Borneo sentence example

borneo
  • North Borneo is especially rich in species.

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  • Singapore is the political, commercial and administrative headquarters of the colony of the Straits Settlements, and the governor for the time being is ex officio high commissioner of the Federated Malay States, British North Borneo, Sarawak, the Cocos-Keeling and Christmas Islands, and governor of Labuan.

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  • The south-eastern portion of Asia, with the adjacent islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo and the Philippines, form his Indian region.

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  • The loftiest mountain in the archipelago would appear to be Kinabalu in Borneo (13,698 ft.).

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  • The custom is vouched for by travellers as still observed in Borneo, Burma, Uganda and elsewhere, the animal chosen being a pig or a fowl.

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  • In modern times hepatoscopy still survives among primitive peoples in Borneo, Burma, Uganda, &c.

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  • The Australian flora has extensions at high levels in the tropics; such exists on Kinabalu in Borneo under the equator.

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  • After this there is a considerable gap before New Guinea, Borneo, Madagascar, Sumatra and the vast multitude of smaller islands descending in size by regular gradations to mere rocks.

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  • The influence of the Australian realm is indicated by a Megapode in Celebes, another in Borneo and Labuan, and a third in the Nicobar islands (which, however, like the Andamans, belong to the Indian province), but there are no cockatoos, these keeping strictly to the other side of Wallace's line, whence we started on this survey of the world's avifauna.

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  • Of Celebes less is known than of Borneo, which it resembles in condition and natural characteristics.

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  • Rhododendrons occur in Borneo and Sumatra, descending to the level of the sea.

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  • In Borneo some of the temperate forms of Australia appear on the higher mountains.

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  • The occurrence of mammals of the Marsupial order in the Molucca Islands and Celebes, while none have been found in the adjacent islands of Java and Borneo, lying on the west of Wallace's line, or in the Indian region, shows that the margin of the Australian region has here been reached.

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  • At present it occupies the extremity of the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines and other islands of the Malay Archipelago as well as Madagascar, while the inhabitants of most islands in the South Seas, including New Zealand and Hawaii, speak languages which if not Malay have at least undergone a strong Malay influence.

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  • The range of the genus extends from the southern bank of the Bramaputra in Assam to southern China, the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra and Borneo.

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  • Venetian beads are now sent in large quantities to the various colonies in Africa, and to India, Sumatra and Borneo.

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  • Sumatra, Java and Borneo, where active development began in 1883, 1886 and 1896, bid fair to rank before long among the chief sources of the oil supplies of the world.

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  • Broadly speaking, all the brown races which inhabit the portion of Asia south of Siam and Indo-China, and the islands from the Philippines to Java, and from Sumatra to Timor, may be described as belonging to the Malayan family, if the aboriginal tribes, such as the Sakai and Semang in the Malay Peninsula, the Bataks in Sumatra, and the Muruts in Borneo, be excepted.

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  • These people inhabit the whole of the Malayan Peninsula to the borders of lower Siam, the islands in the vicinity of the mainland, the shores of Sumatra and some portions of the interior of that island, Sarawak and Brunei in Borneo, and some parts of Dutch Borneo, Batavia and certain districts in Java, and some of the smaller islands of the archipelago.

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  • The area over which it is spoken comprises the peninsula of Malacca with the adjacent islands (the Rhio-Lingga Archipelago), the greater part of the coast districts of Sumatra and Borneo, the seaports of Java, the Sunda and Banda Islands.

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  • Among these are species of Willughbeia and Leuconotis, from which much of the rubber exported from Borneo is derived; Parameria glandulifera, common in Siam and Borneo, and Urceola esculenta and Cryptostegia grandiflora, both common in Burma.

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  • Successful plantations of Hevea have also been established in Java, Sumatra and Borneo.

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  • Bulls of the typical bantin of Java and Borneo are, when fully adult, completely black except for the white rump and legs, but the cows and young are rufous.

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  • In 1686 his famous allegory of Rome and Geneva, slightly disguised as the rival princesses Mreo and Eenegu, in the Relation de file de Borneo, gave proof of his daring in religious matters.

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  • From India he sailed in a junk to Sumatra, visiting various ports on the northern coast of that island, and thence to Java, to the coast (it would seem) of Borneo, to Champa (South Cochin-China), and to Canton, at that time known to western Asiatics as Chin-Kalan or Great China (Mahachin).

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  • Java and Borneo tobacco is very similar to that of Sumatra.

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  • British North Borneo competes with Sumatra as the source of the best cigar wrappers.

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  • Leaving Hampton Roads on the 18th of August 1838, it Mopped at Madeira and Rio de Janeiro; visited Tierra del Fuego, Chile, Peru, the Paumotu group of the Low Archipelago, the Samoan islands and New South Wales; from Sydney sailed into the Antarctic Ocean in December 1839 and reported the discovery of an Antarctic continent west of the Balleny islands; visited the Fiji and the Hawaiian islands in 1840, explored the west coast of the United States, including the Columbia river, San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento river, in 1841, and returned by way of the Philippine islands, the Sulu archipelago, Borneo, Singapore, Polynesia and the Cape of Good Hope, reaching New York on the 10th of June 1842.

