How to use Bolivia in a sentence
During those ten years of recovery on the part of Bolivia from the effects of the war, the presidency was held by Dr Pacheco, who succeeded Campero, and held office for the full term; by Dr Aniceto Arce, who held it until 1892, and by Dr Mariano Baptista, his successor.
The discovery, however, of secret negotiations between Bolivia and Argentina caused Chile to change its conciliatory attitude.
Bolivia was in no position to venture upon hostilities or to compel the Chileans to make concessions, and the final settlement of the boundary dispute between Argentina and Chile deprived the Bolivians of the hope of obtaining the support of the Argentines.
A treaty was accordingly ratified in 1905, which was in many ways advantageous to Bolivia, though the republic was compelled to cede to Chile the maritime provinces occupied by the latter power since the war of 1881, and to do without a seaport.
Chile further agreed to pay Bolivia a cash indemnity and lend certain pecuniary assistance to the construction of other railways necessary for the opening out of the country.Advertisement
Expeditions to the Brazilian frontier or to the Chiquitos missions are fitted out here, and it is the objective point for expeditions entering Bolivia from Matto Grosso, Brazil, and Paraguay.
America has furnished European supplies since the discovery of the Potosi mines of Peru in 1 533; Bolivia and Chile are also notable producers.
The Francke-Tina process, named from Francke, German consul at Bolivia, and tina, the wooden vat in which the process is carried out, was developed in Bolivia for the treatment of refractory ores rich in zinc blende and tetrahedrite (fahl-ore).
Cinchona Calisaya has also been cultivated extensively in Bolivia and in Tolima, United States of Columbia.
The finest quality of indiarubber comes from the Acre and Beni districts of Bolivia, especially from the valley of the Acre (or Aquiry) branch of the river Purus.Advertisement
The largest of the rivers through which Argentina drains into the Plata system are the Pilcomayo, which rises in Bolivia and flows south-east along the Argentine frontier for about 400 m.; the Bermejo, which rises on the northern frontier and flows south-east into the Paraguay; and the Salado del Norte (called Rio del Juramento in its upper course), which rises on the high mountain slopes of western Salta and flows south-east into the Parana.
The continual encroachments of the Portuguese at length led the Spanish government to take the important step of making Buenos Aires the seat of a viceroyalty with jurisdiction over the territories of the present republics of Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and the Argentine Confederation (1776).
Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay rose in armed revolt, and finally established themselves as separate republics, whilst the city of Buenos Aires itself was torn with faction and the scene of many a sanguinary fight.
Fawcett's survey of the Brazilian boundary (1906-1907) are welcome additions to our knowledge of Bolivia.
The name is also applied to a district situated on the same river and on the former (1867) boundary line between Bolivia and Brazil.Advertisement
Sucre is the seat of the archbishop of La Plata and Charcas, the primate of Bolivia.
Although the capital of Bolivia, Sucre is one of its most isolated towns because of the difficult character of the roads leading to it.
In 1840 the name Sucre was adopted in honour of the patriot commander who won the last decisive battle of the war, and then became the first president of Bolivia.
They form now the chief ethnical element in Bolivia, but are of very mixed blood.
They number now, including half-breeds, about half a million in Bolivia.Advertisement
The former are found over a wide range of country, extending into Bolivia and Argentina, and are noted for their impetuous pugnacity.
It is largely consumed in Bolivia and Matto Grosso, where it is used in the preparation of a beverage which has excellent medicinal properties.
This was indeed a time when questions concerning boundaries were springing up on every side, for it was only through the moderation with which the high-handed action of Bolivia in regard to the Acre rubberproducing territory was met by the Brazilian government that war was avoided.
Grains of metallic tin occur intermingled with the gold ores of Siberia, Guiana and Bolivia, and in a few other localities.
