free borough and provided that the king would send his justices to deliver the prison when necessary.
The first account of the borough and its privileges is contained in an inquisition taken in 1333 after the death of Anthony, bishop of Durham, which shows that the burgesses held the town with the markets and fairs at a fee-farm rent of 40 marks yearly, and that they had two reeves who sat in court with the bishop's bailiff to hear the disputes of the townspeople.
The manor of Crickhowell used to be regarded as a borough by prescription, but there is no record of its ever having possessed any municipal institutions.
In the Irish parliament two members were returned for the county, and two for the borough of Castlebar, but at the union Castlebar was disfranchised.
The borough is under a mayor, 7 aldermen and 21 councillors.
Section II of the act ordered, inter alia, that the trial of every election petition shall be conducted before a puisne judge of one of the common law courts at Westminster and Dublin; that the said courts shall each select a judge to be placed on the rota for the trial of election petitions; that the said judges shall try petitions standing for trial according to seniority or otherwise, as they may agree; that the trial shall take place in the county or borough to which the petition refers, unless the court should think it desirable to hold it elsewhere.
No barrister can be appointed who is of less than fifteen years' standing, or a member of parliament, or holder of any office of profit (other than that of recorder) under the crown; nor can any barrister try a petition in any borough in which he is recorder or in which he resides, or which is included in his circuit.
The petition may allege that the election was avoided as to the borough or ward on the ground of general bribery, &c., or that the election of the person petitioned against was avoided by corrupt practices, or by personal disqualification, or that he had not the majority of lawful votes.
Ripon is said to have been made a royal borough by Alfred the Great, and King lEthelstan, after his victory at Brunanburn in 937, is stated to have granted to the monastery sanctuary, freedom from toll and taxes, and the privilege of holding a court, although both charters attributed to him are known to be spurious.
Biggleswade (Bichelswade, Beckeleswade, Bickleswade) is an ancient borough by prescription which has never returned representatives to parliament.
The borough court was held by the lord of the manor.
The last was acquired by the family of Bayeux, from whom it passed by marriage to Elias de Rabayne, whose nephew, Peter Baudrat, surrendered it to the crown in1315-1316when the king became lord of one moiety of the borough, henceforth known as Lyme Regis.
The borough was disfranchised in 1867.
The borough includes the sub-manor of Belsize and part of the hamlet of Kilburn.
The Edgware Road bounds Hampstead on the west; and the borough is intersected, parallel to this thoroughfare, by Finchley Road, and by Haverstock Hill, which, continued under the names of Rosslyn Hill, High Street, Heath Street, and North End, crosses the Heath for which Hampstead is chiefly celebrated.
The Heath is continued eastward in Parliament Hill (borough of St Pancras), acquired for the public in 1890; and westward outside the county boundary in Golders Hill, owned by Sir Spenser Wells, Bart., until 1898.
The borough has in all about 350 acres of open spaces.
Kilburn, which as a district extends outside the borough, takes name from a stream which, as the Westbourne, entered the Thames at Chelsea.
The borough council consists of a mayor, 7 aldermen and 42 councillors.
Lock Haven was made the county-seat immediately after the erection of Clinton county in 1839, was incorporated as a borough in 1840, and first chartered as a city in 1870.
The parliamentary borough, which is co-extensive with the municipal, returns one member.
When the borough originated is not known, but Domesday Book mentions two hundred and seventy-six burgesses and land in commune burgensium, a phrase that may point to a nascent municipal corporation.
It is a town of modern growth, and contains the municipal offices of the borough, a custom-house and various benevolent institutions for seamen.
In 1909 the state legislature passed an act authorizing any city, borough or township of the first class to acquire, subject to the approval of the commissioner of forestry, a municipal forest; and it authorized the distribution of seedling forest trees, at cost, to those who would plant and protect them, for growing private forests.
In 1839 it was incorporated as a borough, and it became a city in 1856.
The borough is situated in the valley of Mahanoy Creek, and has an elevation of 1240 ft.
The valley is a part of the anthracite coal region of Pennsylvania, fire clay abounds in the vicinity, and .the borough's principal industries are the mining and shipping of coal, and the manufacture of shirts and foundry products.
Mahanoy City, originally a part of Mahanoy township (pop. in 1900, 6214), was incorporated as a borough in 1863.
