Boniface was a passionate and unwise man.
Boniface III >>
In 1297 Boniface VIII.
Boniface was more successful in France.
St Boniface has well been called the proconsul of the papacy.
From Boniface he received the degree of doctor.
The bishopric of Passau was founded by St Boniface in 738.
He seemed at first inclined to press a quarrel with France over the Burgundian frontier, but the refusal of Pope Boniface VIII.
BONIFACE pope from S30 to 532, was by birth a Goth, and owed his election to the nomination of his predecessor, Felix IV., and to the influence of the Gothic king.
Boniface endeavoured to nominate his own successor, thus transforming into law, or at least into custom, the proceeding by which he had benefited; but the clergy and the senate of Rome forced him to cancel this arrangement.
For two years more the fighting continued with varying success, until Charles of Valois, who had been sent by Boniface to invade Sicily, was forced to sue for peace, his army being decimated by the plague, and in August 1302 the treaty of Caltabellotta was signed, by which Frederick was recognized king of Trinacria (the name Sicily was not to be used) for his lifetime, and was to marry Eleonora, the daughter of Charles II.; at his death the kingdom was to revert to the Angevins (this clause was inserted chiefly to save Charles's face), and his children would receive compensation elsewhere.
She was canonized in 1391 by Pope Boniface IX., and her feast is celebrated on the 9th of October.
The principal cities and towns are: Winnipeg (90,153), Brandon (10,408), Portage la Prairie (5106), St Boniface (5119), West Selkirk (2701), and Morden (1437).
His labours were continued with even more striking results by another Englishman, Winfred, better known as St Boniface, the Apostle of the Germans, who suffered martyrdom at Dokkum in A.D.
Here in the year 1300 new factions, subdividing the old Guelphs and Ghibellines under the names of Neri and Bianchi, had acquired such force that Boniface VIII., a violently Guelph pope, called in Charles of Valois to pacify the republic and undertake the charge of Italian affairs.
He was elected through the intervention of a representative of the emperor, Count Sicco, who drove out the intruded Franco (afterwards Pope Boniface VII.).
In spite of his inferior education, the contemporaries of Boniface trusted his prudence and moral character; yet when in financial straits he sold offices, and in 1399 transformed the annates into a permanent tax.
Boniface of Savoy >>
STEPHEN VI., pope from May 896 to July - August 897, succeeded Boniface VI., and was in turn followed by Romanus.
In the partition of the Greek empire after the capture of Constantinople by the Latins in 1204, Crete fell to the lot of Boniface, marquis of Montferrat, but was sold by him to the Venetians, and thus passed under the dominion of that great republic, to which it continued subject for more than four centuries.
A statement of Peter Langtoft that he was at the parliament of Lincoln in 1301, when the English barons repudiated the claim of Pope Boniface VIII.
Boniface, marquis of Monferrat, desired to make good the claim to Salonica, and the Venetians doubtless wished to upset the Greek empire, which had recently shown itself so friendly to their rivals the Genoese.
The others followed at intervals - the fifth, which appeared in 1842, bringing down the narrative to the pontificate of Boniface Viii.
On the one hand, the death of the count of Champagne (May 1201) had induced the crusaders to elect as their leader Boniface of Montferrat, the brother of Conrad; and Boniface was the cousin of Philip, and interested in Constantinople, where not only Conrad, but another brother as well, had served, and suffered for their service at the hands of their masters.
On Christmas day 1201, Philip, Alexius and Boniface all met at Hagenau 1 and formulated (one may suppose) a plan for the diversion of the Crusade.
To arrest his progress, a Crusade, preached by Boniface IX., led by John the Fearless of Burgundy, and joined chiefly by French knights, was directed down the valley of the Danube into the Balkans; but the old faults stigmatized by de Mezieres, divisio and pro Aria voluntas, were the ruin of the crusading army, and at the battle of Nicopolis it was signally defeated.
SAINT BONIFACE (680-754), the apostle of Germany, whose real name was Wynfrith, was born of a good Saxon family at Crediton or Kirton in Devonshire.
In 732 Boniface was created archbishop. In 738 for the third time he went to Rome.
With the support of Carloman and Pippin, who had just succeeded Charles Martel as mayors of the palace, Boniface set to work.
Virgil must have been a most remarkable man; in spite of his leanings toward science he held his own against Boniface, and was canonized after his death.
He had been performing miracles, and claimed to have received his relics, not from Rome like those of Boniface, but directly from the angels.
Opinions are divided as to whether he was a Culdee, a representative of a national Frankish movement, or simply the charlatan that Boniface paints him.
At the instance of Pippin, Boniface secured Adalbert's condemnation at the synod of Soissons in 744; but he, and Clement, a Scottish missionary and a heretic on predestination, continued to find followers in spite of legate, council and pope, for three or four years more.
But in so welding together the scattered centres and binding them to the papacy, Boniface seems to have been actuated by simple zeal for unity of the faith, and not by a conscious political motive.
Though pre-eminently a man of action, Boniface has left several literary remains.
89) has reproduced the edition of Boniface's works by Giles (London, 1844).
Kurth, Saint Boniface (2nd ed., 1902).
Boniface (Bonifacius) >>
He then got himself crowned by St Boniface, a ceremony which was new to France and which gave the sovereign immense prestige; henceforth the king of the Franks called himself Gratia Dei rex Francorum.