Bolivia produced 501 tons in 1883, 10,245 in 1900 and 12,500 in 1905.Advertisement
With the exception of parts of the Ecuador, Brazil and Bolivia frontiers, all the boundary lines have been disputed and referred to arbitration - those with Colombia and Ecuador to the king of Spain, and that with Bolivia to the president of Argentina, on which a decision was rendered on the 9th of July 1909.
This line has been twice modified by treaties between Bolivia and Brazil, but without the consent of Peru, which claimed all the territory eastward to the Madeira between the above-mentioned line and the Beni-Madidi rivers, the line of demarcation following the Pablo-bamba, a small tributary of the Madidi, to its source, and thence in a straight line to the village of Conima, on Lake Titicaca.
The dispute with Brazil relates to the territory acquired by that republic from Bolivia in 1867 and 1903, and was to be settled, according to an agreement A so 4 16 5 Reference to Departments & Provinces 1.
Mr Forbes says that the peaks of Illampu (21,709 ft.) and Illimani (21,014 ft.) in Bolivia are Silurian and fossiliferous to their summits.
The most valuable species, called C. Calisaya, is found in the forests of Caravaya in south Peru and in those of Bolivia.Advertisement
Geology.'--The Eastern Cordillera., which, however, is but little known, appears to consist, as in Bolivia, chiefly of Palaeozoic rocks; the western ranges of the Andes are formed of Mesozoic beds, together with recent volcanic lavas and ashes; and the lower hills near the coast are composed of granite, syenite and other crystalline rocks, sometimes accompanied by limestones and sandstones, which are probably of Lower Cretaceous age, and often covered by marine Tertiary deposits.
Like the similar sandstone in Bolivia, it includes seams of coal and is frequently impregnated with cinnabar.
Of a widely different character is the navigation of Lake Titicaca, where steamers ply regularly between Puno and Guaqui, the latter on the south-east shore in railway connexion with La Paz, the capital of Bolivia.
The Peruvian telegraph system connects with those of Ecuador and Bolivia.
Coca (Erythroxylon coca) is a product peculiar to the eastern Andean slopes of Bolivia and Peru, where it has long been cultivated for its leaves.Advertisement
The alpaca and vicuña are smaller and weaker and have never been used for this service, but their fine, glossy fleeces were used by the Indians in the manufacture of clothing and are still an important commercial asset of the elevated table-lands of Peru and Bolivia.
As the species from which Ceara rubber is obtained (Hancorina speciosa) is found in Bolivia, it is probable that this is also a source of the Peruvian caucho.
The Peruvian supply is practically exhausted through the destructive methods employed in collecting the bark, and the world now depends chiefly on Bolivia and Ecuador.
But the strong-handed intervention of Chile on the ground of assistance rendered to rebels, but really through jealousy of the confederation, ended in the defeat and overthrow of Santa Cruz, and the separation of Bolivia from Peru.
The agreement between Chile and Bolivia, by which the disputed provinces were to be handed over to the latter country if Chilean possession was recognized, was also a stumbling-block, a strong feeling existed among Peruvians against this proceeding.Advertisement
The product of Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador amounted in 1900 to £2,481,000 and to £2,046,000 in 1905.
The mineral has been found in some Cornish mines and is fairly abundant in Bolivia (near Sorata, and at Tasna in Potosi).
The hydrated carbonate, bismutite, is of less importance; it occurs in Cornwall, Bolivia, Arizona and elsewhere.
They are natives of Brazil, Bolivia and Chile.
In June 1825 Bolivar visited Upper Peru, which, having detached itself from the government of Buenos Aires, was formed into a separate state, called Bolivia, in honour of the liberator.Advertisement
His project of a constitution for Bolivia was presented to the congress of that state on the 25th of May 1826, accompanied with an address, in which he embodied his opinions respecting the form of government which he conceived most expedient for the newly established republics.
Its most extraordinary feature consisted in the provision for lodging the executive authority in the hands of a president for life, without responsibility and with power to nominate his successor, a proposal which alarmed the friends of liberty, and excited lively apprehensions amongst the republicans of Buenos Aires and Chile; whilst in Peru, Bolivar was accused of a design to unite into one state Colombia, Peru and Bolivia, and to render himself perpetual dictator of the confederacy.
