Black-sea Sentence Examples
The world dumped her on top of a pile of sand near the boardwalk with the angry black sea roaring behind her.
The "Mediterranean region," as a geographical unit, includes all this area; the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmora are within its submerged portion, and the climate of the whole is controlled by the oceanic influences of the Mediterranean Sea.
In return for Russia's service in preventing the aid of Austria from being given to France, Gorchakov looked to Bismarck for diplomatic support in the Eastern Question, and he received an instalment of the expected support when he successfully denounced the Black Sea clauses of the treaty of Paris.
The bulk of the Black Sea fleet .and a few other battleships were, however, still left, and since 1904 steps have been taken to build new ships, both battleships and powerful cruisers.
Kronstadt is the naval headquarters in the Baltic, Sevastopol in the Black Sea and Vladivostok on the Pacific.Advertisement
The second-class fortresses are Kronstadt and Sveaborg in the Gulf of Finland, Ivangorod in Poland, Libau on the Baltic Sea, Kerch on the Black Sea and Vladivostok on the Pacific. In the third class are Viborg in Finland, Ossovets and Ust Dvinsk (or Dunamunde) in Lithuania, Sevastopol and Ochakov on the Black Sea, and Kars and Batum in Caucasia.
It is separated from the Black Sea by a gentle swelling which may be traced from Kremenets in Volhynia to the lower Don, and perhaps farther S.E.
Dvina, and enters the Black Sea.
Towards the Black Sea coast its thickness diminishes, and it disappears in the valleys.
Russia between May the 18th and the 24th, sa that it is only in June that warm weather sets in definitely, and it reaches its maximum in the first half of July (or of August on the Black Sea coast).Advertisement
The rivers freeze rapidly; towards November 10th all the streams of the White Sea basin are ice-bound, and so remain for an average of 167 days; those of the Baltic, Black Sea and Caspian basins freeze later, but about December the 10th nearly all the rivers of the country are highways for sledges.
On the whole, February and March continue to be cold, and their average temperatures rise above zero nowhere except on the Black Sea coast.
The tea plant thrives and is being planted fairly rapidly on the Black Sea littoral in Transcaucasia.
Of the 55 million sheep kept in Russia only about 15 millions belong to the fine merino breed, and these are pastured chiefly on the Black Sea steppes.
The Black Sea fisheries, in which about 4000 men are engaged, yield fish valued at £300,000 per annum.Advertisement
The value of the fish has much increased owing to the introduction of cold storage; as a result of the employment of this method of packing, fish is now exported in a fresh state from the Black Sea to all parts of S.W.
When the two became united under one ruler towards the end of the 14th century they formed a broad strip of territory stretching from the Baltic to the Black Sea and separating Russia from central Europe.
Already the desire to make his country a great naval power was becoming his ruling passion, and when he found by experience that the White Sea, Russia's sole maritime outlet, had great practical inconveniences as a naval base, he revived the project of getting a firm footing on the shores of the Black Sea or the Baltic. At first he gave the preference to the former, and with the aid of a flotilla of small craft, constructed on a tributary of the Don, he succeeded in capturing Azov from the Turks.
His dreams of freeing the Christians from the yoke of the infidel had to be abandoned, and the conquest of the northern shores of the Black Sea was postponed till the reign of Catherine II.
Nicholas immediately sent his Black Sea fleet into the Bosphorus, landed on the Asiatic shore a force of 10,000 men, and advanced another large force towards the Turkish frontier in Bessarabia.Advertisement
In return for these services Bismarck helped Russia to recover a portion of what she had lost by the Crimean War, for it was thanks to his connivance and diplomatic support that she was able in 1871 to denounce with impunity the clauses of the treaty of Paris which limited Russian armament in the Black Sea.
Had the tsar been satisfied with this important success, which enabled him to rebuild Sevastopol and construct a Black Sea fleet, his reign might have been a peaceful and prosperous one, but he tried to recover the remainder of what - had been lost by the Crimean War, the province of Turkish Bessarabia and predominant influence in Turkey.
Cereals are imported from the Black Sea and Danube ports, ready-made clothing from Austria and Germany, articles of luxury from Austria and France, and cotton textiles from England.
It is connected by rail with the south Russian railway system at Beslan, the junction for Vladikavkaz (400 m.), via Derbent and Petrovsk, with Batum (560 m.) and Poti (536 m.) on the Black Sea via Tiflis.
