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boiling-point

boiling-point

boiling-point Sentence Examples

  • The vaporization of a substance below its normal boiling-point can also be effected by blowing in steam or some other vapour; this operation is termed "distillation with steam."

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  • By recrystallization from hot benzene, the a form is obtained in large prisms which melt at 157° C., and at their boiling-point decompose into hydrochloric acid and trichlorbenzene.

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  • The colour, the boiling-point, the specific gravity and solubility in alcohol serve as most valuable adjuncts in the examination with a view to form an estimate of the genuineness and value of a sample.

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  • The pressure in the refrigerator being reduced by the pump and maintained at such a degree as to give the required boiling-point, which is of course always lower than the temperature outside the coils, heat passes from the substance outside, through the coil surfaces, and is taken up by the entering liquid, which is converted into vapour at the temperature T i.

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  • The relation of the elevation of the boiling-point (t°) to the osmotic pressure (P) is very simply derived from the formula t=o 02407P 0, while the reduction of vapour pressure proportional to the concentration can be very easily obtained from the elevation of the boiling-point, or it may be obtained directly from tables of vapour tension.

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  • - Formerly all chlorate of potash, as some is still, was obtained by passing chlorine into milk of lime, allowing the temperature to rise almost to the boiling-point, and continuing until the bleaching-solution, originally formed, is converted into a mixture of calcium chlorate and chloride, the final reaction being 6Ca(OH)2+6C12=5CaC12+Ca(C103)2+6H20.

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  • The steam rising from the latter is passed into a similar pan, in which it circulates round another set of pipes, but as it could not bring the liquid in the latter to boil under ordinary conditions, the second pan is connected with a vacuum-pump so that the boiling-point of the liquid in this pan is lowered.

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  • The steam rising from the latter is passed into a similar pan, in which it circulates round another set of pipes, but as it could not bring the liquid in the latter to boil under ordinary conditions, the second pan is connected with a vacuum-pump so that the boiling-point of the liquid in this pan is lowered.

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  • oleum, olive oil), the generic expression for substances belonging to extensive series of bodies of diverse chemical character, all of which have the common physical property of being fluid either at the ordinary temperature or at temperatures below the boiling-point of water.

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  • According to the above formula the critical temperature is given by 8aA/54b, and as the critical temperature is approximately proportional to the boiling-point, both being estimated on the absolute scale of temperature, we may conclude that the larger value of b corresponds to the lower boilingpoint, and indeed the isomer corresponding to the left-hand formula boils at 74°, the other at 114°.

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  • The graduation of a thermometer is determined by the freezing-point and the boiling-point of water, the interval between these being divided into a certain number of degrees, representing equal increases of temperature.

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  • According to him its boiling point is 4.3° abs.

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  • In districts where the water is of a " hard nature," that is, contains bicarbonate of lime in solution, the interior of the boiler cylinders, tanks and pipes of a hot water system will become incrusted with a deposit of lime which is gradually precipitated as the water is heated to boiling point.

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  • to boiling point.

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  • O Coch 3, a colourless liquid of boiling point 193° C., may be prepared by heating phenol with acetamide.

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  • News, 1891, 63, p. 1); just above the boiling point the vapour is orange-yellow, but on continued heating it darkens, being deep red at 50o; at higher temperatures it lightens, becoming straw-yellow at 650°.

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  • The " cracking " process, whereby a considerable quantity of the oil which is intermediate between kerosene and lubricating oil is converted into hydrocarbons of lower specific gravity and boiling-point suitable for illuminating purposes, is one of great scientific and technical interest.

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  • The cracking process practically consists in distilling the oils at a temperature higher than the normal boiling point of the constituents which it is desired to decompose.

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  • Kopp, begun in 1842, on the molecular volumes, the volume occupied by one gramme molecular weight of a substance, of liquids measured at their boiling-point under atmospheric pressure, brought to light a series of additive relations which, in the case of carbon compounds, render it possible to predict, in some measure, the cornposition of the substance.

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  • Recent researches have shown that the law originally proposed by Kopp - " That the specific volume of a liquid compound (molecular volume) at its boiling-point is equal to the sum of the specific volumes of its constituents (atomic volumes), and that every element has a definite atomic value in its compounds " - is by no means exact, for isomers have different specific volumes, and the volume for an increment of CH 2 in different homologous series is by no means constant; for example, the difference among the esters of the fatty acids is about 57, whereas for the aliphatic aldehydes it is 49.

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  • Guldberg pointed out that for the most diverse substances the absolute boiling-point is about two-thirds of the critical temperature.

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  • Hence within narrow limits Kopp's determinations were carried out under coincident conditions, and therefore any regularities presented by the critical volumes should be revealed in the specific volumes at the boiling-point.

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  • 6 1.86 3.01 o 88 1.03 Since at the boiling-point under atmospheric pressure liquids are in corresponding states, the additive nature of the critical coefficient should also be presented by boiling-points.

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  • It may he shown theoretically that the absolute boiling-point is proportional to the molecular volume, and, since this property is additive, the boiling-point should also be additive.

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  • 185.8° Equal increments in the molecule are associated with an equal rise in the boiling-point, but this increment varies in different homologous series.

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  • The substitution of a hydrogen atom by the hydroxyl group generally occasions a rise in boiling-point at about Ioo°.

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  • The introduction of negative groups into a molecule alters the boiling-point according to the number of negative groups already present.

