Some people's bodies break in ways that we don't understand.
But their bodies don't seem very big.
Their bodies were slick with sweat, and she lingered in the afterglow, lost in the heat and silk of his skin.
It was as if their bodies were created to be together, not at all unfamiliar, entwined and as one.
Dead bodies don't make much noise.
The warmth of their bodies pressed together made her forget Darkyn, the cold, and the nightmare.
If the Gargoyles can unhook the wings then the power to fly lies in the wings themselves, and not in the wooden bodies of the people who wear them.
The interior of the church was packed with bodies writhing to the deafening, throbbing music.
She let the bodies pressed against her shove her into the chilled night and blinked back her blurred gaze until she saw her German friends.
They're imprisoned in their bodies for eternity.
Now they drew close to the fox which began to dodge between the field in sharper and sharper curves, trailing its brush, when suddenly a strange white borzoi dashed in followed by a black one, and everything was in confusion; the borzois formed a star-shaped figure, scarcely swaying their bodies and with tails turned away from the center of the group.
The rest of their bodies were unlike cats.
We both have a child in our bodies and don't know what to do about it.
In the hay beside their mother, lay two tiny bodies, soft and clean.
They clung to each other, molding their bodies as one until the raging fire of passion consumed her.
The relative strength of bodies of troops can never be known to anyone.
If any rays missed their bodies, the sand reflected it to them.
Beautiful women that rivaled Claire and men so handsome, even age couldn't diminish their muscular bodies or riveting looks.
Her body jolted in recognition as their bodies met, even though his face was shadowed.
And when more and more people have their medical history tracked over time, we will learn even more about how our bodies get sick and how they heal.
He tugged her forward until their bodies met.
Her blood was already on fire from their bodies being pressed together, and heat pooled in the base of her belly.
Lana neared, forcing her gaze away from the three bodies as she waited.
Most of the bodies haven't been recovered but he likes to take his victims while they're sleeping.
I'm stacking up bodies for you.
I hardly ever failed, when I rambled through the village, to see a row of such worthies, either sitting on a ladder sunning themselves, with their bodies inclined forward and their eyes glancing along the line this way and that, from time to time, with a voluptuous expression, or else leaning against a barn with their hands in their pockets, like caryatides, as if to prop it up.
A similar engagement between great and small ants is recorded by Olaus Magnus, in which the small ones, being victorious, are said to have buried the bodies of their own soldiers, but left those of their giant enemies a prey to the birds.
In our bodies, a bold projecting brow falls off to and indicates a corresponding depth of thought.
The cannon balls flew just as swiftly and cruelly from both sides, crushing human bodies, and that terrible work which was not done by the will of a man but at the will of Him who governs men and worlds continued.
They had given up, deciding that if they hadn't found their bodies, they must still be alive and would find their way back to Ashley.
Their souls already linked, all that was left was for their bodies to become one as well.
Yully opened herself to him, and he shivered as their souls, then their bodies, met once again.
He dropped his arm, and she picked her way through the bodies, covering her mouth to keep from vomiting.
Their upper bodies were tanned from exposure to the sun, their dark hair and eyes pinned on her.
Their bodies were round, their legs short and thick and their arms extraordinarily long and stout.
This process is an upward one, through the formation of the solar system and of our earth with its inorganic bodies, up to the production of man.
By means of this process the bodies of the solar system separate themselves, and the order of cosmic evolution is repeated in that of terrestrial evolution.
He searched their bodies to find another twenty souls they'd already claimed.
There's going to be trouble, and my sword isn't stout enough to cut up those wooden bodies--so I shall have to get out my revolvers.
Crack! crash! bang! went his iron-shod hoofs against the wooden bodies of the Gargoyles, and they were battered right and left with such force that they scattered like straws in the wind.
Clearly, what nanites will do inside our bodies in the future is almost limitless and will change medicine forever.
That is exactly what happens, again and again, with unspeakable results: dead bodies by the millions, each someone's child, and millions more mutilated.
Together with Tushin, stepping across the bodies and under a terrible fire from the French, he attended to the removal of the guns.
All he saw about him merged into a general impression of naked, bleeding human bodies that seemed to fill the whole of the low tent, as a few weeks previously, on that hot August day, such bodies had filled the dirty pond beside the Smolensk road.
The men sat huddled up trying not to stir, so as to warm the water that had trickled to their bodies and not admit the fresh cold water that was leaking in under their seats, their knees, and at the back of their necks.
And as the undefinable essence of the force moving the heavenly bodies, the undefinable essence of the forces of heat and electricity, or of chemical affinity, or of the vital force, forms the content of astronomy, physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, and so on, just in the same way does the force of free will form the content of history.
Two men in black darted through the bodies and into the house while two more hung back at the garage entrance.
The sound of bodies hitting the stone floor behind her preceded Darkyn grabbing her by a few seconds.
He stopped close enough for their bodies to touch if she breathed in too deeply.
The children were all elementary age, their dismembered bodies nothing but carnage.
Chest heaving, he gazed around the meat locker to assess how many bodies were present.
"No bodies, no blood," she observed of the living room.
Instead, she half ran, half leapt through the piles of bodies into the treed area lining two wide walkways.
A'Ran locked their bodies together with his large hand on her stomach.
Three bodies were laid out in a row beside it.
We are quite solid inside our bodies, and have no need to eat, any more than does a potato.
They were kissing, their bodies pressed together and arms around each other.
" In modern times the study of nature has brought to light many properties of bodies which appear to depend on the magnitude and motions of their ultimate constituents, and the question of the existence of atoms has once more become conspicuous among scientific inquiries.
" There are thus two modes of thinking about the constitution of bodies, which have had their adherents both in ancient and in modern times.
But this seems an unwarrantable concession to the vulgar opinion that two bodies cannot co-exist in the same place.
This opinion is deduced from our experience of the behaviour of bodies of sensible size, but we have no experimental evidence that two atoms may not sometimes coincide.
This is a prejudice of the same kind with the last, arising from our experience of bodies consisting of immense multitudes of atoms.
Thus, a number of soldiers with firearms may occupy an extensive region to the exclusion of the enemy's armies, though the space filled by their bodies is but small.
In this way Boscovich explained the apparent extension of bodies consisting of atoms, each of which is devoid of extension.
According to Boscovich's theory, all action between bodies is action at a distance.
There is no such thing in nature as actual contact between two bodies.
When two bodies are said in ordinary language to be in contact, all that is meant is that they are so near together that the repulsion between the nearest pairs of atoms belonging to the two bodies is very great.
This we may regard as one extreme of the various opinions about the constitution of bodies.
" The opposite extreme, that of Anaxagoras - the theory that bodies apparently homogeneous and continuous are so in reality - is, in its extreme form, a theory incapable of development.
In like manner, after the French mathematicians had attempted, with more or less ingenuity, to construct a theory of elastic solids from the hypothesis that they consist of atoms in equilibrium under the action of their mutual forces, Stokes and others showed that all the results of this hypothesis, so far at least as they agreed with facts, might be deduced from the postulate that elastic bodies exist, and from the hypothesis that the smallest portions into which we can divide them are sensibly homogeneous.
In this way the principle of continuity, which is the basis of the method of Fluxions and the whole of modern mathematics, may be applied to the analysis of problems connected with material bodies by assuming them, for the purpose of this analysis, to be homogeneous.
Descartes's own attempts to deduce the different qualities and actions of bodies in this way are not of much value.
More than a century was required to invent methods of investigating the conditions of the motion of systems of bodies such as Descartes imagined.
Suppose for instance that two bodies, both devoid of heat, are placed in contact with one another, and that the surface of the one is then rubbed over that of the other.
At first the heat-motion will be confined to molecules near the rubbing surfaces of the two bodies, but, as already explained, these will in time set the interior molecules into motion, so that ultimately the heat-motion will become spread throughout the whole mass.
The value n = 2 is appropriate to bodies of which the shape is that of a solid of revolution, so that there is no rotation about the axis of symmetry.
Now if the atoms are regarded as points or spherical bodies oscillating about positions of equilibrium, the value of n+3 is precisely six, for we can express the energy of the atom in the form (9 2 v a 2 v a2v E = z(mu 2 +mv 2 +mw 2 +x 2 ax2 + y2ay2-fz2az2), where V is the potential and x, y, z are the displacements of the atom referred to a certain set of orthogonal axes.
Its germ is to be found in the temporary camp on Chobham Ridges, formed in 1853 by Lord Hardinge, the commander-in-chief, the success of which convinced him of the necessity of giving troops practical instruction in the field and affording the generals opportunities of manoeuvring large bodies of the three arms. He therefore advised the purchase of a tract of waste land whereon a permanent camp might be established.
cAoyW -T6, burnt), which was present in all combustible bodies in an amount proportional to their degree of combustibility; for instance, coal was regarded as practically 1111 Sx sx sx or say Ex.
For a short time he was in a merchant's office in Amsterdam, but early devoted himself to the manufacture of microscopes and to the study of the minute structure of organized bodies by their aid.
His attention having been drawn to the blighting of the young shoots of fruit-trees, which was commonly attributed to the ants found upon them, he was the first to find the Aphides that really do the mischief; and, upon searching into the history of their generation, he observed the young within the bodies of their parents.
