Bodies Sentence Examples
Some people's bodies break in ways that we don't understand.
Their bodies were slick with sweat, and she lingered in the afterglow, lost in the heat and silk of his skin.
According to this alternative, these organic bodies are compound or corporeal substances, between monads and phenomena; and Leibnitz is a metaphysical realist.
The tattooing of their bodies is less artistic than that of the New Zealanders, and much more limited than among some of the other islanders.
Its strength is shown in England in the growing readiness of the different religious bodies to co-operate in movements for the purifying of public morality and for the better observance - of Sunday.Advertisement
The origins of the veneration of relics lie in the anxiety for the preservation of the bodies of the martyrs.
Nothing is more natural than that the pious solicitude felt by all men for the bodies of their loved ones should in the primitive Christian Churches have been turned most strongly towards the bodies of those who had met with death in confessing their faith.
About the end of the 3rd and the beginning of the 4th century it became customary for the bodies of the martyrs not to be buried, but preserved for the purpose of veneration.
Already individual Christians began to possess themselves of portions of the bodies of martyrs, and to carry them about with them.
Nobody hesitated to divide up the bodies of the saints in order to afford as many portions of them as possible.Advertisement
The only doubt which was felt was as to whether the bodies of the saints should be divided, and removed from their original resting-place.
Rome, it is true, possessed in the bodies of Peter and Paul a treasure the virtue of which outshone all the sacred treasures of the East.
But in the long run these substitutes for relics did not satisfy the Christians of the West, and, following the example of the Eastern Church, they took to dividing the bodies of the saints.
Medieval relics in the West also were mostly portions of the bodies of saints or of things which they had used during their lives.
The most famous relics discovered during the middle ages, were those of the apostle James at St Jago de Compostella in Spain (see Pilgrimage), the bodies of the three kings, which were brought from Milan to Cologne in 1164 by the emperor Frederick I.Advertisement
There are in reality two species of substances, or entirely distinct things, those which are impenetrably resisting, and those which are conscious substances; and it is impossible to reduce bodies and souls to one another, because resistance is incompatible with the attributes of spirit, and consciousness inexplicable by the attributes of body.
Hence, when he returns to organisms, it does not surprise us that he assigns to ova and spermatozoa cell-souls, to the impregnated ovum germ-soul, to plants tissue-souls, to animals nerve-souls; or that he regards man's body and soul as born together in the impregnated ovum, and gradually evolved from the bodies and souls of lower animals.
He believes that mind and soul are inherent attributes of all bodies.
In order to exert force, or at all events that force of reciprocal pressure which we best understand, and on which, in impact, the third law of motion was founded, there are always at least two bodies, enduring, triply extended, mobile, each inert, mutually impenetrable or resistent, different yet similar; and in order to have produced any effect but equilibrium, some bodies must at some time have differed either in mass or in velocity, otherwise forces would only have neutralized one another.
Why do bodies exist, with all these conditions, so similar yet different - that is, in so harmonious an order?Advertisement
This essence of bodies, this resemblance in difference, this prevailing ' Cf.
Thereupon Spinoza advanced a pantheism which supposed that bodies and souls are not, as Descartes thought, different substances, but merely attributes - the one the extension and the other the thought of one substance, Nature or God.
Leibnitz, again, having become equally dissatisfied with Cartesianism, Spinozism and the Epicurean realism of Gassendi, in the latter part of his life came still nearer than Spinoza to metaphysical idealism in his monadology, or half-Pythagorean,half-Brunistic analysis of bodies into monads, or units, or simple substances, indivisible and unextended, but endowed with perception and appetite.
On the other hand, under the influence of the mechanics of his day, which had hardly distinguished between inertia, or the inability of a body to change itself, and resistance or the ability of bodies to oppose one another, he concluded that, as inertia is passive, so is resistance, and refused to recognize that in collision the mutual resistance of moving bodies is a force, or active power, of changing their movements in opposite directions.
From these two arbitrary hypotheses about corporeal motion, that it requires indivisibly simple elements, and that it offers only passive resistance, he concluded that behind bodies there must be units, or monads, which would be at once substantial, simple, indivisible and active.Advertisement
He further supposed that the monads are " incorporeal automata," not interacting like bodies, but each perceiving what was passing in the other, and acting in consequence by appetite, or self-acting.
Such mentally endowed substances might be called souls; but, as he distinguished between perception and apperception or consciousness, and considered that perceptions are often unconscious, he preferred to divide monads into unconscious entelechies of inorganic bodies, sentient souls of animals, and rational souls, or spirits, of men; while he further concluded that all these are derivative monads created by God, the monad of monads.
All derivative monads, he allowed, are accompanied by bodies, which, however, are composed of other monads dominated by a central monad.
Further, he explained the old Cartesian difficulty of the relation of body and mind by transforming the Spinozistic parallelism of extension and thought into a parallelism between the motions of bodies and the perceptions of their monads; motions always proceeding from motions, and perceptions from perceptions; bodies acting according to efficient causes, and souls according to final causes by appetition, and as if one influenced the other without actually doing so.
Up to this point, then, Leibnitz opened one of the chief avenues to metaphysical idealism, the resolution of the material into the immaterial, the analysis of bodies into mental elements.
His theory of bodies involved an idealistic analysis neither into bodily atoms nor into mathematical units, but into mentally endowed simple substances.
There remained, however, his theory of the nature of bodies; and here he hesitated between two alternatives.
According to one alternative, which consistently flowed from the psychological idealism of Descartes, as well as from his own monadism, he suggested that bodies are real phenomena; phenomena, because they are aggregates of monads, which derive their unity only from appearing together to our perceptions; real phenomena well founded, because they result from real monads.
In support of this view, he said that bodies are not substances, though substantiata; that their apparent motion and resistance are results of the passions of their monads; that their primary matter is nothing but passive power of their monads; that the series of efficient causes between them is merely phenomenal.
According to the other alternative, however, he suggested that at least organic bodies are compound or corporeal substances, which are not phenomena; but something realizing or rather substantializing phenomena, and not mere aggregates of monads, but something substantial beyond their monads, because an organic body, though composed of monads, has a real unity (unio realis).
He was held to this belief in the substantiality of bodies by his Christianity, by the influence of Aristotle, of scholasticism and of Cartesianism, as well as by his own mechanics.
Hume saw that in making all the objects of perception ideas Berkeley had given as little reason for inferring substantial souls as substantial bodies.
This third position isarelic of ancient metaphysical realism; although it must be remembered that Kant does not go to the length of Descartes and Locke, who supposed that from mere ideas we could know bodies and souls, but suggests that beneath the phenomena of outer and inner sense the thing in itself may not be heterogeneous (ungleichartig).
The analysis of bodies into immaterial elements by Leibnitz incited Lotze.
In a way they returned to the wider opinions of Aristotle, which had come down to Descartes and Locke, that reason in going beyond sense knows more things than phenomena; yet they would not hear of external bodies, or of bodies at all.
Agreeing, then, with Kant that primary qualities are as mental as secondary, he agreed also with Kant that all the Nature we know as a system of bodies moving in time and space is sensible phenomena.
He accepted the Leibnitzian fallacy that unity is indivisibility, which led to the Leibnitzian analysis of material bodies into immaterial monads, indivisible and therefore unextended, and to the theory of monadic souls and entelechies.
