By Bornu, which is partly in the British protectorate of Nigeria and partly in the German protectorate of Cameroon.
One of the ancient trade routes across the Sahara - that from Tripoli to Kuka in Bornu - strikes the lake at its northwest corner, but this has lost much of its former importance.
Besides Hausa, who represent the indigenous population, there are large colonies of Kanuri (from Bornu) and Nupians in Kano.
Captives were brought thence to the slave market of Kuka in Bornu, where, after being bought by dealers, they were, to the number of about 10,000 annually, marched across the Sahara to Murzuk in Fezzan, from which place they were distributed to the northern and eastern Mediterranean coasts.
The Ghadamsi merchants have been known for centuries as keen and adventurous traders, and their agents are to be found in the more important places of the western and central Sudan, such as Kano, Katsena, Kanem, Bornu, Timbuktu, as well as at Ghat and Tripoli.
In 1893 came the invasion of Bornu by Rabah, and the total stoppage of this caravan route for nearly ten years to the great detriment of the merchants of Ghadames.
Farther north, beyond the Mandara mountains, the country, here part of the ancient sultanate of Bornu, slopes to the shores of Lake Chad, and has a general level of Boo to 1000 ft.
Of Lake Chad is Dikwa (Dikoa), in Bornu, the town chosen by Rabah (q.v.) as his capital after his conquest of Bornu.
In Adamawa and German Bornu are various Mahommedan sultanates controlled by residents stationed at Garua and Kusseri.
In 1902 the imperial troops first penetrated into that part of Bornu reserved to Germany by agreements with Great Britain and France.
On the east the plateau sinks to the plains of Bornu (q.v.), which extend to Lake Chad.
The chief towns of Bornu are Kuka on Lake Chad, and Maidugari, some 70 m.
In 1902 Bauchi and Bornu were brought under British rule.
In Bornu the extension of British authority was very willingly accepted as a guarantee against other European encroachments, and the legitimate Shehu was restored to the throne under British protection.
Military stations were established in Bornu and in Bauchi, and both provinces were included in the system of British administration.
For administrative purposes the territories were at first divided into seventeen provinces: Sokoto, Gando, Kano, Katsena, Bornu East, Bornu West, Zaria, Bauchi, Borgu, Kontagora, Nassarawa, Muri, Yola, Bassa, Kabba, Illorin, Nupe.
Of these Sokoto and Gando, Kano and Katsena, Bornu East and Bornu West have been carried a step further in organization and now form three double provinces, each under the charge of a first-class resident.
Fula are settled in Bornu, Bagirmi, Wadai and the upper Nile Valley,' but have no political power in those countries.
Cotton and indigo are grown to a considerable extent, especially by Bornu immigrants.
A resident was left at the capital, Massenia, but on Gentil's withdrawal Rabah descended from Bornu and forced sultan and resident to flee.
By the provinces of Kano, Katagum and Bornu; E.
Certain small differences appear between the eastern and western portions, the dividing line being formed by the boundary between Bornu and Hausaland.
Large states arose in the western Sudan; Ghana flourished in the 7th century A.D., Melle in the IIth, Songhai in the 14th, and Bornu in the 16th.
Barth sailed down from Saraiyamo (situated on a tributary stream south-west of Timbukutu) to Kabara; then skirted the left bank to a small town called Bornu in 16° N., and the right thence to Say.
The sultan of Sokoto throughout the 19th century exercised an overlordship over the Hausa states extending east from the Niger to Bornu and southward to the Benue and Adamawa.
Between the Niger and the kingdom of Bornu (q.v.) the country was inhabited by various black tribes, of whom the Hausa occupied the plains.
On the break up of the Songhoi empire the north-eastern part of Hausaland became more or less subject to Bornu, whose sultans in the 17th century claimed to rule over Katsena and Kano.
By Bornu, S.