On the adjacent Borough Hill arc extensive earthworks, and the discovery of remains here and at Burnt Walls, immediately south, proves the existence of a considerable Roman station.
In spite of the Roman remains on Borough Hill, nothing is known of the town itself until the time of the Domesday Survey, when the manor consisting of eight hides belonged to the countess Judith, the Conqueror's niece.
According to tradition, Daventry was created a borough by King John, but there is no extant charter before that of Elizabeth in 1576, by which the town was incorporated under the name of the bailiff, burgesses and commonalty of the borough of Daventry.
It returned two members to parliament as a borough from 1295 until deprived of one member by the act of 1867, and finally disfranchised by that of 1885, but no charter of corporation was granted until 1683, when Charles II.
Stockport (Stokeporte, Stopport, Stopford) was made a free borough by a charter of Robert de Stokeport about the year 1220.
Thus Stockport was not a true municipal borough until formally incorporated under the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835.
In 1196 the abbot granted the vill of Ulverstone with the inhabitants to Gilbert Fitz-Reinfred, who granted it a charter by which he raised it to the rank of a free borough.
He became member of parliament for the family borough of Tewkesbury in 1747, retaining this seat until 1754, and from 1761 until his death he was one of the representatives of Worcestershire.
The town was a parliamentary borough till 1885.
Andover existed as a borough before 1176, and Henry II.
After the reform of 1867 they returned only one member and in 1885 the borough was disfranchised.
The November sheep-fair dates from 1205, and the neighbouring fair at Weyhill (since 1599 a part of the borough) was formerly among the most important in England.
Archbald, named in honour of James Archbald, formerly chief engineer of the Delaware & Hudson railway, was a part of Blakely township (incorporated in 1818) until 1877, when it became a borough.
In 1760 it was incorporated as a borough and in 1866 was chartered as a city.
During most of 1781 the borough was occupied by the British, and Lord Cornwallis had his headquarters here.
The borough is under a mayor, six aldermen and eighteen councillors.
However, there is no evidence of the grant of a royal charter, and the title of borough soon lapsed.
It was a royal borough in Saxon times, and in 1086 had 34 resident burgesses.
The first charter, given by Elizabeth in 1562, recognized that Langport was a borough of great antiquity, which had enjoyed considerable privileges, being governed by a portreve.
The borough comprises only the parish of Deptford St Paul, that of Deptford St Nicholas being included in the borough of Greenwich.
On the river front, extending into the borough of Greenwich, are the royal victualling yard and the site of the old Deptford dockyard.
The parliamentary borough of Deptford returns one member.
The borough council consists of a mayor, 6 aldermen, and 36 councillors.
They include worsted spinning mills; collieries, ironstone mines, quarries and brickworks; the manufacture of iron and steel, both in the rough and in the form of finished articles, as locomotives, bridge castings, ships' engines, gun castings and shells, &c. The parliamentary borough returns one member.
Boldon Book, dated 1183, contains the first mention of Darlington as a borough, rated at 5, while half a mark was due from the dyers of cloth.
The next account of the town is in Bishop Hatfield's Survey (c. 1380), which states that "Ingelram Gentill and his partners hold the borough of Derlyngton with the profits of the mills and dye houses and other profits pertaining to the borough rendering yearly four score and thirteen pounds and six shillings."
Darlington possesses no early charter, but claimed its privileges as a borough by a prescriptive right.
The borough of Connellsville has various manufactures including iron, tin plate, automobiles and various kinds of machinery; and a state hospital for the treatment of persons injured in mines is located here.
The borough of New Haven (pop. in 1900, 1532) was annexed to Connellsville after the census enumeration of 1900.
At the conquest Wimborne was a royal borough, ancient demesne of the crown, and part of the manor of Kingston Lacy, which Henry I.
The borough is again mentioned in 1487-1488, when John Plecy held six messuages in free burgage of the king as of his borough of Wimborne, but it seems to have been entirely prescriptive, and was never a parliamentary borough.
The town was governed until the 19th century by two bailiffs, chosen annually at a court le g it of the royal manor o Wimborne borough, part of the manor of Kingston Lacy.
The borough is under a mayor, 12 aldermen and 36 councillors.
There is a tradition, supported by a reference on a plea roll, that Randle, earl of Chester (1181-1232) made Macclesfield a free borough, but the earliest charter extant is that granted by Edward, prince of Wales and earl of Chester, in 1261, constituting Macclesfield a free borough with a merchant gild, and according certain privileges in the royal forest of Macclesfield to the burgesses.
