Border Sentence Examples
Brockville is just over the border from Maryland and Washington.
You're at the border of a restricted area, by the way.
After adding a bottom border, she changed to the red icing.
The helo flew west, towards the border with Idaho.
When she reached the border of their kingdoms, she broke east on a dirt road.Advertisement
There's a Burlington in Colorado, right across the border from Kansas!
He's moved his army from the border with Corcoran and is sending it directly to our east.
This section is near the northern border of the arid Patagonian steppes.
Near the Queensland border, Mount Lindsay, in the Macpherson Range, rises to a height of 5500 ft.
These at first encircled the whole border; but soon it became customary to substitute for them square patches of embroidery or precious fabrics.Advertisement
During these years there was constant warfare between the English and the Scots on the border, but in May 1524 Albany was obliged to retire to France.
The most important tin-mines in Queensland are in the Herberton district, south-west of Cairns; at Cooktown, on the Annan and Bloomfield rivers; and at Stanthorpe, on the border of New South Wales.
Besides the three chief regions into which the mainland is thus seen to be divided, attention should be drawn to the festoons of islands which border the eastern side of the continent, and which are undoubtedly due to causes similar to those which produced the folds of the folded belt.
Outdoor enthusiasts might prefer another park because this parks northern border abuts the county landfill.
Deposits of the Tertiary period form the basis of more than half the state, extending from the border of the Cretaceous westward nearly to the Yazoo Delta and the Mississippi Bottom, and southward to within a few miles of the Gulf coast.Advertisement
Right near the border, you can sample tasty enchiladas, tacos, burritos, and fresh mild or spicy salsas at affordable prices.
The town is under the control of a provost, bailies and council, and, along with Hawick and Selkirk, forms the Hawick (or Border) group of parliamentary burghs.
Along the sutural border of the elytron, the chitinous lamella forms a tubular space within which are numerous glands.
It lies near the border of Somersetshire, on the southern slope of a hill overlooking the river Yeo, in a fertile, well-wooded district.
Commercial intercourse with Asia Minor, Arabia, Tarshish (probably in Spain) and Ophir filled his coffers, and his realm extended from the Euphrates to the border of Egypt.Advertisement
Along the eastern border of this delta, and southward of it, along the Mississippi itself, extends a belt of hills or bluffs (sometimes called "cane-hills"), which is cut by deep ravines and, though very narrow in the north, has in the south an average width of about to m.
Cotton is grown in every county of the state, but the large yields are in the Delta (Bolivar, Coaohma, Washington, Yazoo and Leflore counties), the greatest cotton-producing region of the world, and in Monroe, Lowndes and Noxubee counties on the Alabama border.
Along the entire western border of the state the Mississippi River is navigable for river steamboats.
The area between the northern border of the Persian high lands and the Caspian and Aral Seas is a nearly desert low-lying plain, extending to the foot of the north - western extremity of the great Tibeto-Himalayan mountains, and prolonged east- Trans- ward up the valleys of the Oxus (Amu-Darya) and Caspian Jaxartes (Syr-Darya), and northward across the country re ior, and of the Kirghiz to the south-western border of Siberia.
It is fringed on either side by high border ridges, which -subside on the north-west into a stretch of high plains, 1500 to 2000 ft.Advertisement
Beyond this point the Anglo-Russian Commission of 1895 demarcated a line to the snowfields and glaciers which overlook the Chinese border.
The increase of Russian influence on the northern Persian border and its extension southwards towards Seistan led to the appointment of a British consul at Kirman, the dominating Kirman.
The cessation of the rains on the southern border of Baluchistan, west of Karachi, obviously arises from the projection of the south-east coast of Arabia, which limits the breadth of the south-west monsoon air current and the length of the coast-line directly exposed to it.
The snow-clad peaks of the main Caucasus, descending by short, steep slopes, fringe the valley on the north, while an abrupt escarpment, having the characteristics of a border ridge of the Armenian highlands, fronts it on the south.
The district is traversed by the Madras and Southern Mahratta railways, meeting on the eastern border at Guntakal junction, where another line branches off to Bezwada.
The Carboniferous or "Mountain" Limestone is the oldest formation in the county; its thickness is not known, but it is certainly over 2000 ft.; it is well exposed in the numerous narrow gorges cut by the Derwent and its tributaries and by the Dove on the Staffordshire border.
The improvements introduced by these energetic and skilful farmers spread rapidly, and exerted a most beneficial influence upon the border counties.
In March 1318 the town and soon afterwards the castle of Berwick capitulated, and Bruce wasted the English border as far as Ripon.
Bewdley is pleasantly situated on the sloping right bank of the Severn, on the eastern border of the forest of Wyre.
When she provoked a war with England in 1 557 the nobles refused to cross the border.
From the fact that Aplysia commences its life as a free-swimming veliger with a nautiloid shell not enclosed in any way by the border of the mantle, it is clear that the enclosure of the shell in the adult is a secondary process.
When discovered by Europeans, late in the first half of the 17th century, the territory included within what is now Ohio was mainly a battle-ground of numerous Indian tribes and the fixed abode of none except the Eries who occupied a strip along the border of Lake Erie.
But its greatness probably began with Menes, who united the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt, and is said to have secured the site for his capital near the border of the two lands by diverting the course of the river eastward.
Cox, the Democratic nominee, also from Ohio; he carried, generally by immense majorities, all the northern states and all but one of the states on the border between North and South, and he cut down materially the Democratic majorities in the South.
Thirteen years later, in 1617, after numerous border fights with the Chinese, Nurhachu drew up a list of ` c seven hates," or indictments, against his southern neighbours, and, not getting the satisfaction he demanded, declared war against them.
The Drakensberg forming the buttress of the plateau seaward, attain their highest elevation on the BasutoNatal border.
It was Thomas who organized the Toulouse campaign of 1159; even in the field he made himself conspicuous by commanding a company of knights, directing the work of devastation, and superintending the conduct of the war after the king had withdrawn his presence from the camp. When there was war with France upon the Norman border, the chancellor acted as Henry's representative; and on one occasion engaged in single combat and unhorsed a French knight of reputation.
The Germans form 27.9% of the population, and are found mostly in the towns and in the border districts.
An extensive scheme of railway construction has been planned, the four main lines projected being (1) from Takau to Tainan; (2) from Tainan to Kagi; (3) from Kagi to Shoka; and (4) from Shoka to Kelung; these four forming, in effect, a main trunk road running from the south-west to the north-east, its course being along the foot of the mountains that border the western coast-plains.
To the south the province is shut in by the wide mountainous tract which stretches from the Bay of Bengal through Bastar to the Godavari, and west of that river is continued onward to the rocky ridges and plateaus of Khandesh by a succession of ranges that enclose the plain of Berar along its southern border.
The Gawilgarh hills, a range belonging to the Satpura mountains, form the northern border.