About the same period, too, the church of Bavaria was organized by St Boniface, and the country divided into several bishoprics; and we find frequent references to these bishops (in the plural) in the law of the Bavarians.
His reputation for learning was very high, and in 1302 he was summoned to Rome by Boniface VIII., to assist in the controversy then being carried on with Philip of France.
The Hessians were converted to Christianity mainly through the efforts of St Boniface; their land was included in the archbishopric of Mainz; and religion and culture were kept alive among them largely owing to the foundation of the Benedictine abbeys of Fulda and Hersfeld.
Pope Zachary, when in 741 he condemned the views of Virgilius, the learned bishop of Salzburg, an Irishman who had been denounced as a heretic by St Boniface, declares it to be perversa et iniqua doctrina.
He was assisted for three years in his missionary work by St Boniface (719-722), who, however, was not willing to become his successor.
A passage in one of Boniface's letters to Stephen III.
He is supposed to mistake the poet for Boniface VIII., whose simoniacal practices, as well as those of Clement V., are again alluded to in Par.
' The poem of Aymeri de Narbonne contains the account of the young Aymeri's brilliant capture of Narbonne, which he then receives as a fief from Charlemagne, of his marriage with Ermenjart, sister of Boniface, king of the Lombards, and of their children.
In this book he tries to prove that Bernard (Sapiens), Alcuin, Boniface and Joannes Scotus Erigena were all Scots, and even Boadicea becomes a Scottish author.
or Boniface VII., "monsters, as they were, of more than human iniquity" - anything else than "Antichrist sitting in the temple of God and showing himself as God"?
The new pope Boniface VIII., elected in 1294 at Naples under the auspices of King Charles, mediated between the latter and James, and a most dishonourable treaty was signed: James was to marry Charles's daughter Bianca and was promised the investiture by the pope of Sardinia and Corsica, while he was to leave the Angevin a free hand in Sicily and even to assist him if the Sicilians resisted.
(elected in 1024) appointed Boniface of Canossa marquis of Tuscany, a territory then extending from the Po to the borders of the Roman state.
A plot of the Donati to establish their influence over Florence with the help of Boniface VIII.
His territories were then divided between his sons and his condottieri, and Florence, ever keeping her eye on Pisa, now ruled by Gabriele Maria Visconti, made an alliance with Pope Boniface IX., who wished to regain Perugia and Bologna.
Among the other churches of Munich the chief place is due to St Boniface's, an admirable copy of an early Christian basilica.
In the middle of the 8th century under Boniface it became an archbishopric, and to this the primacy of Germany was soon annexed.
Aureatum or Rubilocus) was originally a Roman station which, after the foundation of the bishopric by Boniface in 745, developed into a considerable town, which was surrounded with walls in 908.
The metropolitans now commonly assumed the title of archbishop to mark their preeminence over the other bishops; at the same time the obligation imposed upon them, mainly at the instance of St Boniface, to receive thepallium from Rome, definitely marked the defeat of their claim to exercise metropolitan jurisdiction independently of the pope.
Thomas's other sons received fiefs and bishoprics abroad, and one of them, Boniface, was made archbishop of Canterbury.
Thomas II., Boniface, I earl of Richmond count of Piedmont archbishop of Canterbury Boniface (d.
We can trace the use of the received text along the line of the journeys both of Pirminius and Boniface, and there is little doubt that they received it from the Roman Church, with which Boniface was in frequent communication.
Gregory did all in his power to promote the spread of Christianity in Germany, and gave special encouragement to the mission of St Boniface, whom he consecrated bishop in 722.
When Boniface found himself unable to continue the supervision of the society himself, he entrusted the office to Wigbert of Glastonbury, who thus became the first abbot of Fritzlar.
For a short time after 786 it was the seat of the bishopric of Buraburg, which had been founded by Boniface in 741.
an abbey here in the middle of the 7th century, and St Boniface established the bishopric about a hundred years later.
Saint Boniface >>
As one traces the vicissitudes of the papacy during the two centuries from Boniface VIII.
and Philip the Fair to continue to demand and receive subsidies granted by the clergy of their realms. Shortly after the bitter humiliation of Boniface by the French government and his death in 1303, the bishop of Bordeaux was elected pope as Clement V.
Benedictines - Wilfrid, Willibrord, Swithbert, Willehad - who evangelized Friesland and Holland; and another, Winfrid or Boniface, who, with his fellow-monks Willibald and others,.
A strong type of womanhood is revealed in the correspondence of St Boniface with various Saxon Benedictine nuns, some in England and some who accompanied him to the continent and there established great convents.
His baptismal name was Frederick, and he was a younger brother of Godfrey, duke of Upper Lorraine, marquis of Tuscany (by his marriage with Beatrice, widow of Boniface, marquis of Tuscany).
The line of the marquises of Saluzzo began (1142) with Manfred, son of Boniface, marquis of Savona, and continued till 1548, when the city and territory were seized by the French.
Having received hostages Charles left the country; but in 774 while he was in Italy the Saxons retook Eresburg, and crossing the frontier attacked the church of St Boniface at Fritzlar and ravaged the land of the Franks.
the papacy in the universal Church; while political Catholicism had its beginnings in antiquity and found very definite expression, for instance, in the bull Unam sanctam of Boniface VIII.
At his accession the dissensions caused by the faction of Eulalius (see BONIFACE I.) had not yet abated.