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  • This is shown in the case of the chloracetic acids: According to van 't Hoff the substitution of chlorine atoms into a methyl group occasions the following increments: The introduction of chlorine, however, may involve a fall in the boiling-point, as is recorded by Henry in the case of the chlorinated acetonitriles: NC CH 3.

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  • 81° 123° 112° 83° 42° - II° - 29° The replacement of one negative group by another is accompanied by a change in the boiling-point, which is independent of the compound in which the substitution is effected, and solely conditioned by the nature of the replaced and replacing groups.

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  • Mag., 18 93 [5), 35, p. 45 8) has shown that, while an increase in molecular weight is generally associated with a rise in the boiling-point, yet the symmetry of the resulting molecule may exert such a lowering effect that the final result is a diminution in the boiling-point.

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  • The series H 2 S = - 61°, CH 3 SH = 21 °, (C 11 3) 2 S=41 ° is an example; in the first case, the molecular weight is increased and the symmetry diminished, the increase of boiling-point being 82°; in the second case the molecular weight is again increased but the molecule assumes a more symmetrical configuration, hence the comparatively slight increase of 20°.

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  • A similar depression is presented by methyl alcohol (67°) and methyl ether (-23 °) Among the aromatic di-substitution derivatives the ortho compounds have the highest boiling-point, and the meta boil at a higher, or about the same temperature as the para compounds.

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  • An ethylenic or double carbon union in the aliphatic hydrocarbons has, apparently, the same effect on the boiling-point as two hydrogen atoms, since the compounds C 0 H 2 „ +2 and CoH2n boil at about the same temperature.

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  • An acetylenic or triple linkage is associated with a rise in the boiling-point; for example, propargyl compounds boil about 19.5° higher than the corresponding propyl compound.

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  • This tube was placed in an outer tube containing the liquid to be experimented with; the liquid is raised to its boiling-point, and then hermetically sealed.

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  • to the boiling-point, and are in some cases used for cooking.

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  • Saturated steam is steam in contact with liquid water at a temperature which is the boiling point of the water and condensing point of the steam; superheated steam is steam out of contact with water heated above this temperature.

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  • below the boiling-point of water (Rose's metal).

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  • It is prepared by oxidizing ethyl alcohol with dilute sulphuric acid and potassium bichromate, and is a colourless liquid of boiling point 20�8° C., possessing a peculiar characteristic smell.

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  • Briihl) and boiling point 104° C. Dilute acids readily transform it into alcohol and aldehyde, and chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid.

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  • Salicylic aldehyde (ortho-hydroxybenzaldehyde), HO(I)� C 6 H 4 �CHO(2), an aromatic oxyaldehyde, is a colourless liquid of boiling point 196° C. and specific gravity.

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  • These limits may be set down as from a little above the freezing point of water to a little below the boiling point.

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  • One hundred parts of water at o° and at Ioo° dissolve 72.9 and 180 parts of the salt; at 120° the boiling-point of the saturated solution, 216 parts.

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  • Owing to the fact that at temperatures between its melting and boiling point zinc has a strong affinity for iron, it is often contaminated by the scraper while being drawn from the condenser, as is shown by the fact that the scraper wears away rapidly.

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  • If zinc be heated to near its boiling-point, it catches fire and burns with a brilliant light into its powdery white oxide, which forms a reek in the air (lana philosophica, " philosopher's wool").

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  • At a red heat rutile is produced, at the boiling point of zinc brookite, and of cadmium anatase.

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  • The next higher members of the series are liquids of low boiling point also readily soluble in water, the solubility and volatility, however, decreasing with the increasing carbon content of the molecule, until the highest members of the series are odourless solids of high boiling point and are insoluble in water.

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  • Almost all these springs are at a very hot temperature, often at boiling point.

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  • Since many substances decompose either at, or below, their boiling-points under ordinary atmospheric pressure, it is necessary to lower the boiling-point by reducing the pressure if it be desired to distil them.

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  • Three types of columns are employed: (I) the elongation is simply a straight or bulb tube; (2) the column, properly termed a "dephlegmator," is so constructed that the vapours have to traverse a column of previously condensed vapour; (3) the column is encircled by a jacket through which a liquid circulates at the same temperature as the boiling-point of the most volatile component.

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  • This method is particularly successful in the case of substances which cannot be distilled at their ordinary boiling-points (it will be seen in the following section that distilling with steam implies a lowering of boiling-point), and which can be readily separated from water.

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  • A liquid boils when its vapor pressure equals the superincumbent pressure; consequently any process which diminishes the external pressure must also lower the boiling-point.

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  • Thus nitric acid, boiling-point 68°, forms a mixture with water, boiling point loo°, which boils at a constant temperature of 126°, and contains 68% of acid.

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  • At one time it was thought that these mixtures of constant boiling-point (an extended list is given in Young's Fractional Distillation) were definite compounds.

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  • The above theory, coupled with such facts as the variation of the composition of the constant boiling-point fraction with the pressure under which the mixture is distilled, the proportionality of the density of all mixtures to their composition, &c., shows this to be erroneous.

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  • The vapours rising from the still traverse a tall vertical column, and are then conveyed through a series of bulbs placed in a bath kept at the boiling-point of the most volatile constituent.

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  • Another question to which he gave much attention was the connexion of the boiling-point of compounds, organic ones in particular, with their composition.

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  • Other methods consist in determining the vapour tension by means of the vaporimeter of Geissler, or the boiling point by the ebullioscope.

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  • at the boiling-point.

