Board of trade Sentence Examples
In the British mercantile marine all ships (except those employed exclusively in trading between ports on the coasts of Scotland) are compelled to keep an official log book in a form approved by the Board of Trade.
When the Labour party joined the Coalition movement in 1915 he became a Lord Commissioner of the Treasury; he was parliamentary secretary to the Board of Trade 1916-7; Minister of Labour, 1917-8; Food Controller, Jan.
From 1889 to 1892 he was parliamentary secretary to the Board of Trade in the Conservative Government, and from 1895 to 1903 (when he resigned as a Free Trader opposed to tariff reform) Secretary for Scotland.
On the whole, the best statistical source for this information is the annual computation published by the Archiv fiir Eisenbahnwesen, the official organ of the Prussian Ministry of Public Works; but the figure quoted above utilizes the Board of Trade returns for the United Kingdom and the report of the Interstate Commerce Commission for the United States.
The United States of America, with a capital of £3,059,800,000 invested in its railways on the 30th of June 1906, was easily ahead of every other country, and in 1908 the figure was increased to £ 3,443, 02 7, 68 5, of which £2,636,569,089 was in the hands of the public. On a route-mileage basis, however, the capital cost of the British railway system is far greater than that of any other country in the world, partly because a vast proportion of the lines are double, treble or even quadruple, partly because the safety requirements of the Board of Trade and the high standards of the original builders made actual construction very costly.Advertisement
The British figures are from the Board of Trade returns for the calendar year 1908.
Finally, the legislation of 1888 put into the hands of a reorganized Railway Commission and of the Board of Trade powers none the less important in principle because their action has been less in its practical effect than the advocates of active control demanded.
From the early days of railways parliament has also been careful to provide for the safety of the public by inserting in the general or special acts definite conditions, and by laying upon the Board of Trade the duty of protecting the public using a railway.
The first act which has reference to the safety of passengers is the Regulation of Railways Act of 1842, which obliges every railway company to give notice to the Board of Trade of its intention to open the railway for passenger traffic, and places upon that public department the duty of inspecting the line before the opening of it takes place..
If the officer appointed by the Board of Trade should, after inspection of the railway, report to the department that in his opinion " the opening of the same would be attended with danger to the public using the same, by reason of the incompleteness of the works or permanent way, or the insufficiency of the establishment for working such railway," it is lawful for the department to direct the company to postpone the opening of the line for any period not exceeding one month at a time, the process being repeated from month to month as often as may be necessary.Advertisement
It' may be remarked that neither of these acts confers on the Board of Trade any power to inspect a railway after it has once been opened, unless and until some addition or alteration, such as is defined in the last-named act, has been made.
When a line has once been inspected and passed, it lies with the company to maintain it in accordance with the standard of efficiency it originally possessed, but no express statutory obligation to do so is imposed upon the company, and whether it does so or not, the Board of Trade cannot interfere.
The act of 1871 further renders it obligatory upon every railway company to send notice to the Board of Trade in the case of (1) any accident attended with loss of life or personal injury to any person whatsoever; (2) any collision where one of the trains is a passenger train; (3) any passenger train or part of such train leaving the rails; (4) any other accident likely to have caused loss of life or personal injury, and specified on that ground by any order made from time to time by the Board of Trade.
The inspector, after making his investigation, is required to make a report to the Board of Trade as to the causes of the accident and the circumstances attending the same, with any observations on the subject which he deems right, and the Board " shall cause every such report to be made public in such manner as they think expedient."
The above-named acts enable the Board of Trade to take all the necessary steps to ensure that the safety of passenger trains is sufficiently guarded.Advertisement
Its powers have been exercised with the greatest caution, yet with consistent firmness; and the publicity which has been given to the true and detailed causes of scores and scores of railway accidents by the admirable reports of the Board of Trade inspectors has been a powerful lever in improving the railway service.
The Federal government, having authority in railway matters only when interstate traffic is affected, gathers statistics and publishes them; but in the airing of causes-the field in which the British Board of Trade has been so useful-nothing so far has been done except to require written reports monthly from the railways.
In Great Britain the Board of Trade requires facing points to be avoided as far as possible; but, of course, they are a necessity at junctions where running lines diverge and at the crossing places which must be provided to enable trains to pass each other on single-track lines.
