Boiler sentence example

boiler
  • This steam condensing adds to the water in the pipe and naturally causes an overflow, which is led back to the boiler and re-used.

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  • A boiler with horizontal sections is shown in fig.

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  • In small houses all requirements may be satisfied with a boiler heated by the kitchen fire.

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  • In steam cranes much the same principle obtains in proportioning the boiler; e.g.

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  • The second group consists of experiments made on a boiler belonging to the Great Eastern Railway Company.

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  • In the ordinary working of a hot-water apparatus the expansion pipe already referred to will prevent any overdue pressure occurring in the boiler; should, however, the pipes Safety become blocked in any way while the apparatus is valves.

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  • It had a vertical boiler, and was carried on four wheels all coupled, the two cylinders being placed in an inclined position and having a bore of about 6 in.

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  • This question of the standard engine of comparison, and the engine efficiency is considered in § 15 below, and the boiler efficiency in § It below.

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  • Cannock has tool, boiler, brick and tile works.

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  • For large public buildings, factories, &c., heating by steam is generally adopted on account of the rapidity with which heat is available, and the great distance from the boiler at which warming is effected.

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  • The one-pipe system is similar in principle, the pipe rising to its greatest height above the boiler and being then carried around as a single pipe falling all the while.

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  • The flow pipe starts from the top of the boiler and is connected near the top of the cylinder, the return pipe joining the lower portions of the cylinder and boiler.

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  • All draw off services are taken off from the flow pipe which connects the boiler with the tank.

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  • The quality of the last is a matter of great importance; when it is unsuitable, the boilers will suffer, and the installation of a water-softening plant may save more in the expenses of boiler maintenance than it costs to operate.

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  • A few experimental results are set forth in Table XX., from which it will be seen that with a relatively low rate of combustion, a rate which denotes very light service, namely lb of coal per square foot of grate per hour, the efficiency of the boiler is %, which is as good a result as can be obtained with the best class of stationary boiler or marine boiler even when using economizers.

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  • As the water is heated it becomes lighter, rises to the top of the boiler, and passes along the flow pipe.

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  • The vertical branches descend to the basement and generally merge in a single return pipe which is connected to the lower part of the boiler.

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  • For large buildings where large quantities of hot water are used an independent boiler of suitable size should be installed.

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  • The first one of the group was made on the boiler fixed in the locomotive yard at Stratford, and the two remaining experiments of the group were made while the engine was working a train between London and March.

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  • Hence, if p is the maximum value of the mean effective pressure corresponding to about 85% of the boiler pressure,, uW = pd 2 le /D (26) is an expression giving a relation between the total weight on the coupled wheels, their diameters and the size of the cylinder.

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  • Let the boiler pressure be 175 lb per square inch.

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  • The corresponding boiler efficiencies are given in the third column of the table, when they are known, and the combined efficiencies in the fourth column.

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  • For a stated value of the boiler pressure and the cut-off the mean pressure p is a function of the piston speed v.

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  • In a particular case where the boiler pressure was maintained constant at 130 lb per square inch, and the cut-off was approximately 20% of the stroke, the values c =55 and b=o 031 were deduced, from which it will be found that the value of the piston speed corresponding to the maximum horsepower is 887 ft.

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  • Generally steam from the boiler is admitted direct to the low-pressure cylinder through a reducing valve, and valves and devices are used to prevent the steam so admitted acting as a back pressure on the high-pressure cylinder.

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  • In the Webb compound the driver opened communication from the high-pressure exhaust pipe to the blast-pipe, and at the same time opened a valve giving a supply of steam from the boiler direct to the lowpressure valve chest.

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  • A controlling valve enables the supply of steam to the low-pressure cylinders to be supplemented by boiler steam at a reduced pressure.

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  • It has many advantages for heavy high-speed service, namely, large and well-proportioned boiler, practically unlimited grate area, fire-box of favourable proportions for firing, fairly low centre of gravity, short coupling-rods, and, finally, a combination of the safe and smooth riding qualities of the fourcoupled bogie type, with great steaming capacity and moderate axle loads.

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  • It is a simple design of moderate boiler power.

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  • The type has been introduced in Europe, especially in Germany, where the advantages of a partial-adhesion type in increased stability and a larger boiler are becoming appreciated.

