Boer Sentence Examples
They were driven out by Boer trekkers in 1837.
On the outbreak of the Boer War in 1899, these same chiefs, at a great meeting held in the presence of the resident commissioner, gave a further protestation of their loyalty to Her Majesty.
Such was the situation when Boer emigrants first crossed the Vaal.
In 1901 Bellary was chosen as one of the places of detention in India for Boer prisoners of war.
The Boer leaders unreservedly accepted British sovereignty.Advertisement
Fortunately Symons was able to win a complete victory over one of the Boer columns at Talana Hill.
He again attacked the Boer forces at Rietfontein on the 24th of October, and on the 26th General Yule reached Ladysmith in safety.
The relief of Ladysmith soon led to the evacuation of Natal by the Boer forces, who trekked northwards.
During the Boer invasion the government and the loyal colonists, constituting the great majority of the inhabitants of the colony, rendered the Imperial forces every assistance.
Of the non-British or Boer whites Russians form 3.01%, Germans 1-62% and Dutch (of Holland) 1-14%.Advertisement
It will be seen that twenty districts are enumerated, these being the divisions under the Boer government and still commonly used.
State schools for white children were established by the Boer government, and in the last year (1898) before the British occupation there were 509 schools and 14,700 scholars, the education vote that year being £226,000.
On returning to the Vet, Potgieter learned that a hunting party of Boers which had crossed the Vaal had been attacked by the Matabele, who had also killed Boer women and children.
This act led to reprisals, and on the 17th of January 1837 a Boer commando surprised Mosilikatze's encampment at Mosega, inflicting heavy loss on the Matabele without themselves 1 Two small children were spared and brought up as Kaffirs.
In 1867 they were given over to the Boer government by the Swazis, who had acquired them from their captors.Advertisement
Up to 1845 Potgieter continued to exercise authority over the Boer communities on both sides of the Vaal.
Sechele was regarded by the Boers as owing them allegiance, and in August 1852 Pretorius sent against him a commando (in which Paul Kruger served as a field cornet), alleging that the Bakwena were harbouring a Bakatla chief who had looted cattle belonging to Boer farmers.
The events of the year 1860, as well as of all the years that followed down to British annexation in 1877, show that licence rather than liberty, a narrow spirit of faction rather than patriotism, were the dominant instincts of the Boer.
It is true that laws prohibiting slavery were in existence, but the Boer who periodically took up arms against his own appointed government was not likely to be, nor was he, restrained by laws.
The award, admittedly just on the evidence before Keate, placed, however, outside the territory of the republic the Bloemhof district, in which district Boer farmers were settled, and over which the Pretoria government had for some years exercised jurisdiction.Advertisement
So keenly were the Midlothian speeches appreciated by the Boers that the Boer committee wrote a letter of thanks to Gladstone, and expressed the hope that should a change in the government of Great Britain occur, " the injustice done to the Transvaal might find redress."
On the 20th of December some 240 men under Colonel Anstruther, chiefly belonging to the 94th Regiment, while marching from Lydenburg to Pretoria, were surprised at Bronkhorst Spruit, and cut up by the Boer forces.
Having been defeated at Laing's Nek, and suffered considerable loss in an engagement near Ingogo, Colley took a force to the top of Majuba, a mountain overlooking the Boer camp and the nek.
On the 6th of March a truce was concluded and on the 21st terms of peace were arranged between the Boer triumvirate and Sir Evelyn Wood.
Pretoria through Boer sources, and when first received there was laughed at by the garrison and inhabitants as a Boer joke.Advertisement
In 1882 also began that alteration of the franchise law which subsequently developed into positive exclusion of practically all save the original Boer burghers of the country from the franchise.
This act called forth a protest from the 15th Lord Derby (now secretary of state for the colonies), stating that he could not recognize the right of Boer freebooters to set up governments of their own on the Transvaal borders.
Simultaneously with this " irresponsible " movement for expansion, President Kruger proceeded to London to interview Lord Derby and endeavour to induce him to dispense with the suzerainty, and to withdraw other clauses in the Pretoria Convention on foreign relations and natives, which were objectionable from the Boer point of view.
In what followed it must always be remembered that Lord Derby began by emphatically rejecting the first Boer draft of a treaty on the ground that no treaty was possible except between equal sovereign states.
Notwithstanding the precise fixing of the boundaries of the republic by the London Convention, President Kruger endeavoured to maintain the Boer hold on Goshen and Stellaland, but the British government on Efforts.
At the same time President Kruger revived the project of obtaining a seaport for the state, one of the objects of Boer ambitions since 1860 (vide supra).