About this time the conversion of the Thuringians to Christianity was begun by British missionaries and continued by St Boniface, who founded a bishopric at Erfurt.
The council of Constance then deposed him, as a perjurer, an incurable schismatic and a heretic (26th July 1417), After struggling with the popes of Rome, Urban VI., Boniface IX., Innocent VII.
His third wife, Adelaide, niece of Boniface, lord of Savona, gave him two sons, Simon and Roger, of whom the latter succeeded him.
This decision was confirmed by Pope Boniface II., and became the accepted doctrine in the Western Church of the middle ages.
It was Boniface, too, who, with the aid of numerous English priests, monks and nuns, introduced the literary culture of England into Germany.
(1243-1254), did not result in victory; no papal sentence, but only death itself, deprived the emperor of his dominions; and when Boniface VIII.
After Boniface VIII., however, no pope seriously attempted to realize them; to do so had in fact become impossible, for from the time of their residence at Avignon (1305-1377) the popes were in a state of complete dependence upon the French crown.
He also gave St Boniface a safe conduct for his missions in Thuringia, Alemannia and Bavaria.
Jadwiga, however, obtained from Boniface IX.
222); and his contemporary, Pope Boniface IX., complained of their absolving even impenitent sinners for ridiculously small sums (pro qualibet parva pecuniarum summula, Raynaldus, Ann.
This was instituted in 1300 by Boniface VIII., who pleaded a popular tradition for its celebration every hundredth year, though no written evidence could be found.
Nine years after the death of Bede (735), Boniface, "the apostle of Germany," sanctioned the founding of Fulda (744), which soon rivalled St Gallen as a school of learning.
BONIFACE OF SAVOY (d.
Boniface, though a man of violent temper and too often absent from his see, showed some sympathy with the reforming party in the English church.
Asked by Boniface VIII.
Otto died shortly after his election, when Boniface VII., on the strength of the popular feeling against the new pope, returned from Constantinople and placed John in prison, where he died either by starvation or poison.
JOHN II., pope from 533 to 535, also named Mercurius, was elevated to the papal chair on the death of Boniface II.
On his abdication the amalgamation was dissolved, and the Franciscan element fled to the East and was finally suppressed by Boniface VIII.
This Franco took the name of Boniface VII.
His failure only made Pope Boniface VIII.
His choice fell upon the archdeacon Boniface (pope as Boniface II.).
He did much to conciliate the enemies made by his predecessor Boniface VIII., notably France, the Colonnas and King Frederick II.
of Sicily; nevertheless on the 7th of June 1304 he excommunicated William of Nogaret and all the Italians who had captured Boniface in Anagni.
With this organization, under the popes Zosimus, Boniface and Celestine the Roman Church came into conflict on somewhat trivial grounds, and was, on the whole, being worsted in the struggle, when the Vandal invasion of Africa took place, and for nearly a century to come the Catholic communities were subjected to very hard treatment.
The Carolingian princes, when Boniface pointed them towards Rome, followed him without their clergy offering any resistance on grounds of principle.
- This period comprises 13 pontificates, all of short duration (three or four years at the most, and some only a few months), with the exception of that of Boniface VIII., who was pope for nine years.
This change was a prelude to the more or less complete subjection of the papacy to French influence which took place in the following century at the period of the " Babylonish Captivity," the violent reaction personified by Boniface VIII.
After Martin's death the last popes of the 13th century, and notably Boniface VIII., in vain thought to find in another Capetian, Charles of Valois, the man who was to re-establish the Latin dominion at Byzantium.
That a sovereign like St Louis should be able to associate himself officially with the feudalism of his realm to repress abuses of church jurisdiction; that a contemporary of Philip the Fair, the lawyer Pierre Dubois, should dare to suggest the secularization of ecclesiastical property and the conversion of the clergy into a class of functionaries paid out of the royal treasury; and that Philip the Fair, the adversary of Boniface VIII., should be able to rely in his conflict with the leader of the Church on the popular consent obtained at a meeting of the Three Estates of France - all point to a singular demoralization of the sentiments and principles on which were based the whole power of the pontiff of Rome and the entire organization of medieval Catholicism.
The continued efforts of the popes to drain Christian gold to Rome were limited only by the fiscal pretensions of the lay sovereigns, and it was this financial rivalry that gave rise to the inevitable conflict between Boniface VIII.
was that of Boniface IX.
To his cause Boniface IX.
The situation in the papal state, which Boniface found in the greatest confusion, was at the outset far more difficult to deal with.
To give this supremacy a firmer basis, Boniface fortified the Vatican and the Capitol, and restored the castle of St Angelo - which had previously been used as a quarry - providing it with walls and battlements, and erecting a tower in the centre.
Henceforward quiet prevailed, and Boniface ruled as a stern master in Rome.
Thus Boniface IX., as a secular prince, occupies an important position; but as pope his activity must be unfavourably judged.
Even if Dietrich of Niem frequently painted him too black, there is no question that the means which Boniface employed to fill the papal treasury seriously impaired the prestige of the highest spiritual office and the reverence due to it.
died suddenly on the 16th of September 1394, and the Avignon cardinals immediately elected the Spaniard Pedro de Luna as anti-pope (under the title of Benedict XIII.), Boniface IX.
On the death of Boniface (Oct.
The publication of the registers of Boniface VIII.
