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blast-furnace

blast-furnace

blast-furnace Sentence Examples

  • This pours into them the molten cast iron which it has just received directly from the blast-furnace.

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  • This pours into them the molten cast iron which it has just received directly from the blast-furnace.

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  • It also occurs in blast-furnace gases.

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  • Lead ores are smelted in the reverberatory furnace, the ore-hearth, and the blast-furnace.

    0
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  • In the blast-furnace all lead ores are successfully smelted.

    0
    0
  • While by the English and Carinthian processes as much lead as possible is extracted in the furnace, with the Silesian method a very low temperature is used, thus taking out about one-half of the lead and leaving very rich slags (50% lead) to be smelted in the blast-furnace, the ultimate result being a very much higher yield than by either of the other processes.

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  • The loss in lead by the combined reverberatory and blast-furnace treatment is only 3.2%.

    0
    0
  • In smelting at once in the same blast-furnace ores of different character, the old use of separate processes of precipitation, roasting and reduction, and general reduction prevailing in the Harz Mountains, Freiberg and other places, to suit local conditions, has been abandoned.

    0
    0
  • A modern blast-furnace is oblong in horizontal section and about 24 ft.

    0
    0
  • Lead Blast-Furnace.

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  • The leading products of the blast-furnace are argentiferous lead (base bullion), matte, slag and flue-dust (fine particles of charge and volatilized metal carried out of the furnace by the ascending gas current).

    0
    0
  • The lead produced in the reverberatory furnace and the ore-hearth is of a higher grade than that produced in the blast-furnace, as the ores treated are purer and richer, and the reducing action is less powerful.

    0
    0
  • The following analysis of blast-furnace lead of Freiberg, Saxony, is from an exceptionally impure lead: Pb =95.088, Ag = 0.470, Bi = 0.019, Cu = 0.225, As = I.

    0
    0
  • The zinc and some lead are oxidized; part of the zinc passes off with the fumes, part is dissolved by the litharge, forming a melted mixture which is skimmed off and reduced in a blast-furnace or a reverberatory smelting furnace.

    0
    0
  • Selling his Baltimore works, he built, in 1836, in partnership with his brother Thomas, a rolling mill in New York; in 1845 he removed it to Trenton, New Jersey, where iron structural beams were first made in 1854 and the Bessemer process first tried in America in 1856; and at Philippsburg, New Jersey, he built the largest blast furnace in the country at that time.

    0
    0
  • In 1907 iron ore was mined for blast-furnace use in twenty-nine states only, but the ore occurs in almost every state of the Union.

    0
    0
  • It was then, in 1735, that Abraham Darby showed how to make cast iron with coke in the high furnace, which by this time had become a veritable blast furnace.

    0
    0
  • The next great improvement in blast-furnace practice came in 1811, when Aubertot in France used for heating steel the furnace gases rich in carbonic oxide which till then had been allowed to burn uselessly at the top of the blast furnace.

    0
    0
  • This crude cast iron, called " pig iron," may be run from the blast furnace directly Ore FIG.

    0
    0
  • On its way from the blast furnace to the converter or open hearth furnace the pig iron is often passed through a great reservoir called a " mixer," which acts also as an equalizer, to lessen the variation in composition of the cast iron, and as a purifier, removing part of the sulphur and silicon.

    0
    0
  • - Section of Duquesne Blast Furnace.

    0
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  • - Lower Part of the Blast Furnace.

    0
    0
  • The reason why the frictional resistance would be further increased is the very simple one that the increase in the rate of production implies directly a corresponding increase in the quantity of blast forced through, and hence in the velocity of the rising gases, because the chemical work of the blast furnace needs a certain quantity of blast for each ton of iron made.

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    0
  • - On its way from the blowing engine to the tuyeres of the blast-furnace, the blast, i.e.

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  • In the hearth of the blast furnace the heat made latent by the fusion of the iron and slag must of course be supplied by some body which is itself at a temperature above the melting point of these bodies, which for simplicity of exposition we may call the critical temperature of the blast-furnace process, because heat will flow only from a hotter to a cooler object.

    0
    0
  • The special conditions of the blast-furnace actually exaggerate the saving due to this widening of the available temperature-margin, and beyond this drying the blast does great good by preventing the serious irregularities in working the furnace caused by changes in the humidity of the air with varying weather.