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  • It vaporizes in a vacuum at 292°, and its boiling-point, under atmospheric pressure, is between 1090° and 1450° (T.

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  • In general these compounds are decomposable by heat, but some of them, such as those of gold, silver, copper and the alkali metals, even when heated above the boiling point of mercury retain mercury and leave residues of definite composition.

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  • In 1826 Dumas devised a method suitable for substances of high boiling-point; this consisted in its essential point in vaporizing the substance in a flask made of suitable material, sealing it when full of vapour, and weighing.

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  • Before discussing the methods now used in detail, a summary of the conclusions reached by Victor Meyer in his classical investigations in this field as to the applicability of the different methods will be given: (I) For substances which do not boil higher than 260° and have vapours stable for 30° above the boiling-point and which do not react on mercury, use Victor Meyer's "mercury expulsion method."

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  • It is to be noted, however, that this method is applicable to substances of any boiling-point (see below).

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  • To use the apparatus, a liquid of suitable boiling-point is placed in the jacket and brought to the boiling-point.

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  • Hecker took the opportunity of a voyage from Hamburg to La Plata, and in 1904 and 1905 of voyages in the Indian and Pacific Oceans to determine the local attraction over the ocean by comparing the atmospheric pressure measured by means of a mercurial barometer and a boiling-point thermometer, and obtained results similar to Scott Hansen's.

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  • Further Physical Properties of Sea-water.---The laws of physical chemistry relating to complex dilute solutions apply to seawater, and hence there is a definite relation between the osmotic pressure, freezing-point, vapour tension and boiling-point by which when one of these constants is given the others can be calculated.

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  • As, however, the temperature developed is a function of the time needed to complete the action, the degree of heat attained varies with every form of generator, and while the water in one form may never reach the boiling-point, the carbide in another may become red-hot and give a temperature of over 800° C. Heating in a generator is not only a source of danger, but also lessens the yield of gas and deteriorates its quality.

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  • Methyl bromide is a liquid, specific gravity I 73, boiling point 13°; methyl iodide has a specific gravity of 2.19, and boils at 43°.

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  • Fine lakes and waterfalls, innumerable pools, in temperature from boiling-point to cold, geysers, solfataras, fumaroles and mud volcanoes still attract tourists in large numbers.

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  • A third oil was obtained by heating the liver-residues to above the boiling-point of water, whereupon a black product, technically called "brown oil," separated.

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  • A saturated solution of calcium chloride contains 325 parts of CaC1 2 to ioo of water at the boiling point (179.5°).

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  • Similar is the behaviour of the fused dry salt at a dull red heat; it acts on silicates, titanates, &c., as if it were sulphuric acid raised beyond its natural boiling point.

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  • Andrews's conception of the critical temperature of gases by defining the absolute boiling-point of a substance as the temperature at which cohesion and heat of vaporization become equal to zero and the liquid changes to vapour, irrespective of the pressure and volume.

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  • It distils over as a dark red liquid of boiling point 117° C., and is to be regarded as the acid chloride corresponding to chromic acid, CrO 2 (OH) 2.

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  • If a more dilute acid than this be distilled, water passes over in excess and the residue in the retort reaches the above composition and boiling point; on distillation of a stronger acid, excess of acid passes into the distillate and the boiling point rises until the values of the constant boiling mixture are reached.

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  • Of the simple compounds, only the fluoride is amenable to electrolysis in the fused state, since the chloride begins to volatilize below its melting-point, and the latter is only 5° below its boiling-point.

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  • Methylnonylketone, CH 3 CO C 9 H 19, is the chief constituent of oil of rue, which also contains methylheptylketone, CH 3 CO C 7 H 15, a liquid of boiling-point 85-90° C. (7 mm.), which yields normal caprylic acid on oxidation with hypobromites.

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  • CH 3, is an aromatic smelling liquid of boiling point 129.5-130° C. It is insoluble in water, but readily dissolves in alcohol.

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  • It is a liquid of boiling point 136° C. It condenses readily with aniline to give ay-dimethyl quinoline.

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  • Since this has not been done we must adopt the approximate rule that the volume at absolute zero is proportional to that at the boiling-point.

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  • An analogous remark applies to the boiling-point of isomers.

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  • Fusel, bad spirits), the name applied to the volatile oily liquids, of a nauseous fiery taste and smell, which are obtained in the rectification of spirituous liquors made by the fermentation of grain, potatoes, the marc of grapes, and other material, and which, as they are of higher boiling point than ethyl alcohol, occur in largest quantity in the last portions of the distillate.

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  • According to Rabuteau the toxic properties of the higher alcohols increase with their molecular weight and boiling point.

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  • It is a colourless liquid of boiling point 213° C.

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  • It is a thick oil which sets at - 20° C. to a mass of crystals of melting point o C, and boiling point 236-237°C. Oxidation with ferric chloride converts it into dicarvacrol, whilst phosphorus pentachloride transforms it into chlorcymol.

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  • By suitable modification in the proportions of the components, a series of alloys can be made which melt at various temperatures above the boiling point of water; for example, with 8 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead and 3 of tin the melting point is 123°, and with 8 of bismuth, 30 of lead and 24 of tin it is 172°.

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  • The rise of boiling-point produced by a substance in solution was demonstrated by M.

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  • But in many cases it is more readily determined by observing the rise of the boiling-point or the depression of the freezing-point of the solution.