It was the scene of two of the "battles" of the "Border War," and of much of the political violence resulting from the clashes between the "pro-slavery" and the "free-state" factions of Missouri and Kansas.
Now the Kachins are on both sides of the border of Upper Burma, and are a force to be reckoned with by frontier administrators.
On the British side of the border the chief objects have been the disarmament of the tribes and the construction of frontier and internal roads.
The continued misconduct of the Sana Kachins from beyond the administrative border rendered punitive measures necessary.
The English setter should have a silky coat with the hair waved but not curly; the legs and toes should be hairy, and the tail should have a bushy fringe of hairs hanging down from the dorsal border.
From this date onwards coins bearing its Semitic name, Ras Melkart, become common, and it was obviously an important border fortress.
The railway from Jodhpur has been extended towards Bhatinda in the Punjab; on the northern border, the Ghaggar canal in the Punjab irrigates about 5000 acres.
There are numerous high valleys shut in among the mountains of this range; the most noteworthy being the plain of Livno, which lies parallel to the Dalmatian border, at a height of 500 ft.
The Una rises on the Croatian border, and, after skirting the Pljesevica Planina, in Croatia, turns sharply to the north-east; serving as a frontier stream for 37 m.
Rising on the Montenegrin border, under the Lebrsnik mountains, it flows north-westwards at the foot of the Dinaric Alps; and, near Konjica, sweeps round suddenly to the south, and falls into the Adriatic near Metkovic, after traversing 125 m.
Model farms were established at Livno and at Gacko, on the Montenegrin border; a school of viticulture near Mostar; a model poultry-farm at Prijedor, close to the Croatian boundary;.
On the northern frontier border raids on a large scale were frequent.
He crossed the Great Atlas in its central section, explored its southern border, and, in part, the Middle and Anti-Atlas ranges.
Situated on the northern border of the Central Plateau, the department slopes from south to north.
The peach border should be composed of turfy mellow FIG.
Water must now be copiously supplied to the border, and air admitted in abundance, but cold draughts which favour the attack of mildew must be avoided.
The border counties, now formed into a military zone, were planted exclusively with Croatian colonists as being more trustworthy defenders of the Hungarian frontier than the Hungarians themselves.
In the winter of 1914-5 he led an entire Turkish army in the disastrous offensive in the snow-covered mountains on the Russo-Turkish border.
But beyond the sphere of irrigation, where the land is dependent on the rainfall, there is much rough stony ground broken by great fissures cut by flood-water from the border hills.
James and his leaders, Atholl and Huntly, with their Stewarts and Gordons, and the levies of burgesses, and the mounted gentry of Fife, encountered the wild border spearmen of Hepburn and Home and the Galloway men, the whole being led by Angus and the rebel prince at Sauchie burn, near Bannockburn.
Border homicides added their element of international irritation, and James renewed the ancient league with France.
At dawn the survivors had retreated, only the light Border horse of Home hung about the field.
In June Angus had prepared forces to punish the Border raiders, and James, rightly or wrongly, seems to have suspected that he was to be handed over bodily to his royal uncle.
Angus prolonged his outrages on the Scottish border till 1529, when he entered England as a subsidized mischief-maker against Scotland.
Meanwhile James visited the Border, hanged some brigand lairds, and reduced such English partisans as the Kers, Rutherfords, Stewarts of Traquair, Veitches and Turnbulls.
In 1541 he disappointed Henry, not meeting him at York, and this course, advised by his council and Francis I., rankled deeply, while Angus was making a large English raid on the Border in time of peace.
Henry's men marauded on the Border, but a force which James summoned to Fala Moor (3 rst of October 1542) contained but one lord who would march with him - Napier of Merchistoun.
Sir George Douglas at once crossed the border.
The Douglases continued to play the part of double traitors; Hertford, in autumn, again devastated the border and burned religious houses (whether he always burned the abbey churches is disputed), but Beaton never lost heart and had some successes.
Mary now promised restoration to Huntly's son, Lord George; she recalled Bothwell, who had a considerable military reputation, from exile in France; and she pursued Murray with his allies through the south of Scotland to Dumfries, whence she drove him over the English border in October.
On the 7th or 9th of October, Mary went to Jedburgh on the affairs of Border justice, and a week later she rode with Murray to Hermitage castle, where for several days Bothwell had lain, wounded nearly to death by Eliot, a border reiver.
But Randolph, sent to Edinburgh for the purpose, kept them apart; Elizabeth despatched Sussex to ravage the Scottish border, in revenge for a raid by Buccleuch, and in May Lennox entered Scotland with an English force and soon was appointed regent (17th of July).
At the end of 1585, all James's exiled foes, Douglases, Hamiltons and others, returned across the border in force, caught the king at Stirling, drove Arran into hiding, restored the Gowrie family, and became the new administration.
While Charles hung irresolute on the eastern border, the Covenanters, under Alexander Leslie, took heart, occupied Duns Law, and terrified Charles into negotiations (11th-18th June).
In August 1648, they crossed the border, leaving the fanatics to arm in their rear, but Cromwell, by a rapid march across the fells, caught and utterly routed them at Preston and on the line of the Ribble, taking captive the infantry and Hamilton, who was sent to the block.
Cromwell, who now crossed the border, impressed this truth, as far as he might, on the preachers, who made in g ?
The retreat was admirably conducted; Lord George and Cluny fought a gallant and successful rear guard at Clifton; they escaped from Cumberland across the border, but Charles, against advice, left a doomed garrison in Carlisle.
Knox, like Bishop Burnet, needs to be read critically and in the light of contemporary documents; especially those in the Hamilton Papers, The Border Papers and English State Papers (Foreign).
The game was sought in the open deserts which border on both sides the valley of the Nile; but (by the wealthy) sometimes in enclosed spaces into which the animals had been driven or in preserves.
The two border principalities of Birbhum and Bankura were accordingly united into a district under a British collector, being, however, separated again in 1793.
The element of chance, which prevails in the region on either side of the border between pass and failure, obviously prevails equally on either side of the border between " classes," where candidates are classified; it has been suggested by Dr Schuster that numerical order should accompany classification so as to avoid the creation of an artificial gap between the last candidate in one class and the highest in the next.
Clairvaux (Clara Vallis) is situated in the valley of the Aube on the eastern border of the Forest of Clairvaux.
Eastward there is no such definite border.
In the midst of this series there is an inconstant band of fossiliferous limestone, which has been found in the Wadi Nasb and at other places on the southern border of et-Tih, and also along the western escarpment of the Edom plateau.
But it was the close of a lengthy period during which Egypt had endeavoured to keep Palestine detached from Asia, and Palestine had realized the significance of a powerful empire at its south-western border.
The majority of the early settlers came from the southern and border states, principally from Missouri and Kentucky; but subsequently there was a large immigration of New England and Eastern people, and these elements were stronger in the population of Jacksonville than in any other city of southern Illinois.