Archbishop Edmund Rich was timid and inexperienced; his successor, Boniface of Savoy, was a kinsman of the queen; Grosseteste, the most eminent of the bishops, died in 1253, when he was on the point of becoming a popular hero.
Consulted as a friend by Grosseteste, as a spiritual director by Simon de Montfort, the countess of Leicester and the queen, as an expert lawyer and theologian by the primate, Boniface of Savoy, he did much to guide the policy both of the opposition and of the court party in all matters affecting the interests of the Church.
The attempt was unsuccessful and, after wandering about Greece, he surrendered with Euphrosyne, who had meanwhile joined him, to Boniface of Montferrat, then master of a great part of the Balkan peninsula.
Review, January 1886), and "Aetius and Boniface" (ibid., July 1887).
The energy which warriors were accustomed to put forth in their efforts to conquer was now " exhibited in the enterprise of conversion and teaching " 5 by Wilfrid on the coast of Friesland, 6 by Willibrord (658-715) in the neighbourhood of Utrecht,7 by the martyr-brothers Ewald or Hewald amongst the " old " or continental Saxons, 8 by Swidbert the apostle of the tribes between the Ems and the Yssel, by Adelbert, a prince of the royal house of Northumbria, in the regions north of Holland, by Wursing, a native of Friesland, and one of the disciples of Willibrord, in the same region, and last, not least, by the famous Winfrid or Boniface, the " apostle of Germany " (68 o-755), who went forth first to assist Willibrord at Utrecht, then to labour in Thuringia and Upper Hessia, then with the aid of his kinsmen Wunibald and Willibald, their sister Walpurga, and her thirty companions, to consolidate the work of earlier missionaries, and finally to die a martyr on the shore of the Zuider Zee.
Devoted, however, as were the labours of Boniface and his disciples, all that he and they and the emperor Charlemagne after them achieved for the fierce untutored world of the 8th century seemed to have been done in vain when, in the 9th " on the north and north-west the pagan Scandinavians were hanging about every coast, and pouring in at every inlet; when on the east the pagan Hungarians were swarming like locusts and devastating Europe from the Baltic to the Alps; when on the south and south-east the Saracens were pressing on and on with their victorious hosts.
Africa (Basutoland, Natal, Transvaal, Orange River Colony), the " Great North-West " of Canada (Athabasca-Mackenzie, Saskatchewan, St Boniface, New Westminster).
Among the churches, which are all modern, are the Protestant Marktkirche, in the Gothic style with five towers, built 1853-1862; the Bergkirche; the Roman Catholic church of St Boniface; the Anglican church and the Russian church on the Neroberg.
The 8th century witnessed in deed a heathen reaction; but it was checked by the arrival in Bavaria about 734 of St Boniface, who organized the Bavarian church and founded or restored bishoprics at Salzburg, Freising, Regensburg and Passau.
The greatest event of the reign was the struggle with Pope Boniface VIII..
When Philip retaliated by a decree forbidding the exportation of any coin from France, Boniface gave way to save the papal dues, and the bulls issued by him in 1297 were a decided victory for the French king.
Boniface escaped from his captors only to die (October 11), and the short pontificate of his saintly successor, Benedict XI., was occupied in a vain effort to restore harmony to the Church.
The conclave that met at Perugia on his death was divided between the partisans of the irreconcilable policy of Boniface VIII.
and passed into the hands of the Knights of St John in the time of Boniface VIII.
He then wished to abdicate, and at length Benedetto Gaetano, destined to succeed him as Boniface VIII., removed all scruples against this unheard-of procedure by finding a precedent in the case of Clement I.
Boniface at length put him in prison for safe keeping; he died in a monastic cell in the castle of Fumone near Anagni on the 19th of May 1296.
Rupert, bishop of Worms, had already made some progress in the work of converting the Bavarians and Alamanni, as had Willibrord among the Thuringians when St Boniface appeared in Germany in 717.
of France against Pope Boniface VIII., who had refused to recognize him as king, but in 1303 he made peace with the pope, a step which enabled him to turn his attention to Bohemia and Thuringia.
The bishops meanwhile had held a meeting at Fulda, at the tomb of St Boniface,whence they addressed a protest to the king, and declared that they would be unable to recognize the laws as valid.
By a treaty, confirmed by Pope Boniface VIII.
The institution dates from the time of Boniface VIII., whose bull Antiquorum habet fidem is dated the 22nd of February 1300.
in 1343 appointed, by the bull Unigenitus Dei filius, that the jubilee should recur every fifty years instead of every hundred years as had been originally contemplated in the constitution of Boniface; Urban VI., who was badly in need of money, by the bull Salvator foster ij1 1389 reduced the interval still further to thirty-three years (the supposed duration of the earthly life of Christ); and Paul II.
From a letter to Pope Boniface IV.
Suspended from his office, he went to Rome to be tried before Pope Boniface VIII., who referred the case to Winchelsea, archbishop of Canterbury; the archbishop, although Langton's lifelong enemy, found him innocent, and this sentence was confirmed by Boniface in 1303.
On the 22nd of February 1300 the bull of Boniface VIII., Antiquorum habet fidem, promised plenary indulgence to every Roman who should visit the churches of the apostles Peter and Paul on thirty days during the year, and to every foreigner who should perform the same act on fifteen days.