Not only was he the first discoverer of the rotifers, but he showed "how wonderfully nature has provided for the preservation of their species," by their tolerance of the drying-up of the water they inhabit, and the resistance afforded to the evaporation of the fluids of their bodies by the impermeability of the casing in which they then become enclosed.
These " battalias " had their angles strengthened in the oldfashioned way that had prevailed since Marignan, with small outstanding bodies of musketeers, so that they resembled rectangular forts with bastions.
The king himself commanded the right wing, which had to wait until small bodies of infantry detached for the purpose had driven in the Imperialist skirmish line, and had then to cross a ditch leading the horses.
With foreign immigration the strength of the Roman Catholic Church has greatly increased: in 1906 of every moo of estimated population 355 were members of the Roman Catholic Church (a proportion exceeded only in New Mexico and in Rhode Island; 310 was the number per moo in Louisiana), and only 148 were communicants of Protestant bodies; in 1906 there were 1,080,706 Roman Catholics (out of a total of 1,562,621 communicants of all denominations), 119,196 Congregationalists, 80,894 Baptists, 65,498 Methodists and 51,636 Protestant Episcopalians.
Bricked vault tombs were discovered containing bodies outstretched (not contracted); the deposits were of an unusually fine character and comprised silve, alabaster and even iron.
Alcohol is produced by fermentation from vegetable substances containing starch or sugar, from fermentable sugars produced by the hydrolysis of cellulosic bodies, and synthetically from calcium carbide and from the ethylene contained in coal and coke-oven gases.
Though forming a distinct and separate organism Cluny claimed to be, and was recognized as, a body of Benedictine houses; but from that time onwards arose a number of independent bodies, or "orders," which took the Benedictine Rule as the basis of their life.
In each culture province the Indians studied the heavenly bodies.
In the same year he was chosen a member of the first state legislature of California, in which he drew up and secured the enactment of two bodies of law known as the Civil and Criminal Practices Acts, based on the similar codes prepared by his brother David Dudley for New York.
The result was that in the beginning of the 13th century there was a tendency to class all bodies of heretics together: partly their opinions had coalesced; partly they were assumed to be identical.
Already there were scattered bodies of Waldenses in Germany who had influenced, and afterwards joined, the Hussites and the Bohemian Brethren.
The second group comprises the mechanic arts, in which the bodies to be measured are solid bodies which can be handled; in these cases plane figures appear mainly as sections of a solid.
(iii) Association of solid measure with liquid measure, presenting numerical measurement in a different aspect, should be retained by testing volumes as found from linear dimensions with the volumes of the same bodies as found by the use of measures of capacity.
The " Challenger " and other oceanographic expeditions have shown that on the bottom of the deep sea concretions of phosphate are now gathering around the dead bodies of fishes lying in the oozes; consequently the formation of the concretions may have been carried on simultaneously with the deposition of the strata in which they occur.
Hofmann's work covered a wide range of organic chemistry, though with inorganic bodies he did but little.
Both of these plains are so level, and have so fertile a soil that they are the seats of extensive agriculture, especially fruit raising, which is further encouraged by the influence of the large bodies of lake water that moderate the heat of summer and the cold of winter, and tend to check the late frosts of spring and the early frosts of autumn.
The temperature of the larger valleys is notably higher than that of the uplands; and the temperature along the lake shores is decidedly influenced by the large bodies of water.
Local administration is vested in local elective bodies, such as municipal councils, county councils, road boards, harbour boards, charitable aid boards, and others, with power to levy rates.
The debts of the local bodies amount to about nine millions.
The provincial councils had been swept away in 1876, and their functions divided between the central authority and small powerless local bodies.
These bodies decided in 1889 and 18 9 0 to exert their influence in returning workmen to parliament, and where this was impossible, to secure pledges from middle-class candidates.
In 1896 municipal and rural local bodies were allowed to levy rates upon unimproved land values if authorized to do so by a vote of their electors, and by the end of 1901 some sixty bodies, amongst them the city of Wellington, had made use:of this permission.
A special association is found, both in the Bible and elsewhere, between the angels and the heavenly bodies 18, and the elements or elemental forces, fire, water, &c 19.
In his cosmology Plato assigned this solid to "earth," for "` earth ' is the least mobile of the four (elements - ' fire,' ` water,' ` air ' and ` earth ') and most plastic of bodies: and that substance must possess this nature in the highest degree which has its bases most stable."
The worship of the heavenly bodies, for which there is Arabic evidence, had really a great place in Yemen.
As sound arises in general from vibrating bodies, as it takes time to travel, and as the medium which carries it does not on the whole travel forward, but subsides into its original position when the sound has passed, we are forced to conclude that the disturbance is of the wave kind, We can at once gather some idea of the nature of sound waves in air by considering how they are produced by a bell.
It further follows, as in the analogous case of light, that there is a certain angle termed the critical angle, whose sine is found by dividing the less by the greater velocity, such that all rays of sound meeting the surface separating two different bodies will not pass onward, but suffer total reflection back into the first body, if the.
Meantime on the Japanese right the 12th division attacked the large bodies of troops that Kuropatkin had massed (Yu-shu-ling) equally in vain.
Reorganizing his southern defences on a shorter front, so as to regain possession of the reserves that he had so liberally given away to his subordinates, he began to collect large bodies of troops opposite Kuroki, while Stakelberg and Zarubayev, before withdrawing silently into the lines or rather the fortress of Liao-Yang, again repulsed Oku's determined attacks on the south side.
In his Nobel address he said: "In any community of any size the authority of the courts rests upon actual potential force; on the existence of a police or on the knowledge that the able-bodied men of the country are both ready and willing to see that the decrees of judicial and legislative bodies are put into effect;" and he expressed the opinion that until a recognized international supreme court was firmly established, every nation must be prepared to defend itself, and when it was established all the nations must be prepared to maintain its decrees against any recalcitrant nation.
As many as 700 pairs of golden spurs were collected on the field from the bodies of French knights and hung up as an offering in an abbey church of the town, which has long disappeared.
The assumption is not true of some states; the legal authority is divided among several persons or bodies.
Some of the definitions would apply to the authority of powerful religious bodies in certain periods of history, or of illegal associations, such as the Mafia, which have terrorized the community.
Some suspension bridges have broken down in consequence of the oscillations produced by bodies of men marching in step. In 1850 a suspension bridge cable was carried on a separate saddle on rollers on each pier.
It might have been expected that the concession of universal suffrage in the case of the House of Deputies would have led to the abolition of the class system of voting for the legislative bodies of the several territories and the introduction of an equal franchise, and also to the doing away with the three-class system of voting - established on the Prussian model - in the case of the election of municipal representatives.
This was all the more probable owing to the fact that since the Constitution of 1867 there had been a certain analogy between the franchise for the Reichsrat, the Territorial Diets, and the elected commercial bodies.
Voices were not lacking which, in view of Austria's relatively small share in foreign investments, ascribed the deterioration of the trade balance to the fact that the public bodies were " living beyond their means."
From the so-called chronograph of the year 354 (Catalogue Liberianus) we learn that on the 13th of August, probably in 236, the bodies of the exiles were interred in Rome and that of Hippolytus in the cemetery on the Via Tiburtina.
There are also many in connexion with various religious bodies.
The portion of South Dakota east of the Missouri river is dotted with numerous lakes, ranging from small ponds to bodies of water from Io to 15 m.
The island was in the possession of successive religious bodies from the Conquest (when it was given to the Benedictines of Jumieges, near Rouen), until the Dissolution.
Both bodies of exposition represent the traditional principle at work in the sub-apostolic age, making for the preservation in relative purity, over against merely subjective interpretations - those of the Gnostics in particular - of the historic or original sense of Christ's teaching, just as Ignatius stood for the historicity of the facts of His earthly career in their plain, natural sense.
These institutions were managed by the clergy, and throughout the dark and middle ages the hospital and nursing systems were connected with religious bodies.
Marat began by attacking the most powerful bodies in Paris - the Constituent Assembly, the ministers, the corps municipal, and the court of the Chatelet.
There are no mountains, forests or large bodies of water to moderate the extremes of summer and winter, and the uniformity of topography makes the ranges of temperature for different parts of the state very nearly the same.
He was one of the first to point out the existence of certain cellular bodies in these plants which appeared to perform the functions of reproductive organs, and to them the names of antheridia and pistillidia were given.
The spores formed on the delicate grey mould are carried during the summer from one plant to another, thus spreading the disease, and also germinate in the soil where the fungus may remain passive during the winter producing a new crop of spores next spring, or sometimes attacking the scales of the bulbs forming small black hard bodies embedded in the flesh.
BEAR, properly the name of the European brown bear (Ursus arctus), but extended to include all the members of the Ursidae, the typical family of Arctoid carnivora, distinguished by their massive bodies, short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.
aither, probably from aitho, I burn, though Plato in his Cratylus (410 B) derives the name from its perpetual motion-6n del aei thei peri ton aera reon, / aeitheer) dikaios an kaloito), a material substance of a more subtle kind than visible bodies, supposed to exist in those parts of space which are apparently empty.
To Descartes, who made extension the sole essential property of matter, and matter a necessary condition of extension, the bare existence of bodies apparently at a distance was a proof of the existence of a continuous medium between them.