Additional richness was given to Greek bronze-work by gold or silver inlay on lips, eyes and borders of the dress; one remarkable statuette in the British Museum has eyes inlaid with diamonds and fret-work inlay in silver on the border of the chiton.
With the exception of the Dniester, which skirts its northern border, Bukovina belongs to the watershed of the Danube.
The Pamir Commission of 1895 settled its north-eastern border.
Beginning with the Persian border at Zulfikar on the Hari Rud river, the boundary between Afghanistan and Russia follows a line roughly parallel to the course of the Paropamisus, and about 35 m.
Routes that pass through the mountain barriers of the frontier between Peshawarand the Gomal occur at intervals along the western border, and in the northern section of the Indian frontier they are all well marked.
When, therefore, the conquest of Khiva in 1873 by the Russians, and their gradual approach towards the amir's northern border, had seriously alarmed Shere Ali, he applied for support to the British; and his disappointment at his failure to obtain distinct pledges of material assistance, and at Great Britain's refusal to endorse all his claims in a dispute with Persia over Seistan, so far estranged him from the British connexion that he began to entertain amicable overtures from the Russian authorities at Tashkend.
Meanwhile the delimitation of the northern frontier, up to the point where it meets Chinese territory on the east, was completed and fixed by arrangements between the governments of Russia and Great Britain; and the eastern border of the Afghan territory, towards India,was also mapped out and partially laid down, in accordance with a convention between the two governments.
During the preceding decades Russia had gradually advanced her power from the Caspian across the Turkoman steppes to the border of Afghanistan, and Russian intrigue was largely responsible for the second Afghan war.
The durbar was interrupted by the news that a Russian general had attacked and routed the Afghan force holding the bridge across the river Kushk, and the incident might possibly have resulted in war between Britain and Russia but for the slight importance that Abdur Rahman attributed to what he termed a border scuffle.
When Lord Curzon became viceroy in 1898, he reversed the policy on the north-west frontier which had given rise to the Tirah campaign, withdrew outlying garrisons in tribal country, substituted for them tribal militia, and created the new North-West Frontier province, for the purpose of introducing consistency of policy and firmness of control upon that disturbed border.
It is generally blue and has an ornamented border.
It was formerly fastened with strings, but now with the ghundi (the old form of button) and tukmah or loop. In southern India, Gujarat and in the United Provinces the arid is much the same as to length and fit as the English shirt; as the traveller goes northward from Delhi to the Afghan border he sees the kurta becoming longer and looser till he finds the Pathan wearing it almost to his ankles, with very full wide sleeves.
A second expedition became necessary later on, two small patrols having been treacherously murdered; and a force of 100 British troops traversed the border of the Abor country and punished the tribes, while a blockade was continued against them from 1894 to 1900.
On the east border of the south portion of the basin of the Rio Grande Mindanao is Mt Apo (10,312 ft.), an extinct volcano and the highest elevation in the archipelago.
The Pampanga rises in the highlands on the north-east border, flows south by west, and discharges through several channels into Manila Bay.
D a r Illana Ba S Sea e a Is Palmas Agno rises in the mountains on the north border, flows south, south-west and north-west, and discharges through several channels into the Gulf of Lingayen.
There were border wars with rebellious savage tribes, attacks made by Chinese pirates seeking plunder or refuge, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tornadoes and the periodical visits of marauders from the southern islands.
The holy war against the border countries which Mahomet had already inaugurated, was the best means for making the new religion popular among the Arabs, for opportunity was at the same time afforded for gaining rich booty.
His residence was at Rosafa on the border of the desert, and he rarely admitted visitors into his presence; as a rule they were received by his chamberlain Abrash.
The annual raids of Moslems and Greeks in the border districts of Asia Minor were attended with alternate successes, though on the whole the Greeks had the upper hand.
A few days later he was proceeding toward the Oregon border when new instructions from Washington caused him to retrace his steps and, perhaps, to consider plans for provoking war.
On the 11th of September President Lincoln, who regarded the action as premature and who saw that it might alienate Kentucky and other border states, whose adherence he was trying to secure, annulled these declarations.
He was a great civil and military official, charged to watch, in the interests of the crown, over groups of several comitatus, or countships, especially in the border provinces.
The Pacific coast has been defined chiefly by relatively recent crustal deformations, and hence still preserves a greater relief than that of the Atlantic. The minor features of each coast will be mentioned in connexion with the land districts of which the coast-line is only the border.
For various reasons the war was confined to a few border forays.
Along the north-east border of the borough are Cypress Hills cemetery (400 acres), adjoining Brooklyn Forest Park, and the cemetery of the Evergreens (about 375 acres), adjoining Highland Park and partly in the borough of Queens.
South-south-west of Cherimai on the Preanger border is the Sawal volcano, at whose foot is the beautiful Penjalu lake.
Their northern border is marked by an escarpment of Soo to 700 ft.
The economic evolution of the state since Reconstruction has been in the main that common to all the old slave states developing from the plantation system of ante-bellum days, somewhat diversified and complicated by the special features of a young and border community.
The plan was endorsed of holding a convention of all the states to settle the slavery question, and delegates were chosen to the proposed Border State Convention that was to meet at Frankfort, Kentucky, on the 27th of May.
His position as a Mexican official, and the location of his fortified post on the border, commanding the interior country and lying on the route of the overland immigrants, made him of great importance in the years preceding and immediately following American occupation; although he was a man of slight abilities and wasted his great opportunities.
Cetywayo's attitude became menacing; he allowed a minor chief to make raids into the Transvaal, and seized natives within the Natal border.
Sir Bartle Frere, who became high commissioner of South Africa in March 1877, found evidence which convinced him that the Kaffir revolt of that year on the eastern border of Cape Colony was part of a design or desire "for a general and simultaneous rising of Kaffirdom against white civilization"; and the Kaffirs undoubtedly looked to Cetywayo and the Zulus as the most redoubtable of their champions.
Thus the development of the two great civilized portions of the race in Europe and Asia followed independent lines in religion as in all else; and Africa, excepting its northern border, was left untouched by the progress of enlightenment.
The North Tyne rises in the Cheviot Hills, at their south-western extremity, near the Scottish border.
At Bellingham it receives the Rede, whose wild valley, Redesdale, was one of the chief localities of border warfare, and contains the site of the battle of Otterburn (1388).
The northern border is touched by the Bengal-Nagpur railway, with a station at Bamra town.
Guinea-pigs placed in plague-infected houses do not contract plague if they are protected from fleas; those placed in cages protected by a border of sticky paper at least six inches in radius, which the fleas cannot jump over, do not contract plague; the others not similarly protected, do.
But a more dangerous enemy was soon to appear on the eastern border.
To the north-west of the town are the Allees Marines, fine promenades which border the Adour for a mile and a quarter, and the Allees Paulmy, skirting the fortifications.