The lines through them should be, if possible, straight and on the level; the British Board of Trade forbids them being placed on a gradient steeper than i in 260, unless it is unavoidable.
The advantage claimed for roofs formed with one or two large spans is that they permit the platforms and tracks to be readily rearranged at any time as required, whereas this is difficult with the other type, especially since the British Board of Trade requires the pillars to be not less than 6 ft.Advertisement
On the lines actually authorized by the Board of Trade under the 1896 act the normal minimum radius of the curves has been fixed at about 600 ft.; when a still smaller radius has been necessary, the speed has been reduced to 10 m.
It should be mentioned that the act provided that the Treasury might advance a portion of the money required for a line in cases where the council of any county, borough or district had agreed to do the same, and might also make a special advance in aid of a light railway which was certified by the Board of Agriculture to be beneficial to agriculture in any cultivated district, or by the Board of Trade to furnish a means of communication between a fishing-harbour and a market in a district where it would not be constructed without special assistance from the s' ate.
Towards the end of 1901 a departmental committee of the Board of Trade was formed to consider the Light Railways Act, and in 1902 the president of the Board of Trade (Mr Gerald Balfour) stated that as a result of the deliberations of this committee, a new bill had been drafted which he thought would go very far to meet all the reasonable objections that had been urged against the present powers of the local authorities.
It provided that the powers of the light railway commissioners should continue until determined by parliament, and also provided, inter alia, that in cases where the Board of Trade thought, under section (9) subsection (3) of the original act, that a proposal should be submitted to parliament, the Board of Trade itself might submit the proposals to parliament by bringing in a bill for the confirmation of the light railway order, with a special report upon it.
The bill was withdrawn on the 11th of August 1903, Lord Morley appealing to the Board of Trade to bring in a more comprehensive measure to amend the unsatisfactory state of legislation in relation to tramways and light railways.Advertisement
In 1904 the president of the Board of Trade brought in a bill on practically the same lines as the amending bill of 1903.
The ministry of Lord North, however, was tottering, and soon after fell; the Board of Trade was abolished by the passing of Burke's bill in 1782, and Gibbon's salary vanished with it - no trifle, for his expenditure had been for three years on a scale somewhat disproportionate to his private fortune.
He supported the Reform party steadily by his vote, and in 1830 was made president of the Board of Trade and master of the Mint.
It may, however, be noticed that the period 1850-1903 was marked by a steady increase of the cash wages of the farm labourer, as indicated in the following table from the Report on the Earnings of Agricultural Labourers issued by the Board of Trade in 1905.
The city's tax valuation in 1907 was $1,313,471,556 (in 1822, $42,140,200; in 1850, $180,000,500), of which only $242,606,856 represented personalty; although in the judgment of the city board of trade such property cannot by any possibility be inferior in value to realty.
An instrument of the latter type of considerable accuracy was designed by Lord Kelvin for the British Board of Trade Electrical Laboratory, and it is there used as the principal standard ampere balance.
From 1912 to 1914 he was also Commissioner of Woods and Forests, and from 1914 to 1916 president of the Board of Trade.
Bar-le-Duc has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade arbitrators, a lycee, a training-college for girls, a chamber of commerce, a branch of the Bank of France and an art museum.
A board of trade arbitration and a school of commerce and industry are among the public institutions.
This authority, it was advised, should consist of 40 members, of whom II should be nominated by the London County Council and 3 by the Corporation of the City (supposing these bodies to accept certain financial responsibilities proposed in the direction of river improvements), 5 by the governors of the Bank of England from the mercantile community, 2 by the London Chamber of Commerce, and I each by the Admiralty, Board of Trade and Trinity House.
The Port of London Authority, as constituted by the act of 1908, is a body corporate consisting of a chairman, vice-chairman, 17 members elected by payers of dues, wharfingers and owners of river craft, I member elected by wharfingers exclusively, and To members appointed by the following existing bodies - Admiralty (one); Board of Trade (two); London County Council (two from among its own members and two others); City Corporation (one from among its own members and one other); Trinity House (one).
The Board of Trade and the County Council must each, under the act, consult with representatives of labour as to the appointment of one of the members, in order that labour may be represented on the Port Authority.
