of Bologna by rail.
Bologna hemp is specially valued.
Already the men of Reggio, Modena and Bologna had declared for a democratic policy, in which feudalism and clerical rule should have no place, and in which manhood suffrage, TahdeaCnIes~ together with other rights promised by Bonaparte Republin to the men of Milan in May 1796, should form the basis of a new order of things.
held a secret conference with Francis at Bologna in December 1515.
The situation was modified by the concordat of Bologna, which was personally negotiated by Leo X.
His great fame as a professor of civil law at the university of Bologna caused Balduinus to be elected podestd of the city of Genoa, where he was entrusted with the reforms of the law of the republic. He died at Bologna in 1225, and has left behind him some treatises on procedure, the earliest of their kind.
After studying the arts at Toulouse and law at Orleans and Bologna, he became a canon at Bordeaux and then vicar-general to his brother the archbishop of Lyons, who in 1294 was created cardinal bishop of Albano.
Of these the most frequented in 1904-1905 were: Naples (4745), Turin (3451), Rome (2630), Bologna (1711), Pavia (1559), Padua (1364), Genoa (1276), and the least frequented, Cagliari (254), Siena (235) and Sassari (200).
There have now been recognized in the collections at Cairo, Florence, London, Paris and Bologna several Egyptian imitations of the Aegean style which can be set off against the many debts which the centres of Aegean culture owed to Egypt.
The island had (probably since the end of the 9th century) been divided into four districts - Cagliari, Arborea, Torres (or Logudoro) and Gallura - each under a giudice or remained a prisoner at Bologna until his death.
Hence this part of the country has a cold winter climate, so that while the mean summer temperature of Milan is higher than that of Sassari, and equal to that of Naples, and the extremes reached at Milan and Bologna are a good deal higher than those of Naples, the mean winter temperature of Turin is actually lower than that of Copenhagen.
Besides these international lines the most important are those from Milan to Turin (via Vercelli and via Alessandria), to Genoa via Tortona, to Bologna via Parma and Modena, to V~rona, and the shorter lines to the district of the lakes of Lombardy; from Turin to Genoa via Savona and via Alessandria; from Genoa to Savona and Ventimiglia along the Riviera, and along the south-west coast of Italy, via Sarzana (whence a line runs to Parma) to Pisa (whence lines run to Pistoia and Florence) and Rome; from Verona to Modena, and to Venice via Padua; from Bologna to Padtia, to Rimini (and thence along the north-east coast via Ancona, Castellammare Adriatico and Foggia to Brindisi and Otranto), and to Florence and Rome; from Rome to Ancona, to Castellammare Adriatico and to Naples; from Naples to Foggia, via Metaponto (with a junction for Reggio di Calabria), to Brindisi and to Reggio di Calabria.
No satisfactory collection has been made of the Celtic inscriptions of Cisalpine Gaul, though many are scattered about in different museums. For our present purpose it is important to note that the archaeological stratification in deposits like those of Bologna shows that the Gallic period supervened upon the Etruscan.
On the one side we find Vercelli, Novara, Milan, Lodi, Bergamo, Brescia, Mantua, Verona, Vicenza, Padua, Treviso, Bologna, Faenza, Modena, Reggio, Parma, Piacenza; on the other, Pavia, Genoa, Alba, Cremona, Como, Tortona, Asti, Cesarea.
Forli is situated on the railway between Bologna and Rimini.
In 1275 Forli defeated Bologna with great loss.
The following year Ranzani of Bologna, in his Elementi di zoologia - a very respectable compilation - came to treat of birds, and then followed to some extent the plan of De Blainville and Merrem (concerning which much more has to be said by and by), placing the Struthious birds in an Order by themselves.
The Marquis Malvasia in his Ephemerides (Bologna, 1662) describes a micrometer of his own invention.
In 1860 he was appointed to the professorship of higher geometry at the university of Bologna, and in 1866 to that of higher geometry and graphical statics at the higher technical college of Milan.
EDGAR MORTARA, an Italian Jew, of a Bologna family, whose abduction in early childhood (1858) by the Inquisition occupied for several years the attention of European diplomacy.
In 1268 he was lecturing now in Rome and now in Bologna, all the while engaged in the public business of the church.
He studied law, first at Bologna and later at Pisa, and after graduating in utroque jure, practised as a lawyer in Naples.
of Genoa, flows by Bobbio, and joins the Po a few miles above Piacenza; (3) the Nure, a few miles east of the preceding; (4) the Taro, a more considerable stream; (5) the Parma, flowing by the city of the same name; (6) the Enza; (7) the Secchia, which flows by Modena; (8) the Panaro, a few miles to the east of that city; (9) the Reno, which flows by Bologna, but instead of holding its course till it discharges its waters into the Po, as it did in Roman times, is turned aside by an artificial channel into the Po di Primaro.
Hemp is largely cultivated in the provinces of Turin, Ferrara, Bologna, Foril, Ascoli Piceno and Caserta.
Milan 4s the most important railway centre in the country, and is followed by Turin, Genoa, Verona, Bologna, Rome, Naples.
and clerics, (c) merchants and traders, holding their sessions biennially at Milan, Bologna and Brescia respectively.
The plague of 1544 drove him to Bologna and thence to Padua as student of philosophy and medicine.
of Bologna by rail, 108 ft.
He was educated at Pavia and Bologna, and in 1812 became professor of law at the latter university.
A priest, saying mass at the church of Santa Catarina at Bologna, was troubled, after the consecration, with grave doubts as to the truth of the doctrine of transubstantiation.
The institutions which co-operate with the universities are the special schools for engineers at Turin, Naples, Rome and Bologna (and others attached to some of the universities), the higher technical institute at Milan, the higher veterinary schools of Milan, Naples and Turin, the institute for higher studies at Florence (Istituto di studi superiori, pratici e di perfezionamento), the literary and scientific academy of Milan, the higher institutes for the training of female teachers at Florence and Rome, the Institute of Social Studies at Florence, the higher commercial schools at Venice, Ban and Genoa, the commercial university founded by L.
Bologna Faenza, Imola.
The only information at this period on the ornithology of South America is contained in the two works on Chile by Molina, published at Bologna in 1776 and 1782.
Furtwangler proposes to find in a statue of which the head is at Bologna, and the body at Dresden, a copy of the Lemnian Athena of Pheidias; but his arguments (Masterpieces, at the beginning) are anything but conclusive.
Zanichellis Scritti del Conte di Cavour (Bologna, 1892) are very important, and so are Prince Metternichs 7ff moires (7 vols., Paris, f881).
He threw all the influence of the government against Crispi, who was charged with complicity in embezzlements perpetrated by Favilla, managing director of the Bologna branch of the Bank of Naples.
LUIGI FERRI (1826-1895), Italian philosopher, was born at Bologna on the 15th of June 1826.
It lies on the main line between Bologna and Milan, and is connected by branch lines with Guastalla and Sassuolo (hence a line to Modena).
His huge tongue hung out of the side of his mouth like a thick slice of bologna.
Here the jurists of Bologna appeared, armed with their new lore of Roman law, and expounded Justinians code in the interests of the German empire.
of Milan, Lodi, Piacenza, Parma, Modena and Bologna.