In the charter of 1666 a market is included among the privileges confirmed to the borough as those which had been granted in 1605, or by any previous kings and queens of England.
Macclesfield borough sent two members to parliament in 1832 for the first time.
In 1880 it was disfranchised for bribery, and in 1885 the borough was merged in the county division of Macclesfield.
Worsted spinning and dyeing are also carried on, and there are iron foundries, tinplate works, breweries, malthouses, &c. The parliamentary borough returns one member.
The town was possibly a borough in 1187 when the men paid L4 to an aid.
The first mention of the cloth trade for which Kidderminster was formerly noted occurs in 1334, when it was enacted that no one should make woollen cloth in the borough without the bailiff's seal.
In 1850 Bell successfully contested the borough of St Albans in order that he might be able to advocate his proposals for reform more effectually in parliament.
In 1485 the borough of Llandovery, or Llanymtheverye, was incorporated by a charter from Richard III., and this king's privileges were subsequently confirmed by Henry VIII.
In 1852, after making some technical studies in London and working at the Borough Road and the Home and Colonial schools, she opened another small school of her own at Ambleside in Westmorland.
The place was laid out as a town in 1795; in 1800 it became the county-seat of the newlyerected county of Erie; it was incorporated as a borough in 1805, the charter of that year being revised in 1833; and in 1851 it was incorporated as a city.
The borough lies in the valley of the Lehigh river, along which runs one of its few streets and in another deeply cut valley at right angles to the river; through this second valley east and west runs the main street, on which is an electric railway; parallel to it on the south is High Street, formerly an Irish settlement; half way up the steep hill, and on the north at the top of the opposite hill is the ward of Upper Mauch Chunk, reached by the electric railway.
Immediately above Mauch Chunk the river forms a horseshoe; on the opposite side, connected by a bridge, is the borough of East Mauch Chunk (pop. 1890, 2772; 1900, 345 8); and 2 m.
The borough was long a famous shipping point for coal.
The borough was founded by the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company in 1818.
In 1831 the town was opened to individual enterprise, and in 1850 it was incorporated as a borough.
The borough returned two members to the parliament of 1295 and to other parliaments, until by the Representation Act 1867 it lost one representative, and by the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 separate representation.
The municipal borough is under a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors.
Asbury Park was founded in 1869, was named in honour of the Rev. Francis Asbury, was incorporated as a borough in 1874, and was chartered as a city in 1897.
Though now free from constitutional control it was no less subject than before to the influence of corruption, which the English government had wielded through the Irish borough owners, known as the "undertakers," or more directly through the great executive officers.
It was a parliamentary borough, returning one member, until 1885; having returned two members to the Irish parliament until the union.
Llanelly, though an ancient parish and a borough by prescription under a portreeve and burgesses in the old lordship of Kidwelly, remained insignificant until the industrial development in South Wales during the 19th century.
In 1810 the combined population of Llanelly, with its four subsidiary hamlets of Berwick, Glyn, Hencoed and Westowe, only amounted to 2972; in 1840 the inhabitants of the borough hamlet alone had risen to 4173.
In 1832 Llanelly was added as a contributory borough to the Carmarthen parliamentary district.
In 1558 the borough was granted two members of parliament, and continued to return them till 1832, when the number was reduced to one.
Under the Redistribution Act of 1885 the borough was disfranchised.
The name is commonly confined to the northern part of the borough, bordering the river; but the principal districts included are Kennington and Vauxhall (north central), Brixton (central) and part of Norwood (south).
Four road-bridges cross the Thames within the limits of the borough, namely Waterloo, Westminster, Lambeth and Vauxhall, of which the first, a fine stone structure, dates from 1817, and is the oldest Thames bridge standing within the county of London.
In the northern part of the borough are numerous factories, including the great Doulton pottery works.
The parliamentary borough of Lambeth has four divisions, North, Kennington, Brixton and Norwood, each returning one member.
The borough council consists of a mayor, to aldermen and 60 councillors.
It received a charter of incorporation from Edward III., having previously been a borough by prescription, and its privileges were confirmed and extended by various subsequent sovereigns.
Carrickfergus was a parliamentary borough until 1885; and a county of a town till 1898, having previously (till 1850) been the county town of county Antrim.