The Jubilee dispensation according to the edict of Boniface VIII.
The Roman papacy had no more zealous adherent than Boniface; yet he absolutely rejected the idea that Englishwomen should make the journey to Rome, and would willingly have seen the princes and bishops veto these pilgrimages altogether 78).
This step is said to have been taken at the instigation of Boniface, the Roman general in Africa; if true, Boniface soon repented of his action, and was found resisting the Vandals and defending Hippo Regius against them.
At the end of fourteen months Gaiseric raised the siege of Hippo; but Boniface was forced to fly to Italy, and the city afterwards fell into the hands of the Vandals.
Its origin is obscure, but in 741 it was sufficiently important for St Boniface to found a bishopric here, which was, however, after the martyrdom of the first bishop, Adolar, in 755, reabsorbed in that of Mainz.
Boniface VIII., detaching the city of Pamiers from the diocese of Toulouse in 1295, made it the seat of a new bishopric and appointed Saisset to the see.
Boniface VIII., instead, ordered the king in December 1301 to free the bishop, in order that he might go to Rome to justify himself.
In 1302, in obedience to the command of Pope Boniface VIII., he visited Rome on this matter, and during his absence the king seized and administered his lands, which, however, he recovered when he returned and submitted to Edward.
It was besieged by the Saracens in 877, but in the II th century was a place of considerable importance, the Conti and Gaetani being the chief families; Pope Boniface VIII., a member of the latter, was there made prisoner in 1303.
The latter's successor James made peace with Boniface VIII.
On Urban's death in 1389 Boniface IX.
Although irregularly built the town is pleasantly situated, and contains two fine squares, on one of which stands a fine statue of St Boniface.
The present cathedral was built at the beginning of the 18th century on the model of St Peter's at Rome, but it has an ancient crypt, which contains the bones of St Boniface and was restored in 1892.
Founded in 744 at the instigation of St Boniface by his pupil Sturm, who was the first abbot, it became the centre of a great missionary work.
BONIFACE I., bishop of Rome from 418 to 422.
At the death of Pope Zosimus, the Roman clergy were divided into two factions, one of which elected the deacon Eulalius, and the other the priest Boniface.
Eulalius having broken his ban, the emperor Honorius decided to recognize Boniface, and the council was countermanded.
Boniface II >>
The papacy received its full monarchial structure under Hildebrand (Gregory VII.) in the middle of the II th century; its political decline set in suddenly after the pontificate of Boniface VIII.
The century of Dante was also that of the first English parliament; its vast economic expansion enabled the national state to triumph in both England and France, and furnished the grounds for the overthrow of Boniface VIII.
BONIFACE V., pope from 619 to 625, did much for the christianizing of England.
Boniface VI >>
In the person of a pope like Boniface VIII.
There is more than one meaning of Boniface discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
Its acts were confirmed by Boniface on the "25th of January 53 0, " a date which is open to question.
Boniface IV >>
There was also a shortlived attempt to declare that even a clerk in lower orders should lose his clerical privileges on his marriage; but Boniface VIII.
It is finely situated in the Undercliff district, at the foot of St Boniface Down, which reaches a height of 787 ft.
The churches of Ventnor are all modern, but that of St Boniface at Bonchurch is a small Norman building, perhaps the oldest in the island.
On account of his knowledge of civil and canon law, he was made papal vice-chamberlain and archbishop of Ravenna by Urban VI., and appointed by Boniface IX.
He was unanimously chosen to succeed Boniface, after each of the cardinals had solemnly bound himself to employ all lawful means for the restoration of the church's unity in the event of his election, and even, if necessary, to resign the papal dignity.
The transference of the Curia from Rome to Avignon (1309) had brought the papacy under the influence of the French crown; and this position Philip the Fair of France now endeavoured to utilize by demanding from the pope the dissolution of the powerful and wealthy order of the Temple, together with the introduction of a trial for heresy against the late Pope Boniface VIII.
The influence of Malachy in Irish ecclesiastical affairs has been compared with that of Boniface in Germany.
He reformed and reorganized the Irish Church and brought it into subjection to Rome; like Boniface, he was a zealous reformer and a promoter of monasticism.
The West church, formerly called after St, Boniface, the apostle of Germany, was once the richest in Friesland, and belonged from an early date to the cathedral chapter at Utrecht, where, until the Reformation, the pastor of Medemblik had a seat in the cathedral.
Such were, at the outset, Boniface, the apostle of Germany, and Willibrord, the apostle of the Frisians.
In 1387 he is again found among the abbreviators, and in 1395 Pope Boniface IX.
But the popes had made it their residence after the insults offered to Boniface VIII.
Boniface VIII >>
He obtained several ecclesiastical appointments, but owing to the resistance of Pope Boniface VIII.
The choice then lay between Baldwin and Boniface of Montferrat.
In this enterprise (summer of 1204) Baldwin came into collision with Boniface of Montferrat, the rival candidate for the empire, who was to receive a large territory in Macedonia with the title of king of Saloniki.
Boniface received Thessalonica as a fief from the emperor, and was appointed commander of the forces which were to march to the conquest of Greece.
Popes Boniface VIII., Martin V., Sixtus V., and Pius VI.
He condemned the iconoclasts at a council convened at Rome in November 731, and, like his predecessor Gregory II., stimulated the missionary labours of St Boniface, on whom he conferred the pallium.
and Boniface 1 The alchemical works ascribed to Lull, such as Testamentum, Codicillus seu Testamentum and Experimenta, are of early although uncertain date.