The wealth which was pouring into the Boer state coffers exceeded the wildest dreams of President Kruger and his followers.
The soundness of these views and the legitimacy of Uitlander aspirations were recognized by a few Boer officials at Pretoria.
The words were but the utterance of an individual Raad member, but they were only a shade less offensive than those used by Kruger in 1892, and they too accurately describe the attitude of the Boer executive.
In September a meeting of the chambers of mines and commerce was held at Johannesburg, and a letter on various matters of the greatest importance to the mining industry was addressed to the Boer executive.
President Kruger had every expectation of large reinforcements from the Dutch in the two British colonies; he believed that, whatever happened, Europe would not allow Boer independence to be destroyed; and he had assured himself of the adhesion of the Orange Free State, though it was not till the very last moment that President Steyn formally notified Sir Alfred Milner of this fact.
The franchise, again, was an internal affair, in which the convention gave Great Britain no right to interfere, while if Great Britain relied on certain definite breaches of the convention, satisfaction for which was sought in the first place in such a guarantee of amendment as the Uitlander franchise would involve, the Boer answer was an offer of arbitration, a course which Great Britain could not accept without admitting the South African Republic to the position of an equal.
After July the tactics of the Boer executive were simply directed towards putting off a crisis till the beginning of October, when the grass would be growing on the veld, and meanwhile towards doing all they could in their despatches to put the blame on Great Britain.
The total fighting strength of the Boer republics is difficult to ascertain exactly.
There could be only one reply, and on Wednesday, the 11th of October 1899, at five o'clock p.m., a state of war existed between the British government and the two Boer republics.
On the following day the Boer attack on an armoured train at Kraaipan, a railway station in Cape Colony south of Mafeking and close to the western frontier of the Transvaal, witnessed the first hostile shot of a bloody war, destined to plunge South Africa into strife for two years and a half.
The second, the period of Boer organized resistance, may be said to have finished with the occupation of Komati Poort in October 1900 (a month after Lord Roberts's formal annexation of the Transvaal) and the flight of President Kruger.
Against this force there advanced a Boer force under Lukas Meyer from the east, and, more slowly, the foremost portion of the main Boer army from the north, while at the same time other Transvaalers descended upon the railway between Glencoe and Ladysmith, and the Free Staters from the passes of the Drakensberg advanced towards Ladysmith, the British centre of - operations at which the reinforcements sent from India gathered.
Meanwhile Sir George White had discovered the Boer force on the railway, and, though anxious on account of the advance of the Free Staters, on the 21st, stimulated by the news of Talana, he sent out a force of all arms under General (Sir John) French to drive the Boers from Elandslaagte and so to clear Symons's line of retreat.
In Natal practically the whole of the available defence force was swallowed up by the steady success of the invasion; on the western frontier two British towns were isolated and besieged; and Boer commandos were on the point of invading Cape Colony, where the Dutch population seemed on the verge of rebellion.
But the flank attack became entangled in mass in a loop of the river and suffered heavily, and two batteries that formed part of the frontal attack came into action within a few hundred yards of unsuspected Boer trenches, with the result that ten guns were lost, as well as in all some r roo men.
The only bright spot, as far as the British were concerned, was to be found in northern Cape Colony, where General French, with two cavalry brigades and details, by his skilful tactics and wonderful activity kept at arm's length a superior force of the enemy in the vicinity of Colesberg, an achievement the more noteworthy since he had pitted against him both De la Rey and De Wet, two of the three men of military genius produced by the war on the Boer side.
In the meantime, Sir Redvers Buller, who had been reinforced by Sir Charles Warren and the 5th division, essayed a second attempt to cross the Tugela, by turning the Boer left.
The mounted troops Kop. engaged a Boer force north-west of the point of Spion passage, but were brought back to take part in a general right wheel of the forces of the Tugela, pivoting on Trichardt's Drift.
On the 3rd of February he ordered a demonstration against the right of the Boer position at Spytfontein-Magersfontein to cover the withdrawal of General French and the cavalry from before Colesberg, and the concentration of his army at Modder River, disregarding another set-back in Natal to Sir Redvers Buller, who had against his advice made a third attempt to relieve Ladysmith on the 5th of February, and failed to make good the purchase which he secured across the Tugela.
This was deflected by Kitchener westward to follow up the Boer rearguard, and after some delay the remainder of the infantry, at first fronting northwards, swerved westward likewise, while French from Kimberley, with such of his men as he could mount on serviceable horses, headed off Cronje in the north-west.
The surrender of Cronje and the relief of Ladysmith for the time being paralysed the Boer resistance.