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  • This species has a more extensive geographical range than the last, being found in the Bengal Sundarbans near Calcutta, Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra and Borneo.

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  • It is the smallest of all the species, and its geographical range is nearly the same as that of the Javan species, though not extending into Java; it has been found in Assam, Chittagong, Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo.

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  • The Austral-Asiatic or Malay Sea is occupied by a great shelf in the region west of Borneo and north of Java, while in the east there are eight abruptly sunk basins of widely different size.

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  • Coal is worked to some extent in Sumatra, British North Borneo, and the Philippine Islands.

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  • Similar constructions have been described by travellers, among the Dyaks of Borneo, in Celebes, in the Caroline Islands, on the Gold Coast of Africa, and in other places.

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  • Here were Hausas from the Niger and the Gold Coast, coloured men from the West India regiments, zaptiehs from Cyprus, Chinamen from Hong Kong, and Dyaks - now civilized into military police - from British North Borneo.

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  • It includes the Sunda Islands, the Moluccas, New Guinea, and the Philippine Islands, but excludes the Andaman-Nicobar group. The equator passes through the middle of the archipelago; it successively cuts Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes and Halmahera, four of the most important islands.

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  • Wallace (who includes the Solomon Islands as well as New Guinea in the group) points out that the archipelago "includes two islands larger than Great Britain; and in one of them, Borneo, the whole of the British Isles might be set down, and would be surrounded by a sea of forests.

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  • In Sumatra and in the islands between Sumatra and Borneo the former direction is distinctly marked, and the latter is equally noticeable in Java and the other southern islands.

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  • The mountains of Borneo, however, rise rather in short ridges and clusters.

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  • An important fact in the physical geography of the archipelago is that Java, Bali, Sumatra and Borneo, and the lesser islands between them 1 For more detailed information respecting the several islands and groups of the archipelago, see the separate articles Borneo; Java; Philippine Islands; Sumatra, &C.

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  • Coal is worked in Sumatra, Borneo and Labuan.

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  • Diamonds are obtained in Borneo, garnets in Sumatra, Bachian and Timor, and topazes in Bachian, antimony in Borneo and the Philippines; lead in Sumatra, Borneo and the Philippines; copper and malachite in the Philippines, Timor, Borneo and Sumatra; and, most important of all, tin in Banka, Billiton and Singkep. Iron is pretty frequent in various forms. Gold is not uncommon in the older ranges of Sumatra, Banka, Celebes, Bachian, Timor and Borneo.

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  • Platinum is found in Landak and other parts of Borneo.

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  • Petroleum is a valuable product of Sumatra and Java, and is also found in Borneo.

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  • They were followed by an immigration of Mongol-Caucasic peoples with a preponderance of Caucasic blood-the Indonesians of some, the pre-Malays of other writers-who are to-day represented in the archipelago by such peoples as the Dyaks of Borneo and the Battas of Sumatra.

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  • The islands are often described as of two groups, Java and Madura forming one, and the other consisting of Sumatra, Borneo, Riouw-Lingga Archipelago, Banka, Billiton, Celebes, Molucca Archipelago, the small Sunda Islands, and a part of New Guinea-the Outposts as they are collectively named.

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  • Af ter losing the commander in the Philippines and discovering Borneo, the two surviving ships reached the Moluccas late in 1520.

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  • That servitude existed in many forms all over the archipelago, but among the most curious must be reckoned the pandelingschap or "pledgedom," which originated in Borneo, and according to which a man had the power to make his debtors his serfs until their debts were paid.

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  • The extension of Dutch political power - notably in Java, Sumatra, Celebes, the Moluccas, Borneo, the Sunda Islands and New Guinea - proceeded simultaneously with the reform movement, and from time to time involved war with various native states.

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  • The enterprise of Sir James Brooke led, after 1838, to the establishment of British sovereignty in North Borneo; in 1895 New Guinea was divided between Great Britain, Germany and the Netherlands; and the Spanish-American War of 1898 resulted in the cession of the Philippines, Sulu Island and the largest of the Mariana Islands to the United States, and the sale of the Caroline group to Germany.

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  • The produce of the Eastern Islands is also collected at its ports for re-exportation to India, China and Europe - namely, gold-dust, diamonds, camphor, benzoin and other drugs; edible bird-nests, trepang, rattans, beeswax, tortoiseshell, and dyeing woods from Borneo and Sumatra; tin from Banka; spices from the Moluccas; fine cloths from Celebes and Bali; and pepper from Sumatra.

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  • They range over the south of Europe, the whole of Africa, India and the Malay Archipelago as far east as Borneo.