An undated charter from Hamo de Massey, lord of the barony, in the reign of Edward I., constituted Altrincham a free borough, with a gild merchant, the customs of Macclesfield, the right to elect reeves and bailiffs for the common council and other privileges.
Throughout the middle ages Halstead was unimportant, and never rose to the rank of a borough.
He was not known beyond his own borough when Cobden called him to his side in 1841, and he entered parliament towards the end of the session of 1843 with a formidable reputation as an agitator.
In 1745 Trenton received a royal charter incorporating it as a borough, but in 1750 the inhabitants voluntarily surrendered this privilege, deeming it "very prejudicial to the interest and trade" of the community.
The borough of South Trenton was annexed in 1850; the borough of Chambersburg and the township of Millham in 1888; the borough of Wilbur in 1898; and parts of the townships of Ewing and Hamilton in 1900.
West Looe (known also as Porpighan or Porbuan) benefited by a charter granted by Richard king of the Romans to Odo Treverbyn and ratified in 1325 constituting it a free borough whose burgesses were to be free of all custom throughout Cornwall.
Residence for a year and a day within the borough conferred freedom from servitude.
Upon the attainder of the earl of Devon in 1 539 the borough fell to the crown and was annexed to the duchy.
In the debate on the reform bill O'Connell stated that there was but one borough more rotten than East Looe and that was West Looe.
Large gas-works of the Newcastle and Gateshead Gas Company are also situated in the borough.
The borough probably obtained its charter during the following century, for Hugh de Puiset, bishop of Durham (1153-1195), confirmed to his burgesses similar rights to those of the burgesses of Newcastle, freedom of toll within the palatinate and other privileges.
No charter of incorporation is extant, but in 1563 contests were carried on under the name of the bailiffs, burgesses and commonalty, and a list of borough accounts exists for 1696.
The bishop appointed the last borough bailiff in 1681, and though the inhabitants in 1772 petitioned for a bailiff the town remained under a steward and grassmen until the 19th century.
At the inquisition of 1336 the burgesses claimed an annual fair on St Peter's Day, and depositions in 1577 mention a borough market held on Tuesday and Friday, but these were apparently extinct in Camden's day, and no grant of them is extant.
The municipal borough, incorporated in 1896, is under a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors.
The city is governed by a corporation, and the parliamentary borough returns one member.
He continued to represent the borough, and the district into which it was merged by the Reform Act of 1885, until 1900, when his attitude towards the South African War - he was one of the foremost of the so-called "Pro-Boer" party - compelled his retirement.
Within its borders are various popular beaches, including Woodmont (incorporated as a borough in 1903), Pond Point, Bay View, Fort Trumbull Beach (where a fortification, named Fort Trumbull, was erected in 1776), Myrtle Beach, Meadow's End, Walnut Beach and Milford Point.
In 1828 Allegheny was incorporated as a borough and in 1840 it was chartered as a city.
Godmanchester was formerly included for parliamentary purposes in the borough of Huntingdon, which has ceased to be separately represented since 1885.
Ludlow was a borough by prescription in the 13th century, but the burgesses owe most of their privileges to their allegiance to the house of York.
Armagh was a parliamentary borough until 1885; and, having been incorporated in 1613, so remained until 1835.
This corporation continued to administer the affairs of the borough until it was dissolved under the Municipal Corporations Act in 1835, when the property belonging to it was vested in charity commissioners.
The rise and progress of the neighbouring borough of Penzance in the 17th century was the undoing of Marazion.
Hexham was a borough by prescription, and governed by a bailiff at least as early as 1276, and the same form of government continued until 1853.
The only municipal borough is Brecon, which is the county town, and had in 1901 a population of 5741.
The borough of Brecon has a separate commission of the peace, but no separate court of quarter sessions.
It contains a small part of the parliamentary borough of Merthyr Tydfil.
The county returns one member to parliament, and has done so since 1536; the borough of Brecon, with the town of Llywel, had also a separate representative from the same date till 1885, when it became merged in the county.
In the 13th century, as part of the barony of Halton, the manor passed to Henry, earl of Lincoln, who by a charter dated 1282 declared the town a free borough, with a gild merchant and numerous privileges, including power to elect a mayor, a catchpole and an aletaster.
See Victoria County History, Cheshire; Robert Head, Congleton Past and Present (Congleton, 1887); Samuel Yates, An History of the Ancient Town and Borough of Congleton (Congleton, 1820).