Bolivar spent nine-tenths of a splendid patrimony in the service of his country; and although he had for a considerable period unlimited control over the revenues of three countries - Colombia, Peru and Bolivia - he died without a shilling of public money in his possession.
The collection of this bullion was at all times a main object with the Spanish government, and more especially so after the discovery of the great silver deposits of Potosi in Bolivia.
For the details of the struggle the reader must refer to the articles Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela.Advertisement
It was formerly capital of the Bolivian department of Atacama and the only port possessed by Bolivia, but the seizure of that department in 1879 by Chile and the construction of the Antofagasta and Oruro railway deprived it of all importance, and its population, estimated at 6000 in 1858, has fallen to less than 500.
The third Pan-American Conference was held in the months of July and August 1906, and was attended by the United States, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Salvador and Uruguay.
Antofagasta is the seaport for a railway running to Oruro, Bolivia, and is the only available outlet for the trade of the south-western departments of that republic. The smelting works for the neighbouring silver mines are located here, and a thriving trade with the inland mining towns is carried on.
The town was founded in 1870 as a shipping port for the recently discovered silver mines of that vicinity, and belonged to Bolivia until 1879, when it was occupied by a Chilean military force.
Up to 1879 the province belonged to Bolivia, and was known as the department of Atacama, or the Litoral.
The frontier line towards Bolivia has long been in dispute.
Egusquiza (1894-1898) the boundary dispute with Bolivia became acute; but war was averted, largely owing to the success of the revolution, which forced the president to resign.
The province extends from the Pacific coast eastward to the Cordillera Occidental, which forms the boundary line with Puno and the republic of Bolivia.
There is one railway in the province, running from the city of Tacna to Arica, and in 1910 another from Arica to La Paz, Bolivia, was under construction by the Chilean government.
Thus the declaration of Paris, 1856 (to which, however, the United States, Venezuela and Bolivia have not yet formally acceded), prohibits the use of privateers and protects the commerce of neutrals; the Geneva conventions, 1864 and 1906, give protection to the wounded and to those in attendance upon them; the St Petersburg declaration, 1868, prohibits the employment of explosive bullets weighing less than 400 grammes; and the three Hague declarations of 1899 prohibit respectively (I) the launching of projectiles from balloons, (2) the use of projectiles for spreading harmful gases, and (3) the use of expanding bullets.
It is thus the largest sheet of fresh water between Lake Michigan and Lake Titicaca on the borders of Bolivia and Peru.
Pseudomorphs after calcite are known; and it is notable that native copper occurs pseudomorphous after aragonite at Corocoro, in Bolivia, where the copper is disseminated through sandstone.
Alpacas are kept in large flocks which graze on the level heights of the Andes of southern Peru and northern Bolivia, at an elevation of from 14,000 to 16,000 ft.
The war of 1879-81 with Peru and Bolivia gave to Chile 73,993 sq.
At the southern frontier of Bolivia the main chain, which has served as the boundary line between Argentina and Chile, divides into two great ranges, the principal one continuing almost due north along the eastern side of the great Bolivian alto-planicie, and the other forming its western rim, where it is known as the Cordillera Silillica, and then following the trend of the coast north-westward into Peru becomes the Cordillera Occidental.
The Chilean Andes correspond with the Western Cordillera of Bolivia and Peru, and consist almost entirely of Jurassic and Cretaceous beds, together with the products of the Tertiary eruptions.
During the years which have elapsed since the War of Independence the territory south of the Bio-Bio has been effectively occupied and divided into six provinces, Chiloe and the neighbouring islands and mainland to the east became a province, and four provinces in the northern deserts were acquired from Bolivia and Peru.
One of these, running from Antofagasta to the Caracoles district, was afterwards extended to Oruro, Bolivia, and has become a commercial route of international importance, with a total length of 574 m., 224 of which are in Chile.