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  • Besides these large crested species, there are several smaller species without crests in north-east India, and the Malay region from Nepal to Borneo.

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  • Bering Sea is bounded by the Alaskan Peninsula and the chain of the Aleutian Islands; the sea of Okhotsk is enclosed by the peninsula of Kamchatka and the Kurile Islands; the Sea of Japan is shut off by Sakhalin Island, the Japanese Islands and the peninsula of Korea; the Yellow Sea is an opening between the coast of China and Korea; the China Sea lies between the Asiatic continent and the island of Formosa, the Philippine group, Palawan and Borneo.

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  • Aelurosaurus of Borneo and Australia, and Ptenopus of South Africa, have upper and lower movable eyelids.

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  • In North Borneo we seem to see the evolution of a god in the three stages of the cult of the hawk among the Kenyahs, the Kayans and the sea Dyaks.

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  • These animals live in the forests of the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo and the Philippine Islands, where they feed chiefly on leaves, and probably also on insects.

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  • It stands on the west coast of the southern peninsula of the island, near the southern extremity of the Macassar Strait, which separates Celebes from Borneo.

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  • A species of beetle (Caria dilatator) of this family in Borneo is mimicked by a species of a genus allied to Gammarotettix not only in shape and coloration but also in the habit of remaining still when disturbed.

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  • There are records, however, of species of Mantispa mimicking the wasp Polistes in North America and Borneo and Belonogaster in South Africa; and other species of the genus imitate parasitic hymenoptera of the genera Bracon and Mesostenus.

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  • A good illustration of wasp-mimicry is furnished by a large heteromerous beetle (Coloborhombus fasciatipennis) from Borneo which is remarkably like a large wasp (Mygnimia aviculus) from the same island.

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  • In Borneo the Hoinopteron Issus bruchoides mimics a species of Curculionid beetle of the genus Alcides.

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  • The same explanation no doubt applies to the mimicry, both in Borneo and South Africa, of hairy bees of the family Xylocopidae by Asilid flies of the genus Hyperechia, and also to other cases of mimicry of Hymenoptera as well as of inedible beetles of the family Lycidae by Diptera.

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  • In Dutch Borneo the Rhenish Society is slowly making headway among the Dyaks; in British Borneo the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (1848) and the Methodist Episcopalians occupy the field.

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  • Some 350 species of birds are known, and the avifauna closely resembles that of the Malay Peninsula and Borneo, including few peculiar species.

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  • The tobacco plantations of British North Borneo were nearly all started by planters from Deli.

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  • The Malay badger (Mydaus meliceps) is confined to the mountains of Java (where it is called the teledu), Sumatra and Borneo.

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  • It is the hardest known substance (though tantalum, or an alloy of tantalum now competes with it) and is chosen as io in the mineralogist's scale of hardness; but the difference in hardness between diamond (io) and corundum (9) is really greater than that between corundum (9) and talc (1); there is a difference in the hardness of the different faces; the Borneo stones are also said to be harder than those of Australia, and the Australian harder than the African, but this is by no means certain.

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  • Borneo has possessed a diamond industry since the island was first settled by the Malays; the references in the works of Garcia de Orta, Linschoten, De Boot, De Laet and others, to Malacca as a locality relate to Borneo.

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  • The large Borneo stone, over 360 carats in weight, known as the Matan, is in all probability not a diamond.

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  • The Regent or Pitt diamond is a magnificent stone found in either India or Borneo; it weighed 410 carats and was bought for £20,400 by Pitt, the governor of Madras; it was subsequently, in 1717, bought for £80,000 (or, according to some authorities, £ 135,000) by the duke of Orleans, regent of France; it was reduced by cutting to '3614 carats; was stolen with the other crown jewels during the Revolution, but was recovered and is still in France.

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  • He avowedly wished to imitate the older form of British colonization by means of chartered companies, which had been recently revived in the North Borneo Company; the only responsibility of the imperial government was to be their protection from foreign aggression.

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  • The coal deposits, which are of somewhat indifferent quality, have been worked with varying degrees of failure by a succession of companies, one of which, the Labuan & Borneo Ltd., liquidated in 1902 after the collapse of a shaft upon which large sums had been expended.

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  • To-day Labuan chiefly exists as a trading depot for the natives of the neighbouring coast of Borneo, who sell their produce - beeswax, edible birds-nests, camphor, gutta, trepang, &c., - to Chinese shopkeepers, who resell it in Singapore.

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  • The Eastern Extension Telegraph Company has a central station at Labuan with cables to Singapore, HongKong and British North Borneo.

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  • The European graveyard has repeatedly been the scene of outrages perpetrated, it is believed, by natives from the mainland of Borneo, the graves being rifled and the hair of the head and other parts of the corpses being carried off to furnish ornaments to weapons and ingredients in the magic philtres of the natives.

