The American commodore was now able to blockade the British flotilla at Kingston.
Doria resolved to blockade and starve Venice to surrender.
An international blockade of the island was proposed by Austria but rejected by England.
Cotton (Gossypium herbaceum), which at the beginning of the 19th century, at the time of the Continental blockade, and again during the American War of Secession, was largely cultivated, is now grown only in parts of Sicily and in a few southern provinces.
Atlantic squadron, and conducted the blockade of Cuba.
The blockade of the harbour by Yeo was abandoned in June 1814 after the defeat of a force from the squadron sent out to capture guns which were being brought from Oswego to Sackett's.
The work of blockade, and of harassing the Confederates on the coast and the rivers of the Atlantic seaboard, called for much service in boats, and entailed a great deal of exposure.
The blockade of Brest was so strictly maintained that Ganteaume was allowed no opportunity to get to sea.
In general it was allowed that these means should be the " pacific blockade " proposed by the tsar.
On sea the Athenians, after two minor engagements, gained a decisive victory which enabled them to blockade Aegina.
The prospect of an English blockade of Malta encouraged the revolt, of which Canon Caruana became the leader.
A siege and blockade, with confused fighting and alternate victory and defeat, and all the horrors of fire and slaughter, followed, till Dion made himself finally master of the mainland city.
At the end of the rule of the knights (1798) the population was estimated at roo,000; sickness, famine and emigration during the blockade of the French in Valletta probably reduced the inhabitants to 80,000.
The wrongs inflicted by him on companies and individuals of various nationalities, who had invested capital in industrial enterprises in Venezuela, led to a blockade of the Venezuelan ports in 1903 by English, German and Italian warships.
In a subsequent battle he retrieved this disaster, and after a long blockade reduced the town itself.
The Ostrogoth collected a fleet and established a severe blockade, which at length caused Odoacer to surrender the city.
With the hope of raising the blockade of Cadiz, a force under Sir Thomas Graham (afterwards Lord Lynedoch [q.v.]) left that harbour by sea, and joining with Spanish troops near Tarifa, advanced by land against Victor's blockading force, a Spanish general, La Pena, being in chief command.
Subsequently, leaving Hill in the Alemtejo, he returned towards Almeida, and with 40,000 men commenced a blockade of Ciudad Rodrigo, his headquarters being at Fuente Guinaldo.
It has been said that the blockade of the Confederate coast became in the end practically impenetrable, and that every attempt of the Confederate naval forces to break out was checked at once by crushing numerical preponderance.
In July 1804 he ordered his admiral commanding at Toulon, Latouche Treville, to seize an opportunity when Nelson, who was in command of the blockade, was driven off by a northerly gale, to put to sea, with 1 0 sail of the line, pick up the French ship in Cadiz, join Villeneuve who was in the Aix roads, and then effect a junction with Ganteaume and the 21 sail of the line at Brest.
Albany had to blockade Margaret in Stirling Castle before she would surrender her sons, After being obliged to capitulate, Margaret returned to Edinburgh, and being no longer responsible for the custody of the king she fled to England in September, where a month later she bore to Angus a daughter, Margaret, who afterwards became countess of Lennox, mother of Lord Darnley and grandmother of James I.
After months of blockade and minor fighting, the Russian Port Arthur squadron had been brought to action on the 10th of Naval battle of August.
When it was known that Admiral Cervera, with a Spanish fleet, had left the Cape Verde Islands, Sampson withdrew a force from the blockade to cruise in the Windward Passage, and made an attack upon the forts at San Juan, Porto Rico.
This factor was the rupture of communications with foreign countries, due in the earlier stages of the war to the limitation, and at one time the prohibition, of exports by neutral countries, the passing over of some of these countries to the enemy, and lastly the blockade by the enemy Powers, which increased in efficiency and made it more and more difficult to import the most essential commodities, until in the end it was almost impossible to obtain from abroad anything, needed either for the soldiers or the civilians.
The British government, not feeling strong enough to blockade Brest and the Spanish ports, was compelled to regulate its movements by those of its opponents.
The garrison of the Akra had been starved by a close blockade into submission, and beyond the boundaries of Judaea " he took Joppa for a haven and made himself master of Gazara and Bethsura."