It should be remembered that many of these railway enterprises of the desert region originated at a time when the territory belonged to Bolivia and Peru.
In 1836 Chile also became involved in a war with a confederation of Peru and Bolivia, which ended in the victory of Chile and the dissolution of the confederation.
The government of Bolivia also attempted to negotiate a treaty of peace with Chile in 1884, and for this purpose sent representatives to Santiago.
The problems to be solved were the frontier difficulty with Argentina, the question of the possession of Tacna and Arica with Peru, and the necessity of fulfilling the obligation contracted with Bolivia to give that country a seaport on the Pacific coast.
In these circumstances no final settlement with Peru and Bolivia was possible, the authorities of those republics holding back to see the issue of the Chile-Argentine dispute, and Chile being in no position at the time to insist on any terms being arranged.
The Argentine difficulty was ended, but Chile still had to find a settlement with Peru and Bolivia.
By the terms of the armistice of 1883 between Chile and Bolivia, a three years' notice had to be given by either government wishing to denounce that agreement.
By the protocol of 1895 Chile agreed to give to Bolivia the port of Arica, or some other suitable position on the seaboard.
Vitor, a landing-place a little to the south of Arica, was offered by the Chilean government to Bolivia, but refused as not complying with the conditions stated in the protocol of 1895; the Bolivians furthermore preferred to wait and see if Arica was finally ceded by Peru to Chile, and if so to claim the fulfilment of the terms of the protocol.
In September 1900 a fresh outburst of hostile feeling against Chile was created in Argentina by a note addressed by the Chilean government to Bolivia, intimating that Chile was no longer inclined to hand over the port of Arica or any other port on the Pacific, but considered the time ripe for a final settlement of the questions connected with the Chilean occupation of Bolivian territory, which had now been outstanding for sixteen years.
The settlement of the long outstanding dispute with Bolivia in a treaty of peace signed on the 17th of October 1905 was very advantageous to both countries.
By this treaty Bolivia ceded all claims to a seaport and strip of the coast, on condition that Chile constructed at her own charges a railway to Lapaz from the port of Arica, giving at the same time to Bolivia free transit across Chilean territory to the sea.
The boundary line between Bolivia and Brazil has its origin in the limits between the Spanish and Portuguese colonies determined by the treaties of Madrid and San Ildefonso (1750 and 1777), which were modified by the treaties of 1867 and 1903.
The boundary with Chile was greatly modified by the results of the war of 1879-83, as determined by the treaties of 1884, 1886 and 1895, Bolivia losing her department of the littoral on the Pacific and all access to the coast except by the grace of the conqueror.
These negotiations proved fruitless, and in 1904 Bolivia accepted a pecuniary indemnity in lieu of territory.
Roughly calculated, two-fifths of the total area of Bolivia is comprised within the Andean cordilleras which cross its south-west corner and project east toward the Brazilian highlands in the form of a great obtuse angle.
The western range, the Cordillera Occidental, a part of the boundary between Bolivia and the northern provinces of Chile, closely follows the coast outline and forms the western rampart of the great Bolivian tableland or alta-planicie, which extends from the Vilcanota knot in Peru, south to the Serrania de Lipez on the Argentine frontier, is 500 m.
West of the Cordillera Oriental, where special conditions prevail, a great desert plateau stretches entirely across one corner of the republic. Apart from the Andean system there is a group of low, broken, gneiss ranges stretching along the east side of Bolivia among the upper affluents of the Mamore and Guapore, which appear to belong to the older Brazilian orographic system, from which they have been separated by the erosive action of water.
The popular conception of Bolivia is that of an extremely rugged mountainous country, although fully three-fifths of it, including the Chiquitos region, is composed of low alluvial plains, great swamps and flooded bottomlands, and gently undulating forest regions.
There are considerable areas in this part of Bolivia, however, which lie above the floods and afford rich grazing lands.
This is one of the richest districts of Bolivia and is capable of sustaining a large population.
Several of its south tributaries belong to Bolivia.