The Boer leaders definitely decided upon a guerrilla and a wearing policy, deliberately dispersed their field army, and then swelled and multiplied the innumerable local commandos.
Nor were the Boer leaders destitute of comprehensive schemes.
In August a proclamation was promulgated formally threatening the Boer leaders who should not surrender with permanent banishment from South Africa, but this proclamation had very little effect.
The Boers were at last convinced of the futility of any attempt to prolong the struggle, and on the 23rd of March the representatives of the Boer governments came into Pretoria.
The number of Boer prisoners in the hands of the British at the end of the war was about 40,000.
At the time the articles of peace were signed at Pretoria, more than 17,000 Boer children were 1 Milner became at the same time administrator of Orange River Colony.
On their return to South Africa the Boer generals and their colleagues aided to some extent in the work of.resettlement, but the seats offered to the Boers on the executive council were declined.
In this matter the Boer and British sections of the community were in agreement, and they had the support of the Transvaal government and of the other South African colonies.
New letters patent 2 were issued (December 12, 1906), and the first general election (February 1907) resulted in the return of a majority belonging to Het Volk, a Boer organization formed for political purposes.
Pretoria was founded in 1855, the ground on which it stands being purchased by the Boer government from Marthinus Pretorius.
On the 31st of May 1902 the articles of peace whereby the Boer leaders recognized British sovereignty were signed at Pretoria, and five years later there assembled in the capital the first parliament of the Transvaal as a self-governing state of the British Empire.
In this he was successful, although the advent of the Boer War of1899-1902created new difficulties with the Liberal Imperialists.
With the exception of the townships and a district of Emtonjaneni magistracy known as " Proviso B," 1 mainly occupied by Boer farmers, all the land was vested in the crown and very little has been parted with to Europeans.
Owen, of the Church Missionary Society, to reside at his great kraal, and Owen was with the king when in November 1837 he received Pieter Retief, the leader of the first party of Boer immigrants to enter Natal.
After agreeing to Retief's request Dingaan caused the Boer leader and his companions to be murdered (6th of February 1838), following up his treachery by slaying as many as possible of the other Boers who had entered Natal.
After two unsuccessful attempts to avenge their slain, in which the Boers were aided by the British settlers at Port Natal, Dingaan's army was totally defeated on the 16th of December 1838, by a Boer force under Andries Pretorius.
Operating in open country, mounted on horseback, and with rifles in their hands, the Boer farmers were able to inflict fearful losses on their enemy, while their own casualties were few.
On " Dingaan's day " the Boer force received the attack of the Zulu while in laager; the enemy charged in dense masses, being met both by cannon shot and rifle fire, and were presently attacked in the rear by mounted Boers.
In 1860 a Boer commission was appointed to beacon the boundary, and to obtain, if possible, from the Zulu a road to the sea at St Lucia Bay.
During the year a Boer commando under Paul Kruger and an army under Cetywayo were posted along the Utrecht border.
On the 21st of May the Boer adventurers The had proclaimed Dinizulu king of Zululand; in August New following they founded the " New Republic," carved out of Zululand, and sought its recognition by the British government.
A Zulu kraal having been raided, the Zulu retaliated and, surrounding a small Boer commando, succeeded in killing every member of it.
He served in the Boer war of 1880-81; was resident commissioner of Basutoland from 1884 to 1893, and after leaving Zululand became resident commissioner in Southern Rhodesia (1898).
North of Joubert's Park is the general hospital, and beyond, near the crest of the hills, commanding the town and the road to Pretoria, is a fort built by the Boer government and now used as a gaol.
These buildings were found to cover valuable ore, and in December following the Boer government marked out the site of the city proper, and possession of the plots was given to purchasers on the 1st of January 1887.
Between October 1899, when war broke out, and the 31st of May 1900, when the city was taken by the British, the Boer government worked certain mines for their own benefit.
After September 1899 operations were suspended, almost entirely owing to the Boer War, but on the 2nd of May 1901 they were started again.
In 1898 he was appointed financial secretary to the War Office, a post in which he distinguished himself during the Boer War, in particular by a brilliant defence, in the debate on.
The next census was deferred till 1904, in consequence of the disorganization produced by the Boer war.
The emigrants soon came into collision with Mosilikatze, raiding parties of Zulus attacking Boer hunters who had crossed the Vaal without seeking permission from that chieftain.
In 1833 he had welcomed as workers among his people a band of French Protestant missionaries, and as the Boer immigrants began to settle in his neighbourhood he decided to seek support from the British at the Cape.