In the first place, he resolved the doubt of Leibnitz about bodies by deciding entirely against his realistic alternative that an organic body is a substantia realizans phaenomena, and for his idealistic alternative that every body is a phenomenon and not a substance at all.
He believed in reciprocal action; and the very essence of his metaphysics consists in sublimating the interaction of bodies into the interaction of immaterial elements, which produce effects on one another and on the soul as one of them.
But instead of returning to the concrete fact of the equivalence of momentum, by which each body moving makes the other move oppositely, he denied that bodies do reciprocally act on one another, and even that bodies as mutually resisting substances press one another apart in collision.
Our bodies were reduced by Lotze to the general ruck of phenomenal appearances.
But in a philosophy which reduces everything to phenomenal appearance except the self-interacting substance of God, there is no room for either the bodies or the souls of finite substances or human persons.
Combining with this the central dogma of Fechner that spirit extends throughout the world of bodily appearance, he concludes that the realities of the world are " wills," that bodies are mere appearances of " wills," and that there is one universal and all-embracing spirit which is " will."
He holds, like Hume, that nothing is real except our sensations and complexes of sensory elements; that the ego is not a definite, unalterable, sharply bounded unity, but its continuity alone is important; and that we know no real causes at all, much less real causes of our sensations; or, as he expresses it, bodies do not produce sensations, but complexes of sensations form bodies.
In short, sensations are elements and bodies complexes of these elements.
According to him, whatever inferences we make, certain or uncertain, are mere economies of thought, adapting ideas to sensations, and filling out the gaps of experience by ideas; whatever we infer, whether bodies, or molecules, or atoms, or space of more than three dimensions, are all without distinction equally provisional conceptions, things of thought; and " bodies or things are compendious mental symbols for groups of sensations - symbols which do not exist outside thought."
It shows that the bodies impress on one another opposite changes of velocity inversely as their weights or masses; and that in doing so they always begin by reducing one another to a joint mass with a common velocity, whatever they may do afterwards in consequence of their elasticities.
The two bodies therefore do not penetrate one another, but begin by acting on one another with a force precisely sufficient, instead of penetrating one another, to cause them to form a joint mass with a common velocity.
Bodies then are triply extended substances, each occupying enough space to prevent mutual penetration, and by this force of mutual impenetrability or interresistance cause one another to form a joint mass with a common velocity whenever they collide.
Withdraw this foundation of bodies as inter-resisting forces causing one another in collision to form a joint mass with a common velocity but without penetration, and the evidence of the third law disappears; for in the case of attractive forces we know nothing of their modus operandi except by the analogy of the collision of inter-resisting bodies, which makes us believe that something similar, we know not what, takes place in gravity, magnetism, electricity, &c. Now, Mach, though he occasionally drops hints that the discovery of the law of collision comes first, yet never explains the process of development from it to the third law of motion.
He has therefore lost sight of the truths that bodies are triply extended, mutually impenetrable substances, and by this force causes which reduce one another to a joint mass with a common velocity on collision, as for instance in the ballistic pendulum; that these forces are the ones we best understand; and that they are reciprocal causes of the common velocity of their joint mass, whatever happens afterwards.
But the idealists are only too glad to get any excuse for denying bodily substances and causes; and, while Leibnitz supplied them with the fancied analysis of material into immaterial elements, and Hume with the reduction of bodies to assemblages of sensations, Mach adds the additional argument that bodily forces are not causes at all.
No real advance in metaphysics can take place, and natural science itself is in some danger, until the true history of the evidences of the laws of mechanical force is restored; and then it will soon appear that in the force of collision what we know is not material points determining one another's opposite accelerations, but bodies by force of impenetrable pressure causing one another to keep apart.
But Newton had already discovered beforehand in the mechanics of terrestrial bodies that gravitation constantly causes similar facts on the earth, and did not derive that cause from any logical ground beyond experience, any more than he did the third law of motion.
When Green said that " Nature is the system of related appearances, and related appearances are impossible apart from the action of an intelligence," he was speaking as a pure Kantian, who could be answered only by the Aristotelian position that Nature consists of related bodies beyond appearances, and by the realistic supposition that there, , h is a tactical sense of related bodies, of the inter-resisting members of the organism, from which reason infers similar related bodies beyond sense.
Having thus confused contradiction and difference, independence and solitariness, experience and inference, Bradley is able to deduce finally that reality is not different substances, experienced and inferred, as Aristotle thought it, but is one absolute super-personal experience, to which the socalled plurality of things, including all bodies, all souls, and even a personal God, is appearance - an appearance, as ordinarily understood, self-contradictory, but, as appearing to one spiritual reality, somehow reconciled.
Lotze, as we saw, rejected bodily mechanism, reduced known bodies to phenomena, and concluded that reality is the life of God.
If the personal idealist consistently denies other bodies, then the bodily signs become, according to him, only part of his experience, which can prove only the existence of himself.
To infer another mind he must infer another body, and the bodily environment including his and other bodies.
Not by my consciousness, but by knowing the bodies of others - of babies on the one hand, and of old men on the other hand.
He must ask what are known things, and especially what has been discovered in the sciences; in mechanics, in order to find the essence of bodies which is neglected by idealism; in mental science, in order to understand consciousness which is neglected by materialism.
The chief results we have found against idealism are that bodies have not been successfully analysed except into bodies, as real matter; and that bodies are known to exert reciprocal pressure in reducing one another to a joint mass with a common velocity by being mutually impenetrable, as real forces.
The chief results we have found against materialism are that bodies evolving account neither for the origin of themselves, their nature, and their fundamental order of resemblance and difference, nor for the nature and origin of consciousness, nor even as yet for their becoming good for conscious beings.
Hence' we come to the realistic conclusions that among known substances some are bodies, others are souls; that man is body and soul; and that God is a pure soul or spirit.
Having thus begun by touch and tactile inference, we confirm and extend our inferences of bodies in Nature by using the rest of the senses.
In Germany, since the victory of Kant over Wolff, realism has always been in difficulties, which we can appreciate when we reflect that the Germans by preference apply the term " realism " to the paradoxes of Herbart (1776-1841), who, in order to avoid supposed contradictions, supposed that bodies are not substances, but show (Schein), while " reals" are simple substances, each with a simple quality, and all preserving themselves against disturbance by one another, whether physically or psychologically, but not known to be either material or spiritual because we do not know the simple quality in which the nature of the real consists.
Janet accepted the traditional ontological triplicity - God, souls and bodies - and, in answer to Ravaisson, who called this realism " demi-spiritualisme," rejoined that he was content to accept the title.
Finally, as touch perceives reciprocal pressure within, and tactile inference infers it without, touch is the primary evidence of the senses which is the foundation and logical ground of our belief in Nature as a system of pressing bodies.
Aristotle could not know enough, physically, about Nature to understand its matter, or its motions, or its forces; and consequently he fell into the error of supposing a primary matter with four contrary primary qualities, hot and cold, dry and moist, forming by their combinations four simple bodies, earth, water, air and fire, with natural rectilineal motions to or from the centre of the earth; to which he added a quintessence of ether composing the stars, with a natural circular motion round the earth.
He thought that besides proximate matter, or one body as matter of another, there is a primary formless matter beneath all bodies, capable of becoming all in turn, but itself potentially, not actually, substance.
He thought not only that a form, or essence, is something different from, and at most conjoined with, matter in a concrete body, but also that in all the bodies of one kind, e.g.