Its Brazilian tributaries are comparatively unimportant, but from Bolivia it receives the Baures and the San Miguel, both rising in the Sierras de Chiquitos and flowing north-west across the llanos to the Guapore.
It possesses only one large river in Bolivia, the Pilcomayo, which rises on the east slopes of the Cordillera Oriental opposite the south end of Lake Pampa Aullaguas and flows east and south-east through the sierra region to the Bolivian Chaco.
The lake belongs to both Bolivia and Peru, and is navigated by steamers running between Bolivian ports and the Peruvian railway port of Puno.
Having no sea-coast, Bolivia has no seaport except what may be granted in usufruct by Chile.
In southern Bolivia Cambrian and Ordovician beds form the greater part of the eastern Andes, but farther north the, Devonian and Carboniferous are extensively developed, especially in the northeastern ranges.
The hills, known as the Chiquitos, which rise from the plains of eastern Bolivia, are composed of ancient sedimentary rocks of unknown age.
No later marine deposits have been found either in the eastern Andes or in the plains of Bolivia, but freshwater beds of Tertiary and later date occupy a wide area.
The volcanoes of Bolivia lie almost entirely in the Western Cordillera - the great summits of the eastern range, such as Illimani and Sorata, being formed of Palaeozoic rocks with granitic and other intrusions.
The gold, silver and tin of Bolivia occur chiefly in the Palaeozoic rocks of the eastern ranges.
Bolivia has a wide range of temperature between places of the same latitude.
The puna, which lies between 11,000 and 12,500 ft., includes the great central plateau of Bolivia.
In general, the sub-tropical (valle) and temperate (cabezera de valle) regions of Bolivia are healthy and agreeable, have a plentiful rainfall, moderate temperature in the shade, and varied and abundant products.
The indigenous fauna of Bolivia corresponds closely to that of the neighbouring districts of Argentina, Brazil and Peru.
The llama is used as a pack animal in Bolivia and Peru, and its coarse wool is used in the making of garments for the natives.
The alpaca is highly prized for its fine wool, which is a staple export from Bolivia, but the animal is reared with difficulty and the product cannot be largely increased.
Like other South American states, Bolivia benefited greatly from the introduction of European animals.
Owing to the diversities in altitude the flora of Bolivia represents every climatic zone, from the scanty Arctic vegetation of the lofty Cordilleras to the luxuriant tropical forests of the Amazon basin.
The flora of Bolivia has been studied less than the flora of the neighbouring republics, however, because of the inaccessibility of these inland regions.
The calisaya trees of Bolivia rank among the best, and their bark forms an important item in her foreign trade.
The population of Bolivia is composed of Indians, Caucasians of European origin, and a mixture of the two races, generally described as mestizos.
The former, which are chiefly Aymaras south of the latitude of Lake Titicaca, attained a considerable degree of civilization before the discovery of America and have been in closer contact with Europeans than the other tribes of Bolivia.
Yet, with a decreasing Indian population, and with a white population wanting in energy, barely able to hold its own and comprising only one-eighth of the total, the future of Bolivia mainly depends on them.
Among the smaller towns prominent because of an industry or commercial position, may be mentioned the Huanchaca mining centre of Pulacayo (pop. 6512), where 3200 men are employed in the mines and surface works of this great silver mining company; Uyuni (pop. 1587), the junction of the Pulacayo branch with the Antofagasta and Oruro railway, and also the converging point for several important highways and projected railways; and Tupiza (pop. 1644), a commercial and mining centre near the Argentine frontier, and the terminus of the Argentine railway extension into Bolivia.
Under a treaty with Brazil in 1903 and with Chile in 1904 (ratified 1905) provisions were made for railway construction in Bolivia to bring this isolated region into more effective communication with the outside world.
Rivalry for the control of her trade, therefore, promises to give Bolivia the railways needed for the development of her resources.
Up to 1903 the only railways in Bolivia were the Antofagasta and Oruro line, with a total length of 574 m., of which 350 m.