A convention recognizing the independence of the country was signed at Bloemfontein on the 23rd of February by Sir George Clerk and the republican committee, and on the r 1 th of March the Boer government assumed office and the republican flag was hoisted.
Marthinus Pretorius, who had succeeded to his father's position as commandant general of Potchefstroom, wished to bring about a confederation between the two Boer states.
Though unable to effect a durable peace with the Basutos, or to realize his ambition for the creation of one powerful Boer republic, Pretorius saw the Free State begin to grow in strength.
In the opinion, moreover, of Dr Theal, who has written the history of the Boer Republics and has been a consistent supporter of the Boers, the annexation of Griqualand West was probably in the best interests of the Free State.
The relations between the British and the Free State, after the question of the boundary was once settled, remained perfectly amicable down to the outbreak of the Boer War in 1899.
The development of the diamond mines and of the gold and coal industries - of which Brand saw the beginning - had far-reaching consequences, bringing the Boer republics into vital contact with the new industrial era.
Both of these suggestions were strongly disapproved by Mr Kruger, inasmuch as they meant knitting together the Boer republics and the British possessions, instead of merely bringing the Free State into completer dependence on the Transvaal.
Mr Fischer, the leader of the party, was one of the ablest statesmen on the Boer side in the pre-war period.
While the war was in progress he went to Europe to seek support for the Boer cause.
The advent of a Liberal administration under Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman in Great Britain in December 1905 completely altered the political situation in the late Boer states.
When, however, the outline of the new constitution was made public in December 1906 it was found that the British government had decided on a party government plan which would have the inevitable and fully foreseen effect of placing the country in the power of the Boer majority.
In the early days of the Boer War (1899-1902) Stellenbosch was one of the British military bases, and was used as a "remount" camp; and in consequence of officers who had not distinguished themselves at the front being sent back to it, the expression "to be Stellenbosched" came into use; so much so, that in similar cases officers were spoken of as "` Stellenbosched" even if they were sent to some other place.
Vryburg (pop., 1904, 2985), founded by Boer filibusters in 1882, and Taungs, are towns on the railway between Kimberley and Mafeking.
In the London convention of February 1884, conceded by Lord Derby in response to the overtures of Boer delegates, the Transvaal boundaries were again defined, part of eastern Bechuanaland being included in Boer territory.
British prestige after the disastrous Boer War of 1881 was at a very low ebb, and he realized that he could not count on any a ctive help from the imperial or colonial authorities.
Before Sir Charles Warren reached Africa, Sir Thomas Upington, the Cape premier, and Sir Gordon Sprigg, the treasurer-general, went to Bechuanaland and arranged a " settlement " which would have left the Boer filibusters in possession, but the imperial government refused to take notice of this " settlement."
The chief features of his administration were the fiscal preference of 333% in favour of goods imported into Canada from Great Britain, the despatch of Canadian contingents to South Africa during the Boer war, the contract with the Grand Trunk railway for the construction of a second transcontinental road from ocean to ocean, the assumption by Canada of the imperial fortresses at Halifax and Esquimault, the appointment of a federal railway commission with power to regulate freight charges, express rates and telephone rates, and the relations between competing companies, the reduction of the postal rate to Great Britain from 5 cents to 2 cents and of the domestic rate from 3 cents to 2 cents, a substantial contribution to the Pacific cable, a practical and courageous policy of settlement and development in the Western territories, the division of the North-West territories into the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and the enactment of the legislation necessary to give them provincial status, and finally (1910), a tariff arrangement with the United States, which, if not all that Canada might claim in the way of reciprocity, showed how entirely the course of events had changed the balance of commercial interests in North America.
Some of his speeches in Great Britain, coming as they did from a French-Canadian, and revealing delicate appreciation of British sentiment and thorough comprehension of the genius of British institutions, excited great interest and enthusiasm, while one or two impassioned speeches in the Canadian parliament during the Boer war profoundly influenced opinion in Canada and had a pronounced effect throughout the empire.
His capacity was again demonstrated in the action of Belfast-Dalmanutha (August 23-28, 1900), and after the fall of Pretoria he reorganized the Boer resistance with a view to prolonged guerrilla warfare.
In the period of reconstruction under British rule, General Botha, who was still looked upon as the leader of the Boer people, took a prominent part in politics, advocating always measures which he considered as tending to the maintenance of peace and good order and the re-establishment of prosperity in the Transvaal.
Such a limitation of the area of hostilities is not only feasible, but it was actually put in practice by the British government during the Boer War.3 In the course of the Russo-Japanese War the question came up again, being raised this time by Great Britain.