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  • There is a general increase in cylinder power, boiler pressure and weight, and in consequence in the number of coupled axles.

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  • When the service is frequent enough to give a good power factor continuously, the steam locomotive cannot compete with the electric motor for the purpose of quick acceleration, because the motors applied to the axles of a train may for a short time absorb power from the central station to an extent far in excess of anything which a locomotive boiler can supply.

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  • In the United States the danger of the stoves that used to be employed for heating the interiors of the cars has been realized, and now the most common method is by steam taken from the locomotive boiler and circulated through the train in a line of piping, rendered continuous between the cars by flexible coupling-hose.

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  • A large boiler frequently supplies the engines of several wells.

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  • The drilling of a well is commonly carried out under contract, the producer erecting the derrick and providing the engine and boiler while the drilling contractor finds the tools, and is Drill ing the responsible for accidents or failure to complete the well.

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  • These at first consisted of an ordinary truck on which were placed two wooden tub-like tanks, each holding about 2000 gallons; they were replaced in 1871 by the modern type of tank-car, constructed with a horizontal cylindrical tank of boiler plate.

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  • The soap is from this again grained off or salted out, and the underlye so thrown down carries with it coloured impurities which may have been in the materials or which arise from contact with the boiler.

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  • The principal industries are shipbuilding (iron), boiler and engineering works, iron and brass foundries, steam saw and planing mills, flour-mills, paper and paint factories, and soapworks.

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  • The whole is enclosed in a jacket connected with a boiler containing a liquid, the vapour of which serves to keep the inner tube at any desired temperature.

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  • The modern distilling plant consists of two main parts termed the evaporator and condenser; in addition there must be a boiler (sometimes steam is run off the main boilers, but this practice has several disadvantages), pumps for circulating cold water in the condenser and for supplying salt water to the evaporator, and a filter through which the aerated water passes.

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  • To find the total heat of a substance in any given state defined by the values of p and 0, starting from any convenient zero of temperature, it is sufficient to measure the total heat required to raise the substance to the final temperature under a constant pressure equal to p. For instance, in the boiler of a steam engine the feed water is pumped into the boiler against the final pressure of the steam, and is heated under this constant pressure up to the temperature of the steam.

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  • This subject he was led to study by the experience of a colliery engineman, who noticed that he received a sharp shock on exposing one hand to a jet of steam issuing from a boiler with which his other hand was in contact, and the inquiry was followed by the invention of the "hydro-electric" machine, a powerful generator of electricity, which was thought worthy of careful investigation by Faraday.

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  • In the most approved modern filatures there is a separate cocoon boiler (cuiseuse), an oblong tank containing water boiled by steam heat.

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  • The sea was smooth, the night dark with wind from N.W., but hardly had the ships left Dunkirk when the "Sappho" blew out a manhole joint in her boiler and had to put back.

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  • The water is heated by a furnace, and is conveyed from the boiler into the houses by a main or " flow " pipe, connected by means of syphon branches with as many pipes as it is intended to serve.

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  • When cooled it is returned to the boiler by another main or " return " pipe.

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  • The flow pipe is attached to the boiler at its highest point, to take the heated water as it ascends.

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  • The return pipe is connected with the boiler at or near its lowest point.

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  • Heating by hot water may be said to depend, in part, on the influence of gravity on water being to some extent overcome by heating in a boiler.

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  • It ascends the flow pipe by convection, where its onward journey would speedily end if it were not for the driving force of other molecules of water following, and the suction set up by the gravitation into the boiler of the cooled water by the return pipe.

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  • Exposure in the conical boiler is direct on its inner surface, and is supplemented by flues.

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  • The Cornish type is a rather slow and steady boiler, and is much used for providing heat for large areas.

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  • The saddle boiler is very commonly employed to provide heat for moderately sized and small areas.

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  • It should be placed as high above the boiler as practicable.

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  • The feed should connect with the return pipe near the point at which it enters the boiler.

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  • Cotton spinning and the manufacture of cotton and muslin are extensively carried on, and there are also iron and brass foundries and boiler factories.