Aethers were invented for the planets to swim in, to constitute electric atmospheres and magnetic effluvia, to convey sensations from one part of our bodies to another, and so on, till all space had been filled three or four times over with aethers.
If the aether were itself constituted of discrete molecules, on the model of material bodies, such transparency would not be conceivable.
The view that our knowledge in such cases may be completely represented by means of laws of action at a distance, expressible in terms of the positions (and possibly motions) of the interacting bodies without taking any heed of the intervening space, belongs to modern times.
The laws of thermodynamics, including the fundamental principle that a physical property, called temperature, can be defined, which tends towards uniformity, are thus relations between the properties of types of material bodies that can exist permanently in presence of each other; why they so maintain themselves remains unknown, but the fact gives the point d'appui.
Hull published accounts of an exact and extensive research, in which the principle had been fully and precisely confirmed as regards both transparent and opaque bodies.
Thomson, or the correlated phenomena occurring spontaneously in radio-active bodies as discovered by H.
Legislative authority is exercised by two popularly elected bodies, a Chamber of Deputies of 300 and a Senate of i so members.
At Prague there sits also an electoral court which decides upon the validity of disputed elections or forfeiture of seats and other questions relating to parliamentary or elected bodies.
In regard to the mines specialists were in conference as to the part to be taken by the State and by public bodies in ownership and management.
It was constituted in 1918 by the fusion of two existing Protestant bodies, the Reformed (Calvinist) Church and the Evangelical (Lutheran) Church.
Later still he engaged in the study of the relations between chemical constitution and rotation of the plane of polarization in a magnetic field, and enunciated a law expressing the variation of such rotation in bodies belonging to homologous series.
Aleppo galls (gallae halepenses) are brittle, hard, spherical bodies, in.
The dipterous gall-formers include the gall-midges, or gallgnats (Cecidomyidae), minute slender-bodied insects, with bodies usually covered with long hairs, and the wings folded over the back.
They are usually much dreaded by country people, and although they are quite harmless to man, the large glands which are disposed very regularly on their smooth, shiny bodies, secrete a very active, milky poison which protects them from the attacks of many enemies.
reflecting telescope, mounted first at Canonbury, later at Cranford, Middlesex, and with its aid executed many drawings of the celestial bodies of singular beauty and fidelity..
The bodies were formerly exposed to view; but the pilgrims who now pass through the galleries see nothing but the draperies and the inscriptions.
He advanced towards the modern view of elements as the undecomposable constituents of material bodies; and understanding the distinction between mixtures and compounds, he made considerable progress in the technique of detecting their ingredients, a process which he designated by the term "analysis."
Two great objects eclipsed all others, - to find a route to the Indies, and to bring the heathen tribes into the embraces of the Church, since, while he cared little for their bodies, his solicitude for their souls knew no bounds" (Parkman).
Arise, and begone !") The bodies are sent to Cornwall, and Mark, learning the truth, has a fair chapel erected and lays them in tombs, one at each side of the building, when a sapling springs from the heart of Tristan, and reaching its boughs across the chapel, makes its way into the grave of Iseult.
He held fast to the great idea of the catholicity of the English Church, to that conception of it which regards it as a branch of the whole Christian church, and emphasizes its historical continuity and identity from the time of the apostles, but here again his policy was at fault; for his despotic administration not only excited and exaggerated the tendencies to separatism and independentism which finally prevailed, but excluded large bodies of faithful churchmen from communion with their church and from their country.
They take a great interest in social, political and educational matters, and are prominent on public bodies.
The eldest, Lawrence Parsons, 4th earl of Rosse, and Baron Oxmantown, born on the 17th of November 1840, succeeded to the title on his father's death, and made many investigations on the heavenly bodies, particularly on the radiation of the moon and related physical questions; the youngest, the Hon.
These consist of galactin and lactochrome, substances peculiar to milk, discovered by Winter Blyth, with certain animal principles such as leucin, pepton, kreatin, tyrosin, &c. The salts in milk consist, according to the average of numerous analyses by Fleischmann, of the following Milk thus is not to be regarded as a definite chemical compound nor even as a mixture of bodies in fixed and invariable proportions.
The reform was accepted by the various bodies of head masters and assistant masters in December 1906 - January 1907, and the proposed scheme was formally approved by the Board of Education in February 1907.
She retained her influence in the reign of Henry IV., conveyed the bodies of Catherine de' Medici and Henry III.
He had a regular army of 8000 infantry and 2000 cavalry, without counting 50,000 gowns (bodies of Arab horsemen) brought by the khalifas.
- These singular crustaceans have long soft flexible bodies, the eyes stalked and movable, the first antennae small and filiform, the second lamellar in the female, in the male prehensile; this last character gives rise to some very fanciful developments.
But the Creed was but the condensed essence of the New Testament scriptures, and behind it there lay an appeal to these scriptures, which was especially necessary where (as in the case of the Valentinian Gnostics) the dissident bodies professed to accept the common belief of Christians.
handle one of the most famous bodies of ancient literature, which, in its turn, has given rise to innumerable Jewish and nonJewish works, and has many points of value and interest which cannot be adequately discussed here.
The use of "chapel" as a common term for all Nonconformist places of worship was general through most of the 19th century, so that "church and chapel" was the usual phrase to mark the distinction between members of the established Church and those of Nonconformist bodies.
Most of the recent buildings for worship erected by Nonconformist bodies will be found to be styled Wesleyan, Congregational, &c., churches.
- The appearance of prophets in the first Christian communities is one proof of the strength of faith and hope by which these bodies were animated.
His spare time and great part of his nights were devoted to the experimental examination of the different bodies which he dealt with, and the study of the standard works on chemistry.
Whether the will of the gods is determined through the inspection of the liver of the sacrificial animal, through observing the action of oil bubbles in a basin of water or through the observation of the movements of the heavenly bodies, it is Shamash and Adad who, in the ritual connected with divination, are invariably invoked.
And the reason for this state of things is that bodies rest on a substratum of matter.
The requirements of an elongate body moving through the resistant medium of water are met by the evolution of similar entrant and exit curves, and the bodies of most swiftly moving aquatic animals evolve into forms resembling the hulls of modern sailing yachts (Bashford Dean).
confirmed all the former privileges, and in the amplest form extended to the Society, as being a mendicant institute, all favours that had been or might afterwards be granted to such mendicant bodies.
Their hostility to the Huguenots forced on the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, and their war against their Jansenist opponents did not cease till the very walls of Port Royal were demolished in 1710, even to the very abbey church itself, and the bodies of the dead taken with every mark of insult from their graves and literally flung to the dogs to devour.
The two noteworthy depressions in its surface, the Valley of Mexico and Bolson de Mapimi, once contained large bodies of water, of which only small lakes and marshy lagoons now remain.
On the lower terraces of Michoacan are Patzcuaro and Cuitzeo lakes, and elsewhere among the sierras are numerous other small bodies of water.
them, teaching men to follow his austere and virtuous life, to hate all violence and war, to sacrifice no men or beasts on the altars, but to give mild offerings of bread and flowers and perfumes, and to do penance by the votaries drawing blood with thorns from their own bodies.
paddle the canoe and fish, while the girls learn to spin and weave, grind maize, and cook - good conduct being enforced by punishments of increasing severity, up to pricking their bodies with aloethorns and holding their faces over burning chillies.
But after cremation came in a mourning procession of servants and chiefs carrying the body to the funeral pyre to be burnt by the demondressed priests, after which the crowd of wives and slaves were exhorted to serve their lord faithfully in the next world, were sacrificed and their bodies burnt.
Such bodies show strong absorption bands in those colours which they reflect, while of the transmitted light that which is of a slightly greater wave-length than the absorbed light has an abnormally great refrangibility, and that of a slightly shorter wave-length an abnormally small refrangibility.
(vi.) In secret societies we find bodies of men grouped together with a single tutelary animal; the individual, in the same way, acquires the nagual or individual totem, sometimes by ceremonies of the nature of the bloodbond.
Pan, Silenus, the Satyrs and the Fauns were either capriform or had some part of their bodies shaped like that of a goat.
A Trypanosome always possesses two distinct nuclear bodies, one the trophonucleus, regulating the trophic life of the cell, the other, the kinetonucleus, directing its locomotor activities.
Undoubtedly closely allied to the Haemoflagellates, although no actual trypaniform phase has yet been observed, are the important parasites usually known as the " Leish- The man-Donovan " bodies, without some consideration of which an account of the Haemoflagellates would - hardly be complete.
The most interesting point about the morphology is the fact that two chromatic bodies, of very unequal size, are almost invariably to be recognized.
Nevertheless, the general appearance and structure of these motile forms so greatly resemble that of a Herpetomonad, or of the " pseudo-Herpetomonadine " forms of a Trypanosome which are obtained in cultures, that it cannot be doubted that the " Leishman-Donovan-Wright " bodies are closely connected with the Haemoflagellates.
1252, figs.; (37) idem, " Note on the nature of the parasitic bodies found in tropical splenomegaly," op. cit.
Ross, " Notes on the bodies recently described by Leishman and Donovan, " Brit.
This building provides offices for the Local Government Board, Boards of Trade and of Public Works and other bodies.