The squadron nevertheless tamely returned to harbour, Togo resumed the blockade and Nogi began his advance from Nanshan, but the 2nd and 4th Armies came to a standstill at once (naval escort for their sea-borne supplies being no longer available), and the 1st Army, whose turn to advance had just arrived, only pushed ahead a few miles to cover a larger supply area.
The executive council, which had been appointed by the Potchefstroom assembly, with Pretorius as president, now took up a bolder attitude: they deposed Schoeman from all authority, declared Zoutpansberg in a state of blockade, and denounced the Boers of the two northern districts as rebels.
Under his command the fleet made no attempt to blockade the Dutch coast, but was turned from its proper work to engage in a prize-hunting plot with the king of Denmark.
After occupying the Prussian capital he launched against England the famous Berlin Decree (21st of November 1806), declaring her coasts to be in a state of blockade, and prohibiting all commerce with them.
Their fleets were divided into squadrons, of which one, under Tombazes, was deputed to watch for the entrance of the Ottomans into the archipelago, while the other under Andreas Miaoulis sailed to blockade Patras and watch the coasts of Epirus.
Marcellus had recourse to a blockade, but Carthaginian vessels from time to time contrived to throw in supplies.
The number of naval ships was increased between 1861 and 1865 from 90 to 670, the officers from 1300 to 6700, the seamen from 7500 to 51,500, and the annual expenditure from $12,000,000 to $123,000,000; important changes were made in the art of naval construction, and the blockade of the Confederate ports was effectively maintained.
During the long wars with Genoa, after the defeats of Curzola, Sapienza, Pola, above all during the crisis of the war of Chioggia, it had been brought home to the Venetians that, as they owned no meat or corn-producing territory, a crushing defeat at sea and a blockade on the mainland exposed them to the grave danger of being starved into surrender.
Before so superior a force, Wellington had not attempted to maintain the blockade; but on Marmont afterwards advancing towards him, he fought a rearguard action with him at El Bodon (Sept.
In 310 Agathocles, defeated and besieged in Syracuse, took the desperate resolve of breaking through the blockade and attacking the enemy in Africa.
Nevertheless along the whole line some kind of surveillance was established long before the close of 1861, and, in proportion as the number of vessels available increased, the blockade became more and more stringent, until at last it was practically unbreakable at any point save by the fastest steamers working under unusually favourable conditions of wind and weather.
Meanwhile the blockade had become so stringent that few ordinary vessels could expect to break through, and a special type of steamer came into vogue for the purpose.
Meanwhile the country, which up to the blockade of 1903 had been seething with revolutions, now became much quieter.
3, but the operation partook merely of the nature of a reconnaissance, and for some time hostilities were confined to a blockade of the Ottoman coasts,' defensive steps in Egypt, and the seizure of the Shat el Arab and Basrah.
Repulsed in this attempt, the Japanese established a stringent blockade, which tried the endurance of the ships and the men to the utmost.
Nelson was appealed to, and with the aid of Portuguese allies he established a blockade and deputed Captain Ball, R.
The French afterwards resumed the blockade, so that although Barrosa was an allied victory, its object was not attained.
When, however, surveillance became blockade, prizes could only with difficulty be brought into port, and, since the parties interested gained nothing by burning merchantmen, privateering soon died out, and was replaced by commerce-destroying pure and simple, carried out by commissioned vessels of the Confederate navy.
Ten days' blockade of the port caused the Siamese government to accede to these demands, and a treaty was made, the French sending troops to occupy Chantabun until its provisions should have been carried out.
His next service was in the James river flotilla, but after reaching the rank of commodore, on the 16th of July 1862, he was assigned to duty against blockade runners in the West Indies.
But the blockade of 3000 miles of coast was a far more formidable task, and international law required it to be effective in order to be respected.
The plan of an international fleet to coerce the Mahommedan is even to this day ineffective; but the Hospitallers, who acquired a new basis by the conquest of Rhodes in 1310, used their fleet to enforce a partial and, on the whole, ineffective blockade of the coast of the Levant.
In this office in 1863 he won before the Supreme Court of the United States the famous prize case of the "Amy Warwick," on the decision in which depended the right of the government to blockade the Confederate ports, without giving the Confederate states an international status as belligerents.
In the following year he defeated the Siamese, and, after a long blockade, obtained possession of their capital.