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  • From the 1st of January 1890 to the 1st of January 1906 Labuan was transferred for administrative purposes to the British North Borneo Company, the governor for the time being of the company's territories holding also the royal commission as governor of Labuan.

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  • Submarine mountain ranges connect not only the islands within the archipelago, but also the archipelago itself with Borneo and Celebes, so that only shallow channels connect the interior waters with the Pacific Ocean and the China Sea.

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  • A new island appeared at this time off the coast of Borneo, near Labuan.

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  • In a zoological sense the term is extended to embrace all the monkeys of the Asiatic genus Semnopithecus, which includes a large number of species, ranging from Ceylon, India and Kashmir to southern China and the Malay countries as far east as Borneo and Sumatra.

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  • More than half-a-dozen separate races of orangutan are recognized in Borneo, where, however, they do not appear to be restricted to separate localities.

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  • In Borneo the red ape inhabits the swampy forest-tract at the foot of the mountains.

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  • Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, Banka and Billiton, with their adjacent islands - and the Little Sunda Islands, of which the more important are Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Sumba and Timor.

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  • This chain can hardly be said to extend continuously to the extreme north of the island, but it carries on the line of elevation towards the mountains of Sarawak to the west, and those of British North Borneo to the north, of which latter Kinabalu is the most remarkable.

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  • The mountains of North Borneo are more particularly referred to in the portion of this article which deals with that territory.

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  • Resting on a submarine plateau of no great depth, the coasts of Borneo are for the most part rimmed round by low alluvial lands, of a marshy, sandy and sometimes swampy character.

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  • All round the long coast-line of Dutch Borneo there are only seven ports of call, which are habitually made use of by the ships of the Dutch Packet Company.

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  • Excluding some of alluvial formation at the mouths of many of the rivers, and others along the shore which owe their existence to volcanic upheaval, the principal islands are Banguey and Balambangan at the northern extremity, Labuan, a British colony off the west coast of the territory of North Borneo, and the Karimata Islands off the south-west coast.

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  • The rivers play a very important part in the economy of Borneo, both as highways and as lines along which run the main arteries of population.

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  • The rivers of British North Borneo to the north of the Padas are of no importance and of scant practical utility, owing to the fact that the mountain range here approaches very closely to the coast with which it runs parallel.

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  • Of these the Kinabatangan in the territory of British North Borneo is the most important.

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  • The only really fine natural harbour in the island of which any use has been made is that of Sandakan, the principal settlement of the North Borneo Company on the north coast.

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  • The geology of Borneo is very imperfectly known The mountain range which lies between Sarawak and the Dutch possessions, and may be looked upon as the backbone of the island, consists chiefly of crystalline schists, together with slates, sandstones and limestones.

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  • Somewhat similar rocks appear to form the axis of the range in south-east Borneo, and possibly of the Tampatung Mountains.

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  • But the Muller range, the Madi plateau, and the Schwaner Mountains of west Borneo, consist chiefly of almost undisturbed sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Tertiary age.

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  • Vertebraria and Phyllotheca, plants characteristic of the Indian Gondwana series, have been recorded in Sarawak; and marine forms, similar to those of the lower part of the Australian Carboniferous system, are stated to occur in the limestone of north Borneo.

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  • Pseudomonotis salinaria, a Triassic form, has been noted from the schists of the west of Borneo.

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  • Undoubted Jurassic fossils, belonging to several horizons, have been described from west Borneo and Sarawak.

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  • The Cretaceous beds, which have long been known in west Borneo, are comparatively little disturbed.

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  • Cretaceous beds of somewhat later date are - found in the Marpapura district in south-east Borneo.

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  • The mineral wealth of Borneo is great and varied.

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  • The exploitation of the mines suffers in many cases from the difficulties and expense of transport, the high duties payable in Dutch Borneo to the native princes, the competition among the rival companies, and often the limited quantities of the minerals found in the mines.

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  • The Borneo Company is engaged in working gold-mines in the upper part of the Sarawak valley, and the prospects of the enterprise, which is conducted on a fairly extensive scale, are known to be encouraging.

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  • Considerable progress has been made in the development of the oil-fields in Dutch Borneo, and the Nederlandsch Indische Industrie en Handel Maatschappij, the Dutch business of the Shell Transport and Trading Company, increased its output from 123,50 tons in 1901 to 285,720 tons in 1 9 04, and showed further satisfactory increase thereafter.

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  • There is every reason to believe that the oil-fields of Dutch Borneo have a great future.

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  • Coal of good quality has been found in Pengaron and elsewhere in the Banjermasin district, but most Borneo coal is considerably below this average of excellence.

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  • The discovery that Borneo produced antimony was made in 1825 by John Crawfurd, the orientalist, who learned in that year that a quantity had been brought to Singapore by a native trader as ballast.