Besides the usual duties of local government, and the connexion with the port and docks boards already explained, there should be noticed the connexion of the corporation with such bodies as those controlling the city technical schools, the Royal Irish Academy of Music, and the gallery of modern art.
Now and again small bodies broke off from the main community and adopted a semi-nomadic life, but these formed a very small percentage of the total number, which in 1908 was over 8000.
These bodies had first been regularly measured by W.
In spite of the formal differences of these four assemblies and the real distinction springing from the fact that patricians were not members of the plebeian bodies, the view which is appropriate to the developed Roman constitution is that the people expressed its will equally through all, although the mode of expression varied with the channel.
In 1815 he published anonymously in the Annals of Philosophy a paper "On the relation between the specific gravities of bodies in their gaseous state and the weights of their atoms," in which he calculated that the atomic weights of a number of the elements are multiples of that of hydrogen; and in a second paper published in the same periodical the following year he suggested that the rrpcbrn iiXrl of the ancients is realized in hydrogen, from which the other elements are formed by some process of condensation or grouping.
Similar matters arising in nonconformist bodies can only be tried by the ordinary secular courts, and generally depend upon the question whether a minister has done any act which is not in accordance with the rules governing the particular body of which he is a minister.
These privileges only attach where the place of worship of which he is a minister has been duly registered (the Places of Worship Registration Act 1855), unless in the case of bodies subject to special legislation, as Quakers.
Berengar in the i ith century assailed this view, which was really that of transubstantiation, alleging that there is no substance in matter apart from the accidents, and that therefore Christ cannot be corporally present in the sacrament; because, if so, he must be spatially present, and there will be two material bodies in one space; moreover his body will be in thousands of places at once.
Of course men's bodies as well as the souls of the unsaved, who according to the oldest conception have in them no light whatever, fall under the sway of the powers of darkness.
The signaculum oris forbids all eating of unclean food (which included all bodies of animals, wine, &c. - vegetable diet being allowed because plants contained more light, though the killing of plants, or even plucking their fruit and breaking their twigs, was not permitted), as well as all impure speech.
When the ice of the last glacial epoch had retreated so far that Its front lay on a northward slope, belonging to the drainage area of the Great Lakes, bodies of water accumulated in front of the ice margin, forming glacio-marginal lakes.
During Pleistocene times all these lacustrine basins were occupied by lakes of much greater depthand la~ger size; the outlines of the eastern (Lake Bonneville) and the western (Lake Lahontan) water bodies are well recorded by shore lines and deltas on the enclosing slopes, hundreds of feet above the present lake surfaces; the abandoned shore lines, as studied by G.
It contains much volcanic material, and great bodies of siliceous shale, locally estimated at 4000 ft.
The continent being interrupted on its eastern side by the Gulf of Mexico and Hudson Bay, with the Great Lakes between these two large water bodies, the northward bending of the July isotherms is most pronounced in the western part of the United States.
Religious Bodies.According to the national census of religious bodies taken in 1906 there were then in the country 186 denominations represented by 212,230 organizations, 92.2% of which represented 164 bodies which in history and general character are identified more or less closely with the Protestant Reformation or its subsequent development.
Orthodox churches (Russian, Servian, Syrian and Greek), which had practically no existence in 1890, the year of the last preceding census of religious bodies.
The membership of the Protestant bodies increased in the interval 44-8%, while that of the Roman Catholic Church increased 93-5%.
Among the Protestants, the Mcthodists with 17.5% of the total membership, the Baptists with 17.2, the Lutherans with 64, the Presbyterians with 5.6 and the Disciples and Christians with 3~5 each of these bodies comprising more than a million members together include one-half of the total church membership of the country, and four-fifths (81.3%) of all Protestant members.
The Baptists and Methodists are much stronger in the South, relatively to other bodies, than elsewhere; the former constituting in the South Atlantic states 43~9 / of all church members, and in the South Central states 395%.
The Protestant bodies are more widely and evenly distributed throughuut the country than are the Roman Catholics.
The total value of church property (almost in its entirety exempt from taxation) reported in 1906 was $1,257,575,867, of which $935,942,578 was reported for Protestant bodies, $292,638,786 for Roman Catholic bodies, and $28,994,502 for all other bodies.
The gangue was quartz, very irregularly distributed in bodies often of great sizes, for the most part nearly or quite barren of ore.
The members of these bodies belong for the most part, though by no means entirely, and least so in the agricultural states, to the class of professional politicians.
the other hand the legislaturewhich consists of two bodies, each of them numerous, and in neither of which are there recognized leaderscontains no person on whom responsibility can be fixed.
At election times they also direct and superintend the work of bringing up voters to the polls and of watching the taking and counting of the votes; but in this work they are often aided or superseded by specially appointed temporary bodies called campaign committees, These party committees are permanent, and though the membership is renewed every year, the same men usually continue to serve.
The other and parallel branch of the party organization consists of the bodies whose function it is to nominate party candidates for elective posts, whether legislative or Pa,aty Noni.
by direct popular vote.) These bodies are meetings tions.
The great importance of these nominating bodies lies not only in the fact that there are an enormous number of state, county and city offices (including judicial offices) filled by direct popular election, but also in the fact that in the United States a candidate has scarcely any chance of being elected unless he is regularly nominated by his party, that is to say, by the recognised primary or convention.
The mahatmas exhibited their " astral bodies " to her, " precipitated " messages which reached her from the confines of Tibet in an instant of time, supplied her with sound doctrine, and incited her to perform tricks for the conversion of sceptics.
Many of the Protestant bodies have abandoned the rite, but it remains among the Lutherans (who, whether episcopal or not, attach great importance to it) and in the group of Churches in communion with the Church of England.
The chief conclusions of astronomers concerning the .spherical figure and dimensions of the earth, its relation to the heavenly bodies, and the great circles of the globe - the equator, the ecliptic and the tropics - were considered as well established.
As a result of the geological causes just mentioned many parts of Canada are lavishly strewn with lakes of all sizes and shapes, from bodies of water hundreds of miles long and a thousand feet deep to ponds lost to sight in the forest.
Higher education was originally organized by the various religious bodies, each of which retains at least one university in more or less integral connexion with itself.
The first session of parliament was opened on the 8th of November, but adjourned on the 21st of December till the 12th of March 1868, chiefly on account of the fact that members of the Dominion parliament were allowed, in Ontario and Quebec, to hold seats in the local legislatures, so that it was difficult for the different bodies to be in session simultaneously.
The grave questions of respective jurisdiction which have from time to time arisen between the federal and provincial governments have for the most part been settled by appeal to one or both of these judicial bodies.
To the left of the vena cava is the Spigelian lobe, which lies in front of the bodies of the tenth and eleventh thoracic vertebrae, the lesser sac of peritoneum, diaphragm and thoracic aorta intervening.
Physical Philosophy, about things as changing, and therefore about natural substances or bodies, composed of matter and essence.
The obvious substances are natural substances or bodies (4uaucai ouQia., a-64m a), e.g.
wood potentially a table; primary, as an indeterminate something which is a substratum capable of becoming natural substances, of which it is always one; and it is primarily the matter of earth, water, air, fire, the four simple bodies (airxa 6w,uara) with natural rectilineal motions in the terrestrial world (De Gen.
Hence, moreover, a natural substance or body as an efficient cause or force causes an effect on another, not by propagating one eternal essence of a species into the matter of the other, but so far as we really understand force, by their reciprocally preventing one another from occupying the same place at the same moment on account of the mutual resistance of any two bodies.
The simple bodies which are the matter of the rest are not terrestrial earth, water, air, fire, and a different celestial aether, but whatever elementary bodies natural science, starting anew from mechanics and chemistry, may determine to be the matter of all other bodies whatever.
The Aristotelian answer is - " Yes, all things are substances, but not all supernatural, nor all mental; for some are natural substances, or bodies "; and by that answer Aristotelianism stands or falls.
The winged insects resemble the May-flies in their short feelers and in the large number (50 to 60) of their Malpighian tubes, but differ most strikingly from those insects in their strong wellarmoured bodies, their powerful jaws adapted for a predaceous manner of life, and the close similarity of the hind-wings to the forewings.
Of all the periods marked out by the motions of the celestial bodies, the most conspicuous, and the most intimately connected with the affairs of mankind, are the solar day, which is distinguished by the diurnal revolution of the earth and the alternation of light and darkness, and the solar year, which completes the circle of the seasons.
The glands of Bartholin are two oval bodies about half an inch long, lying on each side of the vagina close to its opening; they represent Cowper's glands in the male, and their ducts open by minute orifices between the hymen and the labia minora.
15Swp, water, and p rpov, a measure), an instrument for determining the density of bodies, generally of fluids, but in some cases of solids.
It is upon this principle that the hydrometer is constructed, and it obviously admits of two modes of application in the case of fluids: either we may compare the weights of floating bodies which are capable of displacing the same volume of different fluids, or we may compare the volumes of the different fluids which are displaced by the same weight.
To this point soft bodies lighter than water (which would float if placed in the cup) could be attached, and thus completely immersed.
A more unpleasant side to the question is that he gave the king a safe conduct, which was afterwards seen by Sir Donald Stewart, before he left the palace, and presumably for a bribe; and he took an armlet and rings from the bodies of the princes.