Eventually, however, they overcame the Britons through treachery, by inducing the king to allow them to send for large bodies of their own countrymen.
But the view that the invasion was effected throughout by small bodies of adventurers acting independently of one another, and that each of the various kingdoms owes its origin to a separate enterprise, has little probability in its favour.
These sudden appearances of vast bodies of lemmings, and their singular habit of persistently pursuing the same onward course of migration, have given rise to various speculations, from the ancient belief of the Norwegian peasants, shared by Olaus Magnus, that they fall down from the clouds, to the hypothesis that they are acting in obedience to an instinct inherited from ancient times, and still seeking the congenial home in the submerged Atlantis, to which their ancestors of the Miocene period were wont to resort when driven from their ordinary dwelling-places by crowding or scarcity of food.
Of all the public grounds within London this is the most valuable to the populace at large; the number of visitors on a Bank holiday in August is generally, under favourable conditions, about 100,000; and strenuous efforts are always forthcoming from either public or private bodies when the integrity of the Heath is in any way menaced.
Lastly, from the very beginning of the 9th century bodies of Scandinavian warriors began to found kingdoms and principalities in all parts of Europe.
Such bodies of course had always existed (see below) and exercised at all times a powerful influence upon the kings, frequently even forcing them into war against their own wishes.
Moreover, kings and other distinguished persons kept standing bodies of young warriors, an honour to them in time of peace, as Tacitus says, as well as a protection in war.
These relations were obviously very different from those which had been observed originally, and it would be an injustice to the Roman Church to take them as typical of her relations with other Christian bodies.
When war was declared on the schismatic prelates, the reforming popes supported the canons, and, unconsciously or not, helped them to form themselves into privileged bodies living their own lives and affecting to recognize the court of Rome as their only superior authority.
Faraday had for a long time kept in view the possibility of using a ray of polarized light as a means of investigating the condition of transparent bodies when acted on by electric and magnetic forces.
Should now try non-decomposing bodies, as solid nitre, nitrate of silver, borax, glass, &c., whilst solid, to see if any internal state induced, which by decomposition is destroyed, i.e.
By the 6th of December he had sent in to the Royal Society the twentieth, and on the 24th of December the twenty-first, series of his "Researches," in which the properties of diamagnetic bodies are fully described.
With regard to celestial bodies, however, the case was different.
For the statement of the motions of these bodies uniform motion in a circle was employed as a fundamental type, combinations of motions of this type being constructed to fit the observations.
This procedure - which was first employed by the great Greek astronomer Hipparchus (2nd century B.C.), and developed by Ptolemy three centuries later - did not afford any law connecting the motions of different bodies.
In 1609 and 1619 Kepler published his new laws of planetary motion, which were subsequently shown by Newton to agree with the results obtained by experiment for the motion of terrestrial bodies.
The earliest recorded systematic experiments as to the motion of falling bodies were made by Galileo at Pisa in the latter years of the 16th century.
Bodies of different substances were employed, and slight differences in their behaviour accounted for by the resistance of the air.
This is the earliest example of a theoretical investigation of the rotation of rigid bodies.
Newton assumed the possibility of choosing a base such that, relatively to it, the motion of any particle would have only such divergence from uniform velocity in a straight line as could be expressed by laws of acceleration dependent on its relation to other bodies.
In this connexion he took an important step by distinguishing clearly the character of "mass" as a universal property of bodies distinct from weight.
There can be no doubt that the development of correct views as to mass was closely connected with the results of experiments with regard to the collision of hard bodies.
Suppose two small smooth spherical bodies which can be regarded as particles to be brought into collision, so that the velocity of each, relative to any base which is unaffected by the collision, is suddenly changed.
The additions of velocity which the two bodies receive respectively, relative to such a base, are in opposite directions, and if the bodies are alike their magnitudes are equal.
If the bodies though of the same substance are of different sizes, the magnitudes of the additions of velocity are found to be inversely proportional to the volumes of the bodies.
But if the bodies are of different substances, say one of iron and the other of gold, the ratio of these magnitudes is found to depend upon something else besides bulk.
In fact, experiments upon the changes of velocity of bodies, due to a mutual influence between them, bring to light a property of bodies which may be specified by a quantity proportional to their volumes in the case of bodies which are perceived by other tests to be of one homogeneous substance, but otherwise involving also another factor.
This definition correctly indicates that the mass of any portion of matter is equal to the sum of the masses of its parts, and that the masses of bodies alike in other respects are equal, but gives no test for comparison of the masses of bodies of different substances; this test is supplied only by a comparison of motions.
It is found that this gives a consistent result; that is to say, if by an experiment with two particles A and B we get the ratio of their masses, and by an experiment with B and a third particle C we get the ratio of the masses of B and C, and thus the ratio of the masses of A and C, we should get the same ratio by a direct experiment with A and C. For the numerical measure of mass that of some standard body is chosen as a unit, and the masses of other bodies are obtained by comparison with this.
Masses of terrestrial bodies are generally compared by weighing; this is found by experiment to give a correct result, but it is applicable only in the neighbourhood of the earth.
Familiar cases can readily be found of the perception of the mass of bodies, independently of their tendency to fall towards the earth.
The study of the structure of atoms has suggested a connexion of mass with electrical phenomena which implies its dependence on motion; but this is not inconsistent with the observed fact of its practical constancy, to a high degree of accuracy, for bodies composed of atoms.
Some years later he succeeded in showing that Kepler's elliptic orbit for planetary motion agreed with the assumed law of attraction; he also completed the co-ordination with terrestrial gravity by his investigation of the attractions of homogeneous spherical bodies.
The verification is sufficiently exact to establish the law of gravitation, as providing a statement of the motions of the bodies composing the solar system which is correct to a high degree of accuracy.
It should be noticed that the verification was begun without any data as to the masses of the celestial bodies, these being selected and adjusted to fit the observations.
In the treatment of the relative motions of a limited system, we may use a confessedly provisional base, though it may be necessary to introduce corrections, either exact or approximate, to take account either of the existence of bodies outside the system, or of the rotation of the base employed relative to a more correct one.
For the study of the relative motions of the solar system, a provisional base established for that system by itself, bodies outside it being disregarded,' is a very good one.
It has, however, been shown that, just as the compressed spring has a capacity for doing work by virtue of its configuration, so in the case of the friction there is a physical effect produced - namely, the raising of the temperature of the bodies in contact, which is the mark of a capacity for doing the same amount of work.
A saturated solution is a system in equilibrium, and exhibits the thermodynamic relations which hold for all such systems. Just as two electrified bodies are in equilibrium when their electric potentials are equal, so two parts of a chemical and physical system are in equilibrium when there is equality between the chemical potentials of each component present in the two parts.
The possibility of these phenomena should be borne in mind when attempts are made to interpret the structure of crystalline bodies in terms of the theory of equilibrium.
The experiments of Raoult on solutions of organic bodies in water and on solutions of many substances in some dozen organic solvents have confirmed this result, and therefore the theoretical value of the osmotic pressure from which it was deduced.
Again the two classes of substances mentioned above were found to be distinguished, and Graham called the slowly diffusible non-crystalline bodies colloids, in contrast to the quickly diffusible crystalloids.
The nave very usually consisted of two equal bodies, one containing the stalls of the brotherhood, the other left entirely free for the congregation.