The increasing mass of the population dwelt along the western border or on the less fertile ridges which make up the major part of the land even in tide-water Virginia.
They desired a freer land-grant system, protection against the inroads of the Indians along the border, and frequent sessions of an assembly to be chosen by all the freeholders.
The Indians had again attacked the border farmers, and the governor had refused assistance, being willing, it was generally believed, that the border population should suffer while he and his adherents enjoyed a lucrative fur trade with the Indians.
In the meantime the Presbyterians, who had been officially recognized in Virginia under the Toleration Act in 1699, and had been guaranteed religious autonomy in the Valley by Governor Gooch in 1738, had sent missionaries into the border counties of eastern Virginia.
One of the most remarkable orographical features of the state are the great mountain "parks" - North, Estes, Middle, South and San Luis - extending from the northern to the southern border of the state, and lying (with the exception of Middle Park) just east of the continental divide.
Along the eastern border the dreary plateaus of Olonets reach on Finnish territory altitudes of from 700 to moo ft.
The three main lake-basins of Nasi-jarvi, Pajane and Saima are separated by low and flat hills only; but one sees distinctly appearing on the map a line of flat elevations running south-west to north-east along the north-west border of the lake regions from Lauhanvuori to Kajana, and reaching from 650 to 825 ft.
The lower slopes are usually covered with the scrub oak, juniper and pinon; but some mountains, especially those along the eastern border of the Rio Grande Valley, are absolutely treeless.
James Sharp, Fairfoul, James Hamilton (1610-1674) and Robert Leighton were the new bishops; Sharp and Leighton having to be ordained as deacons, then as priests, before the consecration, and the party travelling to Scotland in state, though Leighton left them before crossing the border.
The longest river in Wales is the Severn (180 m.), in Welsh Hafren, which rises in Plinlimmon, and takes a north-easterly direction through Montgomeryshire before reaching the English border.
The four Welsh sees, however, extend beyond the borders of the twelve counties, for they include the whole of Monmouthshire and some portions of the English border shires; on the other hand, the sees of Hereford and Chester encroach upon the existing Welsh counties.
At the same time the remaining lordships were added to the English border counties of Gloucester, Shropshire and Hereford, and also to the existing Welsh shires of Cardigan, Carmarthen, Glamorgan and Pembroke, all of which found their boundaries considerably enlarged under this statute.
From these centres "Separate" Baptist influence spread throughout North and South Carolina and across the Georgia border, Marshall himself finally settling and forming a church at Kiokee, Georgia.
The land of Edom is unfruitful and forbidding, with the notable exception of fertile districts immediately south of the Dead Sea and along its eastern border.
The border ranges of the east and south of Assam belong to the Burmese system of mountain chains (see Burma), and consist largely of Tertiary beds, including the great coal seams of Upper Assam.
The inner line formerly maintained along the Lushai border has since 1895 been allowed to fall into desuetude, but Lushais visiting Cachar are required to take out passes from the superintendent of the Lushai hills.
The area between the southern border of Siberia and the margin of the temperate alpine zone of the Himalaya and north China, comprising what are commonly called central Asia, Turkestan, Mongolia and western Manchuria, is an almost rainless region, having winters of extreme severity and summers of intense heat.
The arboreous forms which least require the humid and equable heat of the more truly tropical and equatorial climates, and are best able to resist the high temperatures and excessive drought of the northern Indian hot months from April to June, are certain Leguminosae, Bauhinia, Acacia, Butea and Dalbergia, Bombax, Shorea, Nauclea, Lagerstroemia, and Bignonia, a few bamboos and palms, with others which extend far beyond the tropic, and give a tropical aspect to the forest to the extreme northern border of the Indian plain.
Mongolian settlements have lately been found very much farther extended into the border countries of north-west India than has been hitherto recognized.
To such fields may be added the yet more complicated problems of those reflex waves which flowed backwards from India into the border highlands.
Its streets are narrow and irregular, and, away from the promenades which border it on the south, there is little animation.
The cardinals did not trust themselves across the border; their messengers, however, were courteously received by Bruce, but with a firm refusal to admit the papal bulls into his kingdom because not addressed to him as king.
Mantle-border projecting; frontal veil reduced, and often covered by the anterior border of the mantle.
Their language, which is neither monosyllabic nor tonic, has nothing in common with that of the MonAnnam group. It has, moreover, been pointed out that had the Malays been driven southwards by the stronger races of the mainland of Asia, it might be expected that the people inhabiting the country nearest to the border between Siam and Malaya would belong to the Malayan and not to the Mon-Annam or Mon-Khmer stock.
In the northern part of the state the great pine belt stretches from the head of Lake Superior westward to the confines of the Red River Valley, while along the north border and in the north-east the forest growth is almost exclusively tamarack and dwarf pine.
It affords facilities for the transport of logs by means of booms above Minneapolis, and is navigable below St Paul; being half a mile broad where it reaches the border of the state at Hastings.
The rapid settling of the state drove its native fauna, which comprised buffalo, deer, moose, bear, lynx and wolves, in great numbers into the northern sections, westward into Dakota, or across the Canadian border.
Correlated with the presence of the genital pleurae there is a pair of vascular folds of the basement membrane proceeding from the dorsal wall of the gut in the postbranchial portion of the branchio-genital region, and from the dorsal angles made by the pleural folds with the body-wall in the pharyngeal region; they pass, in their most fully developed condition, to the free border of the genital pleurae.
At the present day steamers ply from Tyumen, at the foot of the Urals, to Semipalatinsk on the border of the Kirghiz steppe and to Tomsk in the very heart of West Siberia.
The average elevation of the province is considerable, and the maximum height (6593 ft.) is reached in the Pena Trevinca on the eastern border of Orense.
In 1818, soon after his marriage with Miss Burnley, the daughter of an East India director, he was returned to parliament as member for the Border burghs.
The Cevennes proper are formed by a folded belt of Palaeozoic rocks which lies along the south-east border of the central plateau of France.
It includes a small part of eastern Sao Paulo, the greater part of the state of Rio de Janeiro, a small corner of Espirito Santo, and a narrow strip along the southern border of Minas Geraes.
Similar rocks cover a large area in the province of Goyaz and in the south of the Matto Grosso, and they form, also, the hills which border the basin of the Amazon on the confines of Venezuela and Guiana.
Minas Geraes is forested along its water courses and along its southern border only; its sun temperature, therefore, is high and the rainfall in its northern districts is comparatively light.
Geoffrey occupied the border fortress of Alencon with the good will of the inhabitants.
Railways were still far from the Transvaal border, and Natal not only sent her own colonists to the new fields, but also offered the nearest route for prospectors from Cape Colony or from Europe.
The first act was the seizure by the Boers of a Natal train on the Free State border.
On the 12th Laing's Nek was occupied by the Boer forces, who were moved in considerable force over the Natal border.