    0
    0
  • Like the Siemens furnace, described in § 99, they have two distinct phases: one, " on gas," during which part of the waste gas of the blast-furnace is burnt within the stove, highly heating the great surface of brickwork which for that purpose is provided within it; the other, " on wind," during which the blast is.

    0
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  • Each blast-furnace is now provided with three or even four of these stoves, which collectively may be nearly thrice as large as the furnace itself.

    0
    0
  • It has been calculated that the gas from a pair of old-fashioned blast-furnaces making i 600 tons of iron per week would in this way yield some 16,000 horse-power in excess of their own needs, and that all the available blast-furnace gas in the United States would develop about i,50o,000 horse-power, to develop which by raising steam would need about 20,000,000 tons of coal a year.

    0
    0
  • The numerous converting mills which treat pig iron made at a distance will now have the crushing burden of providing in other ways the power which their rivals get from the blast-furnace, in addition to the severe disadvantage under which they already suffer, of wasting the initial heat of the molten cast iron as it runs from the blastfurnace.

    0
    0
  • Before its use in the gas engine, the blast-furnace gas has to be freed carefully from the large quantity of fine ore dust which it carries in suspension.

    0
    0
  • A, Entrance for blast-furnace gas.

    0
    0
  • 12.- Diagram of the Carnegie Blast-Furnace Plant at Duquesne, Pa.

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  • A, Ladle bringing the cast iron from the blast-furnace.

    0
    0
  • That the blast-furnace process must be followed by a purifying one, that carburization must at once be undone by decarburization, is clearly a disadvantage, but it is one which is far out-weighed by five important incidental advantages.

    0
    0
  • In addition, the blast-furnace uses a very cheap source of energy, coke, anthracite, charcoal, and even certain kinds of raw bituminous coal, and owing first to the intimacy of contact between this fuel and the ore on which it works, and second to the thoroughness of the transfer of heat from the products of that fuel's combustion in their long upward journey through the descending charge, even this cheap energy is used most effectively.

    0
    0
  • Thus we have reasons enough why the blast-furnace has displaced all competing processes, without taking into account its further advantage in lending itself easily to working on an enormous scale and with trifling consumption of labour, still further lessened by the general practice of transferring the molten cast iron in enormous ladles into the vessels in which its conversion into steel takes place.

    0
    0
  • Nevertheless, a direct process may yet be made profitable under conditions which specially favour it, such as the lack of any fuel suitable for the blast-furnace, coupled with an abundance of cheap fuel suitable for a direct process and of cheap rich ore nearly free from sulphur.

    0
    0
  • The processes for converting cast iron into steel can now remove phosphorus easily, but the removal of sulphur in them is so difficult that it has to be accomplished for the most part in the blast-furnace itself.

    0
    0
  • As desulphurizing seems to need the direct and energetic action of carbon on the molten iron itself, and as molten iron absorbs carbon most greedily, it is hard to see how the blast-furnace is to desulphurize without carburizing almost to saturation, i.e.

    0
    0
  • The obstacle is that, owing to unavoidable irregularities in the blast-furnace process, the siliconand sulphur-content of the cast iron vary to a degree and with an abruptness which are inconvenient for any conversion process and intolerable for the Bessemer process.

    0
    0
  • - In common practice the cast iron as it runs from the blast-furnace is allowed to solidify and cool completely in the form of pigs, which are then graded by their fracture, and remelted in the puddling furnace itself.

    0
    0
  • At Hourpes, in order to save the expense of this remelting, the molten cast iron as it comes from the blast-furnace is poured directly into the puddling furnace, in large charges of about 2200 lb, which are thus about four times as large as those of common puddling furnaces.

    0
    0
  • But the strong deoxidizing conditions needed in the blast-furnace to remove sulphur tend strongly to deoxidize silica and thus to make the pig iron rich in silicon.

    0
    0
  • The charge may be melted down on the " open hearth " itself, or, as in the more advanced practice, the pig iron may be brought in the molten state from the blast furnace in which it is made.

    0
    0
  • The advantage of this combination is that, by simplifying the conditions with which the composition of the pig iron has to comply, it makes the management of the blast furnace easier, and thus lessens the danger of making " misfit " pig iron, i.e.