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  • For the rise in the boiling-point, we have by Clapeyron's equation, dp/do = L/ov, nearly, neglecting the volume of the liquid as compared with that of the vapour v.

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  • If dp is the difference of vapourpressure of solvent and solution, and do the rise in the boiling-point, we have the approximate relation, n/N = d p/p = mLdo/Ro 2, Raoult's law,..

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  • The highest pressures recorded for cane-sugar are nearly three times as great as those given by van't Hoff's formula for the gas-pressure, but agree very well with the vapour-pressure theory, as modified by Callendar, provided that we substitute for V in Arrhenius's formula the actual specific volume of the solvent in the solution, and if we also assume that each molecule of sugar in solution combines with 5 molecules of water, as required by the observations on the depression of the freezing-point and the rise of the boiling-point.

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  • The approximate equation of Rankine (23) begins to be I or 2% in error at the boiling-point under atmospheric pressure, owing to the coaggregation of the molecules of the vapour and the variation of the specific heat of the liquid.

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  • Vapour density determinations indicate that dissociation occurs when the vapour is heated above the boiling point.

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  • The lead sulphate, obtained as described above and dissolved in ammonium acetate, is acidulated with acetic acid diluted with hot water and heated to boiling-point.

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  • When boiled, the aqueous acid loses either acid or water until a solution of constant boiling point is obtained, containing 48% of the acid and boiling at 126° C. under atmospheric pressure; should the pressure, however, vary, the strength of the solution boiling at a constant temperature varies also.

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  • It boils at 290°, forming a colourless vapour which just about the boiling-point corresponds in density to tetratomic molecules, P4; at 1500° to 1700°, however, Biltz and Meyer detected dissociation into P2 molecules.

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  • Beckmann obtained P4 molecules from the boiling-point of carbon bisulphide solutions, and Hertz arrived at the same conclusion from the lowering of the freezing-point in benzene solution; E.

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  • It forms crystals, apparently monoclinic, which melt at 22.5° to a clear, colourless, mobile liquid of boiling-point 173-i°.

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  • It is a colourless, mobile liquid of specific gravity 1.6128 at o° and boiling-point 76°.

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  • The body of the sun must consist of uncombined gases; at the surface the temperature is some 2000° C. above the boiling point of carbon, and a little way within the body it may probably exceed the critical point at which increase of pressure can produce the liquid state in any substance.

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  • Lead can be used for the purpose only when the boiling-point of the acid is reduced by means of a vacuum - a plan which has not met with much success.

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  • Coal gas, being a mixture of gases and vapours of liquids having very varying boiling points, must necessarily undergo physical changes when the temperature is lowered Vapours of liquids of high boiling point will be condensed more quickly than those having lower boiling points, but condensation of each vapour will take place in a definite ratio with the decrease of temperature, the rate being dependent upon the boiling point of the liquid from which it is formed.

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  • It also dissolves in alcohol and ether; boiling point determinations of the molecular weight in these solutions point to the formula FeCl3.

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  • By heating to the boiling point of naphthalene (218°) tertiary alcohols are decomposed, while heating to the boiling point of anthracene (360°) suffices to decompose secondary alcohols, the primary remaining unaffected.

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  • Of the primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols having the same empirical formula, the primaryhave the highest, and the tertiary the lowest boiling point; this is in accordance with the fairly general rule that a gain is symmetry is attended by a fall in the boiling point.

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  • They also investigated certain hydrocarbons occurring in the high boiling point fraction of the coal tar distillate and solved the constitution of phenanthrene.

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  • The writer has reduced their results to the scale of the gas thermometer, assuming the boiling-point of oxygen to be - 182.5° C.

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  • The boiling point is 221° F.

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  • Since that time the development of the petroleum industry in all parts of the world and the large quantities of low boiling-point hydrocarbons - naphtha - obtained from the petroleum fields, and also the improvements in the apparatus employed, have raised this system of extraction to the rank of a competing practical method of oil production.

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  • The boiling point of water varies with pressure; thus at one atmosphere or 14.7 lb per square inch it is 212° F., whereas at a pressure of 085 lb per square inch it is 32°, and at lower pressures there is a still further fall in temperature.

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  • The principle of the absorption process is chemical or physical rather than mechanical; it depends on the fact that many Absorp- vapours of low boiling-point are readily absorbed in water, and can be separated again by the application of heat.

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  • In each case, the alkene has a boiling point which is a small number of degrees lower than the corresponding alkane.

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  • Where you have isomers, the more branched the chain, the lower the boiling point tends to be.

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  • You will notice that: the trans isomer has the higher melting point; the CIS isomer has the higher boiling point.

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  • polarity of the molecule, the boiling point has only been increased by some 10° .

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  • In a wide, heavy-based saucepan gently heat the milk to boiling point.

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  • When the strands are heated in a salt solution to just below boiling point then rapidly cooled they bond together to form a tetrahedron.

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  • According to him its boiling point is 4.3° abs.

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  • In districts where the water is of a " hard nature," that is, contains bicarbonate of lime in solution, the interior of the boiler cylinders, tanks and pipes of a hot water system will become incrusted with a deposit of lime which is gradually precipitated as the water is heated to boiling point.

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  • It is a colourless spontaneously inflammable liquid of boiling point 95° C. By the action of one molecule of ethyl borate on two molecules of zinc ethyl, the compound B(C2H5)2.002H5 diethylboron ethoxide is obtained as a colourless liquid boiling at 102° C. By the action of water it is converted into B(C2H5)2.