The town was a borough by prescription, but there appears to be no mention of burgesses before the 15th century.
The borough was governed by two bailiffs, both elected at the court leet of the lord of the manor, one by his steward, the other by a borough.
Southend was incorporated a municipal borough in 1894, under a mayor, 6 aldermen, and 18 councillors; in 1910 these numbers were increased to 8 aldermen and 24 councillors.
The liberties of the borough, commonly called Berwick Bounds, include the towns of Spittal, at the mouth, and Tweedmouth immediately above it, on the south bank of the river.
The borough of Denbigh has a separate commission of the peace, but no separate court of quarter sessions.
This is in marked contrast with the practice in England, where almost every large borough has its own private act.
In 1694 William and Mary made Walden a free borough, with a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 town councillors.
The corporation became a local board of health under the act of 1858, and a municipal borough in 1875.
Although the town was evidently a borough by the 13th century, since the burgesses are mentioned as early as 1292, it has no charter earlier than the incorporation charter granted by Queen Elizabeth in 1572.
In the Domesday Survey Caine appears as a royal borough; it comprised forty-seven burgesses and was not assessed in hides.
In 1565 the borough possessed a gild merchant, at the head of which were two gild stewards.
Caine claimed to have received a charter from Stephen and a confirmation of the same from Henry III., but no record of these is extant, and the charter actually issued to the borough by James II.
The borough returned two members to parliament more or less irregularly from the first parliament of Edward I.
From this date the borough returned one member only until, by the Redistribution of Seats Act of 1885, the privilege was annulled.
Although an energetic member of the South St Pancras borough council, he failed to secure election to the London County Council when he stood as a candidate in 1904.
The parliamentary borough, which returns two members, is coextensive with the municipal, and lies between the Accrington and Darwen divisions of the county.
Boroughbridge was evidently a borough by prescription, and as such was called upon to return two members to parliament in 1299.
A wide system of electric tramways and district light railways is maintained by the borough.
The parliamentary borough (1832), returning one member, extends into Cheshire.
A borough was created by William le Boteler about 1230 by a charter which has not been preserved; but its growing strength alarmed the lord who contrived to repress it before 1300, and for over Soo years Warrington was governed by the lord's manor court.
The borough returns one member to the house of representatives, and its local affairs are administered by a mayor and council.
The commercial character of the City extends into the southern part of the borough; the residential houses are mostly those of artisans.
The borough includes the parish of Clerkenwell (q.v.), a locality of considerable historic interest, including the former priory of St John, Clerkenwell, of which the gateway and other traces remain.
The municipal borough coincides with the east and central divisions of the parliamentary borough of Finsbury, each returning one member.
The parliamentary borough, which returns one member, is coextensive with the municipal borough.
By various grants from the abbots, the town gradually attained the rank of a borough.
Parliaments were held here in 1272, 1296 and 1446, but the borough was not represented until 1608, when James I.
The development of the town is modern, as it was created a market town in 1828, incorporated in 1857, and created a parliamentary borough, returning one member, in 1867.
Willimantic was settled in 1822, incorporated as a borough in 1833, and chartered as a city in 1893.
Richard (1225-1272), king of the Romans, constituted Dunheved a free borough, and granted to the burgesses freedom from pontage, stallage and suillage, liberty to elect their own reeves, exemption from all pleas outside the borough except pleas of the crown, and a site for a gild-hall.
The farm of the borough was fixed at loos.
By its provisions the borough was governed until 1835.
Perhaps it was at this time that the prescriptive borough of Crediton arose.
The jury of the borough are mentioned in 1275, and Crediton returned two members to parliament in 1306-1307, though never afterwards represented.
A borough seal dated 1469 is extant, but the corporation is not mentioned in the grant made by Edward VI.
The borough and manor were granted by Elizabeth to William Killigrew in 1595, but there is no indication of town organization then or in 1630, and in the 18th century Crediton was governed by commissioners.
It was given a municipal board in 1848, and in 1854 was incorporated as a borough.
The borough covers 44 sq.
These commoners might be the several owners, the inhabitants of a parish, freemen of a borough, tenants of a manor, &c. The opening of the fields by throwing down the fences took place on Lammas Day (12th of August) for corn-lands and on Old Midsummer Day (6th of July) for grass.
The borough is under a mayor, four aldermen and twelve councilors.