He is known for a long series of researches on the constitution of alkaloids and of the albuminoid bodies, and for the preparation of several new series of platinum compounds and of hyposulphurous acid, H 2 S 2 O 4.
The preservative climate of Upper Egypt and the belief of the Egyptians in life after death must be the causes which led them to take unusual care for preserving the bodies of their dead.
In prehistoric times in Egypt the dead were laid in the graves on mats in the crouching position common in the burials of primitive peoples, and were supplied with jars of food, flint instruments, &c. Perhaps the attempt was already made to preserve the bodies by drying or otherwise.
In a few instances, such bodies, probably more than five thousand years old, have been found with skin and hair well preserved though dried and shrunken; usually everything but the bones has decayed.
With the advent of the Dynasties the bodies of some of the principal people are found lying extended at full length.
In Lower Egypt practically all the mummies have perished; but in Upper Egypt, as they were put out of reach of the inundation, the cemeteries, in spite of rifling and burning, yield immense numbers of preserved bodies and skeletons; attention has from time to time been directed to the scientific examination of these in order to ascertain race, cause of death, traces of accident or disease, and the surgical or medical processes which they had undergone during life, &c. This department of research has been greatly developed by Dr Elliott Smith in Cairo.
Circumcision is traceable on all the male bodies which are in a state to show its effects.
The Hanoverians, however, were victorious at the battle of Langensalza on the 27th of June 1866, but the advance of fresh bodies of the enemy compelled them to capitulate two days later.
The larvae are killed and hardened by steeping some hours in strong acetic acid; the silk glands are then separated from the bodies, and the vis cous fluid drawn out to the condition of a fine uniform line, which is stretched between pins at the extremity of a board.
He had only to examine the bodies of the moths yielding his graine: if they were free from disease then a crop was sure; if they were infected the education would assuredly fail.
Although he had previously published meritorious researches on piezoelectricity, the magnetic properties of bodies at different temperatures, and other topics, he was chiefly known for his work on radium carried out jointly with his wife, Marie Sklodowska, who was born at Warsaw on the 7th of November 1867.
Jacques Curie, born at Paris on the 29th of October 1856, published an elaborate memoir on the specific inductive capacities of crystalline bodies (Ann.
A few formed bodies escaped across the ravine, but Metzko and threefourths of his men were killed or taken prisoners.
In default of formed bodies to fire at, the latter had for a moment ceased fire; Napoleon, riding by, half carelessly told them to reopen, and one of their first shots, directed at 2000 yards range against the mass of officers on the sky-line, mortally wounded General Moreau, who was standing by the emperor Alexander.
The Amphictyonic Council which met at Delphi was only the most famous of several bodies of the same kind."
One of the most notable efforts directed to the deliberate cementing of friendship has been the interchange of official visits by municipal bodies.
14, 1903) and the arrangements for the general settlement of outstanding difficulties with France (April 8, 1904), the municipal bodies in France were prepared to go a step farther, and in 1906 the Municipal Council of Paris was invited by the London County Council to pay an official visit to England.
First among the bodies which try to remove the causes of international friction is the Institute of International Law.
Aberration Of Light This astronomical phenomenon may be defined as an apparent motion of the heavenly bodies; the stars describing annually orbits more or less elliptical, according to the latitude of the star; consequently at any moment the star appears to be displaced from its true position.
For this purpose he repaired to the Rectory, Wanstead, then the residence of Mrs Pound, the widow of his uncle James Pound, with whom he had made many observations of the heavenly bodies.
propagation of light from the heavenly bodies to the earth, the argument generally being centred about the relative effect of the motion of the aether on the velocity of light.
== be applied to the sun and other stellar bodies.
H.) simplicity of the first experiments, pointing apparently to the conclusion that each element had its characteristic and invariable spectrum whether in the free state or when combined with other bodies, was soon found to be affected by complications which all the subsequent years of study have not completely resolved.
Compound bodies, we now know, have their own spectra, and only when dissociation occurs can the compound show the rays characteristic of the element: this perhaps was to be expected, but it came as a surprise and was not readily believed, that elements, as a rule, possess more than one spectrum according to the physical conditions under which they become luminous.
The experiment proves only the transparency of the gases experimented upon, and this is confirmed by the fact that bodies like bromine and iodine give on heating an emission spectrum corresponding to the absorption spectrum seen at ordinary temperatures.
6 With most bodies the degradation goes on rapidly and the body mainly radiates according to its temperature, but there are cases in which these intermediate stages can be observed and the body seems then to be luminous under the influence of the incident radiation.
Such bodies are said to be fluorescent, the degradation of motion towards that determined by its temperature gives rise to the law of Stokes, the fluorescent light being in nearly all cases of lower frequency than the incident light.
The spherical granules (G) are probably gland-secretions; the dark bodies (Z) are probably xanthellae, i.e.
The koa (Acacia koa), from the wood of which the natives used to make the bodies of their canoes, and the only tree of the islands that furnishes much valuable lumber (a hard cabinet wood marketed as " Hawaiian mahogany "), forms extensive forests on Hawaii and Maui between elevations of 2000 and 4000 ft.
The tattooing of their bodies is less artistic than that of the New Zealanders, and much more limited than among some of the other islanders.
Its strength is shown in England in the growing readiness of the different religious bodies to co-operate in movements for the purifying of public morality and for the better observance - of Sunday.
RELICS (Lat, reliquiae, the equivalent of the English "remains" in the sense of a dead body), the name given in the Catholic Church to,(I) the bodies of the saints, or portions of them,(2) such objects as the saints made use of during their lives, or as were used at their martyrdom.
The origins of the veneration of relics lie in the anxiety for the preservation of the bodies of the martyrs.
Nothing is more natural than that the pious solicitude felt by all men for the bodies of their loved ones should in the primitive Christian Churches have been turned most strongly towards the bodies of those who had met with death in confessing their faith.
About the end of the 3rd and the beginning of the 4th century it became customary for the bodies of the martyrs not to be buried, but preserved for the purpose of veneration.
Already individual Christians began to possess themselves of portions of the bodies of martyrs, and to carry them about with them.
According to the testimony of Athanasius of Alexandria, the hermit Anthony decided that it should be held to be unlawful and impious to leave the bodies of the martyrs unburied (Vita Ant.
Nobody hesitated to divide up the bodies of the saints in order to afford as many portions of them as possible.
The only doubt which was felt was as to whether the bodies of the saints should be divided, and removed from their original resting-place.
17, 7), and the division of the bodies of martyrs into pieces was prohibited for centuries.
Rome, it is true, possessed in the bodies of Peter and Paul a treasure the virtue of which outshone all the sacred treasures of the East.
But in the long run these substitutes for relics did not satisfy the Christians of the West, and, following the example of the Eastern Church, they took to dividing the bodies of the saints.
Medieval relics in the West also were mostly portions of the bodies of saints or of things which they had used during their lives.
The most famous relics discovered during the middle ages, were those of the apostle James at St Jago de Compostella in Spain (see Pilgrimage), the bodies of the three kings, which were brought from Milan to Cologne in 1164 by the emperor Frederick I.
On this account it is our duty, in memory of the saints, to pay due honour to their relics and especially to their bodies, which were the temples and dwellings of the Holy Ghost in which He dwelt and worked, and which in the resurrection are to be made like to the body of Christ; and in likewise because God honours them, in that He works wonders in their presence (Summa theol.
But these ideas were revived, on the other hand, by the Catholicism of the counter-Reformation, which again taught and teaches that God grants many benefits to mankind through the sacred bodies of the martyrs (Conc. Trid.
4); that bodies in nature are obviously natural substances, and as obviously not the only kind of substance; and that there is supernatural substance, e.g.
There are in reality two species of substances, or entirely distinct things, those which are impenetrably resisting, and those which are conscious substances; and it is impossible to reduce bodies and souls to one another, because resistance is incompatible with the attributes of spirit, and consciousness inexplicable by the attributes of body.
But this very dualism is also monism: both bodies and souls are substances, as Aristotle said; and we can go farther than Aristotle.
many bodies in the one body, and both body and soul in the one substance, of man.
Hence, when he returns to organisms, it does not surprise us that he assigns to ova and spermatozoa cell-souls, to the impregnated ovum germ-soul, to plants tissue-souls, to animals nerve-souls; or that he regards man's body and soul as born together in the impregnated ovum, and gradually evolved from the bodies and souls of lower animals.
He believes that mind and soul are inherent attributes of all bodies.
He supposes that evolution is primarily integration, from the incoherent to the coherent, exemplified in the solar nebula evolving into the solar system; secondly differentiation, from the more homogeneous to the more heterogeneous, exemplified by the solar system evolving into different bodies; thirdly determination, from the indefinite to the definite, exemplified by the solar system with different bodies evolving into an order.
In order to exert force, or at all events that force of reciprocal pressure which we best understand, and on which, in impact, the third law of motion was founded, there are always at least two bodies, enduring, triply extended, mobile, each inert, mutually impenetrable or resistent, different yet similar; and in order to have produced any effect but equilibrium, some bodies must at some time have differed either in mass or in velocity, otherwise forces would only have neutralized one another.
Why do bodies exist, with all these conditions, so similar yet different - that is, in so harmonious an order?
This essence of bodies, this resemblance in difference, this prevailing ' Cf.