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  • Boiler plates undergo in sharing and assembling an intermediate degree of distort' and therefore they must be given an intermediate carbon-content, following the general rule that the carbon-content and hence the strength should be as great as is consistent with retaining the degree of ductility and the shock-resisting power which the object will need in actual use.

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  • Thus the typical carbon-content may be taken as about o 05% for rivets and tubes, 0.20% for boiler plates, and 0.50 to 0.75% for rails, implying the presence of o 75% of cementite in the first two, 3% in the third and 7.5% to 11.25% in the last.

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  • The industries of the place are almost exclusively connected with the requirements of the dockyard, and embrace machine shops, iron foundries and boiler works.

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  • Besides the large number of saw and planing mills, there are shipbuilding yards, engine and boiler works, cotton and woollen mills, and factories for acetic acid and naphtha.

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  • In steam boilers artificial galvanic couples are often set up by the suspension of zinc plates in the boiler, so that the corrosion of the zinc may preserve the steel boiler plates from waste.

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  • When this happens the plug being no longer covered with water is heated to such a temperature that it melts and allows the contents of the boiler to escape into the furnace.

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  • The air receives heat from an external furnace just as water does in the boiler of a steam-engine, by contact with a heated metallic surface, but it takes up heat from such a surface with much less readiness than does water.

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  • The temperature of the shell is much higher than that of a steam boiler, for in order to secure that the working air will take up a fair amount of heat, the upper limit to which its temperature is raised greatly exceeds that of even high-pressure steam.

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  • The original intention was to push the experiments to a pressure equivalent to thirty atmospheres, but owing to the signs of failure exhibited by the boiler the limit actually reached was twenty-four atmospheres, at which pressure the thermometers indicated a temperature of about 224 0 C. In his last paper, published posthumously in 1838, Dulong gave an account of experiments made to determine the heat disengaged in the combination of various simple and compound bodies, together with a description of the calorimeter he employed.

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  • Boiled oil is prepared in a variety of ways - that most common being by heating the raw oil in an iron or copper boiler, which, to allow for frothing, must only be about three-fourths filled.

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  • After the addition of the dryers the boiling is continued two or three hours; the fire is then suddenly withdrawn„and the oil is left covered up in the boiler for ten hours or more.

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  • It has a variety of manufacturing establishments, among which are cotton and woollen mills, rolling mills, steel mills, foundries, boiler shops, tube works, and works for making surgical instruments and artificial stone.

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  • This model, which was shown at the exhibition of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain at the Crystal Palace in 1868, consisted of two superposed screws propelled by an engine, the steam for which was generated (for lightness) in an aluminium boiler.

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  • The engines were then started and the pump set so as to deliver over 5000 lb of water per hour into the boiler.

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  • It has coal mines, iron furnaces, steel and boiler works, and soap, glass and chemical factories.

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  • There are great iron and steel works, producing every kind of heavy goods used by railway and engineering works, such as boiler plates, rails, axles, tubes, bolts and nuts.

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  • A flexible pipe, brought down from a steam boiler above, was then connected with any opened orifice.

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  • Graduates of technical schools are received as special apprentices and are directed in a course of four years through the erecting shops, vice shop, blacksmith shop, boiler shop, roundhouse, test department, machine shop, air-brake shop, iron foundry, car shop, work of firing on the road, office work in the motive power accounting department, and drawing room; the most competent may be admitted through the grades of inspector, in the office of the master mechanic or of the road foreman of engines, assistant master mechanic, assistant engineer of motive power, master mechanic and superintendent of motive power.

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  • The furnaces employed for steam-raising or for heating buildings are invariably of the first type (see Boiler and Heating), while those employed in metallurgy are generally of the second.

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  • Even under the most advantageous application, that of evaporation of water in a steam boiler where the gases of the fire have to travel through a great length of flues bounded by thin iron surfaces of great heat-absorbing capacity, the temperature of the current at the chimney is generally much above that required to maintain an active draught in the fireplace; and other tubes containing water, often in considerable numbers, forming the so-called fuel economizers, may often be interposed between the boiler and the chimney with marked advantage as regards saving of fuel.

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  • Apart from the new design of boiler, these engines had a slightly larger awning to that fitted to no.

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  • As the boiler burns biogas, a proportion of its output would be converted to electricity, while the rest heats the home.