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  • (0C2H5)5 is obtained as a colourless liquid of boiling point 112° C. Boron triethyl and boron trimethyl both combine with ammonia.

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  • to boiling point.

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  • O Coch 3, a colourless liquid of boiling point 193° C., may be prepared by heating phenol with acetamide.

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  • News, 1891, 63, p. 1); just above the boiling point the vapour is orange-yellow, but on continued heating it darkens, being deep red at 50o; at higher temperatures it lightens, becoming straw-yellow at 650°.

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  • The " cracking " process, whereby a considerable quantity of the oil which is intermediate between kerosene and lubricating oil is converted into hydrocarbons of lower specific gravity and boiling-point suitable for illuminating purposes, is one of great scientific and technical interest.

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  • The cracking process practically consists in distilling the oils at a temperature higher than the normal boiling point of the constituents which it is desired to decompose.

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  • Kopp, begun in 1842, on the molecular volumes, the volume occupied by one gramme molecular weight of a substance, of liquids measured at their boiling-point under atmospheric pressure, brought to light a series of additive relations which, in the case of carbon compounds, render it possible to predict, in some measure, the cornposition of the substance.

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  • Recent researches have shown that the law originally proposed by Kopp - " That the specific volume of a liquid compound (molecular volume) at its boiling-point is equal to the sum of the specific volumes of its constituents (atomic volumes), and that every element has a definite atomic value in its compounds " - is by no means exact, for isomers have different specific volumes, and the volume for an increment of CH 2 in different homologous series is by no means constant; for example, the difference among the esters of the fatty acids is about 57, whereas for the aliphatic aldehydes it is 49.

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  • Guldberg pointed out that for the most diverse substances the absolute boiling-point is about two-thirds of the critical temperature.

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  • Hence within narrow limits Kopp's determinations were carried out under coincident conditions, and therefore any regularities presented by the critical volumes should be revealed in the specific volumes at the boiling-point.

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  • 6 1.86 3.01 o 88 1.03 Since at the boiling-point under atmospheric pressure liquids are in corresponding states, the additive nature of the critical coefficient should also be presented by boiling-points.

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  • It may he shown theoretically that the absolute boiling-point is proportional to the molecular volume, and, since this property is additive, the boiling-point should also be additive.

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  • 185.8° Equal increments in the molecule are associated with an equal rise in the boiling-point, but this increment varies in different homologous series.

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  • The substitution of a hydrogen atom by the hydroxyl group generally occasions a rise in boiling-point at about Ioo°.

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  • The introduction of negative groups into a molecule alters the boiling-point according to the number of negative groups already present.

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  • This is shown in the case of the chloracetic acids: According to van 't Hoff the substitution of chlorine atoms into a methyl group occasions the following increments: The introduction of chlorine, however, may involve a fall in the boiling-point, as is recorded by Henry in the case of the chlorinated acetonitriles: NC CH 3.

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  • 81° 123° 112° 83° 42° - II° - 29° The replacement of one negative group by another is accompanied by a change in the boiling-point, which is independent of the compound in which the substitution is effected, and solely conditioned by the nature of the replaced and replacing groups.

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  • Mag., 18 93 [5), 35, p. 45 8) has shown that, while an increase in molecular weight is generally associated with a rise in the boiling-point, yet the symmetry of the resulting molecule may exert such a lowering effect that the final result is a diminution in the boiling-point.

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  • The series H 2 S = - 61°, CH 3 SH = 21 °, (C 11 3) 2 S=41 ° is an example; in the first case, the molecular weight is increased and the symmetry diminished, the increase of boiling-point being 82°; in the second case the molecular weight is again increased but the molecule assumes a more symmetrical configuration, hence the comparatively slight increase of 20°.

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  • A similar depression is presented by methyl alcohol (67°) and methyl ether (-23 °) Among the aromatic di-substitution derivatives the ortho compounds have the highest boiling-point, and the meta boil at a higher, or about the same temperature as the para compounds.

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  • An ethylenic or double carbon union in the aliphatic hydrocarbons has, apparently, the same effect on the boiling-point as two hydrogen atoms, since the compounds C 0 H 2 „ +2 and CoH2n boil at about the same temperature.

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  • An acetylenic or triple linkage is associated with a rise in the boiling-point; for example, propargyl compounds boil about 19.5° higher than the corresponding propyl compound.

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  • This tube was placed in an outer tube containing the liquid to be experimented with; the liquid is raised to its boiling-point, and then hermetically sealed.

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  • to the boiling-point, and are in some cases used for cooking.

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  • Saturated steam is steam in contact with liquid water at a temperature which is the boiling point of the water and condensing point of the steam; superheated steam is steam out of contact with water heated above this temperature.

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  • The liquefied gas boils at -195.5° C., and its specific gravity at its boiling point is 0 8103 (E.

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  • below the boiling-point of water (Rose's metal).

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  • It is prepared by oxidizing ethyl alcohol with dilute sulphuric acid and potassium bichromate, and is a colourless liquid of boiling point 20�8° C., possessing a peculiar characteristic smell.

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  • Briihl) and boiling point 104° C. Dilute acids readily transform it into alcohol and aldehyde, and chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid.

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  • Salicylic aldehyde (ortho-hydroxybenzaldehyde), HO(I)� C 6 H 4 �CHO(2), an aromatic oxyaldehyde, is a colourless liquid of boiling point 196° C. and specific gravity.