At the Grey or Franciscan Friars, the church followed the ordinary type in having two equal bodies, each gabled, with a continuous range of windows.
The rite of extreme unction was introduced in the crusading epoch, although it was already usual to anoint the bodies of dead priests.
On the other hand, it has been recorded by Cicero" that a certain physiognomist, Zopyrus, who professed to know the habits and manners of men from their bodies, eyes, face and forehead, characterized Socrates as stupid, sensual and dull (bardus), " in quo Alcibiades cachinnum dicitur sustulisse."
A moment's consideration, however, will show that, while an albino may be an individual in which one or more of the complementary bodies of pigmentation are absent, a pigmented animal is something more than an individual which carries all the factors necessary for the development of colour.
Among the enterprising and shrewd Catalans, who look upon their rulers as reactionary, and reserve all their sympathies for the Provencal neighbours whom they so nearly resemble in race, language and temperament, French influence and republican ideals spread rapidly; taking the form partly of powerful labour and socialist organizations, partly of less reputable bodies, revolutionary and even anarchist.
Professor Poulton long ago suggested, and supported the suggestion by experimental evidence on a lizard, that the larvae of two British species, C. elpenor and C. porcellus, are protected by the resemblance to the heads of snakes presented by the anterior extremities of their bodies which are ornamented with large eye-like spots.
In Mashonaland, for instance, a large number of genera and species of Hymenoptera belonging to the Apidae, Eumenidae, Sphegidae, Pompilidae, Scoliidae, Tiphiidae and Mutillidae, resemble each other in having black bodies and dark blue wings.
It seems likely enough therefore that there should grow up bodies of knights banded together by engagements of fidelity, although free from monastic obligations; wearing a uniform or livery, and naming themselves after some special symbol or some patron saint of their adoption.
And such bodies placed under the command of a sovereign or grand master, regulated by statutes, and enriched by ecclesiastical endowments would have been precisely what in after times such orders as the Garter in England, the Golden Fleece in Burgundy, the Annunziata in Savoy and the St Michael and Holy Ghost in France actually were.4 During the 14th and 15th centuries, as well as somewhat earlier and later, the general arrangements of a European army were always and everywhere pretty much the same.5 Under the sovereign the constable and the marshal g or marshals held the chief commands, their authority being partly joint and partly several.
We find two chief types of fruit bodies in the lichens, the perithecium and apothecium; the first when the fungal element is a member of the Pyrenomycetes division of the Ascomycetes, the second when the fungus belongs to the Discomycetes division.
Thus shorn of two chief bodies of supporters, and Presbyterians in England being then comparatively few, the London Missionary Society became in effect a Congregationalist organization, though it has never departed from the broad spirit of its founders.
The South Africa General Mission, the North Africa Mission, and the Congo Balolo Mission come next in importance; but there are several smaller bodies working in different countries.
Nor do the proselytizing enterprises of Seventh Day Adventists, Christian Scientists, Mormons and other American bodies rightly find a place here.
That night the whole city was shaken out of sleep by an explosion of gunpowder which shattered to fragments the building in which he should have slept and perished;and the next morning the bodies of Darnley and a page were found strangled in a garden adjoining it, whither they had apparently escaped over a wall, to be despatched by the hands of Bothwell's attendant confederates.
Four days after the discovery of the bodies, Darnley was buried in the chapel of Holyrood with secrecy as remarkable as the solemnity with which Rizzio had been interred there less than a year before.
In wind-fertilized plants the flowers are comparatively inconspicuous and devoid of much attraction for insects; and their pollen is smoother and smaller, and better adapted for transport by the wind, than that of insectfertilized plants, the roughness of which adapts it for attachment to the bodies of insects.
If intended to raise the temperature of the structure, they should be set on iron or brick supports just clear of walls, earth or other heatabsorbing bodies.
The chief point to be borne in mind in making these mixtures is not to combine in the same compost any bodies that are antagonistic in their nature, as for example lime and ammonia.
Larger bodies of soil also require to be more thoroughly consolidated before watering; otherwise they would settle down so as to leave an unsightly void at the pot-rim.
In the later Carboniferous rocks the earliest amphibians make their appearance in considerable numbers; they were all Stegocephalians (Labyrinthodonts) with long bodies, a head covered with bony plates and weak or undeveloped limbs.
There is a tradition that the battle of Brunanburh was fought in the valley of the Axe, and that the bodies of the Danish princes who perished in action were buried in Axminster church.
Other Protestant bodies are the Walloons, who, though possessing an independent church government, are attached to the Low-Dutch Reformed Church; the Lutherans, divided into the main body of Evangelical Lutherans and a smaller division calling themselves the Re-established or Old Lutherans (Herstelde Lutherschen) who separated in 1791 in order to keep more strictly to the Augsburg confession; the Mennonites founded by Menno Simons of Friesland, about the beginning of the 16th century; the Baptists, whose only central authority is the General Baptist Society founded at Amsterdam in 1811; the Evangelical Brotherhood of Hernhutters or Moravians, who have churches and schools at Zeist and Haarlem; and a Catholic Apostolic Church (1867) at the Hague.
But the long liberal ascendancy closed the ranks of the CatholicCalvinist coalition, and united them against the neutral schools, and in 1889 they were able to pass a law enabling not only the unsectarian public schools, but all private schools organized by societies and bodies recognized by the law to receive subventions from the state.
While the fundamental constituent is a cellulose in many Mucorini and other Phycomycetes, in others bodies like pectose, callose, &c., commonly occur, and Wisselingh's researches show that chitin, a gluco-proteid common in animals, forms the main constituent in many cases, and is probably deposited directly as such, though, like the other substances, it may be mixed with cellulose.
The cells of fungi, in addition to protoplasm, nuclei and sap-vacuoles, like other vegetable cells, contain formed and amorphous bodies of various kinds.
The oidia of Erysipheae contain fibrosin bodies and the hyphae of Saprolegnieae cellulin bodies, but starch apparently never occurs.
Among the enzymes already extracted from fungi are invertases (yeasts, moulds, &c.), which split cane-sugar and other complex sugars with hydrolysis into simpler sugars such as dextrose and levulose; diastases, which convert starches into sugars (Aspergillus, &c.); cytases, which dissolve cellulose similarly (Botrytis, &c.); peptases, using the term as a general one for all enzymes which convert proteids into peptones and other bodies (Penicillium, &c.); lipases, which break up fatty oils (Empusa, Phycomyces, &c.); oxydases, which bring about the oxidations and changes of colour observed in Boletus, and zymase, extracted by Buchner from yeast, which brings about the conversion of sugar into alcohol and carbondioxide.
When the free ends of the hyphae emerge again into the air they swell up into spherical bodies which may either fall off and behave as conidia, each putting out a germ-tube and infecting the host; or the germ-tube itself swells up into a zoosporangium which develops a number of zoospores.
The asci are developed in the large dense fruit bodies (cleistothecia) and the spores escape by the decay of the wall.
Pfeffer showed that certain substances in definite concentrations cause the tips of hyphae to turn towards them; other substances, though not innutritious, repel them, as also do nutritious bodies if too highly concentrated.
The isolation of the elementary bodies and the investigation of their properties was one of his favourite pursuits.
In 1906 these latter formed 80% of the American production, and the southern states supplied about 13% of it, while the rich deposits of the middle states are husbanded in accordance with the law that ore bodies are drawn on in the order of their apparent profitableness.