    0
    0
  • For the acid Bessemer process the sulphur-content must be small and the silicon-content should be constant; for the basic openhearth process the content of both silicon and sulphur should be small, a thing difficult to bring about, because in the blast furnace most of the conditions which make for small sulphur-content make also for large silicon-content.

    0
    0
  • Hence the blast furnace process, thus freed from the hampering need of controlling accurately the silicon-content, can be much more effectively guided so as to prevent the sulphur from entering the pig iron.

    0
    0
  • But cast iron for the basic open-hearth process can be made from almost any ore, because its requirements, comparative freedom from silicon and sulphur, depend on the management of the blast-furnace rather than on the composition of the ore, whereas the phosphorus-content of the cast iron depends solely on that of the ore, because nearly all the phosphorus of the ore necessarily passes into the cast iron.

    0
    0
  • In a very few places the molten cast iron as it issues from the blast furnace is cast directly in these moulds, but in general it is allowed to solidify in pigs, and then remelted either in cupola furnaces or in air furnaces.

    0
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  • - Cast iron naturally has a high carbon-content, usually between 3 and 4%, because while molten it absorbs carbon greedily from the coke with which it is in contact in the iron blast furnace in which it is made, and in the cupola furnace in which it is remelted for making most castings.

    0
    0
  • The following analyses show their general composition: An artificial product which serves perfectly as a pozzuolana is granulated blast-furnace slag.

    0
    0
  • Another method of making Portland cement which has been proposed and tried with some success consists in fusing the raw materials together in an apparatus of the type of a blast furnace.

    0
    0
  • This small addition for this specified purpose is recognized as legitimate, but the employment of various cheap materials such as ragstone and blast-furnace slag, sometimes added as diluents or make-weights, is adulteration and therefore fraudulent.

    0
    0
  • It is made by granulating blast furnace slag of suitable composition and finely grinding the product, either alone or with an admixture of about To% of Portland cement clinker.

    0
    0
  • The process adopted for the Canadian ores, which are poor in copper and nickel, consists in a preliminary roasting in heaps and smelting in a blast furnace in order to obtain a matte, which is then further smelted with a siliceous flux for a rich matte.

    0
    0
  • The first blast-furnace in the colony seems to have been owned by Governor Spotswood, and was built and operated at the head of the Rappahannock river about 1715 by a colony of German Protestants.

    0
    0
  • It is a high grade block, or " splint " coal, remarkably free from sulphur and rich in carbon, peculiarly adapted to blast furnace use.

    0
    0
  • The blast furnace in its simplest form is among the oldest, if not the oldest, of metallurgical contrivances.

    0
    0
  • This principle is capable of very wide extension, the blast furnace being mainly limited in height by the strength the column of materials or "burden" has to resist crushing, under the weight due to the head adopted, and the power of the blowing engine to supply blast of sufficient density to overcome the resistance of the closely packed materials to the free passage of the spent gases.

    0
    0
  • Originally the term cupola was used for the reverberatory furnace, but in the course of time it has changed its meaning, and is now given to a small blast furnace such as that used by iron-founders - reverberatory smelting furnaces in the same trade being called air furnaces.

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  • Among the chief localities are the neighbourhood of Stourbridge in Worcestershire and Stannington near Sheffield, which supply most of the materials for crucibles used in steel and brass melting, and the pots for glass houses; Newcastle-on-Tyne and Glenboig near Glasgow, where heavy blast furnace and other firebricks, gas retorts, &c., are made in large quantities.

    0
    0
  • Deville's portable blast furnace is very similar in principle to the above, but the body of the furnace is formed of a single cast iron cylinder lined with fireclay, closed below by a cast iron plate perforated by a ring of small holes - a hemispherical basin below forming the air-heating chamber.

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  • When God punishes he does so as a craftsman who uses a blast furnace to refine the metal he is working with.

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  • visiting the blast furnace of an ironworks at Leeds he reported that " the intensity of the fire was peculiarly impressive.

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  • The new discovery of iron ore on their doorstep prompted them to build Teesside's first blast furnace in 1851.

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  • James Beaumont Neilson Open Each hot blast furnace gave work to 400 men.

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  • advanced cogeneration is the re-routing of blast furnace gas or coke oven gas from the alternative energy boilers through industrial gas turbines.

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  • The pit was situated near the blast furnace about half a mile from the village.

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  • granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS ).