It was proposed to include in Natal such portions of the Harrismith and Vrede districts as were comprised by a line following the Elands river north from its source on the Basutoland border to its junction with the Wilge river, and thence drawn straight to the point where the boundaries of Natal, the Transvaal and the Orange River Colony meet on the Drakensberg.
From Manchuria and China it is separated by the border ridge of the plateau - the Great Khingan, while in the south-west it runs up to the foot of the high northern border ridges of the Tibetan plateau - an artificial frontier separating it from east Turkestan and Dzungaria.
Along the south-western border of this division of Mongolia a gigantic border-ridge, the Ektagh (or Mongolian) Altai, runs in an E.S.E.
Simultaneously a brisk border trade was springing up between the Greeks and the Magyars, and the Greek chapmen brought with them their religion as well as their wares.
Under the circumstances, we cannot wonder if the frontier fortresses fell to pieces, and the border troops, unpaid for years, took to brigandage.
On the other hand the treaty of Vasvar gave Hungary a respite from regular Turkish invasions for twenty years, though the border raiding continued uninterruptedly.
For the moment the earl of Surrey (who in King Henry VIII.'s absence was charged with the defence of the realm) had no organized force in the north of England, but James wasted much precious time among the border castles, and when Surrey appeared at Wooler, with an army equal in strength to his own, which was now greatly weakened by privations and desertion, he had not advanced beyond Ford Castle.
The Sand River Convention of 1852 had not defined the western border of the state, and the discovery of gold at Tati to the northwest, together with the discovery of diamonds on the Vaal in 1867, offered Pretorius every inducement to extend his boundary.
Add to this condition of things the fact that the Zulus were threatening the Transvaal on its southern border, and the picture of utter collapse which existed in the state is complete.
On the western border, where the natives were of less warlike character than those on their southern and northern frontiers, intrigues were already going on with petty tribal chiefs, and the Boers drove out a portion of the Barolongs from their lands, setting up the so-called republics of Stellaland and Goshen.
On the eastern border a similar policy of expansion was followed by the Boers, and in this instance with more success.
Between them it was arranged that Jameson should gather a force of Boo men on the Transvaal border; that the Uitlanders should continue their agitation; and that, should no satisfactory concession be obtained from Kruger, a combined movement of armed forces should be made against the government.
This swept the country up to the Swaziland border.
The border was fringed or was ornamented with bunches of tassels.
It is often decorated with a fringed border from top to bottom.
The plain white toga (toga Pura) was the ordinary dress of the citizen, but the toga praetexta, which had a border of purple, was worn by boys till the age of sixteen, when they assumed the plain toga virilis, and also by curule magistrates and some priests.
When women gave up the use of the toga, they adopted the stola, a long tunic with a border of a darker colour (instita) along the lower edge; the neck also sometimes had a.
Since 1842, but more especially since 1871, improvements have been made in the navigability of the Elbe by all the states which border upon its banks.
It was a border city between Boeotia and Attica, and its possession was a continual cause of dispute between the two countries; but at last it came into the final possession of Athens, and is always alluded to under the Roman empire as an Attic town.
Chaka next attacked the tribes on his southern border, and by 1820 had made himself master of Natal, which he swept almost clear of inhabitants.
According to evidence brought forward later by the Boers, Cetywayo offered the farmers a strip of land along the border if they would surrender his brother.
During the year a Boer commando under Paul Kruger and an army under Cetywayo were posted along the Utrecht border.
The tension between Cetywayo and the Transvaal over border disputes continued, and when in 1877 Britain annexed the Transvaal the dispute was transferred to the new owners of the country.
In September 1901 Louis Botha made an attempt to invade Natal by way of Zululand, but the stubborn defence made by the small posts at Itala and Prospect Hill, both within the Zulu border, caused him to give up the project.
The frontier tribes on the Dera Ghazi Khan border include the Kasranis, Bozdars, Khosas, Lagharis, Khetvans, Gurchanis, Mazaris, Mariris and Bugtis.
The last are found only in the Myelat, or border country between the southern Shan States and Burma.
Amber is extracted by Kachins in the Hukawng valley beyond the administrative border, but the quality of the fossil resin is not very good.
It happened, accordingly, that the Burmese, carrying their arms into Assam and Manipur, penetrated to the British border near Sylhet, odthe north-east frontier of Bengal, beyond which were the possessions of the chiefs of Cachar, under the protection of the British government.
Its eastern half is studded with isolated rocky crags, which are crowned with the ruins of ancient strongholds, and broken by the low hills that border the plain of Issus.
Since 1913, however, an extensive diamond field in the Kasai basin along the Angola border has been worked.
Sumerian in its turn borrowed from Semitic Babylonian, and traces of Semitic influence in some of the earliest Sumerian texts indicate that the Semite was already on the Babylonian border.
Among his more notable examples are the Royal Border bridge at Berwick-onTweed, the High Level bridge at Newcastle-on-Tyne, the Britannia tubular bridge over the Menai Straits, the Conway tubular bridge, and the Victoria tubular bridge over the St Lawrence at Montreal.
When the plant is grown under glass, the vine border should occupy the interior of the house and also extend outwards in the front, but it is best made by instalments of 5 or 6 ft.
If the soil beyond this is very unfavourable, the roots should be prevented from entering it by building a wall at the extreme edge of the border.
In well-drained localities the border may be partially below the ground level, but in damp situations it should be made on the surface; in either case the firm solid bottom should slope outwards towards an efficient drain.
The first sign of its presence is the appearance of a minute spot, which is greyish in the centre, with a brown border.
The centre of the spots on the grapes becomes darker as the disease advances, and a red line appears dividing the dark brown border into an outer and an inner rim and giving a very characteristic appearance to the diseased plant.
The hinder border is often drawn out into mobile processes and hollowed out around the insertion of the next FIG.
From the wells of Shakik he crossed the waterless Nafud in four days to Jubba, and after a halt there in the nomad camps, he moved on to Hail, already a thriving town, and the capital of the Shammar state whose limits included all northern Arabia from Kasim to the Syrian border.
The harra east of Khaibar is also of considerable extent, and the same formation is found all along the Hejaz border from Medina to the Jebel el Kura, east of Mecca.
West of Abu Dhabi a low flat steppe with no settled inhabitants extends up to the Katr peninsula, merging on the north into the saline marshes which border the Persian Gulf, and on the south into the desert.
The road is a mere camel track across the desert, the chief places passed are Ma`an on the Syrian border, a station on the old Sabaean trade route to Petra, and Medain Salih, the site of the rock-cut tombs and inscriptions first brought to notice by Doughty.
Another important route is that taken by the Persian or Shia pilgrims from Bagdad and Kerbela across the desert, by the wells of aina, to Bureda in Kasim; thence across the steppes of western Nejd till it crosses the Hejaz border at the Ria Mecca, 50 m.