The magnetite ore bodies which supply this industry lie in a band about 180 m.
Algeria, Canada, Cuba and India have valuable ore bodies.
In the hearth of the blast furnace the heat made latent by the fusion of the iron and slag must of course be supplied by some body which is itself at a temperature above the melting point of these bodies, which for simplicity of exposition we may call the critical temperature of the blast-furnace process, because heat will flow only from a hotter to a cooler object.
During these weeks their bodies are covered with leather so that the fur may develop in close, light and clean curls.
Outside the fort nothing was to be seen but burnt-down houses and putrid bodies.
The "three hours" service, borrowed from Roman Catholic usage and consisting of prayers, addresses on the "seven last words from the cross" and intervals for meditation and silent prayer, has become very popular in the Anglican Church, and the observance of the day is more marked than formerly among Nonconformist bodies, even in Scotland.
The exchange (Borsen), on the quay to the east, is an ornate gabled building erected in 1619-1640, surmounted by a remarkable spire, formed of four dragons, with their heads directed to the four points of the compass, and their bodies entwining each other till their tai, come to a point at the top. To the south is the arsenal (Tbjhus) with a collection of ancient armour.
During the Civil War he rendered invaluable services to the Federal cause in the south-west as chief scout in charge of the various bodies of irregular scouts and rangers participating in the constant border warfare that characterized the conflict in that part of the Union.
The conduct of the king proves that he had a most sincere regard for the welfare of his the Academy of Science, and he consistently restrained the undue intervention of the church in secular affairs, and placed restrictions upon the accumulation of property in the hands of religious bodies.
This conception led Kekule to his "closed-chain" or "ring" theory of the constitution of benzene which has been called the "most brilliant piece of prediction to be found in the whole range of organic chemistry," and this in turn led in particular to the elucidation of the constitution of the "aromatic compounds," and in general to new methods of chemical synthesis and decomposition, and to a deeper insight into the composition of numberless organic bodies and their mutual relations.
Weber's hypothesis of electric atoms, capable of diffusing through metallic bodies and conductors of electricity, but capable of vibration only in non-conductors, it is possible that the ultimate mechanism of conduction may be reduced in all cases to that of diffusion in metallic bodies or internal radiation in dielectrics.
Although this correction should be made if the definition were strictly followed, it is more convenient in practice to include the small effect of linear expansion in the temperature-coefficient in the case of solid bodies.
Almost all the skeletons and remains of bodies found in the city were discovered in similar situations, in cellars or underground apartments - those who had sought refuge in flight having apparently for the most part escaped from destruction, or having perished under circumstances where their bodies were easily recovered by the survivors.
According to Cassius Dio, a large number of the inhabitants were assembled in the theatre at the time of the catastrophe, but no bodies have been found there, and they were probably sought for and removed shortly afterwards.
Of late years it has been found possible in many cases to take casts of the bodies found - a complete mould having been formed around them by the fine white ashes, partially consolidated by water.
He tells how, when he had slowly taken in the doctrine of logical figures and moods, he put it aside and would prove things only in his own way; how he then heard about bodies as consisting of matter and form, as throwing off species of themselves for perception, and as moved by sympathies and antipathies, with much else of a like sort, all beyond his comprehension; and how he therefore turned to his old books again, fed his mind on maps and charts of earth and sky, traced the sun in his path, followed Drake and Cavendish girdling the main, and gazed with delight upon pictured haunts of men and wonders of unknown lands.
The office of the accountant-general of the empire (RechnungsIzof), which controls and supervises the expenditure of the sums voted by the legislative bodies, and revises the accounts of the imperial bank (Reichsbank).
Of these areas the provinces, circles and communes are for the purposes both of the central administration and of local self-government, and the bodies by which they are governedare corporations.
He built towns and encouraged those which already existed; he founded and restored bishoprics in his new territories; and between the Elbe and the Oder he planted bodies of industrious colonists.
These bodies were composed of the mediate prelates, the mediate nobles and representatives of the mediate cities.
The discovery of gunpowder made small bodies of men, adequately armed, more than a match for great forces M,,ethods equipped in medieval fashion.
Optical examination of many chalcedonic minerals by French mineralogists has shown that they are aggregates of various fibrous crystalline bodies differing from each other in certain optical characters, whence they are distinguished as separate minerals under such names as calcedonite,pseudocalcedonite,quartzine, lutecite and lussatite.
Whilst by many the movements were ascribed to the agency of spirits, two investigators - count de Gasparin and Professor Thury of Geneva - conducted a careful series of experiments by which they claimed to have demonstrated that the movements of the table were due to a physical force emanating from the bodies of the sitters, for which they proposed the name "ectenic force."
Only patricians could hold office in the senate, grand council and lesser council, three bodies which shared the work of government with the count, or, after 1358, the rector.
The latter lake with Rainy Lake and other connected bodies of water belong to the Hudson Bay system of waters, their outlet being by Winnipeg river to Lake Winnipeg, from which flows Nelson river.
There are also numerous universities throughout the province, founded in early days by the various religious bodies.
Theological colleges are supported by the various religious bodies, and are in affiliation with one or other of the universities.
The Roman Catholic claim to separate state-aided schools, at length conceded in 1863, long set the religious bodies by the ears.
Men are the result of a primal war in heaven, when hosts of angels incited by Satan or Lucifer to revolt were driven out, and were imprisoned in terrestrial bodies created for them by the adversary.
But there are also celestial bodies, bodies spiritual and not natural.
The construction of the Via Venti Settembre gave occasion for the discovery of a number of tombs, 85 in all, the bulk of which dated from the end of the 5th and the 4th centuries B.C. The bodies had in all cases been cremated, and were buried in small shaft graves, the interment itself being covered by a slab of limestone.
Municipal corporations or other local government bodies have no express power to expel a member, except in such cases where the law declares the member to have vacated his seat, or where power is given by statute to declare the member's seat vacant.
Bodies were established for executive, financial and judicial purposes, the Austrian lands constituted one of the imperial circles which were established in 1512, and in 1518 representatives of the various diets (Landtage) met at Innsbruck, a proceeding which marks the beginning of an organic unity in the Austrian lands.
The citizen bodies at the outset were really of Greek or Macedonian blood - soldiers who had served in the royal armies, or men attracted from the older Greek cities to the new lands thrown open to commerce.
Certainly, had the Greek colonies in India been active political bodies, we could hardly have failed to find some trace of them, in civic architecture or in inscriptions, by this time.
A small column, as for example a lead pencil standing on end, or a row of pins propped up against suitable supports, or other bodies which are easily overturned, may be used as seismoscopes.
If after a heavy earthquake we find bodies that have been projected or overturned, then by observing the distance of projection, and the height through which they have fallen, or their dimensions, we can 5.
Only two formed bodies of the Light Brigade found their way back.
They wear no clothes and their bodies are covered with hair.
While the council of ministers with the khedive forms the legislative authority, there are various representative bodies with strictly limited powers.
Among other churches represented were the Greek Orthodox, the Armenian, Syrian and Maronite, the Roman Catholic and various Protestant bodies.
Except that splints are sometimes found on the limbs of bodies of all periods, at present nothing is known, from texts or otherwise, of the existence of Egyptian surgery or dentistry.