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  • The air is a thick haze of supersonic grit, the fire is burning in the wind like a blast furnace.

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  • Steel Most of the molten iron from a Blast Furnace is used to make one of a number of types of steel.

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  • iron oxide formed was returned to the blast furnace.

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  • reheat furnaces are used to heat up slabs of steel produced by the blast furnace process or an electric arc process.

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  • Even the cement was produced using powdered ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS ).

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  • Indeed some blast furnace slag is used to make glass and cement.

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  • It also occurs in blast-furnace gases.

    0
    0
  • Lead ores are smelted in the reverberatory furnace, the ore-hearth, and the blast-furnace.

    0
    0
  • In the blast-furnace all lead ores are successfully smelted.

    0
    0
  • While by the English and Carinthian processes as much lead as possible is extracted in the furnace, with the Silesian method a very low temperature is used, thus taking out about one-half of the lead and leaving very rich slags (50% lead) to be smelted in the blast-furnace, the ultimate result being a very much higher yield than by either of the other processes.

    0
    0
  • The loss in lead by the combined reverberatory and blast-furnace treatment is only 3.2%.

    0
    0
  • In smelting at once in the same blast-furnace ores of different character, the old use of separate processes of precipitation, roasting and reduction, and general reduction prevailing in the Harz Mountains, Freiberg and other places, to suit local conditions, has been abandoned.

    0
    0
  • A modern blast-furnace is oblong in horizontal section and about 24 ft.

    0
    0
  • Lead Blast-Furnace.

    0
    0
  • The leading products of the blast-furnace are argentiferous lead (base bullion), matte, slag and flue-dust (fine particles of charge and volatilized metal carried out of the furnace by the ascending gas current).

    0
    0
  • The lead produced in the reverberatory furnace and the ore-hearth is of a higher grade than that produced in the blast-furnace, as the ores treated are purer and richer, and the reducing action is less powerful.

    0
    0
  • The following analysis of blast-furnace lead of Freiberg, Saxony, is from an exceptionally impure lead: Pb =95.088, Ag = 0.470, Bi = 0.019, Cu = 0.225, As = I.

    0
    0
  • The zinc and some lead are oxidized; part of the zinc passes off with the fumes, part is dissolved by the litharge, forming a melted mixture which is skimmed off and reduced in a blast-furnace or a reverberatory smelting furnace.

    0
    0
  • Selling his Baltimore works, he built, in 1836, in partnership with his brother Thomas, a rolling mill in New York; in 1845 he removed it to Trenton, New Jersey, where iron structural beams were first made in 1854 and the Bessemer process first tried in America in 1856; and at Philippsburg, New Jersey, he built the largest blast furnace in the country at that time.

    0
    0
  • In 1907 iron ore was mined for blast-furnace use in twenty-nine states only, but the ore occurs in almost every state of the Union.

    0
    0
  • It was then, in 1735, that Abraham Darby showed how to make cast iron with coke in the high furnace, which by this time had become a veritable blast furnace.

    0
    0
  • The next great improvement in blast-furnace practice came in 1811, when Aubertot in France used for heating steel the furnace gases rich in carbonic oxide which till then had been allowed to burn uselessly at the top of the blast furnace.

    0
    0
  • This crude cast iron, called " pig iron," may be run from the blast furnace directly Ore FIG.

    0
    0
  • On its way from the blast furnace to the converter or open hearth furnace the pig iron is often passed through a great reservoir called a " mixer," which acts also as an equalizer, to lessen the variation in composition of the cast iron, and as a purifier, removing part of the sulphur and silicon.

    0
    0
  • - Section of Duquesne Blast Furnace.

    0
    0
  • - Lower Part of the Blast Furnace.

    0
    0
  • The reason why the frictional resistance would be further increased is the very simple one that the increase in the rate of production implies directly a corresponding increase in the quantity of blast forced through, and hence in the velocity of the rising gases, because the chemical work of the blast furnace needs a certain quantity of blast for each ton of iron made.

    0
    0
  • - On its way from the blowing engine to the tuyeres of the blast-furnace, the blast, i.e.

    0
    0
  • In the hearth of the blast furnace the heat made latent by the fusion of the iron and slag must of course be supplied by some body which is itself at a temperature above the melting point of these bodies, which for simplicity of exposition we may call the critical temperature of the blast-furnace process, because heat will flow only from a hotter to a cooler object.