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  • These limits may be set down as from a little above the freezing point of water to a little below the boiling point.

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  • ETHER, (C 2 H 5) 2 O, the Aether of pharmacy, a colourless, volatile, highly inflammable liquid, of specific gravity o 736 at 0°, boiling-point 35° C., and freezing-point 117 0.4 C. (K.

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  • One hundred parts of water at o° and at Ioo° dissolve 72.9 and 180 parts of the salt; at 120° the boiling-point of the saturated solution, 216 parts.

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  • Owing to the fact that at temperatures between its melting and boiling point zinc has a strong affinity for iron, it is often contaminated by the scraper while being drawn from the condenser, as is shown by the fact that the scraper wears away rapidly.

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  • If zinc be heated to near its boiling-point, it catches fire and burns with a brilliant light into its powdery white oxide, which forms a reek in the air (lana philosophica, " philosopher's wool").

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  • At a red heat rutile is produced, at the boiling point of zinc brookite, and of cadmium anatase.

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  • The next higher members of the series are liquids of low boiling point also readily soluble in water, the solubility and volatility, however, decreasing with the increasing carbon content of the molecule, until the highest members of the series are odourless solids of high boiling point and are insoluble in water.

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  • Almost all these springs are at a very hot temperature, often at boiling point.

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  • Since many substances decompose either at, or below, their boiling-points under ordinary atmospheric pressure, it is necessary to lower the boiling-point by reducing the pressure if it be desired to distil them.

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  • The vaporization of a substance below its normal boiling-point can also be effected by blowing in steam or some other vapour; this operation is termed "distillation with steam."

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  • Three types of columns are employed: (I) the elongation is simply a straight or bulb tube; (2) the column, properly termed a "dephlegmator," is so constructed that the vapours have to traverse a column of previously condensed vapour; (3) the column is encircled by a jacket through which a liquid circulates at the same temperature as the boiling-point of the most volatile component.

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  • This method is particularly successful in the case of substances which cannot be distilled at their ordinary boiling-points (it will be seen in the following section that distilling with steam implies a lowering of boiling-point), and which can be readily separated from water.

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  • A liquid boils when its vapour pressure equals the superincumbent pressure (see Vaporization); consequently any process which diminishes the external pressure must also lower the boiling-point.

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  • Thus nitric acid, boiling-point 68°, forms a mixture with water, boiling point loo°, which boils at a constant temperature of 126°, and contains 68% of acid.

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  • At one time it was thought that these mixtures of constant boiling-point (an extended list is given in Young's Fractional Distillation) were definite compounds.

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  • The above theory, coupled with such facts as the variation of the composition of the constant boiling-point fraction with the pressure under which the mixture is distilled, the proportionality of the density of all mixtures to their composition, &c., shows this to be erroneous.

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  • The vapours rising from the still traverse a tall vertical column, and are then conveyed through a series of bulbs placed in a bath kept at the boiling-point of the most volatile constituent.

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  • Another question to which he gave much attention was the connexion of the boiling-point of compounds, organic ones in particular, with their composition.

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  • Other methods consist in determining the vapour tension by means of the vaporimeter of Geissler, or the boiling point by the ebullioscope.

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  • at the boiling-point.

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  • It vaporizes in a vacuum at 292°, and its boiling-point, under atmospheric pressure, is between 1090° and 1450° (T.

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  • In general these compounds are decomposable by heat, but some of them, such as those of gold, silver, copper and the alkali metals, even when heated above the boiling point of mercury retain mercury and leave residues of definite composition.

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  • In 1826 Dumas devised a method suitable for substances of high boiling-point; this consisted in its essential point in vaporizing the substance in a flask made of suitable material, sealing it when full of vapour, and weighing.

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  • Before discussing the methods now used in detail, a summary of the conclusions reached by Victor Meyer in his classical investigations in this field as to the applicability of the different methods will be given: (I) For substances which do not boil higher than 260° and have vapours stable for 30° above the boiling-point and which do not react on mercury, use Victor Meyer's "mercury expulsion method."

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  • It is to be noted, however, that this method is applicable to substances of any boiling-point (see below).

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  • To use the apparatus, a liquid of suitable boiling-point is placed in the jacket and brought to the boiling-point.

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  • Hecker took the opportunity of a voyage from Hamburg to La Plata, and in 1904 and 1905 of voyages in the Indian and Pacific Oceans to determine the local attraction over the ocean by comparing the atmospheric pressure measured by means of a mercurial barometer and a boiling-point thermometer, and obtained results similar to Scott Hansen's.

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  • Further Physical Properties of Sea-water.---The laws of physical chemistry relating to complex dilute solutions apply to seawater, and hence there is a definite relation between the osmotic pressure, freezing-point, vapour tension and boiling-point by which when one of these constants is given the others can be calculated.

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  • The relation of the elevation of the boiling-point (t°) to the osmotic pressure (P) is very simply derived from the formula t=o 02407P 0, while the reduction of vapour pressure proportional to the concentration can be very easily obtained from the elevation of the boiling-point, or it may be obtained directly from tables of vapour tension.

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  • As, however, the temperature developed is a function of the time needed to complete the action, the degree of heat attained varies with every form of generator, and while the water in one form may never reach the boiling-point, the carbide in another may become red-hot and give a temperature of over 800° C. Heating in a generator is not only a source of danger, but also lessens the yield of gas and deteriorates its quality.