A blockade of Egypt by an international fleet, an alliance with the Mongols, the union of the two great orders - these are the three staple heads of these proposals.
No blockade of New England was at first attempted.
the instance of Great Britain Napoleon withdrew his qu ted squadron, that the blockade could be made complete.
The condemnation of the " heretics " by the Patriarch led to their repudiation by the community of Vatopedi, and at the instance of the Russian ambassador at Constantinople the refractory monasteries were subjected to a rigorous blockade.
Marching rapidly on York he drove the Danes to their ships; and the city was then reduced by a blockade.
They were beaten and driven back; but at the suggestion of Hermocrates they carried a counter-work up the slope of Epipolae, which, if completed, would cut in two the Athenian lines and frustrate the blockade.
It needed a second insult - the firing on " La Provence," a vessel carrying a flag of truce, in the harbour of Algiers (August 3, 1829) - to spur the French government to further action than an ineffectual blockade.
Nevertheless the fortress did not fall into the possession of the French till 1406 after a blockade of eighteen months.
In the civil wars of 1641 the place was besieged by O'Neal and the Northern Irish forces; but it was gallantly defended by Sir Henry Tichbourne, and after a long blockade was relieved by the Marquess of Ormond.
Disorders followed, a naval revolt in 1891 causing the resignation of President Deodoro da Fonseca, and another in 1893-94 causing a blockade of the port for about six months and the loss of many lives and much property from desultory bombardments.
Porter was promoted commander on the 22nd of April, and on the 30th of May was sent to blockade the South-West Pass of the Mississippi.
The blockade of Tyre by sea, significantly passed over in Sennacherib's inscription, is described by Menander.
On the British side, the naval force in American waters under Sir John Borlase Warren, who took up the general command on the 26th of September 1812, consisted of ninety-seven vessels in all, of which eleven were of the line and thirty-four were frigates, a power much greater than the national navy of America, but inadequate to the blockade of the long coast from New Brunswick to Florida.
The blockade of American ports was already so close that the United States ships found it continually more difficult to get to sea, or to keep the sea without meeting forces of irresistibly superior strength.
The Delaware and Chesapeake were declared in a state of blockade on the 26th of December 1812.
Although blockaded by the Union fleet, Wilmington was during the Civil War the centre of an important intercourse between the Confederacy and foreign countries by means of blockade runners, and was the last important port open to the Confederates.
It fell in 1625 into the hands of Spinola after a blockade of eleven months; it was now retaken by Frederick 3' Henry after a siege of eleven weeks, in the face of immense difficulties.
It was captured and plundered by the Brazilians in 1869, and has been the theatre of several revolutionary outbreaks since then, one of which (1905) resulted in a blockade of several months' duration.
He accordingly crossed the Julian Alps, and in September 408 stood before the walls of Rome (now with no capable general like Stilicho to defend her) and began a strict blockade.
As all attempts to conduct a satisfactory negotiation with this emperor failed before his impenetrable stupidity, Alaric, after instituting a second siege and blockade of Rome in 409, came to terms with the senate, and with their consent set up a rival emperor and invested the prefect of the city, a Greek named Attalus, with the diadem and the purple robe.
He instituted by proclamation of the 19th of April a blockade of the Southern ports, took effective steps to extemporize a navy, convened Congress in special session (on the 4th of July), and asked for legislation and authority to make the war "short, sharp and decisive."
Pacific Blockade >>
But he now relieved Syracuse from the Carthaginian blockade; his mercenaries gained a victory over Acragas; and he sailed again for Africa, where fortune had turned against his son Archagathus, as it now did against himself.
Callicratidas, hearing of this fleet's approach, withdrew from Mytilene, leaving Eteonicus in charge of the blockade.
The English did not attempt a winter blockade, but contented themselves with destroying all the supplies in the neighbourhood.
The trade, blocked at Persian ports and later at all Gulf ports except Muscat, continued to flourish, in spite of a naval blockade of the Makran coast by Great Britain in 1910 - I.
The idea - a very old one with Jefferson - was not entirely original; in essence it received other attempted applications in the Napoleonic period - and especially in the continental blockade.