Celestine attempted to rule in extreme monastic poverty and humility; not so Boniface, who ardently asserted the lordship of the papacy over all the kingdoms of the world.
The most noted conflict of Boniface was that with Philip IV.
Forced to recede from this position, Boniface canonized Louis IX.
The hostilities were later renewed; in 1302 Boniface himself drafted and published the indubitably genuine bull Unam sanctam, one of the strongest official statements of the papal prerogative ever made.
The accusation of heresy has usually been dismissed as a slander; but recent investigations make it probable, though not quite certain, that Boniface privately held certain Averroistic tenets, such as the denial of the immortality of the soul.
With Sciarra Colonna, Nogaret surprised Boniface at Anagni, on the 7th of September 1303, as the latter was about to pronounce the sentence of excommunication against the king.
After a nine-hours' truce the palace was stormed, and Boniface was found lying in his bed, a cross clasped to his breast; that he was sitting in full regalia on the papal throne is a legend.
Boniface IX >>
In 1300 he was elevated to the episcopal see of Frejus by Pope Boniface VIII.
summoned Jacques to Avignon and instructed him to advise upon the affair of the Templars and also upon the question of condemning the memory of Boniface VIII.
Jacques decided on the legality of suppressing the order of the Templars, holding that the pope would be serving the best interests of the church by pronouncing its suppression; but he rejected the condemnation of Boniface as a sacrilegious affront to the church and a monstrous abuse of the lay power.
In 1128, at the council of Usedom, St Otto appointed his disciple Boniface bishop of Julin, the first Pomeranian diocese, and the foundation of a better order of things was laid.
A letter of Pope Boniface helped to decide him, and after consulting his friends and counsellors, of whom the priest Coifi afterwards took a prominent part in destroying the temple at Goodmanham, he was baptized with his people and nobles at York, at Easter 627.
It would be impossible to enumerate here all the Gallic councils which contributed towards the canon law of that country; we will mention only the following: - Arles (314), of great importance; a number of councils in the district of Arles, completed by the Statuta Ecclesiae antiqua of St Caesarius; 2 the councils of the province of Tours; the assemblies of the episcopate of the three kingdoms of the Visigoths at Agde (506), of the Franks at Orleans (511), and of the Burgundians at Epaone (517); several councils of the kingdoms of the Franks, chiefly at Orleans; and finally, the synods of the middle of the 8th century, under the influence of St Boniface.
At the instance of the university of Bologna, Boniface VIII., himself an eminent canonist, had this prepared by a committee of canonists and published it in 1298.
coming from several popes) number 73, from Boniface VIII.
Not merely did it produce the great band of missionaries who converted heathen GermanyWilliEli h brord, Suidbert, Boniface and the restbut it excelled church, the other national churches in learning and culture.
The king made one of her uncles, Boniface of Savoy, archbishop of Canterburyit was three years before he deigned to come over to take up the post, and then he was discovered to be illiterate and unclerical in his habits, an unworthy successor for Langton and Edmund of Abingdon, the great primates who went before him.
This was owing to a bullthe celebrated Clericis Laicos, recently issued by the arrogant and contentious pope Boniface VIII., which forbade the clergy to submit to any, taxation by secular princes.
Almost contemporary is the Vita Wilfridi by Eddius, but more valuable are the letters we possess of Boniface and Alcuin.
His seal of arms is among those attached to the famous letter of remonstrance addressed by the barons of England to Pope Boniface VIII.
A bishopric was established here in 724 by St Corbinianus, whose brother Erimbert was consecrated second bishop by St Boniface in 739.
Boniface VII >>
It was inevitable that, in proportion as this casuistry assumed the character of a systematic penal jurisprudence, its precise determination of the limits between the prohibited and the allowable, with all doubtful points closely scrutinized and illustrated by fictitious cases, would have a tendency to weaken the moral sensibilities of ordinary minds; the greater the industry spent in deducing conclusions from the diverse authorities, the greater necessarily became the number of points on which doctors disagreed; and the central authority that might have repressed serious divergences was wanting in the period of moral weakness'- that the church went through after the death of Boniface Viii.
Towards the end of 1397 he started for Rome, and Pope Boniface IX., at the urgent request of the king, translated him to the see of St Andrews, a step which the pope afterwards confessed he repented bitterly.
This translation virtually deprived Arundel of all authority, as St Andrews did not acknowledge Boniface.
recalling one issued by Pope Boniface IX., which had exempted the university from the archbishop's authority.
Thus, when the Anglo-Saxon, Winfrid, surnamed Boniface, appeared in the kingdom of the Franks as papal legate in 723, to romanize the existing church of the time, neither the Franks, the Thuringians, the Alemanni nor the Bavarians could be considered as pagans.
Without Charles him the apostle of Germany, the English monk Boniface, Martel would never have succeeded in preserving the purity and the of the faith and keeping the bishops submissive to Chumh.
Boniface was the instrument of the union of Rome and Germany, of which union the Holy Roman Empire in Germany was in the 10th century to become the most perfect expression, continuing up to the time of Luther.
And Boniface also helped on the alliance between the papacy and the Carolingian dynasty, which, more momentous even than that between Clovis and the bishops of Gaul, was to sanctify might by right.