At a very early date the anthropo- so-c phizing tendency caused the animal deities to be represented coni Es human bodies, though as a rule they retained their animal the ds; so in the case of Seth as early as the lind Dynasty.
Before the time of the Middle Kingdom it became usual for the rich to have their bodies embalmed.
Thus, while the long barrow is characteristic of the Stone Age, it is impossible to tell without direct examination whether it may be chambered or unchambered, or whether the burials within it may be those of burnt or of unburnt bodies.
Vessels of clay, more or less ornate in character, which occur with these early interments of unburnt bodies, have been regarded as food-vessels and drinking-cups, differing in character and purpose from the cinerary urns of larger size in which the ashes of the dead were deposited after cremation.
Besides ethyl or ordinary alcohol, and amyl alcohol, which are present in them all, there have been found in fusel oil several other bodies of the C i, H 27, + 1.
It was therefore clearly necessary with regard to both the older and the newer law to take some steps to collect into one or more bodies or masses so much of the law as was to be regarded as binding, reducing it within a reasonable compass, and purging away the contradictions or inconsistencies which it contained.
Occupying as these algae do perhaps the lowest grade of plant life, it is a matter of interest to ascertain whether a nucleus or chromatophore is differentiated in their cells, or whether the functions and properties of these bodies are diffused through the whole protoplast.
In Ulva and Mesocarpus the chromatophore is a single plate, which in the latter genus places its edge towards the incident light; in Spirogyra they are spiral bands embedded in the primordial utricle; in Zygnema they are a pair of stellate masses, the rays of which branch peripherally; in Oedogonium they are longitudinally-disposed anastomosing bands; in Desmids plates with irregular margins; in Cladophora polyhedral plates; in Vaucheria minute elliptical bodies occurring in immense numbers.
In all other cases, zoospores are uninucleate bodies.
The antheridia are spherical orange-coloured bodies of very complex structure.
Until the recent discovery by Williams of motility, by means of a single cilium, of the antherozoids of Dictyota and Taonia, they were believed to be immotile bodies, like the male cells of red seaweeds.
In certain Euphaeophyceae bodies built up of concentric layers, and attached to the chromatophores, were described by Schmitz as phaeophycean-starch; they do not, however, give the ordinary starch reaction.
Further to encourage the trade it was enacted in 1686 that the bodies of all persons, excepting poor tenants and cotters, should be buried in plain linen only, spun and made within the kingdom.
It is accepted equally by the Established Church, the United Free, the Free and other smaller Presbyterian bodies, the principal point distinguishing the first-named from the rest being that it accepts the headship of the sovereign.
In 1833 Scottish burghs were for the first time entitled to be governed by directly-elected bodies, and at various times since that date fuller powers of legal self-government were granted in different directions.
The medieval Church was even more profoundly convinced than its predecessor that the miraculous power of Deity attached to the bodies of saints and their relics.
But the younger nations - French, English and German - were scantily endowed with saints; while, on the other hand, the belief obtained that the home-countries of Christianity, especially Rome and Jerusalem, possessed an inexhaustible supply of these sanctified bodies.
Before long, however, these humble trophies failed to content the pilgrims, and they began to devote their efforts to acquiring the actual bodies, or portions of them - frequently by honest means, still oftener by trickery.
One of the most attractive works of early medievalism - Einhard's little book, Translatio Marcellini et Petri - gives a vivid description of the methods by which the bodies of the two saints were acquired and transported from Rome to Seligenstadt on the Main.
This belief - the transmigration of the soul, after the death of the body, into other bodies, either of men, beasts or gods - is part of the animistic creed so widely found throughout the world that it was probably universal.
They usually have the frizzly hair of the Melanesians, and paint their bodies in brilliant colours, especially yellow.
Probably the earliest human sacrifices were the bodies of enemies slain in battle.
As it was supposed by some that the spirits of the dead were eaten by the gods, the bodies of those slain in battle may have been eaten by their victors in triumph.
They were "the first practical application of results obtained by experimental determinations of pressure at different points along the bore, by Colonel Bomford's tests - that is by boring holes in the walls of the gun, through which the pressure acts upon other bodies, such as pistol balls, pistons, &c."
They are merely consultative bodies, and the primary intention of their foundation was to associate the laity in the deliberations of convocation.
These powers include direct taxation within the province in order to raise revenue for provincial purposes and the control of municipalities and other local bodies, and of " elementary education " - which embraces all education other than university.
But the right wing, not as yet attacked, either by Soimonov or by Pavlov, held on to its positions on the forward slope, and a column of Russian sailors and marines, .who had been placed under Soimonov's command and had moved up the Careenage Ravine to turn the British left, were caught, just as they emerged on to the plateau in rear of Pennefather's line, between two bodies of British troops hurrying to the scene of action.
A system of professional examinations carried on by professional bodies, in some cases with legal sanction, was developed in England during the 19th century.
The memorial was further communicated to various professional bodies concerned.
Conferences were held by the consultative committee of the Board of Education in 1903, with representatives of the universities, the Headmasters' Conference, the Association of Head-Masters, the Association of Head-Mistresses, the College of Preceptors, the Private Schools' Association, and with representatives of professional bodies.
The committee were of opinion that a central board, consisting of representatives of the Board of Education and the different examining bodies, should be established, to co-ordinate and control the standards of the examinations, and to secure interchangeability of certificates, &c., as soon as a sufficient number of such bodies signified their willingness to be represented on the board.
Wedgwood was particularly successful in this direction, for his " dry " bodies - some of which, like the black and cane bodies, had long been known in the district, others, such as the famous Jasper bodies,.
This half-Edomite population, recognizable also in Benjamin, manifests its presence in the official lists, and more especially in the ecclesiastical bodies inaugurated by David, from whose time the supremacy of this Judah is dated.
Earlier phases have not survived, and the last-mentioned is relatively late, 8 after the southern influence had left itself upon history, legend, the Temple and the ecclesiastical bodies.
The shapes of all polygonal and all cylindrical and conical forms are obtained by simple development - that is, the envelopments of these bodies are marked out on a flat plane, and when cut, are bent or folded to give the required envelopes.
Here was the burial-place of all the monks whose friends could afford to go thither with their bodies.
In most of the tombs is a chamber in which the mummy was placed, the Egyptian Christians at first continuing this method of preserving the bodies of their dead.
The theoretical deductions which he drew from the consideration of these bodies were even more interesting and important than the bodies themselves.
His forceful, facile pen gave him great influence from the first; but though a foremost member of several great deliberative bodies, he can fairly be said never to have made a speech.
Considerations of their history and past political importance have led to the elevation of Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism to the rank of independent religions, while the numerous other schismatic bodies are held to be only sects.
The five universities of Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, Allahabad and Lahore, which were formerly merely examining bodies, had their senates reformed by the introduction of experts; while hostels or boarding-houses for the college students were founded, so as to approach more nearly to the English ideal of residential institutions.
The remaining bodies of Pindaris were attacked in their homes, surrounded, and cut to pieces.
In brief, the legislative councils were not only enlarged, but transformed into debating bodies, with the power of criticizing the executive.
For it is easy to understand by the canons above mentioned that the greatest objects may appear exceedingly small, and the contrary, also that the most remote objects may appear just at hand, and the converse; for we can give such figures to transparent bodies, and dispose them in such order with respect to the eye and the objects, that the rays shall be refracted and bent towards any place we please, so that we shall see the object near at hand or at any distance under any angle we please.