By them the United States was granted limited privileges of trade with the British East Indies; some provisions were made for reciprocal freedom of trade between the United States and the British dominions in Europe; some articles were specified under the head of "contraband of war"; it was agreed that whenever provisions were seized as contraband they should be paid for, and that in cases of the capture of a vessel carrying contraband goods such goods only and not the whole cargo should be seized; it was also agreed that no vessel should be seized merely because it was bound for a blockaded port, unless it attempted to enter the port after receiving notice of the blockade.
A second expedition became necessary later on, two small patrols having been treacherously murdered; and a force of 100 British troops traversed the border of the Abor country and punished the tribes, while a blockade was continued against them from 1894 to 1900.
The blockade lasted more than six months, during which the city was a prey to all the horrors of siege and famine.
On the 25th of August 716 the blockade 2 Solaiman is the Arabic form of Solomon.
Wladislaus's little fleet attempted to blockade the port of the rebellious city, whereupon a Danish admiral broke the blockade and practically destroyed the Polish flotilla.
During the eight or ten weeks that the blockade lasted no fewer than 10,000 of the inhabitants are said to have died of want or disease.
The blockade of their ports and the bombardment of Valparaiso by a Spanish squadron impressed the Chileans with the necessity of possessing an adequate fleet to defend their long coast-line; and it was under President Errazuriz that the ships were obtained and the officers trained that did such good service in the great war with Peru.
He selected his generals without respect of politics, sending Moriones to the Basque provinces and Navarre at the head of 20,000 men, Martinez Campos to Catalonia with several thousand, and Lopez Dominguez, the nephew of Marshal Serrano, to begin the land blockade of the last stronghold of the cantonal insurgents, Cartagena, where the crews of Spain's only fleet had joined the revolt.
As an answer to these demands, and in order to protect the property of Chilean subjects, the Chilean fleet was sent to blockade the ports of Antofagasta, Cobija and Tocapilla.
10), while a column of irregulars from Metsovo in Thessaly and another small detachment from Santi Quaranta came in on his flanks to assist in establishing a loose blockade.
The Spartans, who were then invading Attica, withdrew their forces and attacked them vigorously by sea and land, but were repulsed, and the Athenians were enabled by the arrival and victory of their fleet to blockade on the island of Sphacteria a body of 420 Spartiates with their attendant helots.
Their heroic resistance was overcome by a rear attack directed by a Messenian, who led a body of men by a difficult path along the cliffs on the east, and th° 292 Spartan survivors laid down their arms 72 days after the beginning of the blockade.
On the 19th of April President Abraham Lincoln declared a blockade of the southern ports.
The blockade of the southern ports was not at first effective, and blockade-running soon became an active industry.
He was a party to the publication of the " Portfolio " in 1834, and to the mission of the " Vixen " to force the blockade of Circassia about the same time.
These were at once accepted; he was requested to sit on the Naval Retiring Board - a board then specially constituted for clearing the navy of unfit or disloyal officers - and a few months later was appointed to the command of the "Western Gulf Blockading Squadron," with the rank of flag-officer, and ordered to proceed forthwith, in the "Hartford," to the Gulf of Mexico, to collect such vessels as could be spared from the blockade, to proceed up the Mississippi, to reduce the defences which guarded the approaches to New Orleans, and to take and hold the city.
It was from Berlin, on the 21st of November 1806, that he had dated the first decree of a continental blockade, a monstrous conception intended to paralyze his inveterate rival, but which on the con ~ ~ trary caused his own fall by its immoderate extension nen~tai of the empire.
To the coalition of the northern powers blockade, he added the league of the Baltic and Mediterranean ports, and to the bombardment of Copenhagen by an English fleet he responded by a second decree of blockade, dated from Milan on the 17th of Dec~mbcr 1807.
Caroline conspired against her brother and against her husband; the hypochondriacal Louis, now Dutch in his sympathies, found the supervision of the blockade taken.
Finally, amidst profound silence from the press and the Assemblies, a protest was raised against imperial despotism by the literary world, against the excommunicated sovereign by Catholicism, and against the author of the continental blockade by the discontented bourgeoisie, ruined by the crisis of 1811.
Merely to blockade all the German ports with the Swedish fleet was equally impossible.
Fairfax was there with his army on the 10th of January, 1646, about which time the blockade of Plymouth was finally abandoned.
androgen blockade should not be used routinely based on current evidence.