Next year Bologna rose against him, defeated his troops and took his son Enzio, king of Sardinia, prisoner at Fossaita.
of Bologna, Perugia, Sienawere constituted.
The Medici became yearly more indispensable to Florence, the Bentivogli more autocratic in Bologna, the Baglioni in Perugia; and even Siena was ruled by the Petrucci.
Plotting was rife at Milan, as also at Bologna, where the memory of old liberties predisposed men to cast off clerical rule and led to the first rising on behalf of Italian liberty in the year 1794.
The universities of Pavia and Bologna were reopened and made great progress in this time of peace and growing prosperity.
took place at Rimim, Brescia and Bologna; but they were sharply repressed, and most Italians came to acquiesce in the Napoleonic supremacy as inevitable and indeed beneficial.
Riots broke out also in Naples, Florence, Rome and Bologna.
In 1755, on the recommendation of Pope Benedict XIV., he was admitted a member of the Institute of Bologna.
by rail east of Bologna.
The settlement of the peninsula by Charles V.'s coronation at Bologna in 1530 secured the preponderance to Spain, and the combination of Spain and the church dominated the politics of Italy.
In his fourteenth year Pico went to Bologna, where he studied for two years, and was much occupied with the Decretals.
His works were published at Bologna in 1496 by his nephew, Giov.
Bologna), the chief town of ancient Aemilia (see AEMILIA, VIA), in Italy.
Zannoni, Scavi della Certosa, Bologna, 1876), and others in the public garden and on the Arnoaldi Veli property (Notizie degli Scavi, indite 1876-1900, s.v.- "Bologna").
Bononia seems, in fact, to have been one of the most important cities of ancient Italy, as Bologna is of modern Italy.
It appears to have been at some time between the dates of these two journeys that he visited Bologna and Auxerre, and began those studies in the canon law to which he was in no small degree indebted for his subsequent advancement and misfortunes.
(Florence, 1661); De vi percussionis (Bologna, 1667); Meteorologic Aetnea (Reggio, 1669); and De motionibus naturalibus a gravitate pendentibus (Bologna, 1670).
He studied law at Bologna, and after his uncle's election he was created successively bishop, cardinal and vice-chancellor of the church, an act of nepotism characteristic of the age.
The war between France and Spain for the possession of Naples dragged on, and Alexander was ever intriguing, ready to ally himself with whichever power promised at the moment most advantageous terms. He offered to help Louis on condition that Sicily be given to Cesare, and then offered to help Spain in exchange for Siena, Pisa and Bologna.
He commanded the fathers to disperse, and appointed Bologna as their meeting-place in eighteen months' time, his intention being to make the session of the council coincide with some conferences with representatives of the Greek church, which were to be held there with a view to union (18th December 1431).
The former papal territories are now comprised within the Italian provinces of Bologna, Ferrara, Forli, Ravenna, Pesaro and Urbino, Ancona, Macerata, Ascoli-Piceno, Perugia, Rome and Benevento.
The actual annexation of Ravenna, Ancona, Bologna, Ferrara, &c., dates from the 16th century.
de Cabrera de Cordova, Felipe Segundo (Madrid, 1619); James Wadsworth, Further Observations of the English Spanish Pilgrime (London, 1629, 1630); Ilario Mazzorali de Cremona, Le Reali Grandezze del Escuriale (Bologna, 1648); De los Santos, Descripcion del real monasterio, &c. (Madrid, 1657); Andres Ximenes, Descripcion, &c. (Madrid, 1764); Y.
He went to Bologna, and studied under the friendly tutelage of Guido; thence he proceeded to Rome, where he painted, in the Cistercian monastery, the "Miracle of the Loaves."
Isola (Bologna, 1877, &c.).
At the age of twenty-three he repaired to Bologna, and there varied his studies of canon law by attending the astronomical lectures of Domenico Maria Novara (1454-1504).
RICHARD PACE (c. 1482-1536), English diplomatist, was educated at Winchester under Thomas Langton, at Padua, at Bologna, and probably at Oxford.
After attending the Ecole Polytechnique at Paris, he became professor of physics successively at Bologna (1832), Ravenna (1837) and Pisa (1840).
BOLOGNA, a city and archiepiscopal see of Emilia, Italy, the capital of the province of Bologna, and headquarters of the VI.
Gozzadini, Studi archeologico-topografici sulla citta di Bologna, Bologna, 1868).
Petronio, the patron saint of Bologna, which was begun in 1390; only the nave and aisles as far as the transepts were, however, completed, but even this is a fine fragment, in the Gothic style, measuring 384 ft.
Francesco, perhaps the finest medieval building in Bologna, begun in 1246 and finished in 1260; it has a fine brick campanile of the end of the 14th century.
Petronio, the massive Palazzo Comunale, dating from 1245, the Palazzo del Podesta, completed in the same year, and the fine bronze statue of Neptune by Giovanni da Bologna (Jean Bologne of Douai).
The famous university of Bologna was founded in the i 1th century (its foundation by Theodosius the Great in A.D.
425 is legendary), and acquired a European reputation as a school of jurisprudence under Pepo, the first known teacher at Bologna of Roman law (about 1076), and his successor Irnerius and their followers the glossators.
The reason of this measure was no doubt partly disciplinary, Bologna itself having in 1506 passed under the dominion of the papacy.
The Museo Civico is one of the most important museums in Italy, containing especially fine collections of antiquities from Bologna and its neighbourhood.
The two leaning towers, the Torre Asinelli and the Torre Garisenda, dating from 1109 and 1110 respectively, are among the most remarkable structures in Bologna: they are square brick towers, the former being 320 ft.
Among the specialities of Bologna may be noted the salami or mortadella (Bologna sausage), tortellini (a kind of macaroni) and liqueurs.
Bologna is an important railway centre, just as the ancient Bononia was a meeting-point of important roads.
Bologna was only for a short while subject to the Lombards, remaining generally under the rule of the exarchate of Ravenna, until this in 756 was given by Pippin to the papacy.
But the first "constitution" of the commune of Bologna dates from about 1123, and at that time we find it a free and independent city.
But the struggles between Guelphs and Ghibellines in Bologna itself soon followed, and the commune was so weakened that in 1337 Taddeo de' Pepoli made himself master of the town, and in 1350 his son sold it to Giovanni Visconti of Milan.
In 1401 Giovanni Bentivoglio made himself lord of Bologna, but was killed in a rebellion of 1402.
drove them out, and brought Bologna once more under the papacy, under the sway of which it remained (except in the Napoleonic period between 1796 and 1815 and during the revolutions of 1821 and 1831) until in 1860 it became part of the kingdom of Italy.
Among the most illustrious natives of Bologna may be noted Luigi Galvani (1737-1798), the discoverer of galvanism, and Prospero Lambertini (Pope Benedict XIV.).
See C. Ricci,;Guida di Bologna (3rd ed., Bologna, two).
He now set out once more for Scotland, but was intercepted by the Florentine cardinal Luigi Capponi, who induced him to remain at Bologna as professor of Humanity.
His wife eloped with a student, and Dempster, pursuing the fugitives in the heat of summer, caught a fever, and died at Bologna on the 6th of September 1625.
The best known of his works is the Historia ecclesiastica geniis Scotorum (Bologna, 1627).