In 1754 Euler communicated to the Berlin Academy a further memoir, in - which, starting from the hypothesis that light consists of vibrations excited in an elastic fluid by luminous bodies, and that the difference of colour of light is due to the greater or less frequency of these vibrations in a given time, he deduced his previous results.
Plagues of locusts occasionally, during a drought, ruin growing crops; in damp wet weather these insects are destroyed by a fungus growth (Empusa gryllae) within their bodies.
The essential feature of this astral theology is the assumption of a close link between the movements going on in the heavens and occurrences on earth, which led to identifying the gods and goddesses with heavenly bodies - planets and stars, besides sun and moon - and to assigning the seats of all the deities in the heavens.
The popular factor is the belief in the influence exerted by the movements of the heavenly bodies on occurrences on earth - a belief naturally suggested by the dependence of life, vegetation and guidance upon the two great luminaries.
To him the divine authority of the Catholic Church was an axiom, and in 1889 he published two works, the larger of which, The Church and the Ministry, is a learned vindication of the principle of Apostolic Succession in the episcopate against the Presbyterians and other Protestant bodies, while the second, Roman Catholic Claims, is a defence, couched in a more popular form, of the Anglican Church and Anglican orders against the attacks of the Romanists.
The thermal capacity of a body is measured by the quantity of heat required to raise its temperature one degree, and is necessarily proportional to the mass of the body for bodies of the same substance under similar conditions.
When this distance is compared with those prevailing in the solar system, it seems an extraordinarily small separation between two such large bodies; we shall, however, presently come across systems in which the two components revolve almost or actually in contact.
Except when the line of sight is perpendicular to the plane of the orbit, the revolution of the two bodies will result in a periodic variation of the motion in the line of sight.
If both the bodies are luminous, especially if they do not differ much in brilliancy, the motion of revolution is shown by a periodic doubling of the lines of the spectrum; when one body is moving towards us and the other away their spectral lines are displaced (according to Doppler's principle) in opposite directions, so that all the lines strong enough to appear in both spectra appear double; when the two bodies are in conjunction, and therefore moving transversely, their spectra are merged into one and show nothing unusual.
These monkeys are characterized by their lank bodies, long slender limbs and tail, welldeveloped thumbs, absence of cheek-pouches, and complex stomachs.
In 1728 was published "A Letter from Dr Clarke to Benjamin Hoadly, F.R.S., occasioned by the controversy relating to the Proportion of Velocity and Force in Bodies in Motion," printed in the Philosophical Transactions.
Those under small jurisdictions in the boroughs and under the petty corporate bodies continued open to the strongest reprobation, and thus remained until they were swept away by the measure which brought about the reform of the municipal corporations in 1835.
Even their graves were violated, and the bodies crucified and destroyed.
Already during the reign of Mahmud large bodies had passed the Oxus and spread over Khorasan and the adjacent countries.
There were even whole bodies of peasants called Molmen, because they had bought off work from the lord by settling with him on the basis of money rents.
Madison's theory was that the legislature of Virginia, being one of the bodies which had chosen delegates to the constitutional convention, was legally capable of considering the question of the constitutionality of laws passed by the Federal government, and that the state of Virginia might invite other states to join her, but could not singly, as Calhoun argued, declare any law of the Federal legislature null and void.
It now consists of 48 members, of whom 28 are nominated, and the remainder are elected by local bodies, landholders, Mahommedans, &c. In Agra the chartered high court sitting at Allahabad, and in Oudh the court of the judicial commissioner, sitting at Lucknow, have final jurisdiction in both civil and criminal cases, subject to appeal to the privy council.
For example, from the evidence of molar changes due to the obvious parts of bodies, science first comes to believe in molecular changes due to imperceptible particles, and then tries to conceive the ideas of particles, molecules, atoms, electrons.
For instance, in the history of mechanics it was first inferred from some that all terrestrial bodies gravitate, and then from these as some that all ponderable bodies, terrestrial and celestial, gravitate.
Hence Sigwart is right in saying that " All bodies are extended " means " Whatever is a body is extended," but wrong in identifying this form with " If anything is a body it is extended."
As Bacon would say, it is a belief that all individual bodies qua hot are individually but similarly moving in their particles.
Metals are shining, fusible, ductile, simple bodies.
On the Copernican change the heavenly bodies were recognized as concrete and yet subject to calculable law.
They are formulae for the control of the activities and the production of the qualities of bodies.
Had Bacon analysed bodies into their elements, instead of their qualities and ways of behaviour, he would have been the logician of the chemical formula.
The diet consists of one chamber with thirty-eight members, of whom five are chosen by owners of land worth at least i 50 a year, five by those who derive a similar income from other sources, five by the university of Jena and other public bodies, and twenty-three by the rest of the inhabitants.
Certain bodies of rules intended to mitigate the horrors of war have received the adhesion of most civilized states.
Among the duties of these bodies, as elsewhere, was the guet or night-watch, which necessitated a military organization under quartiniers, cinquantainiers and dixainiers.
Among the Arunta of Central Australia, the ghosts of the dead haunt certain localities, and, entering the bodies of passing women, are constantly reincarnated; the Black-snake clan of the Warramunga tribe embodies the spirits which the original ancestor had deposited by a certain creek.'
Lycetol, lysidine and sidonal are bodies having similar action.
The mining product next in value to coal in 1908 was copper, taken chiefly in Carbon county in a zone of brecciated quartzite underlying schist, the original ore being chalcopyrite, with possibly some pyrite, a secondary enrichment, which has produced important bodies of chalcocite in the upper workings, but these are replaced by chalcopyrite at greater depth.
Honours fell thick upon him in the form of addresses from the city of London and many large towns, and of presentations of freedom from various corporate bodies.
On the other hand there are not wanting individuals and even large bodies of Christians who are intent upon a reinterpretation.
The bodies of the dead, and sometimes even of the sick, are despatched to sea westwards, with certain rites; those of the chiefs, however, are buried, for the order has something essentially divine about it; their bodies therefore are sacred, and their spirits naturally assume the position above described.
Some had the rare courage to investigate the mysterious disease by dissecting the bodies of the dead.
The bacillus has been demonstrated in the bodies of fleas, flies, bugs and ants.
Taurus, and have short courses, but in winter and spring they bring down large bodies of water.
The original intention was to push the experiments to a pressure equivalent to thirty atmospheres, but owing to the signs of failure exhibited by the boiler the limit actually reached was twenty-four atmospheres, at which pressure the thermometers indicated a temperature of about 224 0 C. In his last paper, published posthumously in 1838, Dulong gave an account of experiments made to determine the heat disengaged in the combination of various simple and compound bodies, together with a description of the calorimeter he employed.
Gilbert employed it to prove that numerous other bodies besides amber are susceptible of being electrified by friction.
Two similarly electrified bodies repel each other.
Radio-active bodies are chiefly recognized by the power they possess of rendering the air in their neighbourhood conductive; hence the electroscope detects the presence of a radio-active body by losing an electric charge given to it more quickly than it would otherwise do.
The earth and the heavenly bodies are formed from mud, the product of fire and water, from which springs also man, at first in his lower forms. Man differs from animals by the possession of the moral and artistic faculty.
The Assembly was divided into two bodies, a Senate and a House of Delegates.
It need not be infinitely small, or even small compared with ordinary standards; thus in astronomy such vast bodies as the sun, the earth, and the other planets can for many purposes be treated merely as points endowed with mass.