On the one hand the British claim did not, it is seen, go the length of the restriction Great Britain consented to place on her own right of search during the Boer War, seeming to apply only to the case of ships carrying conditional contraband.
It may be said to have begun with the visit of the Association of British Chambers of Commerce to Paris in 1900, at a time when France was still smarting from the humiliation of the Fashoda affair, and the Boer War was exciting hostile demonstrations against Great Britain throughout the continent of Europe.
Another opportunity for making political capital was provided by the publication of the report of the royal commission on the Boer War under Lord Elgin's chairmanship, which horrified the country by its disclosures (August 26th) as to the political and military muddling which had gone on, and the want of any efficient system of organization.
The service done by Methodist chaplains in war time, and especially in the Boer War, won the warmest recognition from the authorities.
During his term of office the Egyptian War occurred, in which Childers acted with creditable energy; and also the Boer War, in which he and his colleagues showed to less advantage.
The outbreak of the Boer War in 1899 led to a strong outburst of sympathy among the Dutch on behalf of their kinsmen in South Africa, and there were times during the war, especially after President Kruger had fled from the Transvaal in a Dutch war vessel and had settled in Holland, when it was a task of some difficulty for the Dutch government to prevent the relations between Great Britain and the Netherlands from becoming strained.
As it progressed the Germans adopted many of the methods employed by the British in their colonial wars, and they learned to appreciate more accurately the immensity of the task which Lord Kitchener accomplished in overcoming the guerrilla warfare in the Boer republics.
Africa after the Boer War; and returned once more in 191 2 to unveil the Rhodes memorial on Table Mountain.
During the years of Unionist ascendancy Mr Asquith divided his energies between his legal work and politics; but his adhesion to Lord Rosebery (q.v.) as a Liberal Imperialist at the time of the Boer War, while it strengthened his position in the eyes of the public, put him in some difficulty with his own party, led as it was by Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, who was identified with the "proBoer" policy.
He also made useful party capital out of the necessity for financial retrenchment, owing to the large increase in public expenditure, maintained by the Unionist government even after the Boer War was over; II.
The South African Museum (1902) contains memorials of the Boer War of 1899-1902.
Though always known as one of the ablest men of the Liberal party and conspicuous during the Boer War of1899-1902as a Liberal Imperialist, the choice of Mr Haldane for the task of thinking out a new army organization on business lines had struck many people as curious.
After the occupation of Pretoria in June 1900 by Lord Roberts the Boer forces had been reduced to guerilla warfare, and Lord Kitchener, learning that the Transvaal commandants were despondent, invited General Botha to enter into negotiations, on the basis of the recognition of British sovereignty.
It is related of Kruger, as indeed it has been said of Piet Retief and others of the early Boer leaders, that he believed himself the object of special Divine guidance.
In 1880 the Boer rebellion occurred, and Kruger was one of the famous triumvirate, of which General Piet Joubert and Pretorius were the other members, who, after Majuba, negotiated the terms of peace on which the Pretoria convention of August 1881 was drafted.
The principle of government monopoly in trade being thus established, President Kruger now turned his attention to the further securing of Boer political monopoly.
In 1889, the very year following President Brand's death, he was able to make a treaty with President Reitz, his successor, which bound each of the Boer republics to assist the other in case its independence was menaced, unless the quarrel could be shown to be an unjust one on the part of the state so menaced.
The Boer War afforded him an opportunity to show his capacity.
Along the upper Kunene and in other districts of the plateau are settlements of Boers, the Boer population being about 2000.
There are monuments of Queen Victoria and Sir Theophilus Shepstone, and various war memorials - one commemorating those who fell in Zululand in 1879, and another those who lost their lives in the Boer War 1899-1902.
A recent case of conquest was that effected by the South African War of 18 991902, in which the Transvaal republic and the Orange Free State were extinguished, first de facto by occupation of the whole of their territory, and then de jure by terms of surrender entered into by the Boer generals acting as a government.
He took part in the earlier battles of the Boer War of 1899 in Natal as a commandant and later, as a general, he went to serve under Cronje in the west.
He took an active part in the peace negotiations of 1902, and at the conclusion of the war he visited Europe with the other Boer generals.
Cetywayo had inherited much of the military talent of his uncle Chaka, the organizer of the Zulu military system, and chafed under his father's peaceful policy towards his British and Boer neighbours.
The Boer governments had done little to promote irrigation, but during1905-1907a strong intercolonial commission investigated the subject as it affected the Transvaal and Orange Free State, and their final report, issued at Pretoria in 1908, contains full particulars as to the irrigation possibilities in those provinces.