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  • Methyl bromide is a liquid, specific gravity I 73, boiling point 13°; methyl iodide has a specific gravity of 2.19, and boils at 43°.

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  • Fine lakes and waterfalls, innumerable pools, in temperature from boiling-point to cold, geysers, solfataras, fumaroles and mud volcanoes still attract tourists in large numbers.

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  • A third oil was obtained by heating the liver-residues to above the boiling-point of water, whereupon a black product, technically called "brown oil," separated.

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  • A saturated solution of calcium chloride contains 325 parts of CaC1 2 to ioo of water at the boiling point (179.5°).

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  • Chem., 1905, 44, pp. 300, 408; 1906, 49, p. 2 97) found the solution of constant boiling point to contain 43.2% HF and to boil at (750 mm.).

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  • Similar is the behaviour of the fused dry salt at a dull red heat; it acts on silicates, titanates, &c., as if it were sulphuric acid raised beyond its natural boiling point.

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  • Andrews's conception of the critical temperature of gases by defining the absolute boiling-point of a substance as the temperature at which cohesion and heat of vaporization become equal to zero and the liquid changes to vapour, irrespective of the pressure and volume.

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  • It distils over as a dark red liquid of boiling point 117° C., and is to be regarded as the acid chloride corresponding to chromic acid, CrO 2 (OH) 2.

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  • If a more dilute acid than this be distilled, water passes over in excess and the residue in the retort reaches the above composition and boiling point; on distillation of a stronger acid, excess of acid passes into the distillate and the boiling point rises until the values of the constant boiling mixture are reached.

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  • Of the simple compounds, only the fluoride is amenable to electrolysis in the fused state, since the chloride begins to volatilize below its melting-point, and the latter is only 5° below its boiling-point.

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  • Methylnonylketone, CH 3 CO C 9 H 19, is the chief constituent of oil of rue, which also contains methylheptylketone, CH 3 CO C 7 H 15, a liquid of boiling-point 85-90° C. (7 mm.), which yields normal caprylic acid on oxidation with hypobromites.

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  • CH 3, is an aromatic smelling liquid of boiling point 129.5-130° C. It is insoluble in water, but readily dissolves in alcohol.

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  • It is a liquid of boiling point 136° C. It condenses readily with aniline to give ay-dimethyl quinoline.

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  • Since this has not been done we must adopt the approximate rule that the volume at absolute zero is proportional to that at the boiling-point.

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  • An analogous remark applies to the boiling-point of isomers.

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  • According to the above formula the critical temperature is given by 8aA/54b, and as the critical temperature is approximately proportional to the boiling-point, both being estimated on the absolute scale of temperature, we may conclude that the larger value of b corresponds to the lower boilingpoint, and indeed the isomer corresponding to the left-hand formula boils at 74°, the other at 114°.

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  • Fusel, bad spirits), the name applied to the volatile oily liquids, of a nauseous fiery taste and smell, which are obtained in the rectification of spirituous liquors made by the fermentation of grain, potatoes, the marc of grapes, and other material, and which, as they are of higher boiling point than ethyl alcohol, occur in largest quantity in the last portions of the distillate.

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  • According to Rabuteau the toxic properties of the higher alcohols increase with their molecular weight and boiling point.

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  • It is a colourless liquid of boiling point 213° C.

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  • It is a thick oil which sets at - 20° C. to a mass of crystals of melting point o C, and boiling point 236-237°C. Oxidation with ferric chloride converts it into dicarvacrol, whilst phosphorus pentachloride transforms it into chlorcymol.

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  • - Formerly all chlorate of potash, as some is still, was obtained by passing chlorine into milk of lime, allowing the temperature to rise almost to the boiling-point, and continuing until the bleaching-solution, originally formed, is converted into a mixture of calcium chlorate and chloride, the final reaction being 6Ca(OH)2+6C12=5CaC12+Ca(C103)2+6H20.

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  • By suitable modification in the proportions of the components, a series of alloys can be made which melt at various temperatures above the boiling point of water; for example, with 8 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead and 3 of tin the melting point is 123°, and with 8 of bismuth, 30 of lead and 24 of tin it is 172°.

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  • The rise of boiling-point produced by a substance in solution was demonstrated by M.

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  • But in many cases it is more readily determined by observing the rise of the boiling-point or the depression of the freezing-point of the solution.

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  • For the rise in the boiling-point, we have by Clapeyron's equation, dp/do = L/ov, nearly, neglecting the volume of the liquid as compared with that of the vapour v.

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  • If dp is the difference of vapourpressure of solvent and solution, and do the rise in the boiling-point, we have the approximate relation, n/N = d p/p = mLdo/Ro 2, Raoult's law,..

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  • The highest pressures recorded for cane-sugar are nearly three times as great as those given by van't Hoff's formula for the gas-pressure, but agree very well with the vapour-pressure theory, as modified by Callendar, provided that we substitute for V in Arrhenius's formula the actual specific volume of the solvent in the solution, and if we also assume that each molecule of sugar in solution combines with 5 molecules of water, as required by the observations on the depression of the freezing-point and the rise of the boiling-point.

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  • The approximate equation of Rankine (23) begins to be I or 2% in error at the boiling-point under atmospheric pressure, owing to the coaggregation of the molecules of the vapour and the variation of the specific heat of the liquid.

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  • Vapour density determinations indicate that dissociation occurs when the vapour is heated above the boiling point.