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  • Bob stokes the boiler, providing steam for Fred to work the Beam Engine.

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  • In 1952 her boiler was adapted to take a superheater, which led to all locos receiving a superheated boilers on their next refit.

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  • The central heating and hot water are provided by the oil-fired boiler, cooking and lighting is by electricity.

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  • Wall mounted " Glow Worm " gas-fired combination boiler.

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  • The hot water was supplied by a coal-fired boiler.

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  • A gas central heating boiler is not rocket science.

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  • No, a combi boiler runs directly from the mains, you cannot pump mains pressure.

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  • Wilton 10 will be a new, purpose built biomass burning boiler.

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  • It is heated by a fully automated woodchip boiler, the first of its kind in Gloucestershire.

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  • The steam was raised in a steam boiler outside the building, which was fuelled by burning city refuse.

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  • They turned up at the airport wearing bright orange boiler suits and stole the publicity.

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  • The Gills report this worked for a while, and Balfour Beatty complied and had white boiler suits for their staff.

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  • Run the stove (which most cant by emptying the boiler) and rely on your ducting and burn less fuel.

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  • The willow is then fed to a biomass boiler used to heat fish containing sturgeon, specially bred to produce caviar.

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  • The feed clack valves below the boiler give trouble by leaking.

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  • The boiler casing is insulated and stainless steel clad.

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  • The boiler suits normally worn by University tradesmen may not be suitable and they should be encouraged to wear impermeable disposable coveralls.

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  • As I entered the site, an aged, nearly toothless crone in a worn blue boiler suit appeared, carrying a tea-pot.

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  • Rear Double Bedroom 2 with airing cupboard, Halstead gas fired boiler.

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  • I also need to do something about the rather dodgy boiler.

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  • The washer drier is located in the boiler room.

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  • The were basically similar to the ' Large Bloomer ' but had smaller boiler and smaller driving wheels 6ft 6in, instead of 7ft.

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  • Soot blowing is carried out twice weekly, although there are concerns that the steam may accelerate erosion of the boiler tube surfaces.

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  • Her boiler is not in good shape, it will require extensive (expensive) repairs.

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  • The boiler is prepared for patches to be applied over the shoulders of the outer firebox.

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  • The boiler was sent away some time ago for overhaul, which has included the fitting of a brand new firebox.

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  • The boiler will need to be removed; the copper firebox will also need to have new stays.

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  • His father was also working in a mill as a steam boiler fireman (in 1901, he was 39 ).

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  • Carbon dioxide recovered from our boiler flue gas is bubbled through the mixture.

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  • With new studs in the superheater header it is prepared for the hydraulic boiler test.

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  • He was wearing a black boiler suit and he had a tan colored leather holster around his waist on the left side.

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  • In standard efficiency boilers, the flue gases leave the boiler at high enough temperatures for the water vapor to appear invisible.

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  • Cladding A thin covering, usually of sheet metal, over a steam-locomotive's boiler lagging.

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  • Confused about whether to lag the boiler, insulate the loft or re-tile the whole roof in photovoltaic cells?

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  • Jack was the laborer in the training school, he wore a navy blue boiler suit & supported West Brom.

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  • Whilst a stalwart of the SVR's early years, the locomotive is now out of traffic awaiting a major boiler overhaul.

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  • The locomotive was withdrawn from service at the close of the 1982 season pending boiler overhaul.

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  • A boiler and mechanical overhaul commenced in 1986 and it returned to traffic in the autumn of the following year.

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  • The engine was withdrawn from traffic later in 1994 for a ten year boiler overhaul.

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  • Posted 2 years ago on April 25 2005 An update on the boiler... Its noises have become much more plaintive of late.

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  • The house rang like free guide ii praxis study a boiler factory.

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  • The property which benefits from full central heating and hot water supplied via a oil fired boiler has also been fully rewired.

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  • Water cooled pump for obtaining 9 bar group pressure, boiler safety valve features anti-flood device that drains to the waste out.

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  • The mill was working in 1904, as a boiler exploded and badly scalded three men.

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  • A subterranean boiler room with access via a flight of stone steps leading down alongside the north wall of the vestry.