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  • Some places, such as Bidi in Sarawak, for instance, are notoriously unhealthy; but from the statistics of the Dutch government, and the records of Sarawak and British North Borneo, it would appear that the European in Borneo has in general not appreciably more to fear than his fellow in Java, or in the Federated Malay States of the Malayan Peninsula.

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  • The habit of allowing their meat to putrefy before regarding it as fit for food, and of encouraging children of tender age to drink to intoxication, accounts for absence of old folk and the heavy mortality which are to be observed among the Muruts of British North Borneo and some of the other more debased tribes of the interior of the island.

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  • The fauna of Borneo comprises a large variety of species, many of which are numerically of great importance.

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  • Numerous species of monkey are found in Borneo, including the wahwah, a kind of gibbon, a creature far more human in appearance and habits than the orang-utan, and several Semnopitheci, such as the long-nosed ape and the golden-black or chrysomelas.

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  • A small panther and the clouded tiger (so called) - Fe/is macroscelis- are the largest animals of the cat kind that occur in Borneo.

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  • The rhinoceros and the elephant both occur in the northern part of the island, though both are somewhat rare, and in this connexion it should be noted that the distribution of quadrupeds as between Borneo, Sumatra and the Malayan Peninsula is somewhat peculiar and seemingly somewhat capricious.

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  • Many quadrupeds, such as the honey-bear and the rhinoceros, are common to all, but while the tiger is common both in the Malayan Peninsula and in Sumatra, it does not occur in Borneo; the elephant, so common in the peninsula, and found in Borneo, is unknown in Sumatra; and the orang-utan, so plentiful in parts of Borneo and parts of Sumatra, has never been discovered in the Malay Peninsula.

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  • It has been suggested, but with very scant measure of probability, that the existence of elephants in Borneo, whose confinement to a single district is remarkable and unexplained, is due to importation; and the fact is on record that when Magellan's ships visited Brunei in 1522 tame elephants were in use at the court of the sultan of Brunei.

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  • Beetles are no less numerously represented, as is to be expected in a country so richly wooded as Borneo.

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  • In British North Borneo, and especially in the district of Tempasuk on the north-west coast, Borneo ponies, bred originally, it is supposed, from the stock which is indigenous to the Sulu archipelago, are common.

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  • The flora of Borneo is very rich, the greater portion of the surface of the island being clothed in luxuriant vegetation.

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  • In all, about sixty kinds of timber of marketable quality are furnished in more or less profusion, but the difficulty of extraction, even in the regions situated in close proximity to the large waterways, renders it improbable that the timber trade of Borneo will attain to any very great dimensions until other and easier sources of supply have become exhausted.

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  • Rice is grown in irrigated lands near the rivers and in the swamps, and also in rude clearings in the interior; sugar-cane of superior quality in Sambas and Montrado; cotton, sometimes exported in small quantities, on the banks of the Negara, a tributary of the Barito; tobacco, used very largely now in the production of cigars, in various parts of northern Borneo; and tobacco for native consumption, which is of small commercial importance, is cultivated in most parts of the island.

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  • Indigo, coffee and pepper have been cultivated since 1855 in the western division of Dutch Borneo.

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  • No effective census of the population has ever been taken, and vast areas in Dutch Borneo and in British North Borneo remain unexplored, and free from any practical authority or control.

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  • Dutch Borneo is divided for administrative purposes into two divisions, the western and the south and eastern respectively.

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  • Only a very small proportion of the Europeans in Dutch Borneo live by agriculture and industry, the great majority of them being officials.

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  • The Dutch, and to a minor extent the Arabs, are of importance on account of their political influence in Dutch Borneo, while the British communities have a similar importance in Sarawak and in British North Borneo.

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  • Accounts of the Malays, Dyaks and Bugis are given under their several headings, and some information concerning the Dusuns and Muruts will be found in the section below, which deals with British North Borneo.

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  • The connexion of the Chinese with Borneo calls for notice here.

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  • They seem to have been the first civilized people who had dealings with Borneo, if the colonization of a portion of the south-eastern corner of the island by Hindus be excepted.

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  • The traditions of the Malays and Dyaks seem to confirm the statements, and many of the leading families of Brunei in north-west Borneo claim to have Chinese blood in their veins, while the annals of Sulu record an extensive Chinese immigration about 1575.

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  • However this may be, it is certain that the flourishing condition of Borneo in the 16th and 17th centuries was largely due to the energy of Chinese settlers and to trade with China.

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  • Serious disturbances among the Chinese are now in Borneo matters of ancient history, and to-day the Chinaman forms perhaps the most valuable element in the civilization and development of the island, just as does his fellow in the mining states of the Malayan Peninsula.

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  • As far as is known, Borneo never formed a political unity, and even its geographical unity as an island is a fact unappreciated by the vast majority of its native inhabitants.

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  • The name of Kalamantan has been given by some Europeans (on what original authority it is not possible now to ascertain) as the native name for the island of Borneo considered as a whole; but it is safe to aver that among the natives of the island itself Borneo has never borne any general designation.