Besides husbandry, the inhabitants practise yarn-spinning and linen-weaving, and the coal-mines of the Biickeberg, on the south-eastern border, are very productive.
Six years later he was associated with his father in the wardenship of the eastern march of Scotland,, and his zeal in border warfare won the name of Hotspur for him from his opponents.
It is not known whether he was an historical personage; many of the achievements attributed to him border on the miraculous.
Jonquilla, with yellow flowers, a native of south Europe and Algeria, of which there are single and double flowered varieties, is also grown in pots for early flowering, but does well outside in a warm border.
The general surface of the county is gently undulating and pleasantly diversified; but in the northern extremity, on the borders of Lough Neagh, there is a considerable tract of low, marshy land, and the southern border of the county is occupied by a barren range of hills, the highest of which, Slieve Gullion, attains an elevation of 1893 ft.
The Ulster Canal begins at Charlemont on the river Blackwater, near its junction with Lough Neagh, proceeding through the western border of the county, and passing thence to the south-west by Monaghan and Clones into Upper Lough Erne, after a course of 48 m.
It is situated on the western border of the fertile plain of Burgundy, at the foot of Mont Afrique, the north-eastern summit of the Cote d'Or range, and at the confluence of the Ouche and the Suzon; it also has a port on the canal of Burgundy.
The main anatomical justification of this sub-family is given by the postfrontal bones, which, besides bordering the orbits posteriorly, are extended forwards so as to form the upper border of the orbits, separating the latter from the frontals.
The territory round the town, from the southern border of the modern Venetia to the beginning of the Pentapolis at Rimini, was under his direct administration and formed in a limited sense the exarchate.
This may be interpreted as the equation of the border curve giving the relation between p and 0, but is more easily obtained by considering the equilibrium at constant pressure instead of constant volume.
To find the border curve of equilibrium between the two states, giving the saturation pressure as a function of the temperature, we have merely to equate the values of G and G".
The Siberian roe (C. pygargus), which is common in the Altai, is larger and paler than the type species, with shorter and more hairy ears, a larger white rump-patch, and small irregular snags on the inner border of the antlers.
The Klippen are isolated hills, chiefly of Jurassic limestone, rising up in the midst of the later and softer deposits on the inner border of the sandstone zone.
That home was situated on the border of the Middlesex Fells, a rough and rocky woodland, 4000 acres in extent, as wild and savage in many places as the primeval forest.
While the colours on the metopes and triglyphs had faded somewhat, the border above them, topped with a cornice projecting 6 in., retained a most brilliant maeander pattern of red, blue and yellow, while below these were two bands of godroons of blue and red.
At this congress the differences between Casimir and John of Bohemia were finally adjusted; peace was made between the king of Poland and the Teutonic Order on the basis of the cession of Pomerania, Kulm, and Michalow to the knights, who retroceded Kujavia and Dobrzyn; and the kings of Hungary and Poland further agreed to assist each other in the acquisition of the south-eastern border province of Halicz, or Red Russia (very nearly corresponding to the modern Galicia), in case the necessity for intervention should arise.
His Son, SIR John Johnson (1742-1830), Who was knighted in 1765 and succeeded to the baronetcy on his father's death, took part in the French and Indian War and in the border warfare during the War of Independence, organizing a loyalist regiment known as the "Queen's Royal Greens," which he led at the battle of Oriskany and in the raids (1778 and 1780) on Cherry Valley and in the Mohawk Valley.
The continental shelves include not only the oceanic border of the continents but also great areas of the enclosed seas and particularly of the fringing seas, the origin of which through secular subsidence is often very clearly apparent, as for instance in the North Sea and the tract lying off the mouth of the English Channel.
A particularly fine-grained mud is formed on the low coasts of the eastern border of the North Sea by a mixture of the finest sediment carried down by the slow-running rivers with the calcareous or siliceous remains of plankton.
The city is situated on the border of a rolling prairie about 770 ft.
During the months of December, January and February the rivers are frozen up, and even the Gulf of Chih-li is fringed with a broad border of ice.
The mountains of the Basin Range region, known in Texas as the Trans-Pecos Province, rise in Guadalupe Peak near the border of New Mexico, to nearly 9000 ft.
Texas has no large lakes; but freshwater lakes, which are fed either by streams or springs, are common on the Coastal Plain; the best known of them are Grand Lake in Colorado county, Clear Lake in Harris county, and Caddo Lake on the Louisiana border.
The loess soil, chiefly a mixture of porous clay and carbonate of lime, forms the bluffs that border the bottom lands of the Missouri.
The chief frontier tribes on the border are the Waziris, Battannis and Dawaris.
He returned to his native place and for many years lived as a hermit in the desert by the marshes on the Egyptian border.
Geneva, however, with its most distinguished of Protestant theologians, became a school of Protestantism, which sent its trained men into the Netherlands, England and Scotland, and especially across the border into France.
Assyria under Sargon defeated the southern confederation at Rapihi (Raphia on the border of Egypt) and captured Hanun; the significance of the victory is evident from the submission of the queen of Aribi (Arabia), the Sabaean Itamara, and Musri.
Thus the fight dragged on, and was constantly maintained in Acadia, where the sovereignty had been early disputed, and the border never properly settled.
Stuyvesant conducted a successful expedition against the Swedes on the southern border of New Netherland in 1655; but he was powerless against the English.
The close of the American Civil War, the Fenian raids across the American border, and the dangers incident to the international situation, gave a decisive impulse to the movement.
The majority of the inhabitants appear to have been members of the Bechuana division of the Bantus, but in the valleys of the - Orange and Vaal were Korannas and other Hottentots, and in the Drakensberg and on the western border lived numbers of Bushmen.
Moshesh continued to menace the Free State border.
The Basutoland difficulties were no sooner arranged than the Free Staters found themselves confronted with a serious difficulty on their western border.
The loss of their independence was, however, felt bitterly by the broken out the Free State began to expel British subjects, and the very first act of war was committed by Free State Boers, who, on the 11th of October, seized a train upon the border belonging to Natal.
From where the main range turns east from the Idaho boundary line the crest of the Bitterroot Mountains continues on that line with a downward slope to within one degree of latitude from the Canadian border.
In the Great Plains region the geological structure is very simple, consisting of nearly horizontal strata of Cretaceous rock in the middle and western portions, and of Tertiary rock on the eastern border, but in the mountain region the rocks have been folded and faulted until the structure is intricate and obscure.
The mountain valleys are covered with little except grasses; on the higher parts of the mountains there are barren rocks or only a scant growth of timber; but many of the lower mountain slopes, especially those along the western border, are clothed with heavy timber, ponderosa pine, lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir and western larch being the principal species.
In the west the climate is generally delightful, it being there greatly affected by the warm, dry " Chinook " wind which blows from the Pacific Ocean; to some extent the wind modifies the temperature nearly to the eastern border.