The first " elected " members were actually, under the act, appointed by the Board of Trade.
The authority has powers to borrow money, but for certain purposes in this connexion, as in other matters, it can only act subject to the approval of the Board of Trade.
Sir Robert Peel became r i me minister, and made the member for Newark p vice-president of the Board of Trade.
Across the Housatonic is the borough of Shelton (pop. 1900, 2837), which is closely related, socially and industrially, to Derby, the two having a joint board of trade.
The practical result is that a bridge which would be passed by the English Board of Trade would require to be strengthened 5% in some parts and 60% in others, before it would be accepted by the German government, or by any of the leading railway companies in America."
English bridge-builders are somewhat hampered in adopting rational limits of working stress by the rules of the Board of Trade.
In 1786, however, another permanent committee of the privy council was formed by order in council, and with one or two small exceptions the legal constitution of the board of trade is still regulated by that order.
The board of trade thus became a mere name, the president being practically the secretary of state for trade, and the vicepresident became, in 1867, a parliamentary secretary, with similar duties to those of a parliamentary under-secretary of state.
In 1909 the Board of Trade Act repealed the Board of Trade (President) Act 1826, which limited the salary of the president, and enacted that the president should be paid such annual salary as parliament might determine (£5000).
The department also edits the Board of Trade Journal (started in 1886), giving items of commercial information, trade and tariff notices and various periodical returns.
The Marine Department was created a separate branch of the board of trade in 1850, about which time many new and important marine questions came under the board of trade, such, for example, as the survey of passenger steamers, the compulsory examination of masters and mates, the establishment of shipping offices for the engagement and discharge of seamen.
The accounts of all the branches of the board of trade are in its charge, including the subordinate offices.
The customer cannot obtain current for electric lighting until he has placed in a slit a certain coin - say, a shilling - entitling him to a certain number of Board-of-Trade units - say, to 2 or 4, as the case may be.
The Clark cell is made in two forms, the board of trade or tubular form, and the H form of cell devised by Lord Rayleigh.
The German investigators seem to have a great preference for the H form of cell, but it is clear that a narrow tubular cell of the British board of trade form not only comes more quickly to the temperature of the water bath in which it is placed, but is more certain to be wholly at one temperature.
Campbell-Bannerman became premier at the end of 1905 was generally expected; but his elevation direct to the cabinet as president of the Board of Trade was somewhat of a surprise.
The president of the Board of Trade was the chief success of the ministry, and when Mr Asquith became premier in 1908 and promoted Mr Lloyd George to the chancellorship of the exchequer, the appointment was well received even in the City of London.
The standards of the British Empire, so far as they relate to the imperial and metric systems, are in the custody of the Board of Trade.
Authoritative standards and instruments for the measurement of electricity, based on the fundamental units of the metric system, have been placed in the Electrical Laboratory of the Board of Trade.
For common weights and measures this margin (tolerance, remedy or allowance, as it is also called) has been set out by the Board of Trade for all the various kinds of weights and measures in use for commercial purposes in the United Kingdom, and similar margins of error are recognized in other countries.
Since there are 8760 hours in a year, if such an instrument were connected continuously to the circuit it would take up energy equal to 263,000 watt-hours, or 260 Board of Trade units per annum, If the cost of production of this energy was only one penny per unit, the working expenses of keeping such a voltmeter in connexion with a circuit would therefore be more than £i per annum, representing a capitalized value of, say, £io.
Since the English board of trade estimated the exports of British manufactured goods at from 17 to 20% of the industrial output of the United Kingdom in 1902, this would indicate a manufactured product hardly two-thirds as great as that of the true factory establishments of the United States in 1900.
Coming to the rates on grain, we find (in Table 23) a record for the forty years 1858-1897 of the charge on wheat from Chicago to New York, via all rail from 1858, and via lake and rail since 1868, the authority being the secretary of the Chicago Board of Trade.
N.B.-A trifling quantity of Californian and Australian wheat was imported in the period in question, but the Board of Trade records do not distinguish the quantities, therefore they cannot be given.
In 1823 he was appointed president of the board of trade and treasurer of the navy, and shortly afterwards he received a seat in the cabinet.