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  • There exist, however, no data, not even any trustworthy tradition, from which to reconstruct the early history of Borneo.

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  • Borneo began to be known to Europeans after the fall of Malacca in 1511, when Alphonso d'Albuquerque despatched Antonio d'Abreu with three ships in search of the Molucca or Spice Islands with instructions to establish friendly relations with all the native states that he might encounter on his way.

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  • D'Abreu, sailing in a southeasterly direction from the Straits of Malacca, skirted the southern coast of Borneo and laid up his ships at Amboyna, a small island near the south-western extremity of Ceram.

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  • After Magellan's death, his comrades sailed from the Moluccas across the Celebes into the Sulu Sea, and were the first white men who are known to have visited Brunei on the north-west coast of Borneo, where they arrived in 1522.

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  • The Molucca Islands being, at that time, the principal objective of European traders, and the route followed by - Magellan's ships being frequently used, Borneo was often touched at during the remainder of the 16th century, and trade relations with Brunei were successfully established by the Portuguese.

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  • Meanwhile the Dutch and British East India Companies had been formed, had destroyed the monopoly so long enjoyed by the Portuguese, and to a less extent the Spaniards, in the trade of the Malayan Archipelago, and had gained a footing in Borneo.

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  • The establishment of Dutch trading-posts on the west coast of Borneo dates from 1604, nine years after the first Dutch fleet, under Houtman, sailed from the Texel to dispute with the Portuguese the possession of the Eastern trade, and in 1608 Samuel Blommaert was appointed Dutch resident, or head factor, in Landak and Sukedana.

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  • The first appearance of the British in Borneo dates from 1609, and by 1698 they had an important settlement at Banjermasin, whence they were subsequently expelled by the influence of the Dutch, who about 1733 obtained from the sultan a trading monopoly.

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  • The Dutch, in fact, speedily became the predominant European race throughout the Malay Archipelago, defeating the British by superior energy and enterprise, and the trading-posts all along the western and southern coasts of Borneo were presently their exclusive possessions, the sultan of Bantam, who was the overlord of these districts, ceding his rights to the Dutch.

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  • This mishap rendered a treaty, which had been concluded in 1774 with the sultan of Brunei, practically a dead letter, and by the end of the century British influence in Borneo was to all intents and purposes at an end.

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  • The Dutch also mismanaged their affairs in Borneo and suffered from a series of misfortunes which led Marshal Daendels in 1809 to order the abandonment of all their posts.

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  • The natives of the coasts of Borneo, assisted and stimulated by immigrants from the neighbouring islands to the north, devoted themselves more and more to organized piracy, and putting to sea in great fleets manned by two and three thousand men on cruises that lasted for two and even three years, they terrorized the neighbouring seas and rendered the trade of civilized nations almost impossible for a prolonged period.

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  • The outbreak of war in Java caused Borneo to be more or less neglected by the Dutch for a considerable period, and no effective check was imposed upon the natives with a view to stopping piracy, which was annually becoming more and more unendurable.

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  • In 1838 Sir James Brooke, an Englishman, whose attention had been turned to the state of affairs in the Eastern Archipelago, set out for Borneo, determined, if possible, to remedy the evil.

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  • Since then more and more territory has been ceded by the sultans of Brunei to the raja of Sarawak and to British North Borneo, and to-day the merest remnant of his once extensive state is left within the jurisdiction of the sultan.

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  • The boundaries of British and Dutch Borneo were finally defined by a treaty concluded on the 10th of June 1891.

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  • In spite of this, however, large areas in the interior, both in Dutch Borneo and in the territory owned by the British North Borneo Company, are still only nominally under European control, and have experienced few direct effects of European administration.

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  • British North Borneo Or Sabah Sabah is the name applied by the natives to certain portions of the territory situated on the north-western coast of the island, and originally in no way included the remainder of the country now owned by the British North Borneo Company.

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  • It has become customary, however, for the name to be used by Europeans in Borneo to denote the whole of the company's territory, and little by little the more educated natives are insensibly adopting the practice.

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  • As has been seen, the British connexion with northern and north-western Borneo terminated with the 18th century, nor was it resumed until 1838, when Raja Brooke set out for Brunei and Sarawak.

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  • The island of Labuan (q.v.) was occupied by the British as a crown colony in 1848, and this may be taken as the starting-point of renewed British relations with that portion of northern Borneo which is situated to the north of Brunei.

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  • In 1872 the Labuan Trading Company was established in Sandakan, the fine harbour on the northern coast which was subsequently the capital of the North Borneo Company's territory.

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  • In 1878, through the instrumentality of Mr (afterwards Sir) Alfred Dent, the sultan of Sulu was induced to transfer to a syndicate, formed by Baron Overbeck and Mr Dent, all his rights in North Borneo, of which, as has been seen, he had been from time immemorial the overlord.