Androgen receptor blockade might be potentiated by a reduction of serum androgen receptor blockade might be potentiated by a reduction of serum androgens.
beta-adrenergic blockade for the treatment of hyperthyroidism.
We could not enforce the decisive blockade or interruption which is possible from surface vessels.
On the 12th May 1949 Stalin admitted defeat and lifted the blockade.
It can be used to maintain neuromuscular blockade using an infusion technique.
epidural catheters can be placed in either the cervical, thoracic or lumbar regions but lumbar epidural blockade is the most commonly used.
In the end Kennedy opted to use a naval blockade of Cuba, cutting off military supplies to the island.
A year-long blockade will be something that even Parliament, & the public at large, are unable to ignore.
On the morning of Sunday June 1st, we will create a non-violent blockade of the G8 delegates in Lausanne.
However the more prolonged hypotension seen is probably due to the achievement of a more profound degree of sympathetic blockade.
Combined androgen blockade should not be used routinely based on current evidence.
A study of the effects of angiotensin II receptor blockade in heart failure is planned for 1998.
Or in Blairism's crisis (gasoline blockade; Peckham youth anarchy; European Union unending conflict; etc, etc )?
Digital nerve blockade is simple and easy to perform and provides useful analgesia for a variety of minor surgical procedures.
The result was the spontaneous blockade of an oil refinery which led to the blockade of an oil refinery which led to the blockades of September 2000.
blockade of the channel ports was a clear candidate for British TV news treatment.
Apart from the capture of the slave dhows, the incident of the blockade was of an uninteresting nature.
Nuclear protest gran arrested POLICE arrested a Shoreham gran arrested POLICE arrested a Shoreham grandmother as she took part in a blockade of a Scottish naval base for t.. .
Nuclear protest gran arrested POLICE arrested a Shoreham grandmother as she took part in a blockade of a Scottish naval base for t.. .
heparin therapy central nervous blockade should not be performed.
The ability of the leukotriene modifiers to disrupt such extensive interactions means that other relevant mediators are targeted indirectly by leukotriene modifiers to disrupt such extensive interactions means that other relevant mediators are targeted indirectly by leukotriene blockade.
naval blockade of Cuba, cutting off military supplies to the island.
neuromuscular blockade using an infusion technique.
What advice can you give for use of beta blockade in patients with airflow obstruction?
Neuromuscular blockade With modern short acting muscle relaxants, reversal of neuromuscular block at the end of cesarean section is rarely a problem.
Ships were bought and sold or purposely built as blockade runners.
Carefully titrated epidural anesthesia for labor is associated with less sympathetic blockade than spinal or epidural anesthesia for cesarean delivery.
many westerners have used the opportunity to blockade the railroad lines linking the Ukraine to the rest of Europe.
The day the blockade is stopped will be like lifting a yoke from our shoulders.
The Athenians retaliated by placing an embargo upon Megarian trade throughout their empire (432), and in the Peloponnesian War, which the Megarians had consequently striven to hasten on, reduced their neighbours to misery by blockade and devastations.
When winter fell, Alexander had captured indeed the city itself, but the two citadels still held out against his blockade.
After his return to the coast of Cuba he conducted the blockade of Santiago, and the ships under his command destroyed the Spanish vessels when they issued from the harbor of Santiago and attempted to escape (see Spanish-American War).
In 413, on the suggestion of Alcibiades, he fortified Decelea in Attica, where he remained directing operations until, after the battle of Aegospotami (405), he took the leading part in the blockade of Athens, which was ended in spring 404 by the surrender of the city.
The tsar consented, and proposed that the coercion should take the form of a pacific blockade of the Morea, so as to force Ibrahim, by cutting off his supplies, to evacuate the country.
Prior to the date of these protocols, an attempt had been made by Great Britain, Germany and Italy to enforce their claims by blockade, and a further question arose as between these three powers on the one hand, and the United States of America, France, Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden and Norway, and Mexico (all of whom had claims against Venezuela, but had abstained from hostile action) on the other hand, as to whether the blockading powers were entitled to preferential treatment.
However, the blockade on the land side was now almost 4 The chief authorities for the siege are Thucydides (bks.