Charles Martel had protected Boniface on his German missions: he would perhaps lend Gregory the support of his armies.
A son of the Church, a protector of bishops, a president of councils, a collector of relics, devoted to Boniface (whom he invited, as papal legate, to reform the clergy of Austrasia), he astutely accepted the new claims of the vicar of St Peter to the headship of the Church, perceiving the value of an alliance with this rising power.
Receiving a favorable opinion, of the new he had himself anointed and crowned by Boniface mon8rchy.
The famous quarrel between the priesthood and the Empire, which had culminated at Canossa under Gregory VII., in the apotheosis of Philip the the Lateran council under Innocent III., and again Fair and in the fall of the house of Hohenstaufen under Innocent the IV., was reopened with the king of France by Boniface Papacy.
In 1301 and 1302 the arrest of Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, by the officers of the king, and the citation of this cleric before the kings tribunal for the crime of lse-majest, revived the conflict and led Boniface to send an order to free Saisset, and to put forward a claim to reform the kingdom under the threat of excommunication.
His chancellor, Nogaret, went to Anagni to seize the pope and drag him before a council; but Boniface died without confessing himself vanquished.
After the death of Boniface the splendid fabric of the medieval theocracy gave place to the rights of civil society, the humiliation of Avignon, the disruption of the great schism, the vain efforts of the councils for reform, and the radical and heretical solutions of Wycliffe and Huss.
A truce arranged by Boniface VIII.
One of the earliest of the Frankish marquises was Boniface, either first or second of that name, who about 828 fought with success against the Saracens in Africa.
The male line of marquises ended with Boniface II.
Friesland was likewise the scene of a portion of the missionary labours of a greater than Willibrord, the famous Boniface, the Apostle of the Germans, also an Englishman.
JOHN XV., pope from 985 to 996, generally recognized as the successor of Boniface VII., the pope John who was said to have ruled for four months after John XIV., being now omitted by the best authorities.
ANDRE BONIFACE LOUIS RIQUETI, VICOMTE MIRABEAU DE (1754-1792), brother of the orator Mirabeau, was one of the reactionary leaders at the opening of the French Revolution.
(Baldassare Cossa), pope, or rather anti-pope from 1410 to 1415 (fn1), was born of a good Neapolitan family, and began by leading the life of a corsair before entering the service of the Church under the pontificate of Boniface IX.
Boniface V >>
of Malmesbury, Gesta Pontificum, p. 361), but was discovered with others of Aldhelm's in the correspondence of St Boniface, archbishop of Mainz.
For some poems attributed to Aldhelm, and printed in Diimmler's edition of the letters of St Boniface and Lul in Monumenta Germaniae Historica (epistt.
In 1204 Baldwin, conqueror of Constantinople, conferred the kingdom of Thessalonica on Boniface, marquis of Montferrat; but in 1222 Theodore, despot of Epirus, one of the natural enemies of the new kingdom, took the city and had himself there crowned by the patriarch of Macedonian Bulgaria.
Henry of Ceva had taken refuge in Sicily at the time of Pope Boniface VIII.'s persecution of the Spirituals, and thanks to the good offices of Frederick of Sicily, a little colony of Franciscans who rejected all property had soon established itself in the island.
7), he possessed in Hildebrand, Cardinal Humbert and Bishop Boniface of Albano acutissimi et perspicacis oculi.
A letter of St Boniface is preserved, in which he rebukes this king for his immoralities and encroachments on church property, while recognizing his merits as a monarch.
Pope Boniface VIII.
Boniface hastened to send a delegation to the new pontiff, to pay his respects and to assure him of his fidelity.
He afterwards became estranged from Philip, and, in 1303, was recognized as German king and future emperor by Boniface, and, in return, admitted the right of the pope alone to bestow the imperial crown, and promised that none of his sons should be elected German king without the papal consent.
Bertrand was made a chaplain to Boniface VIII., who in 1295 nominated him bishop of Cominges (Haute Garonne), and in 1299 translated him to the archbishopric of Bordeaux.
Because he attended the synod at Rome in 1302 in the controversy between France and the Pope, he was considered a supporter of Boniface VIII., yet was by no means unfavourably regarded at the French court.
From the very day of Clement's coronation the king had charged the Templars with heresy, immorality and abuses, and the scruples of the weak pope were at length overcome by apprehension lest the State should not wait for the Church, but should proceed independently against the alleged heretics, as well as by the royal threats of pressing the accusation of heresy against the late Boniface VIII.
of Anjou, but were interrupted by the successive deaths of two popes; at last under the auspices of Boniface VIII.
Boniface won Naples, which had owed spiritual allegiance to the antipopes Clement VII.
Crossing the Alps, Boniface visited Bavaria and Thuringia, but upon hearing of the death of Radbod he hurried again to Frisia, where, under the direction of his countryman Willibrord (d.
Between 746 and 748 Boniface was made bishop of Mainz, and became metropolitan over the Rhine bishoprics and Utrecht, as well as over those he had established in Germany - thus founding the pre-eminence of the see of Mainz.
There are very many monographs on Boniface and on different phases of his life (see Potthast, Bibliotheca medii aevi, and Ulysse Chevalier's Bibliographic, 2nd ed.
Its resolutions comprised the rejection of the pragmatic sanction, the proclamation of the pope's superiority over the council, and the renewal of the bull Unam sanctam of Boniface VIII.