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  • Michael by slowly adding perchloric acid to phosphoric oxide below - 10° C.; the mixture is allowed to stand for a day and then gently warmed, when the oxide distils over as a colourless very volatile oil of boiling-point 82° C. It turns to a greenish-yellow colour in two or three days and gives off a greenish gas; it explodes violently on percussion or in contact with a flame, and is gradually converted into perchloric acid by the action of water.

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  • The lead sulphate, obtained as described above and dissolved in ammonium acetate, is acidulated with acetic acid diluted with hot water and heated to boiling-point.

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  • When boiled, the aqueous acid loses either acid or water until a solution of constant boiling point is obtained, containing 48% of the acid and boiling at 126° C. under atmospheric pressure; should the pressure, however, vary, the strength of the solution boiling at a constant temperature varies also.

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  • It boils at 290°, forming a colourless vapour which just about the boiling-point corresponds in density to tetratomic molecules, P4; at 1500° to 1700°, however, Biltz and Meyer detected dissociation into P2 molecules.

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  • Beckmann obtained P4 molecules from the boiling-point of carbon bisulphide solutions, and Hertz arrived at the same conclusion from the lowering of the freezing-point in benzene solution; E.

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  • It forms crystals, apparently monoclinic, which melt at 22.5° to a clear, colourless, mobile liquid of boiling-point 173-i°.

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  • It is a colourless, mobile liquid of specific gravity 1.6128 at o° and boiling-point 76°.

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  • The body of the sun must consist of uncombined gases; at the surface the temperature is some 2000° C. above the boiling point of carbon, and a little way within the body it may probably exceed the critical point at which increase of pressure can produce the liquid state in any substance.

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  • Lead can be used for the purpose only when the boiling-point of the acid is reduced by means of a vacuum - a plan which has not met with much success.

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  • By recrystallization from hot benzene, the a form is obtained in large prisms which melt at 157° C., and at their boiling-point decompose into hydrochloric acid and trichlorbenzene.

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  • The graduation of a thermometer is determined by the freezing-point and the boiling-point of water, the interval between these being divided into a certain number of degrees, representing equal increases of temperature.

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  • Coal gas, being a mixture of gases and vapours of liquids having very varying boiling points, must necessarily undergo physical changes when the temperature is lowered Vapours of liquids of high boiling point will be condensed more quickly than those having lower boiling points, but condensation of each vapour will take place in a definite ratio with the decrease of temperature, the rate being dependent upon the boiling point of the liquid from which it is formed.

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  • It also dissolves in alcohol and ether; boiling point determinations of the molecular weight in these solutions point to the formula FeCl3.

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  • Chlorination in the cold gives orthoand para-chlortoluenes, but at the boiling point the side chain is substituted (see Benzaldehyde).

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  • By heating to the boiling point of naphthalene (218°) tertiary alcohols are decomposed, while heating to the boiling point of anthracene (360°) suffices to decompose secondary alcohols, the primary remaining unaffected.

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  • Of the primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols having the same empirical formula, the primaryhave the highest, and the tertiary the lowest boiling point; this is in accordance with the fairly general rule that a gain is symmetry is attended by a fall in the boiling point.

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  • They also investigated certain hydrocarbons occurring in the high boiling point fraction of the coal tar distillate and solved the constitution of phenanthrene.

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  • The writer has reduced their results to the scale of the gas thermometer, assuming the boiling-point of oxygen to be - 182.5° C.

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  • The boiling point is 221° F.

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  • oleum, olive oil), the generic expression for substances belonging to extensive series of bodies of diverse chemical character, all of which have the common physical property of being fluid either at the ordinary temperature or at temperatures below the boiling-point of water.

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  • Since that time the development of the petroleum industry in all parts of the world and the large quantities of low boiling-point hydrocarbons - naphtha - obtained from the petroleum fields, and also the improvements in the apparatus employed, have raised this system of extraction to the rank of a competing practical method of oil production.

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  • The colour, the boiling-point, the specific gravity and solubility in alcohol serve as most valuable adjuncts in the examination with a view to form an estimate of the genuineness and value of a sample.

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  • The boiling point of water varies with pressure; thus at one atmosphere or 14.7 lb per square inch it is 212° F., whereas at a pressure of 085 lb per square inch it is 32°, and at lower pressures there is a still further fall in temperature.

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  • The pressure in the refrigerator being reduced by the pump and maintained at such a degree as to give the required boiling-point, which is of course always lower than the temperature outside the coils, heat passes from the substance outside, through the coil surfaces, and is taken up by the entering liquid, which is converted into vapour at the temperature T i.

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  • The principle of the absorption process is chemical or physical rather than mechanical; it depends on the fact that many Absorp- vapours of low boiling-point are readily absorbed in water, and can be separated again by the application of heat.

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  • In a wide, heavy-based saucepan gently heat the milk to boiling point.

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  • My boiling point was finally exceeded just this year, when someone with a stick of " sidewalk chalk " scrawled JESUS LOVES YOU !

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  • When the strands are heated in a salt solution to just below boiling point then rapidly cooled they bond together to form a tetrahedron.

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  • Binary cycle - Hot water gets pumped through a heat exchanger which heats up a liquid with a low boiling point such as butane.

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  • Reduce the heat after it reaches the boiling point.

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  • Simmer over low heat until it just reaches the boiling point.

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  • In a double boiler, slowly heat the heavy cream; simmer over low heat just to the boiling point.

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  • In a double boiler, slowly heat the heavy cream and butter, simmering over low heat just to the boiling point.

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