Shelving gradually upward from the low flats of Siberia the general continental level rises to a great central waterparting, or divide, which stretches from the Black Sea through the Elburz and the Hindu Kush to the Tian-shan mountains in the Pamir region, and hence to Bering Strait on the extreme north-east.Advertisement
The sturgeons, which abound in the Black Sea and Caspian, and ascend the rivers that fall into them, are also found in Asiatic Russia, and an allied form extends to southern China.
But after their commanders had been taken prisoners the Greeks forced their way to the Black Sea.
This depression is supposed to be a relic of the former post-Pliocene connexion between the Black Sea and the Caspian, and is accepted by most geographers as the natural frontier between Europe and Asia, while others make the dividing-line coincide with the principal water-parting of the Caucasus mountain system.
It is in this valley that the principal towns (except Vladikavkaz at the north foot of the Caucasus) of Caucasia are situated, namely, Baku (179,133 inhabitants in 1900), Tiflis (160,645 in 1897), Kutais (32,492), and the two Black Sea ports of Batum (28,512) and Poti (7666).
Its importance lies in the fact that it divides the streams which flow into the Black Sea and Caspian from those which make their way into the Persian Gulf.
Generally speaking, it may be characterized as a climate of extremes on the Armenian highlands, in the Kura valley and in northern Caucasia, and as maritime and genial in Lenkoran, on the Black Sea coastlands, and in the valley of the Rion.
To the former belong the Black Sea littoral, where the rainfall averages 59 to 93 in.
Of these, 115 species are Mediterranean, 30 are common to the Caspian Sea, and the remaining species are peculiar to the Black Sea.
In the latter territorial division there exists a great disproportion between the sexes, namely, to every Ioo males only 86 females; indeed in the Black Sea government there are only 65.5 females to every too males.
A limited area (not more than 1150 acres) of the Black Sea coast between Sukhum-kaleh and Batum is planted with the tea-shrub, which succeeds very well.
A good deal of this is transported by gravitation from Baku to Batum on the Black Sea by means of a pipe laid overland.
Carpets (especially at Shusha), silk, cotton and woollen goods, felts and fur cloaks are made, and small arms in Daghestan and at Tiflis, Nukha and Sukhumkaleh; silversmiths' work at Tiflis, Akhaltsikh and Kutais; pottery at Elisavetpol and Shusha; leather shoe-making at Alexandropol, Nukha, Elisavetpol, Shusha and Tiflis; saddlery at Sukhum-kaleh and Ochemchiri on the Black Sea and at Temirkhan-shura in Daghestan; and copper work at Derbent and Alexandropol.
The exports through the Black Sea ports of Batum, Poti and Novo-rossiysk average in value a little over £ro,000,000 annually, though showing a tendency to increase slightly.
This railway, together with the driving roads over the Caucasus mountains via the Mamison pass (the Ossetic military road) and the Darial pass (the Georgian military road), and the route across the Black Sea to Poti or Batum are the chief means of communication between southern Russia and Transcaucasia.
The next seven years were occupied with the subjugation of the Abkhasians along the Black Sea coast, and of other Circassian tribes in the west.
In fact, nearly the whole of the region between the Caucasus and the Perso-Turkish frontier on the south, from the Caspian Sea on the one side to the Black Sea on the other, was embroiled in a civil war of the most sanguinary and ruthless character, the inveterate racial animosities of the combatants being in both cases inflamed by religious fanaticism.
These events are chiefly concerned with the long struggle with Genoa over the possession of the Levant and Black Sea trade.
The fur trade of the Black Sea furnished the pretext for the next war (1355-54), which ended in the crushing defeat of Venice at Sapienza, and the loss of her entire fleet.
The home of the common mackerel (to which the following remarks refer) is the North Atlantic, from the Canary Islands to the Orkneys, and from the Mediterranean and the Black Sea and the coasts of Norway to the United States.
This he obtained, and was allowed to retire with Theodora into banishment in the little town of Oenoe, on the shores of the Black Sea.
In the 5th century they attacked the Russians in the Black Sea prairies, and afterwards made raids upon the Greeks.
The northern boundary is broken at Kertch by a strait entering into the Sea of Azov, and at the junction of the western and southern boundary is the Bosporus, which unites the Black Sea with the Mediterranean through the Sea of Marmora and the Dardanelles.
The conditions that prevail in the Black Sea are very different from those of the Mediterranean or any other sea.