When the spring had come, being still very poor and in feeble health, he started homewards on foot by Florence, across the Apennines, through Bologna, Parma, Piacenza, Turin, over the Alps, through Savoy and Dauphine to Lyons, andfinally to Paris, where he arrived in excellent health.
Cecilia, whose musical fame rests on a passing notice in her legend that she praised God by instrumental as well as vocal music, has inspired many a masterpiece in art, including the Raphael at Bologna, the Rubens in Berlin, the Domenichino in Paris, and in literature, where she is commemorated especially by Chaucer's "Seconde Nonnes Tale," and by Dryden's famous ode, set to music by Handel in 1736, and later by Sir Hubert Parry (1889).
No one of these works is now known to be in existence; the only example we possess of Zarlino's compositions on a grand scale is a MS. mass for four voices, in the library of the Philharmonic Lyceum at Bologna.
A full account, together with other early contributions to the science of light, is given in Venturi's Commentari sopra la storia de la Teoria del Ottica (Bologna, 1814).
Venturi, Commentari sopra la stories de la teoria del Ottica (Bologna, 1814); F.
We should therefore probably ascribe the work attributed to him in the Hotel Carnavalet (in situ), together with much else executed in various parts of Paris - but now dispersed or destroyed - to a period intervening between the date of his dismissal from the Louvre and his death, which is computed to have taken place between 1564 and 1568, probably at Bologna.
In Italy, Bologna and Padua were earliest distinguished for medical studies - the former preserving more of the Galenical tradition, the latter being more progressive and Averroist.
Venturi's Commentari sopra la storia e la teoria dell'ottica (Bologna, 1814) and H.
It appears that as early as 1295 furnaces had been established at Treviso, Vicenza, Padua, Mantua, Ferrara, Ravenna and Bologna.
of France established at St Germain en Laye an Italian named Mutio; he was a native of Bologna, but of Altare origin.
His contemporary Domenico Guglielmini (1655-1710), who was inspector of the rivers and canals at Bologna, had ascribed this diminution of velocity in rivers to transverse motions arising from inequalities in their bottom.
In 1351 Giovanni Visconti, lord and archbishop of Milan, having purchased Bologna and allied himself with sundry Ghibelline houses of Tuscany with a view to dominating Florence, the city made war on him, and in violation of its Guelph traditions placed itself under the protection of the emperor Charles IV.
Treaties with Pisa, Siena, Arezzo and Cortona were concluded, and soon no less than 80 towns, including Bologna, had thrown off the papal yoke.
His territories were then divided between his sons and his condottieri, and Florence, ever keeping her eye on Pisa, now ruled by Gabriele Maria Visconti, made an alliance with Pope Boniface IX., who wished to regain Perugia and Bologna.
But Ladislas still occupied the papal states, and Florence, alarmed at his growing power and ambition, formed a league with Siena, Bologna and Louis of Anjou who laid claim to the Neapolitan throne, to drive Ladislas from Rome.
As a writer, he was one of the first to restore the Latin tongue to its pristine purity; and among his works are De Vera Philosophia ex quatuor doctoribus ecclesiae (Bologna, 1507), De Sermone Latino (Basel, 1513), and a poem, De Venatione (Venice, 1534).
After taking orders at Parma, when he was made canon of the cathedral, he studied jurisprudence at Bologna.
Of the four doors three are by John of Bologna, who was greatly helped by Francavilla, Tacca and others; that of the south side, of much older date, is generally supposed to be the work of Bonanno.
CATHERINE OF BOLOGNA, 1413-1463, a visionary, abbess of the convent of the Poor Clares in Bologna, canonized by Pope Benedict XIII., and commemorated throughout the Franciscan order on the 9th of March.
He secretly stole away to Bologna, entered the monastery of St Domenico and then acquainted his father with his reasons for the step. The world's wickedness was intolerable, he wrote; throughout Italy he beheld vice triumphant, virtue despised.
hostilities between Ferrara and Venice, fomented by Pope Sixtus IV., soon caused his recall to Bologna.
He was presently addressing enthusiastic congregations at Prato and Bologna.
At the close of his last sermon the undaunted friar publicly announced the day and hour of his departure from Bologna; and his lonely journey on foot over the Apennines was safely accomplished.
Cesare Borgia contemplated the subjugation of Bologna in 1500, when he was crushing the various despots of Romagna, but Bentivoglio was saved for the moment by French intervention.
of France to his side, he led an army against Bologna, excommunicated Bentivoglio and forced him to abandon the city (November 1506).
VACARIUS (I1201200 ?), Italian civilian and canonist, the first known teacher of Roman law in England, was doubtless of the school of Bologna, though of a later generation than the hearers of Irnerius.
IMOLA (anc. Forum Cornelii), a town and episcopal see of Emilia, Italy, in the province of Bologna, from which it is 21 m.
He studied law, theology and science at the university of Poitiers from 1536 to 1539; then, after some travel, attended the universities of Bologna and Padua, receiving the doctorate from the latter in 1548.
At Bologna he read Melanchthon's Loci communes theologiae and was so impressed by it that in 1549 he went to Wittenberg to see the author, and shortly afterwards became a Protestant.
Throughout his reign Casimir never neglected the great work of domestic reform, greatly aided by Jaroslaw Skotowicki, archbishop of Gnesen, formerly a professor at Bologna.
Ancona is situated on the railway between Bologna and Brindisi, and is also connected by rail with Rome, via Foligno and Orte.
On the 27th of April there was great excitement in Florence, Italian colours appeared everywhere, but order was maintained, and the grand-duke and his family departed for Bologna undisturbed.
Ochino was at once cited, but was deterred from presenting himself at Rome by the warnings of Peter Martyr and of Cardinal Contarini, whom he found at Bologna, dying of poison administered by the reactionary party.
Later on in the autumn we find him once more with Guicciardini at Bologna.
Vandelli (Bologna, 1892).
In the train of Quintana he witnessed at Bologna the double coronation of Charles in February 1530, visited Augsburg, and perhaps saw Luther at Coburg.
The spectacle of the adoration of the pope at Bologna impressed him strongly in an anti-papal direction.
(Ugo Buoncompagno), pope from 1572 to 1 585, was born on the 7th of January 1502, in Bologna, where he received his education, and subsequently taught, until called to Rome (1539) by Paul III., who employed him in various offices.
The theory and practice of papal absolutism was successfully promulgated by Gratian in his Decretum, completed at Bologna about 1142.
Giovanni Da Bologna >>
GIOVANNI BATTISTA MARTINI (1706-1784), Italian musician, was born at Bologna on the 24th of April 1706.
In 1725, though only nineteen years old, he received the appointment of chapel-master in the Franciscan church at Bologna, where his compositions attracted attention.
Burney estimated it at 17,000 volumes; after Martini's death a portion of it passed to the Imperial library at Vienna, the rest remaining in Bologna, now in the Liceo Rossini.
He died at Bologna on the 4th of August 1784.
His Elogio was published by Pietro della Valle at Bologna in the same year.
The Liceo of Bologna possesses the MSS.
Mariae were published at Bologna in 1734, as also twelve Sonate d'intavolatura; six Sonate per l'organo ed it cembalo in 1747; and Duetti da camera in 1763.