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  • This was basically a bunker to boiler stoker but with the pick up screw capable of being angled through 180 degrees.

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  • After preparation for NDT shows the boiler barrel strakes to between 14 and 15 mm thick with good overall condition both internally and externally.

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  • During the night, while at Edmund Byers, the boiler went out and were nearly suffocated by the fumes.

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  • Her boiler is in the background under the green tarpaulin.

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  • Well, I am if Mrs H has reset the timer on the boiler.

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  • The plant key components include a conventional boiler, air-cooled turbogenerator, instrumentation and control systems.

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  • The boiler of 75029 is being stripped, and has had a full washout.

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  • Scale deposits are broken down into sludge and are easy to remove at periodic boiler washouts.

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  • Before working on the hot water pipes, switch off the boiler and immersion heater.

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  • In districts where the water is hard, this arrangement considerably lengthens the life of the boiler, as Alternative method with separate return pipe  ?

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  • In the low pressure two pipe system the flow pipe is carried to a sufficient height directly above the boiler to allow of its gradual fall to a little beyond the most distant point at which connexion is to be made with the return pipe, which thence slopes towards the boiler.

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  • Y Y PP in use, or the water in them become frozen, the lighting of the fire would cause the water to expand, and having no outlet it would in all probability burst the boiler.

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  • The most usual way of providing this power is by the combustion of coal in the fire-box of a boiler and the utilization of the steam produced in a steam-engine, both boiler and engine being carried on a frame mounted on wheels in such a way that the crank-shaft of the steam-engine becomes the driving-axle of the train.

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  • The average acceleration in feet per second is measured by the fraction Change of speed in feet per sec. 60.07-58.6 64 tons; and to obtain the horse-power the boiler will be one of the largest that can be built to the construction gauge.

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  • It is this close automatic interdependence cf engir e and boiler which makes the locomotive so extraordinarily w ell suited for the purpose of locomotive traction.

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  • The design combines ample boiler capacity with large adhesive weight and moderate axle loads, but except on heavy gradients or for unusually large trains requiring engines of great adhesion, passenger traffic can be more efficiently and economically handled by four-coupled locomotives of the eight-wheel or Atlantic types.

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  • In consequence of this increasing demand for power, higher boiler pressures are being used, in some cases 225 lb per sq.

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  • The boiler generally used is of the locomotive type and is usually stationary, though sometimes a portable form is preferred.

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  • In this arrangement, a pair of locomotive engines, each having a plain winding drum fixed underneath the boiler, are placed opposite to each other at the ends of the field to be operated upon; the rope of each of the engines is attached to the plough, or other tillage implement, which is drawn to and fro betwixt them by each working in turn.

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  • Platers' Work (see Boiler) is distinguished from work in sheet metals by the fact that plates have considerable thickness, which sheets have not.

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  • The boiler is heated by a furnace, and the oil is brought gradually to the point of ebullition, at which it is maintained for two hours, during which time moisture is driven off, and the scum and froth which accumulate on the surface are ladled out.

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  • In the next and final room was the scullery with a brick boiler heated by wooden blocks for washing the clothes.

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  • He would stoke up the boiler fire down a number of steps at the rear of the church.

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  • Emissions and residues The emissions of SO2 from a stoker boiler will depend on the sulfur content of the coal.

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  • Hot gases from the furnace will pass to a boiler, which will convert the energy from the gases into superheated steam.

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  • The engine was dismantled down to its frames and the boiler retubed, then repainted in Marsh 's umber livery.

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  • The engine could be removed from the boiler by simply unscrewing a few nuts.

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  • Following a washout to remove the loose scale, a full inspection of the boiler can now be planned.

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  • Most washout plugs will be around the firebox, with just a few near the smokebox end of the boiler barrel.

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  • Indirect water heaters heat water by circulating it in the boiler part of the heater, and then stores the water in an insulated tank afterwards.

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  • If you use a boiler type system to heat your house, the heat gets restricted when trying to warm the water, which can also cause the heating elements to overheat.

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  • Biodiesel blends can also be used in a standard oil fired furnace or boiler, making it an alternative fuel source for heating residential homes.

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  • There was indoor plumbing, including tubs with running hot water, a boiler room in the basement and even an intercom system.