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  • Early in 1881 the British North Borneo Provisional Association, Limited, was formed to take over the concession which had been obtained from the sultan of Sulu, and in November of that year a petition was addressed to Queen Victoria praying for a royal charter.

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  • This was granted, and subsequently the British North Borneo Company, which was formed in May 1882, took over, in spite of some diplomatic protests on the part of the Dutch and Spanish governments, all the sovereign and territorial rights ceded by the original grants, and proceeded under its charter to organize the administration of the territory.

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  • In 1888, by an agreement with the "State of North Borneo," the territory of the company was made a British protectorate, but its administration remained entirely in the hands of the company, the crown reserving only control of its foreign relations, and the appointment of its governors being required to receive the formal sanction of the secretary of state for the colonies.

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  • In 1890 the British government placed the colony of Labuan under the administration of the company, the governor of the state of North Borneo thereafter holding a royal commission as governor of Labuan in addition to his commission from the company.

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  • Taking it as a whole, the company's territory is much less generously watered than are other parts of Borneo, which again compares unfavourably in this respect with the Malayan states of the peninsula.

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  • Several of the natural harbours of North Borneo, on the other hand, are accessible, safe and commodious.

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  • The climate of North Borneo is tropical, hot, damp and enervating.

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  • Coal has been found in the neighbourhood of Cowie Harbour and elsewhere, but though its quality is believed to be as good as that exported from Dutch Borneo, it is not yet known whether it exists in payable quantities.

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  • Traces of mineral oil, iron ores, copper, zinc and antimony have been found, but the wealth of North Borneo still lies mainly in its jungle produce.

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  • As is common throughout Malayan lands, the trade of North Borneo is largely in the hands of Chinese shopkeepers who send their agents inland to attend the Tamus (Malay, temu, to meet) or fairs, which are the recognized scenes of barter between the natives of the interior and those of the coast.

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  • The state, which has adopted the penny postage, is in the Postal Union, and money orders on North Borneo are issued in the United Kingdom and in most British colonies and vice versa.

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  • Notes issued by the principal banks in Singapore were made current in North Borneo in Igloo.

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  • Thus, the species inhabiting Sumatra, Java and Borneo are almost always much smaller than the closely allied species of Celebes and the Moluccas; the species or varieties of the small island of Amboyna are larger than the same species or closely allied forms inhabiting the surrounding islands; the species found in Celebes possess a peculiar form of wing, quite distinct from that of the same or closely allied species of adjacent islands; and, lastly, numerous species which have tailed wings in India and the western islands of the Archipelago, gradually lose the tail as we proceed eastward to New Guinea and the Pacific.

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  • The town is the seat of the Dutch resident of South and East Borneo.

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  • It is absent, however, from the great elevated plateau of Central Asia, nor does it inhabit Ceylon, Borneo or the other islands of the Indo-Malay Archipelago, except those named.

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  • Four species of the genus are now recognized, whose range includes the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes and some of the Philippines.

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  • Sala in Sweden, Allemont in Dauphine, and Sarawak in Borneo may be mentioned as some of the localities for this mineral.

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  • Joints of sufficient size form water buckets; smaller ones are used as bottles, and among the Dyaks of Borneo they are employed as cooking vessels.

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  • In Borneo,China, Korea, Morocco, Persia, Siam, Tripoli and Turkey an extensive jurisdiction, civil and criminal, is exercised by treaty stipulation in cases where United States subjects are interested.

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  • Before the Dutch conquest Bantam was a powerful Mahommedan state, whose sovereign extended his conquests in the neighbouring islands of Borneo and Sumatra.

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  • He visited Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, the Moluccas, Timor, New Guinea and the Aru and Ke Islands.

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  • The Oriental Borneo and Bali are respectively divided from Celebes and Lombok by a narrow belt of sea known as "Wallace's Line," on the opposite sides of which the indigenous mammalia are as widely divergent as in any two parts of the world.

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  • There is also the Malay group, consisting of the Malay States in the Borneo peninsula and in Borneo, the protectorates of North Borneo, Brunei and Sarawak.

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  • Protection is afforded to some species, like Heteropteryx grayi from Borneo, by sharp thornlike spines.

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  • They range all over India and Ceylon, thence northward to Tibet, and eastwards to China, Japan, Formosa, Borneo, Sumatra and Java; while by some naturalists the black ape of Celebes (Cynopithecus ',tiger) is included in the same genus.

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  • She relieved the distressed in far-off lands as well as at home, her helping hand being stretched out to the Dyaks of Borneo and the aborigines of Australia.

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  • It has been so diminished in area since the beginning of the 19th century as to have become in comparison with the other states of Borneo territorially insignificant.

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  • It formerly included the whole of northern Borneo and southern Palawan, and stretched down the west coast as far as Sambas.