Martini's most important works are his Storia della musica (Bologna, 1757-1781) and his Saggio di contrapunto (Bologna, 1 7741 775).
He studied at Paris and Bologna, and, having been successively archpriest of St Peter's, papal chaplain, cardinal-deacon of Sant' Eustachio, cardinal-bishop of Ostia, the first protector of the Franciscan order, and papal legate in Germany under Innocent III., and Honorius III., he succeeded the latter in the papacy.
He permitted free study of the Aristotelian writings, and issued (1234), through his chaplain, Raymond of Pennaforte, an important new compilation of decretals which he prescribed in the bull Rex pacificus should be the standard text-book in canon law at the universities of Bologna and Paris.
Unable to remove his capital to Rome or to Bologna, he began to erect a great palace at Avignon.
After her brother's fall she retired, with the title of countess of Compignano, first to Bologna and afterwards to Santo Andrea near Trieste, where she died on the 6th of August 1820.
of Bologna by rail, on the line from Bologna to Rimini, and it is the junction of a line to Florence through the Apennines.
The editio princeps was published at Bologna (1474).
Gardens also early existed at Florence and Bologna.
The Via Aemilia passes obliquely right through the heart of the city, from the Bologna Gate in the east to that of Sant' Agostino in the west.
Commerce is chiefly agricultural and is stimulated by a good position in the railway system, and by a canal which opens a water-way by the Panaro and the Po to the Adriatic. Modena is the point at which the railway to Mantua and Verona diverges from that between Milan and Bologna, and has several steam tramways to neighbouring places.
For a year he remained with his pupils at Bologna, and then, his engagement completed, negotiated with Aldus Manutius for a new edition of his Adagia upon a very different scale.
At the very time when Peter Lombard was shaping his Sentences, the monk Gratian of Bologna was making a new collection of laws.
Having obtained the consent:of Pope Urban V., he established at Cracow a studiumgenerale on the model of the university of Bologna.
In 1223 (or 1221) he became a member of the Dominican order, and studied theology under its rules at Bologna and elsewhere.
On the 23rd of July 1431 his legate opened the council of Basel which had been convoked by Martin, but, distrustful of its purposes and moved by the small attendance, the pope issued a bull on the 18th of December 1431, dissolving the council and calling a new one to meet in eighteen months at Bologna.
The establishment of an insurrectionary republic at Rome drove him into exile in May 1434, and, although the city was restored to obedience in the following October, he remained at Florence and Bologna.
seemed to threaten its independence it was transferred to Bologna (March 1547) and not long afterwards suspended (Sept.
At Paris, in 150o, he was fully conscious that " without Greek the amplest knowledge of Latin was imperfect"; and, during his three years in Italy (1506-1509), he worked quietly at Greek in Bologna and attended the lectures of Musurus in Padua.
FRANCIA (c. 1450 - 1517), a Bolognese painter, whose real name was Francesco Raibolini, his father being Marco di Giacomo Raibolini, a carpenter, descended from an old and creditable family, was born at Bologna about 1450.
He was particularly famed for his dies for medals; he rose to be mint-master at Bologna, and retained that office till the end of his life.
as liberator of Bologna is ascribed to his hand, but not with certainty.
This work is now in the Bologna gallery, - the "Virgin enthroned, with Augustine and five other saints."
Maria della Misericordia, at the desire of the Bentivoglio family, the rulers of Bologna.
Giovanni in Monte, Bologna; and Francia, on inspecting it, took so much to heart his own inferiority, at the advanced age of about sixty-six, to the youthful Umbrian, that he sickened and shortly expired on the 6th of January 1517.
Other leading works are - in Munich, the "Virgin" sinking on her knees in adoration of the Divine Infant, who is lying in a garden within a rose trellis; in the Borghese gallery, Rome, a Peter Martyr; in Bologna, the frescoes in the church of St Cecilia, illustrating the life of the saint, all of them from the design of Raibolini, but not all executed by himself.
for the 1753 edition published at Bologna); a defence of Catholic doctrine, entitled Demonstratio critica religionis Catholicae (Augsburg, 1751); a work on indulgences, which has often been criticized by Protestant writers, De Origine, Progressu, V alore, et Fructu Indulgentiorum (Augsburg, 1 73 5) a treatise on mysticism, De Revelationibus et Visionibus, &c. (2 vols., 1744); and the astronomical work Nova philosophiae planetarum et artis criticae systemata (Nuremberg, 1723).
He then closed the Collegio Romano, on the plea of its insolvency, seized the houses at Frascati and Tivoli, and broke up the establishments in Bologna and the Legations.
He went to school at Weinsberg and Heilbronn, and then, intending to study law, he went to Bologna, but soon returned to Heidelberg and betook himself to theology.
Another main line runs from Bologna to Ferrara, Rovigo and Padua, joining the Milan-Venice line at the last-named place.
The Po, however, forms somewhat of an obstacle, but is crossed by the main lines to Modena and Bologna near Mantua and Rovigo respectively.
Magini in the mathematical chair of Bologna.
After studying at Bologna, he became professor of mathematics at Modena, and in 1831 was appointed inspector-general of studies in the duchy.
by Pietro Tacca (1577-1640), a pupil of Giovanni da Bologna.
In the crypt there is a fine pieta in marble by Giovanni da Bologna.
After an education at St Andrews, and acting as tutor to the children of Lord Darcy, the English warden of the North, he became a Dominican, but was soon in trouble as a heretic. In 1536 he made his way to England, but failing to obtain the preferment he desired at Cambridge, he went on to Italy, where the influence of Cardinal Pole, who was himself accused of heresy, secured him the post of master of the novices in the Dominican convent at Bologna.
Foggia is a commercial centre of some importance for the produce of the surrounding country, and is also a considerable railway centre, being situated on the main line from Bologna to Brindisi, at the point where this is joined by the line from Benevento and Caserta.
At first he followed a legal career at Pavia and Bologna, and when in 1499 he took his doctorate he was esteemed the most learned canonist in Europe.
His wife dying in 1510, he went into the church; on account of his services during the rebellion of Bologna, he was made by Julius II.
gave him the rich see of Salisbury, and the pope the archbishopric of Bologna.
Returning to Bologna, the cardinal assisted at the coronation of Charles V.
In July 1402 he made himself master of Bologna; and his death in September of the same year was a stroke of good fortune for the pope.
Bologna was now recovered for the Church (Sept.
the situation was menacing enough, but, to the surprise and joy of all, Tomaso Parentucelli, cardinal of Bologna, was elected without disturbance, as Pope Nicholas V.
The conquest of Milan by the French led to a personal interview at Bologna, where the " Concordat " with France was concluded.
Political differences, and the transference of the council to Bologna in 1547, brought the pope into sharp collision with the emperor, who now attempted by means of the Interim to regulate the religious affairs of Germany according to his wishes - but in vain.
1797) the pope surrendered his claims to Avignon, the Venaissin, Bologna, Ferrara and the Romagna; he also promised to disband his worthless army, to yield up certain treasures of art, and to pay a large indemnity.
In the concordat of 1801 the papacy recognized the validity of the sales of Church of 180E g Y property, and still further reduced the number of dioceses; it provided that the government should appoint and support the archbishops and bishops, but that the pope should confirm them; and France recognized the temporal power, though shorn of Ferrara, Bologna and the Romagna.