The Boer thus has but slight difficulty in reading and understanding pure Dutch.
Enough has already been said as to the relations between the missionaries, the Boer farmers and the Hottentots; this grievance, however, " proved quite secondary to the intensity of feeling with which the colonists saw the steps taken by the government to deprive them of that labour (slave labour) over which they claimed an unquestionable right of property."
Troops were then sent to the country, and finally a settlement was made by Henry Cloete, the British commissioner, with the Boer leaders, and Natal constituted a British colony in 1843.
At the beginning of that time there was but one civilized government in South Africa - Cape Colony; at its close there were five separate states or provinces, three, the Cape, Natal and British Kaffraria, owning allegiance to Great Britain, and two forming Boer republics - the Transvaal and Orange Free State.
In the words of Mr Paul Botha, a Boer writer, England first blew hot and then blew cold.
All the evidence before Sir George, and the study he made of the Boer character, convinced him that the barriers separating the various white communities were largely artificial.
The intimation of the impending grant of self-government to Cape Colony was regarded by both Boer republics as bringing nearer the prospect of their union with the British colonies.
This could not be regarded as a redemption of the promise of a liberal constitution, and it had an injurious, though limited, effect on the Boer community.'
Meanwhile the resolution of Mr Gladstone and his colleagues to keep the Transvaal had been shaken by the Boer declaration of independence.
In 1884, having the power in his hands when the Scanlen ministry fell, Hofmeyr had put into office a ministry dependent upon the Bond, and had talked of a possible Dutch rebellion in Cape Colony if the Boer freebooters in Bechuanaland were ejected; in 1890 Rhodes became premier with Hofmeyr's approval and support.
Rhodes, who had large interests in the Rand mines, had consistently endeavoured to conciliate the extreme Boer section in the Transvaal and win it over (as had happened in the case of the Cape Dutch) to a policy which should benefit the whole of South Africa.
This action, finally blocking the Boer road to the sea, taken by a Liberal government, was clear indication that Great Britain was determined to maintain her supremacy in South Africa.
It did more, it divided British opinion, sympathy for the Boer republics leading in some cases to a disregard for the real grievances of the Uitlanders.
On the 18th of December a Boer policeman, in pursuit of an Englishman named Edgar, whom he wished to arrest for an alleged assault on another man, entered his house and shot him dead.
The Cape Afrikanders also formed what was styled a " conciliation committee " to help the party in Great Britain which still supported the Boer side.
At last the Boer commandos gave up the struggle and on the 31st of May 1902 their leaders signed articles of peace at Pretoria.
The Boer leaders declined the offer - they preferred the position of untrammelled critics, and the opportunity to work to regain power on constitutional lines when the grant of self-government should be made.
Towards the end of May, Lord Gladstone called upon General Botha to form a ministry, which was constituted from the ranks of the existing cabinets and included Natal ministers as well as strong Boer partisans like Mr Fischer and General Hertzog.
Brieger and Boer, by precipitation with certain salts, notably of zinc, obtained a body which was toxic but gave no reaction of any form of proteid.
The dislocation of trade caused by the war with the Boer Republics brought down the exports in 1900 to £7,646,682 (in which year the value of the gold exported was only £336,795).
At the time of the beginning of the diamond industry, not only the territory of Cape Colony and the Boer Republics, but all South Africa, was in a very depressed condition.
Fortunately, however, for the peace of Cape Colony at that time, Sir Charles Warren, sent by the imperial government to maintain British rights, removed the invading Boers from Stellaland and Goshen - two so-called republics set up by the Boer freebooters - in March 1885 and no rebellion occurred.
In this short time, in addition to the chronic troubles with the Basutoswhich led the Cape to hand them over to the imperial authorities - there occurred a series of native disturbances which were followed by the Boer War of 1881, and the Bechuanaland disturbances of 1884.
On the 28th of October Mr Schreiner signed a proclamation issued by Sir Alfred Milner as high commissioner, declaring the Boer annexations of territory within Cape Colony to be null and void.
On the 15th of February Kimberley was relieved by General French, and the Boer general, Cronje, evacuated Magersfontein, and retreated towards Bloemfontein.
The manufacture of a big gun, which was able to compete with the Boer " Long Tom," at the De Beers workshops, under Rhodes's orders, and by the ingenuity of an American, Mr. Labram, who was killed a few days after its completion, forms one of the most striking incidents of the period.
The division of the colonists into those who favoured the Boer states and those firmly attached to the British connexion was reflected, to the detriment of the public weal, in the parties in the Cape parliament.