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  • This great reduction of the extent of the territory has been brought about by the cession on successive occasions of strips of territory to Sarawak and to the British North Borneo Company on condition of annual payments of money.

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  • Though there are practically no exports and imports, there is a certain amount of inland commerce, the Brunei Malay usually earning a living by trading with the interior tribes of Sarawak and British North Borneo.

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  • His brother Akhmed married the daughter of Ong Chum Ping, a Chinese officer said to have been sent by his emperor to obtain a jewel from Mount Kinabalu in North Borneo,and was the successor of Sultan Mahommed in the sovereignty of Brunei.

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  • In the reign of Sultan Bulkeiah Magellan's squadron anchored off the mouth of Brunei river in August 1521, and Pigafetta makes mention of the splendid court and the imperial magnificence of the Borneo capital.

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  • Sultan Bulkeiah was otherwise known as Nakoda Ragam; he was the greatest warrior of Brunei and made military expeditions to Java, Malacca, Luzon and all the coasts of Borneo.

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  • We have a flora of wide distribution in South Africa, South America, Borneo, Australia, Tasmania and India which is clearly of PermoCarboniferous age, but which differs in its composition from the flora of the same age in other parts of the world.

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  • The various camphors, such as laurel camphor, Borneo camphor, menthol and cumarin, are oxidized derivatives of essential oils, and differ only superficially from them in their action.

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  • These are overlaid by conglomerates, limestones and clay slates of very doubtful age, the most interesting being a radiolarian clay which occurs on the south side of the Matinang Mountains, at the north end of Lake Posso, &c.; it may correspond with the radiolarian cherts of Borneo.

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  • Some of the animals are probably descendants of specimens introduced by man; others are allied in species, but not identical, with mammals of Java and Borneo; others again, including the three just mentioned, are wholly or practically confined to Celebes.

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  • Moreover, while Celebes has species which are peculiar to itself and one other of the islands just mentioned, it has none which it shares exclusively with Borneo, and thus the importance of the Macassar Strait as a biological division is indicated.

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  • Student Profile Sophie Powell is raising money for a trekforce expedition to Borneo for her Gap Year.

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  • Walk around the centers to meet the orangutans, the proboscis monkeys, gibbons and other endemic fauna and exotic flora of Borneo.

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  • Rhabdopleura is no doubt of world-wide distribution, since it has been recorded in various localities from Greenland to South Australia, usually in water of not less than forty fathoms. Cephalodiscus, which for many years was known solely as the result of a single dredging by the " Challenger " from 2 4 5 fathoms in the Straits of Magellan, has recently been found in entirely different parts of the world, as for instance between Japan and Korea at ioo fathoms, at about half that depth off the south-east coast of Celebes, and between tide-marks on the coast of Borneo.

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  • In the western hemisphere they range along the Mexican highlands and the Andes far into the tropics, while in the Old World the genus, well represented in the Himalayas and the hills of China, exists likewise in the peninsula of Malacca, in the Indian Archipelago and Malaya to the Philippine Islands and Borneo.

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  • Political Division.-Politically the whole of the archipelago, except British North Borneo, &c. (see Borneo), part of Timor (Portuguese), New Guinea east of the 141st meridian (British and German), and the Philippine Islands, belongs to the Netherlands.

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  • These figures are admittedly approximate, and Meyer, who is generally accurate, gives the area of Borneo at 289,860 sq.

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  • The state of North Borneo may roughly be said to form a pentagon of which three sides, the north-west, northeast and east are washed by the sea, while the remaining two sides, the south-west and the south, are bordered respectively by the Malayan sultanate of Brunei, and by the territories of the raja of Sarawak and of the Dutch government.

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  • Some of them cried, and the wild man of Borneo shrank from her sweet little face in terror.

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  • New India settled the claim and sought to exercise subrogated rights against the carrier, Borneo Maritime Oi.

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  • Sabah Sabah means ' land below the wind ' as it lies beneath the typhoon belt toward the north eastern part of Borneo.

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  • The hit television show Survivor debuted in May 2000 by pitting sixteen contestants against one another on Palau Tiga, an island in Borneo.

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  • Pockets of high trachoma infection also exist in southern Mexico, eastern Brazil, Ecuador, North Africa, India, China, Siberia, Indonesia, New Guinea, Borneo, and in Aboriginal communities in central Australia.

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  • While the dome is one large tropical bubble, each level represents a different rainforest area, including Borneo, Costa Rica, Madagascar, and the Amazon.

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  • Past articles include a review of tattoo shops in Mexico City, a visit to Omaha, Nebraska, to learn about tattooing in the heartland and an account of tribal tattooing in Borneo.

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  • His appearances on Borneo and All-Stars helped viewers get to know this unforgettable character fairly well.

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  • Richard Hatch was the Survivor winner of Borneo and had a short stint on the first All-Stars.

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  • A group of strangers traveled to a remote region of Borneo where they were divided into two tribes.

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