    0
    0
  • The special conditions of the blast-furnace actually exaggerate the saving due to this widening of the available temperature-margin, and beyond this drying the blast does great good by preventing the serious irregularities in working the furnace caused by changes in the humidity of the air with varying weather.

    0
    0
  • Like the Siemens furnace, described in § 99, they have two distinct phases: one, " on gas," during which part of the waste gas of the blast-furnace is burnt within the stove, highly heating the great surface of brickwork which for that purpose is provided within it; the other, " on wind," during which the blast is.

    0
    0
  • Each blast-furnace is now provided with three or even four of these stoves, which collectively may be nearly thrice as large as the furnace itself.

    0
    0
  • It has been calculated that the gas from a pair of old-fashioned blast-furnaces making i 600 tons of iron per week would in this way yield some 16,000 horse-power in excess of their own needs, and that all the available blast-furnace gas in the United States would develop about i,50o,000 horse-power, to develop which by raising steam would need about 20,000,000 tons of coal a year.

    0
    0
  • The numerous converting mills which treat pig iron made at a distance will now have the crushing burden of providing in other ways the power which their rivals get from the blast-furnace, in addition to the severe disadvantage under which they already suffer, of wasting the initial heat of the molten cast iron as it runs from the blastfurnace.

    0
    0
  • Before its use in the gas engine, the blast-furnace gas has to be freed carefully from the large quantity of fine ore dust which it carries in suspension.

    0
    0
  • A, Entrance for blast-furnace gas.

    0
    0
  • 12.- Diagram of the Carnegie Blast-Furnace Plant at Duquesne, Pa.

    0
    0
  • A, Ladle bringing the cast iron from the blast-furnace.

    0
    0
  • That the blast-furnace process must be followed by a purifying one, that carburization must at once be undone by decarburization, is clearly a disadvantage, but it is one which is far out-weighed by five important incidental advantages.

    0
    0
  • In addition, the blast-furnace uses a very cheap source of energy, coke, anthracite, charcoal, and even certain kinds of raw bituminous coal, and owing first to the intimacy of contact between this fuel and the ore on which it works, and second to the thoroughness of the transfer of heat from the products of that fuel's combustion in their long upward journey through the descending charge, even this cheap energy is used most effectively.

    0
    0
  • Thus we have reasons enough why the blast-furnace has displaced all competing processes, without taking into account its further advantage in lending itself easily to working on an enormous scale and with trifling consumption of labour, still further lessened by the general practice of transferring the molten cast iron in enormous ladles into the vessels in which its conversion into steel takes place.

    0
    0
  • Nevertheless, a direct process may yet be made profitable under conditions which specially favour it, such as the lack of any fuel suitable for the blast-furnace, coupled with an abundance of cheap fuel suitable for a direct process and of cheap rich ore nearly free from sulphur.

    0
    0
  • The processes for converting cast iron into steel can now remove phosphorus easily, but the removal of sulphur in them is so difficult that it has to be accomplished for the most part in the blast-furnace itself.

    0
    0
  • As desulphurizing seems to need the direct and energetic action of carbon on the molten iron itself, and as molten iron absorbs carbon most greedily, it is hard to see how the blast-furnace is to desulphurize without carburizing almost to saturation, i.e.

    0
    0
  • The obstacle is that, owing to unavoidable irregularities in the blast-furnace process, the siliconand sulphur-content of the cast iron vary to a degree and with an abruptness which are inconvenient for any conversion process and intolerable for the Bessemer process.

    0
    0
  • - In common practice the cast iron as it runs from the blast-furnace is allowed to solidify and cool completely in the form of pigs, which are then graded by their fracture, and remelted in the puddling furnace itself.

    0
    0
  • At Hourpes, in order to save the expense of this remelting, the molten cast iron as it comes from the blast-furnace is poured directly into the puddling furnace, in large charges of about 2200 lb, which are thus about four times as large as those of common puddling furnaces.

    0
    0
  • But the strong deoxidizing conditions needed in the blast-furnace to remove sulphur tend strongly to deoxidize silica and thus to make the pig iron rich in silicon.

    0
    0
  • The charge may be melted down on the " open hearth " itself, or, as in the more advanced practice, the pig iron may be brought in the molten state from the blast furnace in which it is made.