Thereupon Spinoza advanced a pantheism which supposed that bodies and souls are not, as Descartes thought, different substances, but merely attributes - the one the extension and the other the thought of one substance, Nature or God.
Leibnitz, again, having become equally dissatisfied with Cartesianism, Spinozism and the Epicurean realism of Gassendi, in the latter part of his life came still nearer than Spinoza to metaphysical idealism in his monadology, or half-Pythagorean,half-Brunistic analysis of bodies into monads, or units, or simple substances, indivisible and unextended, but endowed with perception and appetite.
On the other hand, under the influence of the mechanics of his day, which had hardly distinguished between inertia, or the inability of a body to change itself, and resistance or the ability of bodies to oppose one another, he concluded that, as inertia is passive, so is resistance, and refused to recognize that in collision the mutual resistance of moving bodies is a force, or active power, of changing their movements in opposite directions.
From these two arbitrary hypotheses about corporeal motion, that it requires indivisibly simple elements, and that it offers only passive resistance, he concluded that behind bodies there must be units, or monads, which would be at once substantial, simple, indivisible and active.
He further supposed that the monads are " incorporeal automata," not interacting like bodies, but each perceiving what was passing in the other, and acting in consequence by appetite, or self-acting.
Such mentally endowed substances might be called souls; but, as he distinguished between perception and apperception or consciousness, and considered that perceptions are often unconscious, he preferred to divide monads into unconscious entelechies of inorganic bodies, sentient souls of animals, and rational souls, or spirits, of men; while he further concluded that all these are derivative monads created by God, the monad of monads.
All derivative monads, he allowed, are accompanied by bodies, which, however, are composed of other monads dominated by a central monad.
Further, he explained the old Cartesian difficulty of the relation of body and mind by transforming the Spinozistic parallelism of extension and thought into a parallelism between the motions of bodies and the perceptions of their monads; motions always proceeding from motions, and perceptions from perceptions; bodies acting according to efficient causes, and souls according to final causes by appetition, and as if one influenced the other without actually doing so.
Up to this point, then, Leibnitz opened one of the chief avenues to metaphysical idealism, the resolution of the material into the immaterial, the analysis of bodies into mental elements.
His theory of bodies involved an idealistic analysis neither into bodily atoms nor into mathematical units, but into mentally endowed simple substances.
There remained, however, his theory of the nature of bodies; and here he hesitated between two alternatives.
According to one alternative, which consistently flowed from the psychological idealism of Descartes, as well as from his own monadism, he suggested that bodies are real phenomena; phenomena, because they are aggregates of monads, which derive their unity only from appearing together to our perceptions; real phenomena well founded, because they result from real monads.
In support of this view, he said that bodies are not substances, though substantiata; that their apparent motion and resistance are results of the passions of their monads; that their primary matter is nothing but passive power of their monads; that the series of efficient causes between them is merely phenomenal.
According to the other alternative, however, he suggested that at least organic bodies are compound or corporeal substances, which are not phenomena; but something realizing or rather substantializing phenomena, and not mere aggregates of monads, but something substantial beyond their monads, because an organic body, though composed of monads, has a real unity (unio realis).
According to this alternative, these organic bodies are compound or corporeal substances, between monads and phenomena; and Leibnitz is a metaphysical realist.
He was held to this belief in the substantiality of bodies by his Christianity, by the influence of Aristotle, of scholasticism and of Cartesianism, as well as by his own mechanics.
phenomenalism of bodies, and of the analysis of bodies into mental elements.
Hume saw that in making all the objects of perception ideas Berkeley had given as little reason for inferring substantial souls as substantial bodies.
As to the known world, Kant's position was the logical deduction that from such phenomena of experience all we can know by logical reason is similar phenomena of actual or possible experience; and therefore that the known world, whether bodily or mental, is not a Cartesian world of bodies and souls, nor a Spinozistic world of one substance, nor a Leibnitzian world of monadic substances [[[Metaphysical Idealism]] created by God, but a world of sensations, such as Hume supposed, only combined, not by association, but by synthetic understanding into phenomenal objects of experience, which are phenomenal substances and causes - a world of phenomena not noumena.
This third position isarelic of ancient metaphysical realism; although it must be remembered that Kant does not go to the length of Descartes and Locke, who supposed that from mere ideas we could know bodies and souls, but suggests that beneath the phenomena of outer and inner sense the thing in itself may not be heterogeneous (ungleichartig).
The analysis of bodies into immaterial elements by Leibnitz incited Lotze.
In a way they returned to the wider opinions of Aristotle, which had come down to Descartes and Locke, that reason in going beyond sense knows more things than phenomena; yet they would not hear of external bodies, or of bodies at all.
teleologism," to express its conclusion that the known Lotze world beyond phenomena is neither absolute thought nor unconscious will, nor the unconscious at all, but the activity of God; causing in us the system of phenomenal appearances, which we call Nature, or bodies moving in time and space; but being in itself the system of the universal reciprocal actions of God's infinite spirit, animated by the design of the supreme good.
Agreeing, then, with Kant that primary qualities are as mental as secondary, he agreed also with Kant that all the Nature we know as a system of bodies moving in time and space is sensible phenomena.
He accepted the Leibnitzian fallacy that unity is indivisibility, which led to the Leibnitzian analysis of material bodies into immaterial monads, indivisible and therefore unextended, and to the theory of monadic souls and entelechies.
In the first place, he resolved the doubt of Leibnitz about bodies by deciding entirely against his realistic alternative that an organic body is a substantia realizans phaenomena, and for his idealistic alternative that every body is a phenomenon and not a substance at all.
He believed in reciprocal action; and the very essence of his metaphysics consists in sublimating the interaction of bodies into the interaction of immaterial elements, which produce effects on one another and on the soul as one of them.
But instead of returning to the concrete fact of the equivalence of momentum, by which each body moving makes the other move oppositely, he denied that bodies do reciprocally act on one another, and even that bodies as mutually resisting substances press one another apart in collision.
Our bodies were reduced by Lotze to the general ruck of phenomenal appearances.
But in a philosophy which reduces everything to phenomenal appearance except the self-interacting substance of God, there is no room for either the bodies or the souls of finite substances or human persons.
Combining with this the central dogma of Fechner that spirit extends throughout the world of bodily appearance, he concludes that the realities of the world are " wills," that bodies are mere appearances of " wills," and that there is one universal and all-embracing spirit which is " will."
He holds, like Hume, that nothing is real except our sensations and complexes of sensory elements; that the ego is not a definite, unalterable, sharply bounded unity, but its continuity alone is important; and that we know no real causes at all, much less real causes of our sensations; or, as he expresses it, bodies do not produce sensations, but complexes of sensations form bodies.
In short, sensations are elements and bodies complexes of these elements.
According to him, whatever inferences we make, certain or uncertain, are mere economies of thought, adapting ideas to sensations, and filling out the gaps of experience by ideas; whatever we infer, whether bodies, or molecules, or atoms, or space of more than three dimensions, are all without distinction equally provisional conceptions, things of thought; and " bodies or things are compendious mental symbols for groups of sensations - symbols which do not exist outside thought."
The true order of discovery, however, was as follows: (a) Sir Christo p her Wren made many experiments before the Royal Society, which were afterwards repeated in a corrected form by Sir Isaac Newton in the Principia, experimentally proving that bodies of ascertained comparative weights, when suspended and impelled against one another, forced one another back by impressing on one another opposite changes of velocity inversely as their weights and therefore masses; that is, by impressing on one another equal and opposite changes of momentum.
(b) Wallis showed that such bodies reduce one another to a joint mass with a common velocity equal to their joint momentum divided by their joint weights or masses.
(c) Wren and Huygens further proved that the law of equal action and reaction, already experimentally established by the former, is deducible from the conservation of the velocity of the common centre of gravity, which is the same as the common velocity of the bodies, that is, deducible from the fact that their common centre of gravity does not change its state of motion or rest by the actions of the bodies between themselves; and they further extended the law to bodies, qua elastic.
(d) Hence, first inductively and then deductively, the third law was originally discovered only as a law of collision or impact between bodies of ascertained weights and therefore masses, impressing on one another equal and opposite changes of momentum, and always reducing one another to a joint mass with a common velocity to begin with, apart from the subsequent effects of elasticity.
from the experiments of Wren on bodies of ascertained comparative weights or masses, which are not material points or mass-points.
It shows that the bodies impress on one another opposite changes of velocity inversely as their weights or masses; and that in doing so they always begin by reducing one another to a joint mass with a common velocity, whatever they may do afterwards in consequence of their elasticities.
The two bodies therefore do not penetrate one another, but begin by acting on one another with a force precisely sufficient, instead of penetrating one another, to cause them to form a joint mass with a common velocity.
Bodies then are triply extended substances, each occupying enough space to prevent mutual penetration, and by this force of mutual impenetrability or interresistance cause one another to form a joint mass with a common velocity whenever they collide.
Withdraw this foundation of bodies as inter-resisting forces causing one another in collision to form a joint mass with a common velocity but without penetration, and the evidence of the third law disappears; for in the case of attractive forces we know nothing of their modus operandi except by the analogy of the collision of inter-resisting bodies, which makes us believe that something similar, we know not what, takes place in gravity, magnetism, electricity, &c. Now, Mach, though he occasionally drops hints that the discovery of the law of collision comes first, yet never explains the process of development from it to the third law of motion.