When war was declared between Prussia and Austria in 1866, Saxony declined the former's offer of neutrality, and, when a Prussian force crossed the border, the Saxon army under the king and the crown prince joined the Austrians in Bohemia.
They live on the Loargai border of Peshawar district, and number some 3000 fighting men.
The Royal military canal which runs along the inland border of Romney Marsh, and connects the Rother with Hythe, was constructed in 1807 as part of a scheme of defence in connexion with the martello towers or small forts along the coast.
Other small towns are Rainham (3693) near Chatham, Aylesford (2678), East Mailing (2391) and West Mailing (2312) in the Maidstone district; Edenbridge (2546) and Westerham (2905) on the western border of the county; Cranbrook (3949), Goudhurst (2725) and Hawkhurst (3136) in the south-west.
The Appalachian belt includes, with the ranges enumerated above, the plateaus sloping southward to the Atlantic Ocean in New England, and south-eastward to the border of the coastal plain through the central and southern Atlantic states; and on the north-west, the Allegheny and Cumberland plateaus declining toward the Great Lakes and the interior plains.
The confinement of the colonies between an ocean and a mountain wall led to the fullest occupation of the coastal border of the continent, which was possible under existing conditions of agriculture, conducing to a community of purpose, a political and commercial solidarity, which would not otherwise have been developed.
Two old camps on the Welsh border are now called Caer Caradoc, but the names seem to be the invention of antiquaries and not genuinely ancient memorials of the Celtic hero.
The highest peak hereabouts is Mogadok, 5000 ft., close to the border.
The Bang Pakong river rises among the Wattana hills on the eastern border, between the Battambong province of Cambodia and Siam.
Near Luang Prabang, just beyond the border, in French territory, limestones with Productus and Schwagerina, like the Productus limestone of the Indian Salt Range, have been found; also red clays and grauwacke with plants similar to those of the Raniganj beds; and violet clays with Dicynodon, supposed to be the equivalents of the Panche series of India.
Thunbergianum and its many varieties being also good border flowers.
Bogdanovich, the same fossils occur in both sets of border ranges, in the Sarik-kol and in their eastward continuations, e.g.
And as the relative altitudes of crest and pass remain approximately the same as in the Western Kuen-lun, it is evident how greatly the general elevation of the twin border ridge decreases towards the east.
Tibet, the Kalta-alaghan does not decrease, but it increases in elevation towards the east, where, like the Chimen-tagh, it abuts upon and merges in the ranges that border Tsaidam on the south.
Hence these ten parallel ranges of the middle Kuen-lun system may be grouped in three divisions - (1) the more strictly border ranges of the Upper and Lower Astin-tagh and the Akatotagh; (2) the three ranges of Chimen-tagh, Ara-tagh and Kaltaalaghan, which may be considered as forming a transitional system between the foregoing and the third division; (3) the Arka-tagh, which constitute the elevated rampart of the Tibetan plateau proper.
Next a succession of narrow ranges intervene between this lower border terrace and the higher terrace (12,000-13,500 ft.).
The western border of the state is traversed by low ranges of mountains forming a northward continuation of the Serra do Mar.
Yet, except in the border province of Great Poland, which was.
The sons of the gentry, denied proper instruction at home, betook themselves to the nearest universities across the border, to Goldberg in Silesia, to Wittemberg, to Leipzig.
He was not to lead the militia across the border except with the consent of the szlachta, and then only for three months at a time.
Stephen Bathory presently converted the pick of them into six registered regiments of 1000 each for the defence of the border.
Some of the Bar confederates, scattered by the Russian regulars, fled over the Turkish border, pursued by their victors.
Both of these ranges belong to that border of mountains which bounds the great tableland of Asia Minor.
The territorial exchanges were amicably agreed upon; the relations between the Indian and Afghan governments, as previously arranged, were confirmed; and an understanding was reached upon the important and difficult subject of the border line of Afghanistan on the east, towards India.
Along its entire Atlantic border extends the narrow sandy Sinepuxent Beach, which encloses a shallow lagoon or bay also called Sinepuxent at the north, where, except in the extreme north, it is very narrow, and Chincoteague at the south, where its width is in most places from 4 to 5 m.
A water-parting extending from north-east to south-west and close to the Atlantic border separates the East Shore into two drainage systems, though that next to the Atlantic is insignificant.
Its general slope is from north-west to south-east; along the west border are points 300 ft.
The part of Maryland within the Piedmont Plateau extends west from the Fall Line to the base of Catoctin Mountain, or the west border of Frederick county, and has an area of about 2500 sq.
West of Catoctin Mountain (1800 ft.) is Middletown Valley, with Catoctin Creek running through it from north to south, and the Blue Ridge Mountains (2400 ft.), near the Pennsylvania border, forming its west slope.
It is least, from 25 to 35 in., in the Greater Appalachian Valley, in the south on the West Shore, and along the Atlantic border.
From 1722 until the War of Independence the iron-ore product of North and West Maryland was greater than that of any of the other colonies, but since then ores of superior quality have been discovered in other states and the output in Maryland, taken chiefly from the west border of the Coastal Plain in Anne Arundel and Prince George's counties, has become comparatively of little importance-24,367 long tons in 1902 and only 8269 tons in 1905.
Brick, potter's and tile clays are obtained most largely along the west border of the Coastal Plain, and fire-clay from the coal region of West Maryland; in 1907 the value of clay products was $1,886,362.
The plain, almost surrounded by lofty mountains, is highly productive with many villages on it and the border hills.
But the first operations of the war brought about the willing or unwilling adhesion of these border states to the Federal cause.
In Virginia and the east, Washington, situated on the outpost line of the Union, and separated by the "border" state of Maryland from Pennsylvania and the North, was for some time in great peril.
The victor quickly turned upon Banks, destroyed his garrison of Front Royal and nearly surrounded his main body; barely escaping, Banks was again defeated at Winchester and driven back to the Maryland border (May 23-25).
From Toulouse the Garonne flows to the north-west, now skirting the northern border of the plateau of Lannemezan which here drains into it, the principal streams being the Save, the Gers and the Baise.
The native Indians, though exterminated in many districts, and civilized in others, remain in a condition of complete savagery along parts of the Nicaraguan border, where they are known as Prazos or Guatusos, in the Talamanca country and elsewhere.
The chief river of Bokhara is the Oxus or Amu-darya, which separates it from Afghanistan on the south, and then flows along its south-west border.
From mountain heights along its eastern border the surface of Kentucky is a north-western slope across two much dissected plateaus to a gracefully undulating lowland in the north central part and a longer western slope across the same plateaus to a lower and more level lowland at the western extremity.
Most of the lines run south or south-west from Cincinnati and Louisville, and the east border of the state still has a small railway mileage and practically no wagon roads, most of the travel being on horseback.