The Bond, on its side, sought to draw closer to Het Volk, the Boer organization in the Transvaal, and similar bodies, and at its 1906 congress, held in March that year at Ceres, a resolution with that aim was passed, the design being to unify, in accordance with the original conception of the Bond, Dutch sentiment and action throughout South Africa.
The revolt in the German protectorate had been, nearly a year before the death of Morenga, the indirect occasion of a " Boer raid " into Cape Colony.
He made a distinct impression on the House by a speech on April 22 1902, in favour of Hicks-Beach's corn duty, which was imposed in order to find money to carry on the Boer War.
In 1886 the governor of Natal received a paper from Umbandine (Mbandini), the paramount chief of the Swazis, stating that Piet Joubert had called on him and requested him to sign a paper saying that "he and all the Swazis agreed to go over and recognize the authority of the Boer government, and have nothing more to do with the English."
The discussion, which had originally turned on the franchise, was enlarged by the introduction of the question of suzerainty or supremacy; and at last, in the beginning of October, when the rains of an African spring were causing the grass to grow on which the Boer armies were largely dependent for forage, the Boers declared war and invaded Natal.
The defeat and dispersal of the Boer armies, and the apparent collapse of Boer resistance, induced a hope that the war was over; and the government seized the opportunity in Tb iooo to terminate the parliament, which had already of endured for more than five years.
The Boer War had at last been brought to an end in May 1902 (5eeTRANsvAAL), and the king had the satisfaction of seeing South Africa settle down and eventually receive self -government.
During that war Smuts served throughout with Boer forces, rising during its latter period to the rank of general, and to the authority among his own people of one who had shown the possession of gifts as a leader in the field as brilliant as those which he was known to possess in the realm of the law.
Thus when the negotiations for peace began Smuts stood out as one of the recognized Boer leaders.
His accession to office was marked by speeches breathing a new spirit of imperial consolidation, embodied either in suggestions for commercial union or in more immediately practicable proposals for improving the "imperial estate"; and at the Diamond Jubilee of 1897 the visits of the colonial premiers to London emphasized and confirmed the new policy, the fruits of which were afterwards seen in the cordial support given by the colonies in the Boer War.
As regards foreign affairs, Mr Chamberlain more than once (and particularly at Leicester on 30th November 18 9 9) indicated his leanings towards a closer understanding between the British empire, the United States and Germany, - a suggestion which did not save him from an extravagant outburst of German hostility during the Boer War.
During the progress of the Boer War from 1899 to 1902, Mr Chamberlain, as the statesman who had represented the cabinet in the negotiations which led to it, remained the object of constant attacks from his Radical opponents - the "little Englanders" and "Pro-Boers," as he called them - and he was supported by the Imperialist and Unionist party with at least equal ardour.
The Boer shells proved very inefficient which was a lucky thing for us.
Then at Klip's Drift, on the 15th, 900 men of 9th and 16th lancers charged the Boer defenses.
Philippic entitled " Shall I Slay my Brother Boer?
Meet soldiers of the Crimea, Zulu war and Boer war, and find out what life was like for the British redcoat.
The Boer Wars The Boers were the Dutch settlers in South Africa, who had arrived in the late 17th century.
The Boer farmers were now in a miserable plight, but towards the end of the year they received reinforcements, and in December 460 men set out under Andries Pretorius to avenge themselves on the Zulus.
The Boers, however, continued to agitate for complete independence, and, with the honourable exception of Piet Uys, a gallant Boer leader, and a small band of followers, who assisted Colonel Evelyn Wood at Hlobani, the Boers held entirely aloof from the conflict with the Zulus, a campaign which cost Great Britain many lives and £5,000,000 before the Zulu power was finally broken.
He would not formally abolish the suzerainty, but he was willing not to mention it; and though, in substituting new articles for those of the Pretoria Convention he left the preamble untouched, he avoided anything which could commit the Boer delegates to a formal recognition of that fact.
The persistent attempt of the South African Republic to assert its full independence, culminating in a formal denial of British suzerainty, made it additionally incumbent on Great Britain to carry its point as to the Uitlander grievances, while, from Mr Kruger's point of view, the admission of the Uitlanders to real political rights meant the doom of his oligarchical regime, and appeared in the light of a direct menace to Boer supremacy.
When Mr Chamberlain reached the Transvaal in January 1903 the feeling among the British section of the community was optimistic. Mr Chamberlain was well received by the Boer leaders; it was, however, to the Rand magnates that he turned for financial help. That large sums were imperatively needed to accomplish the work of reconstruction was apparent.