Of the two great Spanish universities, Alcala de Henares belonged in all respects to Castile, and Salamanca rose to equality with Paris, Oxford or Bologna, under the purely Castilian influence of Alphonso X.
by rail from the town of Forli, on the line between Bologna and Rimini, 144 ft.
He studied at Bologna, Florence and Rome, and by his learning attracted the patronage of Alexander Farnese, who, as Pope Paul III., made him nuncio to Florence, where he received the honour of being elected a member of the celebrated academy, and then to Naples, where his oratorical ability brought him considerable success.
To the east this plain stretches in an unbroken level, as far as the eye can follow it, towards Venice and the Adriatic; on the southern side the line of the Apennines from Bologna to Genoa closes the view; to the west rise the Maritime, Cottian and Graian Alps, with Monte Viso as their central point; while northward are the Pennine, Helvetic and Rhaetian Alps, of which Monte Rosa, the Saasgrat and Monte Leone are the most conspicuous features.
This league or concordia was soon joined by other cities, among which were Milan, Parma, Padua, Verona, Piacenza and Bologna, and the allies began to build a fortress near the confluence of the Tanaro and the Bormida, which, in honour of Pope Alexander III., was called Alessandria.
They held a meeting at Bologna and raised an army, but as in 1226, the matter ended in mutual fulminations and defiances.
Under this name he is said to have appeared at Mugello in 1413 and at Bologna in 1415 (in the garb of a Franciscan of the third order).
His daughter Charlotte survived her father less than two years, dying unmarried at Bologna in November 1789, at the early age of thirty-six.
It is said to have been copied from Petrarch's handwriting, and was cast under the direction of Francesco da Bologna, who has been identified by Panizzi with.
Meanwhile Paolo had established his brother, Antonio, a man of good parts but indifferent conduct, in a printing office and book shop at Bologna.
The Aldine press continued through this period to issue books, but none of signal merit; and in 1585 Aldo determined to quit his native city for Bologna, where he occupied the chair of eloquence for a few months.
In 1587 he left Bologna for Pisa, and there, in his quality of professor, he made the curious mistake of printing Alberti's comedy Philodoxius as a work of the classic Lepidus.
The popularity of his biblical exegesis is demonstrated by the fact that the first printed texts of the Hebrew Bible were accompanied by his commentary: the Psalms 1477, perhaps at Bologna; the early Prophets, 1485, Soncino; the later Prophets, ibid.
On the 23rd of September 1513 the pope conferred on him the title of cardinal and made him legate at Bologna.
After the signature of the treaty of Cambrai on the 3rd of August 1529 Charles met Clement at Bologna and received from him the imperial crown and the iron crown of Lombardy.
Lambertini (Pope Benedict XIV.), De servorum Dei beatificatione et beatorum canonizatione (Bologna, 1 7341738), several times reprinted, and more remarkable for erudition and knowledge of canon law than for historical criticism; Al.
He was loaded with favours during his uncle's pontificate, being made bishop of Carpentras, bishop of Bologna, bishop of Vercelli, archbishop of Avignon, cardinalpriest of S.
The alliance at first resulted only in compelling the surrender of a few unimportant fortresses in the Romagna; but Julius freed Perugia and Bologna in the brilliant campaign of 1506.
A serious quarrel with the pope, who had moved the council from Trent to Bologna, only increased the determination of Charles to establish religious conformity.
Of the collections of Egyptian antiquities in public museums, those of the British Museum, Leiden, Berlin, the Louvre, Turin were already very important in the first half of the i9th century, also in a less degree those of Florence, Bologna and the Vatican.
He early studied at Bologna, where the bishop, Nicholas Albergati, was so much struck with his ardour for learning that he gave him the chance to pursue his studies further, by sending him on a tour through Germany, France and England.
He distinguished himself at the council of Ferrara-Florence, and in 1 444 was made bishop of Bologna by Pope Eugenius IV., who soon afterwards named him as one of the legates charged to negotiate at the convention of Frankfort an understanding between the Holy See and the Empire with regard to the reforming decrees of the council of Basel.
Diirer's engravings, both on copper and wood, had by this time attained great popularity both north and south of the Alps, and had begun to be copied by various hands, among others by the celebrated Marcantonio of Bologna, then in his youth.
First, it seems, he had made an excursion to Bologna, having intended to take Mantua on the way, in order to do homage to the old age of that Italian master, Andrea Mantegna, from whose work he had himself in youth learned the most.
MARIA GAETANA AGNESI (1718-1799), Italian mathematician, linguist and philosopher, was born at Milan on the 16th of May 1718, her father being professor of mathematics in the university of Bologna.
to the chair of mathematics and natural philosophy at Bologna.
MARZABOTTO, a village of Emilia, Italy, in the province of Bologna, 17 m.
Donato, of the Lombard period, with Byzantine capitals, is interesting; Giosue Carducci has written a fine ode on the subject (La Chiesa di Polenta, Bologna, 1897).
(Bologna, 1891), i seq.
The earliest university examinations of which a description is available are those in civil and in canon law held at Bologna at a period subsequent to 1219.
The doctoral examination at Bologna in the 13th-14th centuries consisted of two parts - a private examination which was the real test, and a public one of a ceremonial character (conventus) .
He was then presented to the archdeacon of Bologna by one or more doctors, who were required to have satisfied themselves of his fitness by private examination.
At Bologna, though not at Paris, the " permission to teach " soon became fictitious, only a small number of doctors being allowed to exercise the right of teaching in that university (Rashdall).
In the faculty of arts of Paris, towards the end of the 13th century, the system was already more complicated than at Bologna.
In early life he appears to have been received into the Camaldulian monastery of Classe near Ravenna, whence he afterwards removed to that of San Felice in Bologna, where he spent many years in the preparation of the Concordia.
was still simply professor of theology at Bologna, - in other words, prior to 1150.
was born at Bologna on the 18th of November 1818.
With Antonio Montanan and Rodolfo Audinot he founded at Bologna a paper, Il Felsineo.
His writings include: Della economia pubblica e delle sue attinenze con la morale e col diritto (Bologna, 1859), and La Chiesa e lo Stato (Milan, 1878).
He studied at Rome and Bologna, and at the age of twenty went to Paris, where he enjoyed the friendship of Voltaire and produced his great work Neutonianismo per le dame, a work on optics.
Cellini, 1882), and Giovanni de Bologna in the latter part of the same century inherited to some extent the skill and artistic power of the great 15th-century artists.
Thus equipped, he began his attack upon the medieval Aristotelianism which then flourished in Padua and Bologna.
Acc. Bologna, iii.
Vincenzo Ferrer intorno al Grande Scisma d'Occidente (Bologna, 1906).
His public life had made him more of a figure in the world; he was decorated with the highest honours Harvard could pay officially, and with degrees of Oxford, Cambridge, St Andrews, Edinburgh and Bologna.
of Bologna, situated 30 ft.
Ferrara is on the main line from Bologna to Padua and Venice, and has branches to Ravenna and Poggio Rusco (for Suzzara).