The undertaking of the Arica-La Paz line by the Chilean government, also, was an important step towards the improvement of the economic situation in Bolivia.
Bolivia is a member of the International Postal Union, and has parcel and money order conventions with some foreign countries.
The loss of her maritime department has left Bolivia with no other ports than those of Lake Titicaca (especially Guaqui, or Huaqui, which trades with the Peruvian port of Puno), and those of the Madeira and Paraguay rivers and their affluents.
As none of these can be reached without transhipment in foreign territory, the cost of transport is increased, and her neighbours are enabled to exclude Bolivia from direct commercial intercourse with other nations.
Since then Bolivia's outlet to the Amazon is restricted to the Madeira river, the navigation of which is interrupted by a series of falls before Bolivian territory is reached.
The railway to be built by Brazil will remedy this unfavourable situation, will afford a better outlet for north-eastern Bolivia, and should promote a more rapid development of that region, which is covered with an admirable system of navigable rivers above the falls of the Beni and Mamore.
Whenever the trade of southern Bolivia becomes important enough to warrant the expense of opening a navigable channel in the Pilcomayo, direct river communication with Buenos Aires and Montevideo will be possible.
Sugar-cane also was introduced at an early date, but as the demand for sugar was limited the product was devoted chiefly to the manufacture of rum, which is the principal object of cane cultivation in Bolivia to-day.
The climatic conditions are highly favourable for this product in eastern Bolivia, but it is heavily taxed and is restricted to a small home market.
Rice is another exotic grown in the tropical districts of eastern Bolivia, but the quantity produced is far from sufficient to meet local requirements.
In the exploitation of her forest products, however, are to be found the industries that yield the greatest immediate profit to Bolivia.
The most prominent and profitable of these is that of rubber-collecting, which was begun in Bolivia between 1880 and 1890, and which reached a registered annual output of nearly 35 oo metric tons just before Bolivia's best rubber forests were transferred to Brazil in 1903.
Although representing less value in the aggregate, the collecting of cinchona bark is one of the oldest forest industries of Bolivia, which is said still to have large areas of virgin forest to draw upon.
The foreign trade of Bolivia is comparatively unimportant, but the statistical returns are incomplete and unsatisfactory; the imports of 1904 aggregated only £1,734,551 in value, and the exports only £1,851,758.
The import trade of Bolivia is restricted by the poverty of the people.
The government of Bolivia is a " unitarian " or centralized republic, representative in form, but autocratic in some important particulars.
Although Bolivia has a free and compulsory school system, education and the provision for education have made little progress.
Bolivia is divided into an archbishopric and three bishoprics.
The religious orders, which have never been suppressed in Bolivia, maintain several convents.
This was Bolivia's only foreign debt.
We are only concerned here with the War of Independence so far as it affected Upper Peru, the Bolivia of later days.
This assembly continued their session, although the primary object of their meeting had thus been accomplished, and afterwards gave the name of Bolivia to the country, - issuing at the same time a formal declaration of independence.
The first general assembly of deputies of Bolivia dissolved itself on the 6th of October 1825, and a new congress was summoned and formally installed at Chuquisaca on the 25th of May 1826, to take into consideration the constitution prepared by Bolivar for the new republic. A favourable report was made to that body by a committee appointed to examine it, on which it was approved by the congress, and declared to be the constitution of the republic; and as such, it was sworn to by the people.
Quiet being again restored in 1831, Santa Cruz promulgated the code of laws which bore his name, and brought the financial affairs of the country into some order; he also concluded a treaty of commerce with Peru, and for several years Bolivia remained in peace.
Three years of fighting ensued till in a battle at Jungay in June 1839 Santa Cruz was defeated and exiled, Gamarra became president of Peru, and General Velasco provisional chief in Bolivia.
The Santa Cruz party, however, remained strong in Bolivia, and soon revolted successfully against the new head of the government, ultimately installing General Ballivian in the chief power.