Both the Board of Trade and Plantations and the additional secretary were abolished in 1782, and the executive business wholly given over to the home office.
The Board of Trade was asked to supply full figures, and while its report was awaited the uncertainty of attitude on the part of the government afforded grateful opportunity for opposition mischief-making, since the Liberal party had now the chance of acting as the conservative champions of orthodox economics.
It was plain indeed that the fiscal question itself was ripe for the polls; Board of Trade statistics had been issued in profusion, and the whole case was before the country.
The main lines of the Lancashire export trade in cotton goods are indicated in the Board of Trade returns.
Gratuitous instruction of a very high order is afforded by the Board of Trade to upwards of 2000 pupils.
He continued nevertheless in the royal favour, and subsequently was appointed one of the commissioners of the admiralty and a member of the board of trade and plantations.
Mr Gladstone came into power with a programme of Irish reform in church and land such as Bright had long urged, and he accepted the post of president of the Board of Trade.
The board of trade building, the building of the Star newspaper, and several large office buildings (including the Scarritt, Long, and New York Life Insurance buildings) are worthy of mention.
His resignation was brought about by his connexion with a financial company which went into liquidation in circumstances calling for the official intervention of the board of trade.
It was he also who established the labour department of the board of trade and founded the Labour Gazette.
St Mungo's College, Glasgow, incorporated in 1889 under a Board of Trade licence, has medicinal and law faculties, and Anderson's College Medical School, Glasgow, was instituted in 1887.
Since the passing of the Light Railways Act 1896, the Board of Trade has sanctioned several light railways.
In this place he remained after the great commoner had withdrawn from the cabinet, but in December 1762 he threw it up. Bute, alarmed at the growth in numbers and in influence of his enemies, tried to buy back Townshend's co-operation by sundry tempting promises, and at last secured his object in March 1763 with the presidency of the board of trade.
It has a tribunal of first instance, a tribunal of commerce, a board of trade arbitration, a branch of the Bank of France, a communal college and training-colleges.
Mining administration is in the charge of a special bureau of the board of trade.
For description and general features, see Doxey's Guide to San Francisco and the Pleasure Resorts of California (San Francisco, 1897); and various guides and other publications of the California Development Board (formed by consolidation of the State Board of Trade and California Promotion Committee) in San Francisco.
Where an offence has been committed on the high seas, or aboard ashore, by British seamen or apprentices, the consul makes inquiry on oath, and may send home the offender and witnesses by a British ship, particulars for the Board of Trade being endorsed on the agreement for conveyance.
Complaints by crews as to the quality and quantity of the provisions on board are investigated by the consul, who enters a statement in the log-book and reports to the Board of Trade.
Under the Tramways Act 1870 the urban district council may obtain from the Board of Trade a provisional order authorizing the construction of tramways in their district by themselves.
Any private persons, and any corporation or company may, with the consent of the council, obtain the like authority, but the Board of Trade have power in certain cases to dispense with the consent of the local authority.
Under the Electric Lighting Acts the Board of Trade may license any district council to supply electricity, or may grant to them a provisional order for the same purpose.
In the course of this work he designed a bridge known as Torksey Bridge, which was disallowed by the Board of Trade inspector, Captain (afterwards Field-Marshal Sir) Lintorn Simmons.
The engineering profession espoused Fowler's side in the controversy which followed, and as a result the verdict of the Board of Trade was modified.
As will be readily understood from the construction of the machines, there is more friction in counter machines than in scale-beams. The "sensitiveness " error allowed by the Board of Trade for counter machines is five times as great as that allowed for scale-beams.
As one of Cobden's chief allies, he was elected for Manchester in 1841, and from 1846 to 1848 he was vice-president of the board of trade in Lord John Russell's ministry.
Though defeated in Manchester in 1857, he found another seat for Ashton-under-Lyne; and he sat in the cabinets from 1859 to 1866 as president of the board of trade.
In January 1823 Vansittart was succeeded as chancellor of the exchequer by Robinson (afterwards Lord Goderich), and Huskisson became president of the Board of Trade.
In 1696 Locke was induced to accept a commissionership on the Board of Trade.
Since 1870 the Board of Trade has ceased to give returns of the foreign and colonial trade for each of the separate kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland.