It passed to Rome, but there was much less fatal, making 14,000 victims only - a result attributed by some to the precautions and sanitary measures introduced by Cardinal Gastaldi, whose work, a splendid folio, written on this occasion (Tractatus de avertenda et profliganda peste politicolegalis, Bologna, 1684) is historically one of the most important on the subject of quarantine, &c. Genoa lost 60,000 inhabitants from the same disease, but Tuscany remained untouched.
- See the following works, besides those already quoted: Kamintus, Regimen contra epidimiam sive pestem, 4to, c. 1494 (many editions); Jacobus Soldus, Opus insigne de peste, 4to (Bologna, 1478); Alex.
He taught the "free arts" at Bologna, his native city, during the earlier decades of the 12th century.
(Innsbruck, 1870); and Fitting, Die Anfange der Rechtsschule zu Bologna (Berlin, 1888).
He was given command of the Neapolitan army which was to co-operate with Piedmont against the Austrians, but when he reached Bologna the king, who had already changed his mind, recalled him and his troops.
The great scholastic controversies had already begun in the schools of France; the revival of Roman law had called forth the university of Bologna, and the canonists had begun the codification of the law of the Church.
During this visit Frederick summoned the doctors of Bologna to the diet held near Roncaglia in November 1158, and as a result of their inquiries into the rights belonging to the kingdom of Italy he obtained a large amount of wealth.
A further visit to Italy in 1163 saw his plans for the conquest of Sicily checked by the formation of a powerful league against him, brought together mainly by the exactions of the podestas and the enforcement of the rights declared by the doctors of Bologna.
Clement did not, however, withdraw his confidence, and in 1531 Guicciardini was advanced to the governorship of Bologna, the most important of all the papal lord-lieutenancies (Correspondence, Op. ined.
Among the many studies on Guicciardini we may mention Agostino Rossi's Francesco Guicciardini e it governo Fiorentino (2 vols., Bologna, 1896), based on many new documents; F.
Benoist's Guichardin, historien et homme d'etat italien an X VI' siecle (Paris, 1862), and C. Gioda's Francesco Guicciardini e le sue opere inedite (Bologna, 1880) are not without value, but the authors had not had access to many important documents since published.
The critique of Roman law started, under Politian's auspices, upon a more liberal course than that which had been followed by the powerful but narrow-sighted glossators of Bologna.
The universities of Bologna, Padua and Salerno had been famous through the middle ages for the study of law, physics and medicine; and during the 15th and 16th centuries the first two still enjoyed celebrity in these faculties.
struck their compact at Bologna in 1530.
Galvani had made in 1790 his historic observations on the muscular contraction produced in the bodies of recently killed frogs when an electrical machine was being worked in the same room, and described them in 1791 (De viribus electricitatis in motu musculari commentarius, Bologna, 1791).
5 L'Ottica delle oscillazioni elettriche (Bologna, 1897).
Piacenza is the junction of the Milan and Bologna line with that from Voghera and Turin.
Fra Stefano Lusignano, Chorograffia di Cipro (Bologna, 1573), and Bp. Stubbs, Two Lectures (Oxford, 1878), are useful for the same period; and perhaps a score of contemporary pamphlets - the best of them by N.
He studied the civil law first of all under Cinus at Perugia, and afterwards under Oldradus and Jacobus de Belvisio at Bologna, where he was promoted to the degree of doctor of civil law in 1334.
His great reputation dates from his appointment to a chair of civil law in the university of Perugia, 1343, where he lectured for many years, raising the character of the law school of Perugia to a level with that of Bologna.
- Ercole Antonio Mattioli (born at Bologna on the 1st of December 1640) was minister of Charles IV., duke of Mantua, who as marquess of Montferrat was in possession of the frontier fortress of Casale, which was coveted by Louis XIV.
Sorbelli (Bologna, 1906).
Educated at Oxford, he soon began to teach in the university, of which he became chancellor, probably after he had studied in Paris and in Bologna.
cardinal priest of Sta Croce in Gerusalemme, bishop of Bologna, and papal legate to England.
He had won laurels in a public disputation at Augsburg in 1514, when he had defended the lawfulness of putting out capital at interest; again at Bologna in 1515, on the same subject and on the question of predestination; and these triumphs had been repeated at Vienna in 1516.
He left the service of Maximilian, and after a brief employment by another kinsman, the duke of Ferrara, he decided to quit the military life, and in 1514 entered as a student at the university of Bologna.
He joined the Jesuits in 1719, was banished from Spain with his brethren in 1767, and settled at Bologna, where he died on the 2nd of November 1781.
After receiving his education at Bologna, he removed to France, bearing a recommendation to Bernard of Clairvaux, who first placed him under Lotolf at Reims, and afterwards sent him to Paris with letters to Gilduin, the abbot of St Victor.
The relation to the "sentences" of a Gandulph of Bologna (still unpublished) has not been established.
Pius (Bologna, 1520), and the principal editions since have been those by Barth (1623), P. Burman (1731, in his edition of the minor Latin poets), Wernsdorf (1778, part of a similar collection), Zumpt (1840), and the critical edition by Lucian Muller (Teubner, Leipzig, 1870), and another by Vessereau (1904); also an annotated edition by Keene, with a translation by G.
(Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini), pope from 1740 to 1758, was born at Bologna on the 31st of March 1675.
translated him to his native city of Bologna, where as archbishop he was both efficient and popular.
He published valuable works, notably De servorum Dei beatificatione et canonizatione, De sacrificio missae, as well as a treatise on the feasts of Christ and the Virgin and of some saints honoured in Bologna.
His masterpiece, Libri octo de synodo diocesana, begun in Bologna, appeared during his pontificate.
(Orlando Bandinelli), pope from 1159 to 1181, was a Siennese, and as a teacher of canon law in Bologna composed the Stroma or the Summa Magistri Rolandi, one of the earliest commentaries on the Decretum Gratiani.
appointed him Archbishop of Bologna, and on May 25 1914 raised him to the dignity of cardinal.
At this time, as Cardinal-Archbishop of Bologna, he delivered a remarkable address on the attitude and duty of the Church during the war, and strongly emphasized the paramount importance of the Holy See observing strict neutrality, not of indifference, but of impartiality, while leaving nothing undone to restore peace and good-will and to mitigate suffering.
Amongst others may be noted honorary degrees by the universities of Oxford, Dublin, Edinburgh, GÃ¶ttingen, Heidelberg, Leiden and Bologna.
Notwithstanding Petrarch's firm determination to make himself a scholar and a man of letters rather than a lawyer, he so far submitted to his father's wishes as to remove about the year 1323 to Bologna, which was then the headquarters of juristic learning.
"AUGUSTO RIGHI (1850-1920), Italian physicist, was born at Bologna Aug.
He died at Bologna, June 8 1920.
GIUSEPPE CASPAR MEZZOFANTI (1 77418 49), Italian cardinal and linguist, was born on the 17th of September 1774, at Bologna, and educated there.
He was ordained priest in 1797, and in the same year became professor of Arabic in the university, but shortly afterwards was deprived for refusing to take the oath of allegiance to the Cisalpine Republic. In 1803 he was appointed assistant librarian of the institute of Bologna, and soon afterwards was reinstated as professor of oriental languages and of Greek.
in 1814, and continued to be held by Mezzofanti until his removal from Bologna to Rome in 1831, as a member of the congregation de propaganda fide.