Taking advantage of the disturbed condition of Bolivia, Gamarra made an attempt to annex the rich province of La Paz, invading it in August 1841 and besieging the capital; but in a battle with Ballivian his army was totally routed, and Gamarra himself was killed.
Under this president Bolivia entered upon a secret agreement with Peru which was destined to have grave consequences for both countries.
To understand the reasons that urged Bolivia to take this step it is necessary to go back to the abovementioned treaty of 1866 between Chile and Bolivia.
By this instrument Bolivia, besides conceding the 24th parallel as the boundary of Chilean territory, agreed that Chile should have a half share of the customs and full facilities for trading on the coast that lay between the 23rd and 24th parallels, Chile at that time being largely interested in the trade of that region.
It was also agreed that Chile should be allowed to mine and export the products of this district without tax or hindrance on the part of Bolivia.
In 1870, in further consideration of the sum of $10,000, Bolivia granted to an Anglo-Chilean company the right of working certain nitrate deposits north of the 24th parallel.
The great wealth which was passing into Chilean hands owing to these compacts created no little discontent in Bolivia, nor was Peru any better pleased with the hold that Chilean capital was establishing in the rich district of Tarapaca.
On 6th February 1873 Bolivia entered upon a secret agreement with Peru, the ostensible object of which was the preservation of their territorial integrity and their mutual defence against exterior aggression.
This treaty was never ratified, and four years later General Hilarion Daza, who had succeeded Dr Frias as president in 1876, demanded as the price of Bolivia's consent that a tax of 10 cents per quintal should be paid on all nitrates exported from the country, further declaring that, unless this levy was paid, nitrates in the hands of the exporters would be seized by the Bolivian government.
Meanwhile a double revolution took place in Peru and Bolivia.
During 1880 the war was chiefly maintained at sea between Chile and Peru, Bolivia taking little or no part in the struggle.
On the 10th of October 1883 they concluded a treaty of peace with Chile; the troops at Arequipa, under Admiral Montero, surrendered that town, and Montero himself, coldly received in Bolivia, whither he had fled for refuge, withdrew from the country to Europe.
Negotiations were opened, and on r 1th December a peace was signed between Chile and Bolivia.
By this treaty Bolivia ceded to Chile the whole of its sea-coast, including the port of Cobija.
On the 18th of May 1895 a treaty was signed at Santiago between Chile and Bolivia, " with a view to strengthening the bonds of friendship which unite the two countries," and, " in accord with the higher necessity that the future development and commercial prosperity of Bolivia require her free access to the sea."
By this treaty Chile declared that if, in consequence of the plebiscite (to take place under the treaty of Ancon with Peru), or by virtue of direct arrangement, she should " acquire dominion and permanent sovereignty over the territories of Tacna and Arica, she undertakes to transfer them to Bolivia in the same form and to the same extent as she may acquire them "; the republic of Bolivia paying as an indemnity for that transfer $5,000,000 silver.
If this cession should be effected, Chile should advance her own frontier north of Camerones to Vitor, from the sea up to the frontier which actually separates that district from Bolivia.
Chile also pledged herself to use her utmost endeavour, either separately or jointly with Bolivia, to obtain possession of Tacna and Arica.
If she failed, she bound herself to cede to Bolivia the roadstead (caleta) of Vitor, or another analogous one, and $5,000,000 silver.
Supplementary protocols to this treaty stipulated that the port to be ceded must " fully satisfy the present and future requirements " of the commerce of Bolivia.
On the 23rd of May 1895 further treaties of peace and commerce were signed with Chile, but the provisions with regard to the cession of a seaport to Bolivia still remained unfulfilled.
Fully one-half of its length is through the mountainous districts of central Bolivia, where it is fed by a large number of rivers and streams from the snowclad peaks, and may be described as a raging torrent.
Below Reyes its course is through the forest covered hills and open plains of northern Bolivia, where some of the old Indian missions were located.