The leading spirit of this reform was Giano della Bella, a noble who by engaging in trade had become a popolano; the grandi now tried to make him unpopular with the popolani grassi, hoping that without him the Ordinamenti would not be executed, and opened negotiations with Pope Boniface VIII.
The chief public buildings of interest are the minster, dedicated to St Boniface and restored in 1870-1875; the town hall; the so-called Rattenfangerhaus (ratcatcher's house) with mural frescoes illustrating the legend (see below); and the Hochzeitshaus (wedding house) with beautiful gables.
After the flight of the usurper Alexius, and when the blind Isaac, whose claims the crusaders were defending, had been taken by the Greeks from prison a;nd placed on the throne, Villehardouin, with Montmorency and two Venetians, formed the embassy sent to arrange terms. He was again similarly distinguished when it became necessary to remonstrate with Alexius, the blind man's son and virtual successor, on the nonkeeping of the terms. Indeed Villehardouin's talents as a diplomatist seem to have been held in very high esteem, for later, when the Latin empire had become a fact, he was charged with the delicate business of mediating between the emperor Baldwin and Boniface, marquis of Montferrat, in which task he had at least partial success.
In the settlement of the Latin empire after the truce with Lascaris, Villehardouin received the fief of Messinople (supposed to be Mosynopolis, a little inland from the modern Gulf of Lagos, and not far from the ancient Abdera) from Boniface of Montferrat, with the record of whose death the chronicle abruptly closes.
Yet the night was not without its stars; at Rome Leo the Great and Gregory the Great could preach, and the missionaries Patrick, Columba, Columbanus, Augustine, Wilfrid, Willibrord, Gall and Boniface are known by their fruits.
Theodore, Wilfrid, Benedict Biscop, Bede, Boniface, Ecgbert, Alcuin, revived the fire of learning, which was almost extinct, and by their aid enlightenment was carried to the Continent, to decadent Gaul and barbarian Germany.
It is conceivable that a pope of Boniface VIII.'s temperament would not submit kindly to any restriction of the discretionary power with which he was invested by tradition, and he endeavoured to make the cardinals dependent on him and even to dispense with their services as far as possible, only assembling them in consistory in cases of extreme necessity.
What Ulfilas was to the Gothic tribes, what Columba and his disciples were to the early Celtic missions, what Augustine or Aidan was to the British Isles, what Boniface was to the churches of Germany and Anskar to those of Denmark and Sweden, that, on the discovery of a new world of missionary enterprise, was Xavier to India, Hans Egede to Greenland, Eliot to the Red Indians, Martyn to the church of Cawnpore, Marsden to the Maoris, Carey, Heber, Wilson, Duff and Edwin Lewis to India, Morrison, Gilmour, Legge, Hill, Griffith John to China, Gray, Livingstone, Mackenzie, Moffat, Hannington, Mackay to Africa, Broughton to Australia, Patteson to Melanesia, Crowther to the Niger Territory, Chalmers to New Guinea, Brown to Fiji.
The Decretum forbade their alienation to lay proprietors, denounced excommunication against those who refused to pay, and based the right of the Church upon scriptural precedents.6 The decretals contained provisions as to what was and what was not tithable property, as to those privileged from payment, as to sale or hypothecation to laymen, as to priority over state taxes, &c. 7 Various questions which arose later were settled by Boniface VIII.
Dante, who had become embittered against Boniface while on a political mission in Rome, calls him the "Prince of the new Pharisees" (Inferno, 27, 85), but laments that "in his Vicar Christ was made a captive," and was "mocked a second time" (Purgatory, 20, 87 f.).
- Digard, Faucon and Thomas, Les Registres de Boniface VIII (Paris, 1884 ff.); Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon, vol.
In the course of this work, Dupuy became acquainted with and copied an enormous mass of unpublished documents, which furnished him with the material for some excellent works: Traite des droits et des libertes de l'eglise gallicane, avec les preuves (1639), Histoire del' ordre militaire des Templiers (1654), Histoire generale du schisme qui a ete dans l'eglise depuis 1378 jusqu'd 1428 (1654), and Histoire du differend entre le Pape Boniface VIII et le roi Philippe le Bel (1655).
Built on a series of terraces beneath St. Boniface Down the town 's roads zigzag down to the sea past the beautifully planted cascades.
Ennemond Boniface was a socialist nudist, who fervently believed that nudism was an alternative to bloody socialist revolution, and would bring about a new naturist era in which all would be equal under the sun (see sidebar).
St. Boniface, who converted the German people to Christianity, came across a group of pagans worshipping an oak tree and cut down their tree in anger.
Another story about the origins of the Christmas tree has to do with Saint Boniface, the Apostle of Germany.
There are at least two additional legends regarding the Christmas tree and St. Boniface.
St. Boniface chopped down the tree to save the child and a new tree seedling miraculously grew in its place.
One legend says that St. Boniface, who converted thousands of Germans to Christianity in the eighth century, became enraged one day when he witnessed a group of pagans worshipping an oak tree.
As legend tells it, a fir tree immediately sprang up from the stump of the oak tree, and St. Boniface and his followers saw this as a sign from God.
Pope Boniface IV declared November 1 to be All Saints Day.
In the 800's, Pope Boniface IV moved All Saints Day from May 13 to November 1, thus blurring the two celebrations together.
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