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  • A double boiler is a sauce pan or stock pot fitted with a smaller pan used to slow cook things like pudding and rice.

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  • Place the chopped chocolate and heavy cream in the top pan of a double boiler and set the double boiler on low heat.

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  • Using a double boiler or a bowl over simmering water, add the egg yolks, sugar, lemon zest, cinnamon, vanilla, and Marsala wine.

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  • Simmer the water over low heat, making sure that the bottom of the bowl or double boiler isn’t touching the water.

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  • The school uses a bio mass boiler for more than 90% of their water heating.

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  • Place the carob chips in the double boiler and let them melt slowly.

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  • This is a major job that will involve replacing your boiler with a more efficient model, encasing the coils in cement and snaking the flexible tubing through your subfloor.

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  • If it's time to upgrade your boiler, or you are making a major home renovation, consider adding radiant heat to the mix and stay toasty warm all winter.

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  • The water is superheated in a boiler, while pumps keep it moving through the coils in the floors.

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  • Since radiant floor heating does mean the removal of current flooring, and in the case of hydronic radiant heating, the addition of a boiler and pumps, the best time to add radiant floor heat is during a remodel.

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  • Finding all the pumpkins is a pain, but you can still score your bonus by biding your time; wait until you get into the boiler room with Gary, and you'll find all the un-kicked pumpkins from earlier stored there.

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  • Drip trays are commonly used in toaster ovens that include a boiler function.

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  • It is more cost effective to replace a few toaster oven parts yourself like the drip tray, wire rack, or boiler pan.

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  • It was a separate boiler for brewing and one for steaming, which makes it very versatile, as you can change from lattes to cappuccinos instantly.

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  • This is a semi-automatic espresso machine with dual gauges for brew head and steam boiler pressure.

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  • The boiler pressure gauge measures the pressure of the water forced through the espresso.

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  • Many machines also have a probe at the top of the boiler, which allows you to control the steam level.

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  • Put chunks of wax into the double boiler and set the heat to high.

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  • Fill the bottom of a double boiler with water, and place your wax in the top pan.

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  • That's why it's a great idea to heat your wax in a double boiler or on very low heat and to never, ever, leave melting wax unattended.

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  • You'll also need a mixing bowl, measuring spoons, a double boiler, scissors, and mixing spoons.

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  • To make a candle, you'll be melting the wax in a double boiler before pouring it into your chosen container.

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  • Heat the wax you've chosen for your candle in a double boiler on the stove.

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  • Melt a small amount of paraffin or soy wax in a coffee can or double boiler pan, and dip the votives into this mixture several times, waiting a few seconds between each dip.

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  • For a bigger batch, a double boiler on the stove works well.

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  • Set up the double boiler if you are using one.

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  • A simple but effective double boiler can be made by putting a coffee can in a pot of water.

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  • Using tongs or a pot holder, remove the can of hot wax from the double boiler.

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  • All you will need to supply is a large microwave-safe measuring cup to melt your wax in or a pot or double boiler if you want to melt it on the stove, and something to stir with.

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  • Instead of using the microwave, you should use a double boiler.

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  • Add the soap to the double boiler and wait for it to melt.

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  • Pour the mixture into the soap mold, leaving a cup of it behind in the boiler.

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  • You will need a double boiler to melt the soap pieces.

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  • In the top of the double boiler, melt the glycerin until it is a liquid.

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  • You can also buy fancy molds with a variety of motifs and raised designs, which allow you to put a raised image of a different color on the top of your soap.To use the molds, you melt the soap base in a double boiler until it is liquid.

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  • In a double boiler, slowly heat the heavy cream and butter.

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  • In a double boiler, slowly heat the heavy cream; simmer over low heat just to the boiling point.

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  • In a double boiler, slowly heat the heavy cream and butter, simmering over low heat just to the boiling point.

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  • In a double boiler, slowly heat the heavy cream until it starts to boil.

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  • Optional business coverage is available for outdoor signs, water damage, boiler and machinery, and more.

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  • Cup - The tin cup was equipped with a wire hanger so that it could be hung over a fire, thus it was also known as a boiler.

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  • Among later additions were gunmounting stores, boiler shop, boat sheds, canteen, coal stores, &c., together with a double dock 750 ft.