For five years (1450-1455) he was legate at Bologna, and he was engaged on embassies to many foreign princes, among others to Louis XI.
After the battle of Marignano it was arranged that Francis and the pope should meet in December at Bologna.
As the time for the meeting of the potentates at Bologna drew near, Leonardo proceeded thither from Piacenza, and in due course was presented to the king.
It lies on the main line of railway between Verona and Modena; and is also connected by rail with Cremona and with Monselice, on the line from Padua to Bologna, and by steam tramway with Brescia and other places.
He proclaimed and promised rather than effected a certain number of reforms: the abandonment of the rights of "spoils" and "procurations," the re-establishment of the system of canonical election in the cathedral churches and principal monasteries, &c. But death came upon him almost without warning at Bologna, in the night of the 3rd-4th May 1410.
He was a Camaldulensian monk of the convent of St Felix at Bologna, where he taught canon law, and published, probably in 1148, his treatise called at first Concordantia discordantium canonum, but soon known under the name of the Decretum.
sent to the university of Bologna an authentic collection of the decretals issued during the first twelve years of his pontificate; this collection he had c?
made an official presentation to Bologna of his own decretals, this forming the Compilatio quinta.
The work was finished in 1234, and was at once sent by the pope to Bologna with the bull Rex pacificus, declaring it to be official.
At the instance of the university of Bologna, Boniface VIII., himself an eminent canonist, had this prepared by a committee of canonists and published it in 1298.
(1 555 Lance- 1 559) by Giovanni Paolo Lancelotti, a professor of Bologna, on the model of the Institutes of Justinian.
He went, however, to the university of Bologna, where his famous kinswoman, Laura Bassi, was professor of physics, and it is to her influence that his scientific impulse has been usually attributed.
Upon his promotion to the doctorate he at once proceeded to Bologna, where he taught law for three years; after which he was advanced to a professorship at Perugia, where he remained for thirty-three years.
He taught law subsequently at Pisa, at Florence, at Padua and at Pavia, at a time when the schools of law in those universities disputed the palm with the school of Bologna.
He entered the Franciscan order at an early age and studied philosophy and theology at the universities of Padua and Bologna.
di Bologna, t.
Cremona, Introduzione ad una teoria geometrica delle curve piane (Bologna, 1861); J.
Intended for a business career, he took orders during the pontificate of his uncle, Eugenius IV., and was appointed successively archdeacon of Bologna, bishop of Cervia, bishop of Piacenza, protonotary of the Roman Church, and in 1440 cardinal-deacon of Sta Maria Nuova.
ALESSANDRO ACHILLINI (1463-1512), Italian philosopher, born on the 29th of October 1463 at Bologna, was celebrated as a lecturer both in medicine and in philosophy at Bologna and Padua, and was styled the second Aristotle.
He died at Bologna on the 2nd of August 1512.
This section of the Apennines is crossed by two railways, from Pistoia to Bologna and from Florence to Faenza, and by several good high roads, of which the direct road from Florence to Bologna over the Futa pass is of Roman origin; and certain places in it are favourite summer resorts.
Prince Billow married, on the 9th of January 1886, Maria Anna Zoe Rosalia Beccadelli di Bologna, Princess Camporeale, whose first marriage with Count Karl von Donhoff had been dissolved and declared null by the Holy See in 1884.
He studied law at Padua and Bologna, and entering the church became in 1549 bishop of Kulm, in 1551 bishop of Ermland, and in 1561 cardinal.
GIOVANNI ALDINI (1762-1834), Italian physicist, born at Bologna on the 10th of April 1762, was a brother of the statesman Count Antonio Aldini (1756-1826) and nephew of L.
He became professor of physics at Bologna in 1798, in succession to his teacher Sebastiano Canterzani (1734-1819).
He left by will a considerable sum to found a school of natural science for artisans at Bologna.
Bishop Jon's Table-Talk (1325-1339) is also worth noticing; it contains many popular stories which the good bishop, who had studied at Bologna and Paris, was wont to tell to his friends.
He therefore removed to Bologna; but here also he was met with drawbacks.
He became governor of Bologna, archbishop of Rossano, and was long nuncio to Spain.
(Bologna, 1614); and Ranke, Popes (Eng.
Under the searchlights of the new learning, the dictatorship of Ptolemy appeared no more inevitable than that of Aristotle; advanced thinkers like Domenico Maria Novara (1454-1504) promulgated sub rosa what were called Pythagorean opinions; and they were eagerly and fully appropriated by Nicolaus Copernicus during his student-years (1496-1505) at Bologna and Padua.
- Works on selenography: Hevelius, Selenographia sive lun g e descriptio (Danzig, 1647); Riccioli, Almagestum novum (Bologna, 1651); J.
347 (Bologna, 1822).
honoris causa, an honour bestowed upon him previously by the universities of Dublin and Bologna.
A number of Ricci's letters are extant in the possession of the family, and access to them was afforded to Giuseppe La Farina, author of the work called La China, considerata nella sua Storia, &c. (Florence, 1843), by the Marchese Amico Ricci of Macerata, living at Bologna.
method were due to those lawyers of the south and of Normandy who had been nurtured on Roman law in the universities of Bologna or Montpellier, had practised chicanery in the provincial courts, had gradually thrust themselves into the great arena of politics, and were now leading the king and filling his parlement.
The chief railway centre is Florence, whence radiate lines to Bologna (for Milan and the north), Faenza, Lucca, Pisa and Leghorn, and Arezzo for Rome.
Urbanus of Bologna, Paul of Venice (d.
Alessandro Achillini, the persistent philosophical adversary of Pomponazzi, both at Padua and subsequently at Bologna, attempted, along with other moderate but not brilliant Averroists, to accommodate their philosophical theory with the requirements of Catholicism.
He taught theology at Bologna, Toulouse, Montpellier and Padua, and won a great reputation as a preacher throughout Italy.
JOHN X., pope from 914 to 928, was deacon at Bologna when he attracted the attention of Theodora, the wife of Theophylact, the most powerful noble in Rome, through whose influence he was elevated first to the see of Bologna and then to the archbishopric of Ravenna.
The island explored, he betook himself to Florence, Milan, Bologna and Venice, acquiring a complete archaeological knowledge of these and other cities.
It consisted of twelve members, three from Rome, two from Spain, one each from Bologna, Ferrara, Venice, Milan, Germany, France, and (alternately) Tuscany or Perugia.
His abilities, which were mainly of an administrative and military order, were soon rewarded by the cardinal's hat and the legation of Bologna.
Alexander V., the first pope elected at Pisa, was not perhaps, as has been maintained, merely a man of straw put forward by the ambitious cardinal of Bologna; but he reigned only ten months, and on his death, which happened rather suddenly on the 4th of May 1410, Baldassare Cossa succeeded him.
Whether the latter had bought his electors by money and promises, or owed his success to his dominant position in Bologna, and to the support of Florence and of Louis II.
of Anjou, he seems to have received the unanimous vote of all the seventeen cardinals gathered together at Bologna (May 17).
and his doctor at Bologna was not maintained.
Lemmi, La Restaurazione austriaca a Milano nel 1814 (Bologna,..
decretalium (Bologna, 1481); Commentaria (Pavia, 1493); de Balneis Puteolanis (1475).
A reprint appeared at Bologna in 1645.