The principle can of course be extended to any system of particles or rigid bodies, connected together in any, way, provided we take into account the internal stresses, or reactions, between the various parts.
Again, if two bodies are connectedbya string or rod, and if the hypothetical displacements be adjusted so that the distance between the points of attachment is unaltered, the corresponding stress may be ignored.
An important conclusion is that in any displacement of a system of bodies in equilibrium, such that the virtual work of all forces except gravity may be ignored, the depth of the centre of gravity is stationary.
The question as to stability of equilibrium belongs essentially to kinetics; but we may state by anticipation that in cases where gravity is the only force which does work, the equilibrium of a body or system of bodies is stable only if the depth of the centre of gravity be a maximum.
Statics of Inextensible Chains.The theory of bodies or structures which are deformable in their smallest parts belongs properly to elasticity.
It is a matter of ordinary observation that different bodies acted on by the same force, or what is judged to be the same force, undergo different changes of velocity in equal times.
On the Newtonian system the motion of a particle entirely uninfluenced by other bodies, when referred to a suitable base, would be rectilinear, with constant velocity.
We may take it as an experimental result, although the best evidence is indirect, that a particle falling freely under gravity experiences a constant acceleration which at the same place is the same for all bodies.
Since this is proportional to the mass, the relative masses to be attributed to various bodies can be determined practically by means of the balance.
The laws which regulate the resistance of a medium such as air to the motion of bodies through it are only imperfectly known.
If two masses m1, nil moving in the same straight line impinge, with the result that the velocities are changed from u1, u2, to ui, ui, then, since the impulses on the two bodies must be equal and opposite, the total momentum is unchanged, i.e.
The usual empirical assumption is that u21ui= e(ufui), (41) where e is a proper fraction which is constant for the same two bodies.
The full working out is in general difficult, the comparatively simple problem of three bodies, for instance, in gravitational astronomy being still unsolved, but some general theorems can be formulated.
It is to be noticed that the preceding statements are not intended to be restricted to rigid bodies; they are assumed to hold for all material systems whatever.
Points, lines and surfaces have no independent existence, and consequently those divisions of this chapter which relate to their motions are only preliminary to the subsequent divisions, which relate to the motions of bodies.
Laws of Motion.-The action of a machine in transmitting force and motion simultaneously, or performing work, is governed, in common with the phenomena of moving bodies in general, by two laws of motion.
The pressure exerted between two bodies at their surface of contact, or between the two parts of one body on either side of an ideal surface of separation, is an example of a force distributed over a surface.
The energy stored or restored, as the case may be, by the deviations of velocity of a body or a system of bodies, is the amount by which the actual energy is increased or diminished.
This conception is sensibly realized in practice when one of the two bodies between.
Impact or collision is a pressure of short duration exerted between two bodies.
The effects of impact are sometimes an alteration of the distribution of actual energy between the two bodies, and always a loss of a portion of that energy, depending on the imperfection of the elasticity of the bodies, in permanently altering their figures, and producing heat.
The motion of the common centre of gravity of the two bodies is unchanged by the collision.
The loss of energy consists of a certain proportion of that part of the actual energy of the bodies which is due to their motion relatively to their common centre of gravity.
Natesa (Hindu Feasts, Fasts and Ceremonies)," the several forms of the god Siva in these sacred shrines are considered to be the bodies or casements of the soul whose ' Siva is said to have first appeared in the beginning of the present age as Sveta, the White, for the purpose of benefiting the Brahmans, and he is invariably painted white; whilst Vishnu, when pictured, is always of a dark-blue colour.
In addition to the cerebral eyespot there are large numbers of minute black pigmented bodies beside and below the central canal of theneuro chord, commencing from the level of the third myotome.
Besides the dryers already mentioned, lead acetate, manganese borate, manganese dioxide, zinc sulphate and other bodies are used.
Other such communities and " congregations " - semi-monastic bodies standing in closer touch with the world than did the medieval orders - undertook the diffusion of knowledge.
Then as these fragmentary structures met, there were seen horned heads on human bodies, bodies of oxen with men's heads, and figures of double sex.
But in the organs of sense these pores are specially adapted to receive the effluxes which are continually rising from bodies around us; and in this way perception is somewhat obscurely explained.
For some years after the publication of Hansen's tables of the moon in 1857 it was generally believed that the theory of that body was at last complete, and that its motion could be predicted as accurately as that of the other heavenly bodies.
The first volume of the Histoire et memoires de l'Academie (1733) contains many original papers by him upon a great variety of physical subjects, such as the motion of fluids, the nature of colour, the notes of the trumpet, the barometer, the fall of bodies, the recoil of guns, the freezing of water, &c.
This paper, with others published in 1786 and 1788, is concerned with the phenomena attending the freezing of various substances, and is noteworthy because in it he expresses doubt of the supposition that "the heat of bodies is.
Finland is wonderfully rich in periodicals of all kinds, the publications of the Finnish Societies of Literature and of Sciences and other learned bodies being specially valuable.
It is equally a soul or spirit in wine which inspires the intoxicated; the old Egyptian kings avoided wine at table and in libations, because it was the blood of rebels who had fought with the gods, and out of whose rotting bodies grew the vines; to drink the blood was to imbibe the soul of these rebels, and the frenzy of intoxication which followed was held to be possession by their spirits.
Over and above the peculiar revenues of local bodies there is the further resource - which emphasizes the subordinate position of local finance - of obtaining supplemental revenue from the central treasury, either by taxes additional to the charges of the state, and collected at the same time; or by donations from its funds, in the shape of grants for special services, or assignments of certain parts of the state's receipts.
The union of the Burgher and the Antiburgher bodies in 1820 in the United Secession - both having previously come to hold Voluntary principles - added to the influence of these principles in the country, while the political excitement of the period disposed men's minds to such discussions.
A counter-movement was represented by a bill introduced into parliament in 1886 in order to declare the spiritual independence of the Church of Scotland, in the hope that the way might be opened to a reunion of the Presbyterian bodies.
For detailed accounts of the separate bodies - the United Presbyterian Church, the Free Church and the UNITED Free Church - see the articles on each of these.
Stephen Gray (1696-1736) noticed in 1720 that electricity could be excited by the friction of hair, silk, wool, paper and other bodies.
In 1729 Gray made the important discovery that some bodies were conductors and others nonconductors of electricity.
Hence he was furnished with a simple method of collecting electricity from other bodies, and he was enabled to perform those remarkable experiments which are chiefly connected with his name.
It is possible that the lyncurium of the ancients, which according to Theophrastus attracted light bodies, was tourmaline, a mineral found in Ceylon, which had been christened by the Dutch with the name of aschentrikker, or the attractor of ashes.
In 1717 Louis Lemery exhibited to the Paris Academy of Sciences a stone from Ceylon which attracted light bodies; and Linnaeus in mentioning his experiments gives the stone the name of lapis electricus.
Cavendish compared the capacity of different bodies with those of conducting spheres of known diameter and states these capacities in " globular inches," a globular inch being the capacity of a sphere 1 in.
Coulomb has made his name for ever famous by his invention and application of his torsion balance to the experimental verification of the fundamental law of electric attraction, in which, however, he was anticipated by Cavendish, namely, that the force of attraction between two small electrified spherical bodies varies as the product of th