As the weight of bleaching-powder consumed in the world is at most one-fifth of that of alkali, calculated as Na2C03, it follows that only about one-tenth of all the alkali required could be made by electrol y sis, even supposing the Leblanc process to be entirely abolished.
The chlorine can be used for the manufacture of liquid chlorine, bleaching-powder or other bleaching compounds, or chlorates, and the solution of sodium hydrate can be sold as such, or converted into solid caustic soda.
For the manufacture of bleaching-powder, limestone of high degree of purity (especially free from magnesia and iron) is carefully burned so as to drive out nearly all the carbon dioxide without overheating the lime.
The bleaching-powder casks must be kept in a dry place, as cool as possible, and never exposed to the direct rays of the sun, in order to prevent a decomposition which now and then has even led to explosions.
Bleaching-powder is manufactured to the extent of several hundred thousands of tons annually, almost entirely for the use of papermakers and cotton bleachers.
At the bottom of large boxes, the " bleaching-powder chambers," made of lead, or sometimes of cast-iron protected by paint, of slate or even of tarred wood.
But most of the chlorine is utilized for the production of bleaching-powder, of bleach-liquor, and of chlorate of potash.
Dr Wolff employs purifiers in which the gas is washed with water containing calcium chloride, and then passed through bleaching-powder solution or other oxidizing material.
The metallic film is tested with 20% nitric acid and with bleaching-powder solution.
Arsenic is insoluble in the acid, but immediately dissolves in the bleaching-powder.