He has therefore lost sight of the truths that bodies are triply extended, mutually impenetrable substances, and by this force causes which reduce one another to a joint mass with a common velocity on collision, as for instance in the ballistic pendulum; that these forces are the ones we best understand; and that they are reciprocal causes of the common velocity of their joint mass, whatever happens afterwards.
But the idealists are only too glad to get any excuse for denying bodily substances and causes; and, while Leibnitz supplied them with the fancied analysis of material into immaterial elements, and Hume with the reduction of bodies to assemblages of sensations, Mach adds the additional argument that bodily forces are not causes at all.
No real advance in metaphysics can take place, and natural science itself is in some danger, until the true history of the evidences of the laws of mechanical force is restored; and then it will soon appear that in the force of collision what we know is not material points determining one another's opposite accelerations, but bodies by force of impenetrable pressure causing one another to keep apart.
But Newton had already discovered beforehand in the mechanics of terrestrial bodies that gravitation constantly causes similar facts on the earth, and did not derive that cause from any logical ground beyond experience, any more than he did the third law of motion.
When Green said that " Nature is the system of related appearances, and related appearances are impossible apart from the action of an intelligence," he was speaking as a pure Kantian, who could be answered only by the Aristotelian position that Nature consists of related bodies beyond appearances, and by the realistic supposition that there, , h is a tactical sense of related bodies, of the inter-resisting members of the organism, from which reason infers similar related bodies beyond sense.
Having thus confused contradiction and difference, independence and solitariness, experience and inference, Bradley is able to deduce finally that reality is not different substances, experienced and inferred, as Aristotle thought it, but is one absolute super-personal experience, to which the socalled plurality of things, including all bodies, all souls, and even a personal God, is appearance - an appearance, as ordinarily understood, self-contradictory, but, as appearing to one spiritual reality, somehow reconciled.
Lotze, as we saw, rejected bodily mechanism, reduced known bodies to phenomena, and concluded that reality is the life of God.
If the personal idealist consistently denies other bodies, then the bodily signs become, according to him, only part of his experience, which can prove only the existence of himself.
To infer another mind he must infer another body, and the bodily environment including his and other bodies.
Not by my consciousness, but by knowing the bodies of others - of babies on the one hand, and of old men on the other hand.
He must ask what are known things, and especially what has been discovered in the sciences; in mechanics, in order to find the essence of bodies which is neglected by idealism; in mental science, in order to understand consciousness which is neglected by materialism.
The chief results we have found against idealism are that bodies have not been successfully analysed except into bodies, as real matter; and that bodies are known to exert reciprocal pressure in reducing one another to a joint mass with a common velocity by being mutually impenetrable, as real forces.
The chief results we have found against materialism are that bodies evolving account neither for the origin of themselves, their nature, and their fundamental order of resemblance and difference, nor for the nature and origin of consciousness, nor even as yet for their becoming good for conscious beings.
Hence' we come to the realistic conclusions that among known substances some are bodies, others are souls; that man is body and soul; and that God is a pure soul or spirit.
another body similar to my other lip. On this theory, then, founded on the conscious facts of double and single pressure in touch, and on the logic of inference, we have at once a reason for our knowledge of external bodies, and an explanation of the early appearance of that knowledge.
Having thus begun by touch and tactile inference, we confirm and extend our inferences of bodies in Nature by using the rest of the senses.
In Germany, since the victory of Kant over Wolff, realism has always been in difficulties, which we can appreciate when we reflect that the Germans by preference apply the term " realism " to the paradoxes of Herbart (1776-1841), who, in order to avoid supposed contradictions, supposed that bodies are not substances, but show (Schein), while " reals" are simple substances, each with a simple quality, and all preserving themselves against disturbance by one another, whether physically or psychologically, but not known to be either material or spiritual because we do not know the simple quality in which the nature of the real consists.
Janet accepted the traditional ontological triplicity - God, souls and bodies - and, in answer to Ravaisson, who called this realism " demi-spiritualisme," rejoined that he was content to accept the title.
Finally, as touch perceives reciprocal pressure within, and tactile inference infers it without, touch is the primary evidence of the senses which is the foundation and logical ground of our belief in Nature as a system of pressing bodies.
Aristotle could not know enough, physically, about Nature to understand its matter, or its motions, or its forces; and consequently he fell into the error of supposing a primary matter with four contrary primary qualities, hot and cold, dry and moist, forming by their combinations four simple bodies, earth, water, air and fire, with natural rectilineal motions to or from the centre of the earth; to which he added a quintessence of ether composing the stars, with a natural circular motion round the earth.
He thought that besides proximate matter, or one body as matter of another, there is a primary formless matter beneath all bodies, capable of becoming all in turn, but itself potentially, not actually, substance.
He thought not only that a form, or essence, is something different from, and at most conjoined with, matter in a concrete body, but also that in all the bodies of one kind, e.g.
Eventually, however, they overcame the Britons through treachery, by inducing the king to allow them to send for large bodies of their own countrymen.
But the view that the invasion was effected throughout by small bodies of adventurers acting independently of one another, and that each of the various kingdoms owes its origin to a separate enterprise, has little probability in its favour.
and birds of prey, as bears, wolves, foxes, dogs, wild cats, stoats, weasels, eagles, hawks and owls, and never spared by man; even domestic animals, as cattle, goats and reindeer, join in the destruction, stamping them to the ground with their feet, and even eating their bodies.
These sudden appearances of vast bodies of lemmings, and their singular habit of persistently pursuing the same onward course of migration, have given rise to various speculations, from the ancient belief of the Norwegian peasants, shared by Olaus Magnus, that they fall down from the clouds, to the hypothesis that they are acting in obedience to an instinct inherited from ancient times, and still seeking the congenial home in the submerged Atlantis, to which their ancestors of the Miocene period were wont to resort when driven from their ordinary dwelling-places by crowding or scarcity of food.
Of all the public grounds within London this is the most valuable to the populace at large; the number of visitors on a Bank holiday in August is generally, under favourable conditions, about 100,000; and strenuous efforts are always forthcoming from either public or private bodies when the integrity of the Heath is in any way menaced.
among the Alamanni and in the northern kingdoms. Their effect, of course, must have been to provide the kings with greater wealth and with larger permanent bodies of armed men.
Lastly, from the very beginning of the 9th century bodies of Scandinavian warriors began to found kingdoms and principalities in all parts of Europe.
Such bodies of course had always existed (see below) and exercised at all times a powerful influence upon the kings, frequently even forcing them into war against their own wishes.
Moreover, kings and other distinguished persons kept standing bodies of young warriors, an honour to them in time of peace, as Tacitus says, as well as a protection in war.
These relations were obviously very different from those which had been observed originally, and it would be an injustice to the Roman Church to take them as typical of her relations with other Christian bodies.
and his immediate successors was aimed not only at the episcopate but also at the capitulary bodies and monastic clergy, it, too, could but tend to a considerable extension of the authority of the successors of to St Peter, for it struck an irremediable blow at the ancient Christian hierarchy.
When war was declared on the schismatic prelates, the reforming popes supported the canons, and, unconsciously or not, helped them to form themselves into privileged bodies living their own lives and affecting to recognize the court of Rome as their only superior authority.
Faraday had for a long time kept in view the possibility of using a ray of polarized light as a means of investigating the condition of transparent bodies when acted on by electric and magnetic forces.
Should now try non-decomposing bodies, as solid nitre, nitrate of silver, borax, glass, &c., whilst solid, to see if any internal state induced, which by decomposition is destroyed, i.e.
On the 6th of May he makes further experiments, and concludes: "Hence I see no reason to expect that any kind of structure or tension can be rendered evident, either in decomposing or non-decomposing bodies, in insulating or conducting states."
By the 6th of December he had sent in to the Royal Society the twentieth, and on the 24th of December the twenty-first, series of his "Researches," in which the properties of diamagnetic bodies are fully described.
MOTION Before the time of Galileo (1564-1642) hardly any attention had been paid to a scientific study of the motions of terrestrial bodies.
With regard to celestial bodies, however, the case was different.
For the statement of the motions of these bodies uniform motion in a circle was employed as a fundamental type, combinations of motions of this type being constructed to fit the observations.
This procedure - which was first employed by the great Greek astronomer Hipparchus (2nd century B.C.), and developed by Ptolemy three centuries later - did not afford any law connecting the motions of different bodies.
In 1609 and 1619 Kepler published his new laws of planetary motion, which were subsequently shown by Newton to agree with the results obtained by experiment for the motion of terrestrial bodies.
The earliest recorded systematic experiments as to the motion of falling bodies were made by Galileo at Pisa in the latter years of the 16th century.
Bodies of different substances were employed, and slight differences in their behaviour accounted for by the resistance of the air.
This is the earliest example of a theoretical investigation of the rotation of rigid bodies.
It involved the adoption of a point of view as to the relation between the motions of bodies of different forms, which practically amounted to a perception of the principle of energy as applied to the case in question.
but commonly known as the "laws of motion"; T and the demonstration of the fact that the motions of the celestial bodies could be included in this theory by means of the law of universal gravitation.