This view 1 Since the International Congress of Prehistoric Archaeology at Bologna in 1871, when the shortened form terramara (plur.
Indulge yourself in the heart of Italian gastronomy in Bologna, a beautifully preserved medieval city laced with porticoes, piazzas and palaces.
Wales were totally outclassed by Italy in Bologna, were it not for Paul Jones we could have conceded a lot more.
radio telescope, near Bologna, Italy.
Italy Aerial view of the Northern Cross radio telescope, near Bologna, Italy.
two-cycle structure proposed by Bologna.
Producer Profile... Giacomo Bologna took over the family winery in the early 1960s.
Here he was successful in obtaining the restitution to the pope of the Marches (Ancona, Treviso and Fermo) and Legations (Bologna, Ferrara and Ravenna), but he failed to prevent Austria from annexing the ancient papal possessions on the left bank of the Po and obtaining the right to garrison Ferrara and Comacchio.
On the ist of October 1511 he was appointed papal legate of Bologna and the Romagna, and when the Florentine republic declared in favour of the schismatic Pisans Julius II.
He restored all its faculties, gave larger salaries to the professors, and summoned distinguished teachers from afar; and, although it never attained to the importance of Padua or Bologna, it nevertheless possessed in 1514 an excellent faculty of eighty-eight professors.
of France at Bologna in December 1515, inserted in the bull Primitiva (August 18, 1516), and promulgated as law of the realm in 1517, but not without rousing keen opposition.
He studied in Perugia and Padua, became a canon lawyer, and was vice-legate in Bologna.
All we know for certain is that1 at this epoch, Rome attempts to ruin Tivoli, and Venice Pisa; Milan fights with Cremona, Cremona with Crema, Pavia with Verona, Verona with Padua, Piacenza with Parma, Modena and Reggio with Bologna, Bologna and Faenza with Ravenna and Imola, Florence and Pisa with Lucca and Siena, and so on through the whole list of cities.
pp. 247-304), though before it appeared there was issued at Bologna, under the title of Synopsis Vertebratorum Systemalis, a Latin translation of it.
Lanfranc was trained in the legal studies for which northern Italy was then becoming famous, and acquired such proficiency that tradition links him with Irnerius of Bologna as a pioneer in the renaissance of Roman law.
This is the work of Tomasino Vincenz of Bologna, who, though a pupil of Raphael in painting, in sculpture followed Michelangelo, to whom the work is sometimes ascribed.
Gerard of Bologna (d.
1603), who was of Scottish descent and studied at St Andrews, and like that of Ulysses Aldrovandi of Bologna (b.
The papal legate at Bologna, Cardinal Guillaume de Noellet (d.
GIOVANNI BENTIVOGLIO (1443-1508), tyrant of Bologna, descended from a powerful family which exercised great influence in Bologna during the 15th century, was born after the murder of his father, then chief magistrate of the commune.
After completing a brilliant university course at Bologna, which he interrupted to take part in the revolution of 1831 (see Carbonari), he practised as a physician at Russi and at Ravenna.
A series of other works in zoology followed: Iconographia della fauna Italica (3 vols., Rome, 1832-1841), Catalogo metodico degli uccelli europei (I vol., Bologna, 1842), Catalogo metodico dei pesci europei (1 vol., Naples, 1845, 4to), Catalogo metodico dei mammiferi europei (1 vol., Milan, 1845), Telachorum tabula analytica (Neufchatel, 1838).
Two years later her father began to assemble in his house at stated intervals a circle of the most learned men in Bologna, before whom she read and maintained a series of theses on the most abstruse philosophical questions.
Casciorolus, a shoemaker of Bologna, who found that after ignition with combustible substances it became phosphorescent, and on this account it was frequently called Bolognian phosphorus.
These latter were printed in 1496 at Bologna, and entitled Expositio Aurea super totam artemveterem; Quaestiones in quattuor libros sententiarum (Lyons, 1495).
Amongst others may be noted honorary degrees by the universities of Oxford, Dublin, Edinburgh, GÃƒ¶ttingen, Heidelberg, Leiden and Bologna.
He was also distinguished as an anatomist (see Anatomy), among his writings being Corporis humani Anatomia (Venice, 1516-1524), and Anatomicae Annotationes (Bologna, 1520).
Zanetti (Bologna, 1789); Fossati, Le tempi di Malatesta di Rimini (Foligno, 1 794); Moroni, Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica (vol.
The four plus one year degree system in Scotland is seen to fit within the two-cycle structure proposed by Bologna.
There are "veggieburgers" that can be grilled like hamburgers, and vegetarian substitutes for hot dogs, corn dogs, chicken, turkey, ham, bologna, pastrami, and sausage with surprisingly authentic textures and taste.
Deli meats such as ham and bologna have similar risks.
Bruno Magli was one of three Italian brothers who came from a family of shoemakers based in Bologna.
He continued honing his parody songs, and in 1979, the same year he graduated college, he found successes with a parody of The Knack's My Sharona called My Bologna.
He continued playing songs on his accordion at local coffee shops and disc jockeying until 1979, when his first hit, My Bologna, became popular.
Other communes which stit preserved the shadow of independence, like Perugia and Bologna began once more to dream of republican freedom under theii own leading families.
The Neapolitans reached Bologna on the 17th of May, but in the meantime a dispute had broken out at Naples between the king and parliament as to the nature of the royal oath; a cry of treason was raised by a group of factious youngsters, barricades were erected and street fighting ensued (May Is).
The Austrian attempt to occupy Bologna was repulsed by the citizens, but unfortunately this success was followed by anarchy and murder, and Farini only with difficulty restored a semblance of order.
In May they seized Bologna, Venkeby and Ancona in June, restoring order in those towns Austria.
The municipality of Bologna formed a Giunta, to which Romagna and the Marches adhered, and invoked the dictatorship of Victor Emmanuel; at Perugia, too, a provisional government was constituted under F.
Tn July the marquis DAzeglio arrived at Bologna as royal commissioner.
the line from Bologna to Brindisi belonging to the Societ Meridionale to whom the Adriatic lines were now farmed), but sold rolling stock to the companies, arranged various schedules of state subsidy for lines projected or in.
On the completion of his studies he joined his father at Bologna, and afterwards, the constable having died, went to Rome in the suite of Charles V.
on a mission to Bologna, where the council of Trent was at that time sitting; after sixteen months of wearisome inactivity there, he was by his own desire recalled at the close of 1548.
The former was professor of mathematics at Bologna, and published, among other works, a treatise on the infinitesimal calculus.
Ravenna has railway communication with Bologna (via Castel Bolognese), Ferrara and Rimini, and by steam tram with Forli.
(Alessandro Ludovisi) was born on the 9th of January 1554, in Bologna, where he also studied and taught.
But this was not to be; he was worn out by the incessant toils and fatigues and austerities of his laborious life, and he died at his monastery at Bologna, on the 6th of August 1221.
Thus, when the men of Reggio and Modena overthrew the rule of their duke, he at once accorded protection to them, as also to the inhabitants of the cities of Bologna and Ferrara when they broke away from papal authority.
Nicolas Bobadilla and Xavier betook themselves first to Monselice and thence to Bologna, where they remained till summoned to Rome by Ignatius at the close of 1538.
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