The Board of Trade was set to work to produce fiscal Blue-books, and hum-drum politicians who had never shown any genius for figures suddenly blossomed out into arithmeticians of the deepest dye.
The next day appeared the Board of Trade Fiscal Blue-book.
States Government Building, the County Court House, the City Hall, the Tennessee School for the Blind, the Tennessee Industrial School, the State Library, the Library of the State Historical Society housed in Watkins Institute, a Carnegie library, park buildings, the State Penitentiary, Vendome Theatre, the Board of Trade Building, the City Hospital, the St Thomas Hospital (Roman Catholic), and, near the city, a Confederate Soldiers' Home and a State Hospital for the Insane.
Currents from the ten-thousandth of an ampere to ten thousand amperes, electrical pressures from a minute fraction of a volt to 100,000 volts, come within the range of his instruments, while the private consumer of electric energy is provided with a meter recording Board of Trade units.
On the formation of Mr. Lloyd George's Government in 1916 Sir Albert Stanley was elected to Parliament for Ashton-under-Lyne, being includedin the Cabinet as President of the Board of Trade.
The Ipswich Tram Company was given permission by the Board Of Trade to build a tramway through the town last year.
In the House of Commons his acute reasoning made a considerable impression, and under successive Liberal ministries (1853-1858) he obtained official experience as secretary of the Board of Control and vice-president of the Board of Trade.
In the United Kingdom there was almost as much immunity from legislative interference with charges, but the companies were compelled to secure special charters, and to conform to regulations made by the Board of Trade in the interests of public safety.
In 1889 a very important act was passed placing upon the Board of Trade the obligation to call upon railway companies throughout the United Kingdom (1) to adopt upon all passenger lines the " block " system of working; (2) to " interlock " their points and signals; (3) to fit all trains carrying passengers with some form of automatic continuous brake.
As a consequence of the report of this Commission the Railway Employment (Prevention of Accidents) Act of 'goo was passed, putting upon the Board of Trade the duty of making " such rules as they think fit with respect to any of the subjects mentioned in the schedule to this act, with the object of reducing or removing the dangers and risks incidental to railway service."
Rules drafted by the Board of Trade under this act came into force on the 8th of August 1902, the subjects referred to being (I) labelling of wagons; (2) movements of wagons by propping and tow-roping; (3) power-brakes on engines; (4) lighting of stations and sidings; (g) protection of points, rods, &c.; (6) construction and protection of gauge-glasses; (7) arrangement of tool-boxes, &c., on engines; (8) provision of brake-vans for trains upon running lines beyond the limits of stations; (9) protection to permanent-way men when relaying or repairing permanent way.
They should be of ample dimensions to accommodate the traffic - the British Board of Trade requires them to be not less than 6 ft.
In the United Kingdom the Regulation of Railways Act 1889 empowered the Board of Trade to require all passenger trains, within a reasonable period, to be fitted with automatic continuous brakes, and now all the passenger stock, with a few trifling exceptions, is provided with either compressed-air or vacuum brakes (see Brake), and sometimes with both.
In 1901 the president of the Board of Trade it troduced a bill to continue the act until 1906, and to amend it so as to make it authorize the construction of a light railway on any highway, the object being to abolish the restriction that a light railway should run into the area of at least two local authorities; but it was not proceeded with.
The fragments of many wrecks emphasize the dangers of navigation, which are increased by the absence of beacons, the only lighthouse being that maintained by the Board of Trade on Cape Pembroke near the principal settlement.
In compliance with this request he produced the able Memoire justificatif, composed in French, and delivered to the courts of Europe; and shortly afterwards he received a seat at the Board of Trade and Plantations - little more than a sinecure in itself, but with a very substantial salary of nearly Boo per annum.
In 1881 a committee of the Board of Trade decided that the maximum wind pressure on a vertical surface in Great Britain should be assumed in designing structures to be 56 lb per sq.
He also provides for the subsistence of seamen who are shipwrecked, discharged, or left behind, even if their service was with foreign merchants; they are generally sent home in the first British ship that happens to be in want of a complement, and the expenses thus incurred form a charge on the parliamentary fund for the relief of distressed seamen, the consul receiving a See also instructions to consuls prepared by the Board of Trade and approved by the secretary of state for foreign affairs.