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  • From this point the " return " pipe drops, usually at the same rate as the flow pipe rises; and in due course the water reaches its starting point, the boiler, and is again heated and again circulated through the system.

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  • The connexion of the return pipe is made with the lower part of the boiler.

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  • The boiler consists of similar pipe coiled up to form a fire-box, inside which the furnace is lighted.

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  • Every installation is made up of a boiler or other water heater, a tank or cylinder to contain the water when heated, and a cistern of cold water, the supply from which to the system is regulated automatically by a ball valve.

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  • The supply from the cold water cistern enters the bottom of the cylinder, and thence travels by way of the return pipe to the boiler, where it is heated, and back through the flow pipe to the cylinder, which is thus soon filled with hot water.

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  • A suitable proportion between the size of the tank or cylinder and that of the boiler is 8 or io to 1.

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  • In the choice of a boiler of this description it should be remembered that rapid heating, economical combustion of fuel, and facilities for cleaning, are requisites, the absence of any of which considerably lowers the efficiency of the apparatus.

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  • The shape mostly used is the " saddle " boiler, or some variation upon this very old pattern.

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  • A notable feature of modern boiler construction is the mode of building the apparatus of cast iron in either horizontal or vertical sections.

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  • The size of the boiler may be increased or diminished by the addition or subtraction of one or more sections; these, being simple in design, are easily fitted together, and should a section become defective it is a simple matter to insert a new one in its place.

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  • Should a defect occur with a wrought iron boiler it is usually necessary for the purpose of repair to disconnect and remove the whole apparatus, the heating system of which it forms a part being in the meantime useless.

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  • To prevent this a safety valve should be fitted on the top of the boiler, or be connected thereto with a large pipe so as to be visible.

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  • In the diaphragm valve a thin piece of metal is fixed to an outlet from the boiler, and when a moderate pressure is exceeded this gives way, allowing the water and steam to escape.

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  • Fusible plugs are little used; they consist of pieces of softer metal inserted on the side of the boiler, which melt should the heat of the water rise above a certain temperature.

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  • In districts where the water is of a " hard nature," that is, contains bicarbonate of lime in solution, the interior of the boiler cylinders, tanks and pipes of a hot water system will become incrusted with a deposit of lime which is gradually precipitated as the water is heated to boiling point.

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  • With " very hard " water this deposit may require removal every three months; in London it is usual to clean out the boiler every six months and the cylinders and tanks at longer intervals.

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  • The lime deposit or " fur " is a poor conductor of heat, and it is therefore most detrimental to the efficiency of the system to allow the interior of the boiler or any other portion to become furred up. Further, if not removed, the fur will in a short time bring about a fracture in the boiler.

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  • The boiler evaporated 184 cub.

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  • The Rocket possessed the three elements of efficiency of the modern locomotive - the internal water-surrounded fire-box and the multitubular flue in the boiler; the blast-pipe, by which the steam after doing its work in the cylinders was exhausted up the chimney, and thus served to increase the draught and promote the rapid combustion of the fuel; and the direct connexion of the steam cylinders, one on each side of the engine, with the two driving wheels mounted on one axle.

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  • A second engine, the West Point, also built at West Point Foundry for the South Carolina railroad, differed from the Best Friend in having a horizontal boiler with 6 or 8 tubes, though in other respects it was similar.

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  • It is not economical to force the boiler to work at too high a rate, because it has been practically demonstrated that the boiler efficiency decreases after a certain point, as the rate of combustion increases.

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  • The first group consists of experiments selected from the records of a large number made on the boiler of the locomotive belonging to the Purdue University, Indiana, U.S.A.

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  • This high mean pressure cannot be maintained for long, because as the speed increases the demand for steam per unit of time increases, so that cut-off must take place earlier and earlier in the stroke, the limiting steady speed being attained when the rate at which steam is supplied to the cylinders is adjusted by the cut-off to be equal to the maximum rate at which the boiler can produce steam, which depends upon the maximum rate at which coal can be burnt per square foot of grate.

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  • Boiler Tap to, empty +G the same water is used over and over again, and no fresh deposit of fur occurs.

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  • Combined Engine and Boiler Efficiency.

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