At the end of 1888 and at the beginning of 1890 some small tracts of territory lying between Zululand and Tongaland, under the rule of petty semi-independent chiefs, The Boer were added to Zululand; and in 1895 the territories of the chiefs Zambaan (Sambana) and Umtegiza, the sea 688 sq.
Both unions had constitutions almost identical with that of the Afrikander Bond, and their aims were similar - to secure the triumph of Boer ideals in state and society.
The reverses of the first part of the Boer campaign, together with the loss of so many of her officers and soldiers, caused no small part of that "great strain" of which the Court Circular spoke in the ominous words which first told the country that she was seriously ill.
The efforts of the British authorities at this period (1882-1883) to bring about a satisfactory settlement were feeble and futile, and fighting continued until peace was made entirely on Boer lines.
The Boer leader was at this time accused of withholding knowledge of this armistice from the garrison (see POTCHEFSTROOM).
The Boer War of 1881, with its disastrous termination, naturally reacted throughout South Africa; and as one of the most important results, in the year 1882 the first Afrikander Bond congress was held at Graaff Reinet.
Unfortunately, Mr Hofmeyr's influence was more than counterbalanced by an emissary from the Free State, Mr Abraham Fischer, who, while purporting to be a peacemaker, practically encouraged the Boer executive to take extreme measures.
The British colonist is as capable of a grim jest as the Transvaal Boer, and this action of Mr Schreiner's won for him the nickname " Ammunition Bill."
De Boer was the obvious choice in goal, what with De Boer out with a sprained wrist.
This coat was worn by British officers during the Boer War.
His former fiancee Sarah (Nicole de Boer) is married and has a little boy.
In the early months of the Boer War of 1899-1902 Aliwal North was held by the Boers.
During the Boer War 1899-1902 he volunteered for service against the English and joined Gen.
On the outbreak of the Anglo-Boer war in 1899 Mafeking was invested by a Boer force.
To Boer cultivation the valley of the Marico river owes its fertility.
At the same time the Boer commandoes were requested to leave the country.
After the Jameson raid and the Emperor's telegram to President Kruger, in the drafting of which Baron Marschall, according to the later testimony now available, bore a leading part, it was he who declared in the Reichstag that the maintenance of the independence of the Boer republics was a " German interest."
His great work The American Commonwealth, which appeared in 1888, was the first in which the institutions of the United States had been thoroughly discussed from the point of view of a historian and a constitutional lawyer, and it at once became a classic. His Studies in History and Jurisprudence (1901) and Studies in Contemporary Biography (1903) were republications of essays, and in 1897, after a visit to South Africa, he published a volume of Impressions of that country, which had considerable weight in Liberal circles when the Boer War was being discussed.
Manning, and small numbers of British and Boer mounted infantry, Indian and African troops were employed, while an Abyssinian force held the line of the Webi Shebeli.
In February 1901 he was called upon to undertake the administration of the two Boer states, both now annexed to the British Empire, though the war was still in progress.
It became the capital of a quasi-independent Boer state, which included considerable areas north of the Vaal.
In the Boer War of1899-1902Winburg was one of the Boer centres in the guerrilla fighting which followed the fall of Pretoria.
The public debt, £2,101,500 in 1882, had risen at the close of the Boer War in 1902 to £12,519,000, and was in June 1909, £ 21,420,000.
At this time, had the affairs of the Boer community been managed with prudence and sagacity they might have established an enduring state.
They were in loose alliance with and in quasi-supremacy over the Boer communities which had left the Cape and settled at Winburg and at Potchefstroom.
On the night of the 23rd of May Smith made an unsuccessful attack on the Boer camp, losing his guns and fifty men killed and wounded.
He started on the night of the 24th, and escaping the Boer outposts rode through the dense bush and across the bridgeless rivers of Kaffraria at peril of his life from hostile natives and wild beasts, and in nine days reached his destination - a distance of 360 m.
His administration is notable, not so much for internal affairs but from the fact that he twice acted as arbitrator in disputes in which the Boer states were involved.
On the 12th Laing's Nek was occupied by the Boer forces, who were moved in considerable force over the Natal border.
Dinizulu, however, remained at the time quiescent, though the Zulus were in a state of excitement over incidents connected with the war, when they had been subject to raids by Boer commandoes, and on one occasion at least had retaliated in characteristic Zulu fashion.
Natives were openly transferred from one Boer to another, and the fact that they were described as apprentices by the farmers did not in the least alter the status of the native, who to all intents and purposes became the property of his master.
She was intensely pro-Boer and wrote a strong argument in favour of Boer independence.