    0
    0
  • The advantage of this combination is that, by simplifying the conditions with which the composition of the pig iron has to comply, it makes the management of the blast furnace easier, and thus lessens the danger of making " misfit " pig iron, i.e.

    0
    0
  • For the acid Bessemer process the sulphur-content must be small and the silicon-content should be constant; for the basic openhearth process the content of both silicon and sulphur should be small, a thing difficult to bring about, because in the blast furnace most of the conditions which make for small sulphur-content make also for large silicon-content.

    0
    0
  • Hence the blast furnace process, thus freed from the hampering need of controlling accurately the silicon-content, can be much more effectively guided so as to prevent the sulphur from entering the pig iron.

    0
    0
  • - Though the electric processes which have been proposed for extracting the iron from iron ore, with the purpose of displacing the iron blast furnace, have not become important enough to deserve description here, yet it should be possible to devise one which would be useful in a place (if there is one) which has an abundance of water power and iron ore and a local demand for iron, but has not coke, charcoal or bituminous coal suitable for the blast furnace.

    0
    0
  • But cast iron for the basic open-hearth process can be made from almost any ore, because its requirements, comparative freedom from silicon and sulphur, depend on the management of the blast-furnace rather than on the composition of the ore, whereas the phosphorus-content of the cast iron depends solely on that of the ore, because nearly all the phosphorus of the ore necessarily passes into the cast iron.

    0
    0
  • In a very few places the molten cast iron as it issues from the blast furnace is cast directly in these moulds, but in general it is allowed to solidify in pigs, and then remelted either in cupola furnaces or in air furnaces.

    0
    0
  • - Cast iron naturally has a high carbon-content, usually between 3 and 4%, because while molten it absorbs carbon greedily from the coke with which it is in contact in the iron blast furnace in which it is made, and in the cupola furnace in which it is remelted for making most castings.

    0
    0
  • The following analyses show their general composition: An artificial product which serves perfectly as a pozzuolana is granulated blast-furnace slag.

    0
    0
  • Another method of making Portland cement which has been proposed and tried with some success consists in fusing the raw materials together in an apparatus of the type of a blast furnace.

    0
    0
  • This small addition for this specified purpose is recognized as legitimate, but the employment of various cheap materials such as ragstone and blast-furnace slag, sometimes added as diluents or make-weights, is adulteration and therefore fraudulent.

    0
    0
  • It is made by granulating blast furnace slag of suitable composition and finely grinding the product, either alone or with an admixture of about To% of Portland cement clinker.

    0
    0
  • The process adopted for the Canadian ores, which are poor in copper and nickel, consists in a preliminary roasting in heaps and smelting in a blast furnace in order to obtain a matte, which is then further smelted with a siliceous flux for a rich matte.

    0
    0
  • The first blast-furnace in the colony seems to have been owned by Governor Spotswood, and was built and operated at the head of the Rappahannock river about 1715 by a colony of German Protestants.

    0
    0
  • It is a high grade block, or " splint " coal, remarkably free from sulphur and rich in carbon, peculiarly adapted to blast furnace use.

    0
    0
  • The blast furnace in its simplest form is among the oldest, if not the oldest, of metallurgical contrivances.

    0
    0
  • This principle is capable of very wide extension, the blast furnace being mainly limited in height by the strength the column of materials or "burden" has to resist crushing, under the weight due to the head adopted, and the power of the blowing engine to supply blast of sufficient density to overcome the resistance of the closely packed materials to the free passage of the spent gases.

    0
    0
  • Originally the term cupola was used for the reverberatory furnace, but in the course of time it has changed its meaning, and is now given to a small blast furnace such as that used by iron-founders - reverberatory smelting furnaces in the same trade being called air furnaces.

    0
    0
  • Among the chief localities are the neighbourhood of Stourbridge in Worcestershire and Stannington near Sheffield, which supply most of the materials for crucibles used in steel and brass melting, and the pots for glass houses; Newcastle-on-Tyne and Glenboig near Glasgow, where heavy blast furnace and other firebricks, gas retorts, &c., are made in large quantities.

    0
    0
  • Deville's portable blast furnace is very similar in principle to the above, but the body of the furnace is formed of a single cast iron cylinder lined with fireclay, closed below by a cast iron plate perforated by a ring of small holes - a hemispherical basin below forming the air-heating chamber.

    0
    0
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