In 1871 Fish presided at the Peace Conference at Washington between Spain and the allied republics of Peru, Chile, Ecuador and Bolivia, which resulted in the formulation (April 12) of a general truce between those countries, to last indefinitely and not to be broken by any one of them without three years' notice given through the United States; and it was chiefly due to his restraint and moderation that a satisfactory settlement of the "Virginius Affair" was reached by the United States and Spain (1873).
Mount Aguita is 20,600 ft., and the Bolivia culminating peak of those of Tres Cruces reaches 22,658 ft.
While the western range of the Cordillera is principally formed by volcanic rocks, the eastern (to the east of the range is Cerro Potosi, 15,400 ft.) Andes of Bolivia are chiefly composed of old crystalline rocks.
The discovery of great Pampean mammals in the Pleistocene beds of that region shows that this upheaval of the latter is very recent, for in the heart of the Cordillera, as well as on the west coast of Bolivia and Peru, there have been discovered, in very recent deposits, the remains of some mammals which cannot have crossed the high range as it now exists.
In Bolivia this eastern ridge, separated from the western Cordillera by the longitudinal valley in which Lake Titicaca lies, is formed chiefly of Archaean and Palaeozoic rocks.
During his term of office as president (1876 to 1881) Pinto had to deal first with a severe financial crisis, and then to conduct the struggle with Peru and Bolivia, in which he displayed great coolness of judgment and devotion to duty.
Cocaine is the active principle of the coca leaf, which is chewed as a stimulant-narcotic in Peru and Bolivia.
The aim of this paper is to identify the main determinants of child health in Bolivia.
There was a cultural and ideological hegemony in Bolivia, of liberalization and modernization.
Trinidad is in the tropical lowlands of Bolivia, on the edge of the Amazon.
On October 16, 2001, I landed in Bolivia with five equally perplexed Canadian interns.
Bolivia was created out of the former Spanish protectorate of Peru during this period.
Bolivia's unforgiving terrain is a nature lover's paradise.
The aggressive attitude of Chile towards Bolivia was causing considerable anxiety, and Argentina and Brazil wished to show that they were united in opposing a policy which aimed at acquiring an extension of territory by force of arms. The feeling of enmity between Chile and Argentina was indeed anything but extinct.
Over five-sixths of the world's total production is derived from secondary alluvial deposits, but all the tin obtained in Cornwall (the alluvial deposits having been worked out) and Bolivia is from vein mining, while a small portion of that yielded by Australasia comes from veins and from granitic rocks carrying disseminated tinstone.
Lake Titicaca (see Bolivia), in the fourth or most southern section, is divided between Peru and Bolivia.
The alpaca and vicuÃ±a are smaller and weaker and have never been used for this service, but their fine, glossy fleeces were used by the Indians in the manufacture of clothing and are still an important commercial asset of the elevated table-lands of Peru and Bolivia.
Nominally, the import duties are moderate, so much so that Bolivia is sometimes called a " free-trade country," but this is a misnomer, for in addition to the schedule rates of io to 40% ad valorem on imports, there are a consular fee of i-% for the registration of invoices exceeding 200 bolivianos, a consumption tax of 10 centavos per quintal (46 kilogrammes), fees for viseing certificates to accompany merchandise in transit, special " octroi " taxes on certain kinds of merchandise controlled by monopolies (spirits, tobacco, &c.), and the import and consumption taxes levied by the departments and municipalities.
You could ask it, "What is the number of presidents of the United States born on Friday who have older sisters, multiplied by the number of wars lost by Bolivia?" and it could instantly give you an answer.
With the movement in Ecuador checked for the moment the focus for the continental revolt against neo-liberalism switched to Bolivia.
Bolivia 's unforgiving terrain is a nature lover 's paradise.
Until 1867 English manufacturers of quinine were entirely dependent upon South America for their supplies of cinchona bark, which were obtained exclusively from uncultivated trees, growing chiefly in Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador, the principal species which were used for the purpose being Cinchona Calisaya; C. officinalis; C. macrocalyx, var.