Newton assumed the possibility of choosing a base such that, relatively to it, the motion of any particle would have only such divergence from uniform velocity in a straight line as could be expressed by laws of acceleration dependent on its relation to other bodies.
In this connexion he took an important step by distinguishing clearly the character of "mass" as a universal property of bodies distinct from weight.
There can be no doubt that the development of correct views as to mass was closely connected with the results of experiments with regard to the collision of hard bodies.
Suppose two small smooth spherical bodies which can be regarded as particles to be brought into collision, so that the velocity of each, relative to any base which is unaffected by the collision, is suddenly changed.
The additions of velocity which the two bodies receive respectively, relative to such a base, are in opposite directions, and if the bodies are alike their magnitudes are equal.
If the bodies though of the same substance are of different sizes, the magnitudes of the additions of velocity are found to be inversely proportional to the volumes of the bodies.
But if the bodies are of different substances, say one of iron and the other of gold, the ratio of these magnitudes is found to depend upon something else besides bulk.
In fact, experiments upon the changes of velocity of bodies, due to a mutual influence between them, bring to light a property of bodies which may be specified by a quantity proportional to their volumes in the case of bodies which are perceived by other tests to be of one homogeneous substance, but otherwise involving also another factor.
This definition correctly indicates that the mass of any portion of matter is equal to the sum of the masses of its parts, and that the masses of bodies alike in other respects are equal, but gives no test for comparison of the masses of bodies of different substances; this test is supplied only by a comparison of motions.
It is found that this gives a consistent result; that is to say, if by an experiment with two particles A and B we get the ratio of their masses, and by an experiment with B and a third particle C we get the ratio of the masses of B and C, and thus the ratio of the masses of A and C, we should get the same ratio by a direct experiment with A and C. For the numerical measure of mass that of some standard body is chosen as a unit, and the masses of other bodies are obtained by comparison with this.
Masses of terrestrial bodies are generally compared by weighing; this is found by experiment to give a correct result, but it is applicable only in the neighbourhood of the earth.
Familiar cases can readily be found of the perception of the mass of bodies, independently of their tendency to fall towards the earth.
The study of the structure of atoms has suggested a connexion of mass with electrical phenomena which implies its dependence on motion; but this is not inconsistent with the observed fact of its practical constancy, to a high degree of accuracy, for bodies composed of atoms.
Some years later he succeeded in showing that Kepler's elliptic orbit for planetary motion agreed with the assumed law of attraction; he also completed the co-ordination with terrestrial gravity by his investigation of the attractions of homogeneous spherical bodies.
The verification is sufficiently exact to establish the law of gravitation, as providing a statement of the motions of the bodies composing the solar system which is correct to a high degree of accuracy.
It should be noticed that the verification was begun without any data as to the masses of the celestial bodies, these being selected and adjusted to fit the observations.
The establishment of a true Newtonian base presumes knowledge of the motions of all bodies.
In the treatment of the relative motions of a limited system, we may use a confessedly provisional base, though it may be necessary to introduce corrections, either exact or approximate, to take account either of the existence of bodies outside the system, or of the rotation of the base employed relative to a more correct one.
For the study of the relative motions of the solar system, a provisional base established for that system by itself, bodies outside it being disregarded,' is a very good one.
It has, however, been shown that, just as the compressed spring has a capacity for doing work by virtue of its configuration, so in the case of the friction there is a physical effect produced - namely, the raising of the temperature of the bodies in contact, which is the mark of a capacity for doing the same amount of work.
They move by flexing their bodies.
A saturated solution is a system in equilibrium, and exhibits the thermodynamic relations which hold for all such systems. Just as two electrified bodies are in equilibrium when their electric potentials are equal, so two parts of a chemical and physical system are in equilibrium when there is equality between the chemical potentials of each component present in the two parts.
The possibility of these phenomena should be borne in mind when attempts are made to interpret the structure of crystalline bodies in terms of the theory of equilibrium.
The experiments of Raoult on solutions of organic bodies in water and on solutions of many substances in some dozen organic solvents have confirmed this result, and therefore the theoretical value of the osmotic pressure from which it was deduced.
Again the two classes of substances mentioned above were found to be distinguished, and Graham called the slowly diffusible non-crystalline bodies colloids, in contrast to the quickly diffusible crystalloids.
The nave very usually consisted of two equal bodies, one containing the stalls of the brotherhood, the other left entirely free for the congregation.
At the Grey or Franciscan Friars, the church followed the ordinary type in having two equal bodies, each gabled, with a continuous range of windows.
The rite of extreme unction was introduced in the crusading epoch, although it was already usual to anoint the bodies of dead priests.
On the other hand, it has been recorded by Cicero" that a certain physiognomist, Zopyrus, who professed to know the habits and manners of men from their bodies, eyes, face and forehead, characterized Socrates as stupid, sensual and dull (bardus), " in quo Alcibiades cachinnum dicitur sustulisse."
A moment's consideration, however, will show that, while an albino may be an individual in which one or more of the complementary bodies of pigmentation are absent, a pigmented animal is something more than an individual which carries all the factors necessary for the development of colour.
The organization of the Church is: a General Synod (1794); the (particular) synods of New York (1800), Albany (1800), Chicago (1856) and New Brunswick (1869); classes, corresponding to the presbyteries of other Calvinistic bodies; and the churches, numbering, in 1906, 659.
DEATH, the permanent cessation of the vital functions in the bodies of animals and plants, the end of life or act of dying.
Among the enterprising and shrewd Catalans, who look upon their rulers as reactionary, and reserve all their sympathies for the Provencal neighbours whom they so nearly resemble in race, language and temperament, French influence and republican ideals spread rapidly; taking the form partly of powerful labour and socialist organizations, partly of less reputable bodies, revolutionary and even anarchist.
Professor Poulton long ago suggested, and supported the suggestion by experimental evidence on a lizard, that the larvae of two British species, C. elpenor and C. porcellus, are protected by the resemblance to the heads of snakes presented by the anterior extremities of their bodies which are ornamented with large eye-like spots.
In Mashonaland, for instance, a large number of genera and species of Hymenoptera belonging to the Apidae, Eumenidae, Sphegidae, Pompilidae, Scoliidae, Tiphiidae and Mutillidae, resemble each other in having black bodies and dark blue wings.
488); but as these made up only nine revolving bodies he conceived, in accordance with his number theory, a tenth, which he called counter-earth, avriXOccv.
It seems likely enough therefore that there should grow up bodies of knights banded together by engagements of fidelity, although free from monastic obligations; wearing a uniform or livery, and naming themselves after some special symbol or some patron saint of their adoption.
And such bodies placed under the command of a sovereign or grand master, regulated by statutes, and enriched by ecclesiastical endowments would have been precisely what in after times such orders as the Garter in England, the Golden Fleece in Burgundy, the Annunziata in Savoy and the St Michael and Holy Ghost in France actually were.4 During the 14th and 15th centuries, as well as somewhat earlier and later, the general arrangements of a European army were always and everywhere pretty much the same.5 Under the sovereign the constable and the marshal g or marshals held the chief commands, their authority being partly joint and partly several.
We find two chief types of fruit bodies in the lichens, the perithecium and apothecium; the first when the fungal element is a member of the Pyrenomycetes division of the Ascomycetes, the second when the fungus belongs to the Discomycetes division.
The place of torment for the wicked was called Gehenna (the valley of Hinnom or the Sons of Hinnom, where the bodies of criminals were cast out, is described in Is.
1850), who resided at Claremont in the neighbouring parish of Esher, his queen and other members of his family; but their bodies were subsequently removed to Dreux in Normandy.
Thus shorn of two chief bodies of supporters, and Presbyterians in England being then comparatively few, the London Missionary Society became in effect a Congregationalist organization, though it has never departed from the broad spirit of its founders.
The South Africa General Mission, the North Africa Mission, and the Congo Balolo Mission come next in importance; but there are several smaller bodies working in different countries.
Nor do the proselytizing enterprises of Seventh Day Adventists, Christian Scientists, Mormons and other American bodies rightly find a place here.
That night the whole city was shaken out of sleep by an explosion of gunpowder which shattered to fragments the building in which he should have slept and perished;and the next morning the bodies of Darnley and a page were found strangled in a garden adjoining it, whither they had apparently escaped over a wall, to be despatched by the hands of Bothwell's attendant confederates.
Four days after the discovery of the bodies, Darnley was buried in the chapel of Holyrood with secrecy as remarkable as the solemnity with which Rizzio had been interred there less than a year before.
In wind-fertilized plants the flowers are comparatively inconspicuous and devoid of much attraction for insects; and their pollen is smoother and smaller, and better adapted for transport by the wind, than that of insectfertilized plants, the roughness of which adapts it for attachment to the bodies of insects.
If intended to raise the temperature of the structure, they should be set on iron or brick supports just clear of walls, earth or other heatabsorbing bodies.
The chief point to be borne in mind in making these mixtures is not to combine in the same compost any bodies that are antagonistic in their nature, as for example lime and ammonia.
Larger bodies of soil also require to be more thoroughly consolidated before watering; otherwise they would settle down so as to leave an unsightly void at the pot-rim.
In the later Carboniferous rocks the earliest amphibians make their appearance in considerable numbers; they were all Stegocephalians (Labyrinthodonts) with long bodies, a head covered with bony plates and weak or undeveloped limbs.