Though the battle between the two vessels was indecisive, its effect was to "neutralize" the "Merrimac," which had caused great alarm in Washington, and to prevent the breaking of the Federal blockade at Hampton Roads; in the history of naval warfare it may be regarded as marking the opening of a new era - the era of the armoured warship. On the 3rd of February 1865 near Fortress Monroe on board a steamer occurred the meeting of President Lincoln and Secretary Seward with Confederate commissioners which is known as the Hampton Roads Conference (see Lincoln, Abraham).
Soley, The Blockade and the Cruisers (New York, 1883); Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, vol.
Alcibiades, after a severe blockade (408 B.C.), gained possession of the city through the treachery of the Athenian party; in 405 B.C. it was retaken by Lysander and placed under a Spartan harmost.
The pursuit of science needed a more tranquil shelter; and on the raising of the blockade, Kepler obtained permission to transfer his types to Ulm, where, in September 1627, the Rudolphine Tables were at length given to the world.
Amongst other measures taken by Hood may be mentioned the garrisoning of Diamond Rock, which he commissioned as a sloop-of-war to blockade the approaches of Martinique (see James, Naval History, iii.
Like paper blockades (see Blockade) and fictitious occupations of territory, such premature proclamations are viewed by international jurists as not being jure gentiuna.
But already Montenegro was under naval blockade by the Great Powers, who had decided that Scutari should belong to the new state of Albania, and on May 6 King Nicholas yielded and withdrew his troops.
In 1478 Kroia, which the Venetians had occupied after Scanderbeg's death, surrendered to Mahommed II., and in 1479 Scutari, after a memorable defence by the Venetians and their Montenegrin allies, was reduced by blockade.
Four pilots died, sacrificed to the cause of tightening the blockade against Cuba.
Taylor not only disregarded this summons, but within the following week proceeded to blockade the Rio Grande.
Upon the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, Lord Palmerston acknowledged that it was the duty of the British government to stand aloof from the fray; but his own opinion led him rather to desire than to avert the rupture of the Union, which might have been the result of a refusal on the part of England and France to recognize a blockade of the Southern ports, which was notoriously imperfect, and extremely prejudicial to the interests of Europe.
A little later he sent a protest to England against the commercial blockade and the detention of cargoes bound for neutral ports.
Further difficulties arising between Persia and Muscat, and the ruler of the latter, then in possession of a powerful fleet, threatening to blockade Bander Abbasi, the Persian government solicited the good offices of the British government, and the lease was renewed for another eight years upon payment of 30,000 tomans per annum (then about £12,00o).
There is more to be said for the political argument which induced Adam Smith to favour navigation laws, giving a preference to national shipping in national waters, and for a similar political argument in favour of dude:, on agricultural produce imported into the country, on the ground, as regards navigation, that the prosperity of the shipping industry in particular was essential to the safety of the country, and on the ground, as regards duties on agricultural produce, that the maintenance of a larger rural population and of a larger agricultural production than would exist under natural conditions of perfect free trade was essential to the wel:Fare of the state and even to its very existence in the possible event of a temporary defeat at sea and a partial blockade of the coasts.
After serving on the home station, and in the East Indies and the Mediterranean, he assisted, as captain of the "Minerve" (38) at the blockade of Leghorn in 1796, and fought a gallant action with the Spanish frigate "Sabina" (40) which he took.
For the North had proclaimed a blockade of the Southern ports; and it wo-old have been both inconvenient and unfair if Lord Russell had decided to recognize the blockade and had refused to acknowledge the belligerent rights of the Southern States.
Slidell; succeeded in running~ the blockade and in reaching Cuba, where they embarked on the Trnt, a British mail steamer sailing for England.
The continental system, which, by its leading to the blockade of Denmark, threatened to starve Iceland,was neutralized by special action of the British government.
Their heroic resistance was overcome by a rear attack directed by a Messenian, who led a body of men by a difficult path along the cliffs on the east, and thÃ‚° 292 Spartan survivors laid down their arms 72 days after the beginning of the blockade.
Many westerners have used the opportunity to blockade the railroad lines linking the Ukraine to the rest of Europe.
Blockade Runner has a ribbed tin cup with a handle in small and one in large.
Tunnel and Blockade: There are two "tunnels" that the balls travel through in this course, making it impossible for you to shoot at them while they are underground.
The blockade ends on the next roll when a pawn is moved.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.