The other principal river, the Aisne, crosses the southern border and takes a northerly, then a westerly course, separating the region known as Champagne Pouilleuse from the more elevated plateau of Argonne which forms the central zone of the department and stretches to the left bank of the Meuse.
It was in this district that the Hindostani Fanatics had their stronghold, and they were responsible for much of the unrest on this part of the border.
The ancient life of the Atlantic border of North America was also becoming known through the work of the pioneer verte.rate palaeontologists Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), Richard Harlan (1796-1843), Jeffries Wyman (1814-1874) and Joseph Leidy (1823-1891).
The stock-raiser on the border pastures his herds on the uplands during the rainy season, and on the lower pastures during the remainder of the year.
Approximately its south border ran from a point slightly east of Tehuantepec to the bay of Honduras, and its north limit was that of the modern states of Michoacan and Guanajuato, then cutting across San Luis Potosi to a point just above Tampico.
Boots and shoes were manufactured chiefly in cities near the southern border.
In the majority of Trilobites this groove passes backwards from the anterior or anterolateral edge of this plate to its posterior or postero-lateral border, dividing it into an inner portion continuous with the flabellum and fused tergal regions, and an outer portion bearing the eye.
Those genera, like Paradoxides, Olenus, Asaphus, Phillipsia and others, in which this groove cuts the posterior edge of the head-shield on the inner side of its angle are referred to the Opisthoparia; those, like Dalmanites and Phacops, in which it cuts the lateral border in front of the posterior angle, belong to the Proparia.
It is the headquarters of the Barolong tribe, and although within the Cape border is the seat of the administration of the protectorate.
But Mahmud found he had not yet sufficiently subdued the idolaters nearer his own border, between Kabul and the Indus, and the campaign of 1022 was directed against them, and reached no.
The dashing rider, Colonel Banastre Tarleton, cut to pieces (April 14, 1780) a detachment of Lincoln's cavalry, and followed it up by practically destroying Buford's Virginia regiment near the North Carolina border.
This always begins at the place where the attached flagellum emerges from the body; and its free edge is really constituted by the latter, which forms a flageIlar border.
H If the flagellar border splits, the membrane doubtless divides also; but where the flagellum is a new formation the membrane will be too.
E - H shows the formation of the myonemes and the flagellar border (flagellum) of the undulating membrane, by means of a greatly elongated nuclear-spindle.
On the southern border of the borough is Lake Bantam (about 900 acres, the largest lake in the state) whose falls, at its outlet, provide water power for factories of carriages and electrical appliances.
There are numerous remains of Hindu temples, particularly in the neighbourhood of Kalasan near the border of Surakarta and Prambanan, which is just across it.
Scott's dissertation on fairies in The Border Minstrelsy is rich in lore, though necessarily Scott had not the wide field of comparative study opened by more recent researches.
The Pacific coast has been defined chiefly by relatively recent crustal deformations, and hence still preserves a greater relief than that of the Atlantic. The minor features of each coast will be mentioned in connection with the lani districts of which the coast-line is only the border.
The height is greatest along the inner or north-western border of the belt, and here a sub-mountainous topography has been produced by normal dissection, chiefly in the Tertiary cycle; the valleys being narrow because the rocks are resistant.
The rivers are shallow and more or less broken by rapids in the notches; rapids occur also near the outer border of the crystalline belt, as if the rivers there had been lately incited to downward erosion by an uplift of the region, and had not yet had time to regrade their courses.
In spite of these contrasts, no physiographic line can be drawn between the higher and more rugged interior and the lower coastal border; one merges into the other.
The features of a coast can be appreciated only when it is perceived that they result from the descent of the land surface beneath the sea and from the work of the sea, upon the shore line thus determined; and it is for this reason that through- Coast, out this article the coastal features are described in connection with the districts of which they are the border.
Where drift deposits border the sea, the shore line has been cut back or built forward in beaches of submature expression, often enclosing extensive tidal marshes; but the great part of the shore line is rocky, and there the change from initial pattern due to submergence is as yet small.
The coastal plain, however, is the result, not of a single recent uplift, but of movements dating back to Tertiary time and continued with many oscillations to the present; nor is its surface smooth and unbroken, for erosion began upon the inner part of the plain long before the outer border was revealed.
Indeed, the original interior border of the plain has been well stripped from its inland overlap; the higher-standing inner part of the plain is now maturely dissected, with a relief of 200 to 500 ft., by rivers extended seaward from the older land anti by their inntimerable branches, which are often of insequent arrangement; while the seaward border, latest uplifted, is prevailingly low and smooth, with a hardly perceptible seaward slope of but a few feet in a mile; and the shallow sea deepens very gradually for many nules off shore.
Dismal Swamp, on the border of North Carolina and Virginia, is the largest example.
There is good reason for believing that at least along the southern border of New England a narrow coastal plain was for a time added to the continental border; and that, as in the New Jersey section the plain was here stripped from a significant breadth of inland overlap and worn down so as to form an inner lowland enclosed by a longitudinal upland or cuesta; and that when this stage was reached a submergence, of the kind which has produced the many embayments of the New England coast, drowned the outer part of thy plain and the inner lowland, leaving only the higher parts of the cuesta as islands.
The border of this part of the plateau descends eastward by a single strong escarpment to the Hudson valley, from which the mountains present a fine appearance, and northward by two escarpments (the second being called the Helderberg Mountains) to the Mohawk Valley, north of which rise the Adirondacks; but to the south west the dissected highland continues into Pennsylvania and Virginia, where it is commonly known as the Alleghany plateau.
The great ice sheets formed terminal moraines around their border at various halting stages; but the morainic belts are of small relief in comparison to the great area of the ice; they rise gently from the till plains to a height of 50, 100 or more feet; they may be one, two or three miles wide; and their hilly surface, dotted over with boulders, contains many small lakes in basins or hollows, instead of streams in valleys.
When the ice sheets fronted on land sloping southward to the Ohio, Mississippi and Missouri rivers, the drift-laden streams flowed freely away from the ice border; and as the streams, escaping from their subglacial channels, spread in broader channels, they ordinarily could not carry forward all their load; hence they acted not as destructive but as constructive agents, and aggraded their courses.
It must therefore have been a sort of oasis, when the ice sheets from the north advanced past it on the east and west and joined around its southern border.
Its inner border affords admirable examples of topographical discordance where it sweeps north-westward square across the trend of the piedmont belt, the ridges and valleys, and the plateau of the Appalachians, which are all terminated by dipping gently beneath the unconformable cover of the coastal The, lain strata.
The Cordilleran Region.From the western border of the Great Plains to the Pacific coast, there is a vast elevated area, occupied by mountains, plateaus and intermont plains.
Here the streams that drain the higher areas descend to the plains through narrow canyons in the mountain border, impassable for ordinary roads and difficult of entrance even by railways; a well-known example is the gorge of Clear Creek east of the Georgetown mining district.