The depths of the Black Sea are lifeless, higher organic life not being known to exist below loo fathoms. Fossiliferous remains of Dreissena, Cardium and other molluscs have, however, been dredged up, which help to show that conditions formerly existed in the Black Sea similar to those that exist at the present day in the Caspian Sea.
Andrusov, when the union of the Black Sea with the Mediterranean through the Bosporus took place, salt water rushed into it along the bottom of the Bosporus and killed the fauna of the less saline waters.
During summer the surface salinity of the Black Sea is from 1.70 to 2'00% down to 50 fathoms, whereas in the greater depths it attains a salinity of 2.25%.
Water of less salinity flows outwards from the Black Sea as an upper current, and water of greater salinity from the Sea of Marmora flows into the Black Sea as an under-current.
So marked is this current that it has to be taken into account in the navigation of the Black Sea.
At his coronation he had proclaimed his purpose to revive the ancient Servian empire; in 1378 he had married the daughter of the last Bulgarian tsar; and it is probable that he dreamed of founding an empire which should extend from the Adriatic to the Black Sea.
This raised strong objections on the part of Russia, and led to the Black Sea Basin agreement reserving to Russia the sole right to construct railways in the northern portion of Asia Minor.
The Black Sea was practically a Turkish lake, only the Circassians on the east coast retaining their independence; and as a result of the wars with Persia the whole Euphrates valley, with Bagdad, had fallen into the sultan's power, now established on the Persian Gulf.
But, though the questions at issue between Russia and Turkey in Poland and the northern littoral of the Black Sea were thus for the time settled, the aggressive designs of Russia in the Caucasus and in Persia soon caused a renewal of anxiety at Constantinople.
But Taganrog was not to be refortified, and Russia was to have no war-ships on the sea of Azov or the Black Sea.
In February 1773 the Russian plenipotentiary delivered his ultimatum, of which the most important demands were the cession of Kerch, Yenikale and Kinburn, the free navigation of the Black Sea and Archipelago for Russian trading and war vessels, and the recognition of the tsar's right to protect the Orthodox subjects of the sultan.
Commerce and navigation in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean were free to both countries.
In 1807 the garrisons of the Black Sea forts at the entrance of the straits rose in rebellion, headed by one Kabakji Mustafa, and killed their officers.
In the course of the war with Persia Russia had received permission from the Ottoman government to use, for a limited time, the easy road from the Black Sea to Tiflis by way of the valley of the Rion (Phasis) for the transport of troops and supplies, and this permission had been several times renewed.
Lord Aberdeen still hoped to secure peace, and the Russian government was informed that no casus belli would arise so long as Russia abstained from passing the Danube or attacking a Black Sea port.
This concession, given under strong pressure from Russia, aroused the deepest resentment of the Greeks, and was the principal factor in the awakening of the Bulgarian national spirit which subsequent events have done so much to develop. Russian influence at Constantinople had been gradually increasing, and towards the end of 1870 the tsar took advantage of the temporary disabling of France to declare himself no longer bound by those clauses of the Treaty of Paris which restricted Russia's liberty of possessing warships on the Black Sea.
Bagdad also lies on a natural line of communication between Persia and the west, the ancient caravan route from Khorasan debouching from the mountains at this point, while another natural caravan route led up the Euphrates to Syria and the Mediterranean and still another up the Tigris to Armenia and the Black Sea.
In recent times controversies have arisen in connexion with the Baltic, the Black Sea and more especially the Bering Sea.
Thus, towards the end of his reign, Louis found himself cut off from the Greek emperor, his sole ally in the Balkans, by a chain of bitterly hostile Greek-Orthodox states, extending from the Black Sea to the Adriatic. The 1 Knatchbull-Hugessen, i.
They proceeded to Constantinople, and were chiefly employed against the Russian Black Sea fleet.
Its importance is largely due to its situation on the great trade-route from Kaisarieh (Caesarea) by Yuzgat and Marzivan to Samsun on the Black Sea.
The Hanseatic embargo against Bruges from 1451 to 14J7, its later war and embargo against England, the Turkish advance closing the Italian Black Sea trade with southern Russia, all were utilized by Nuremberg and its fellows to secure a landtrade outside the sphere of Hanseatic influence.
They are mentioned first in the reign of Gallienus (260-268), when we find them together with the Goths ravaging the coasts of the Black Sea and the Aegean.
Nevertheless, Olgierd not only succeeded in holding his own, but acquired influence and territory at the expense of both Muscovy and the Tatars, and extended the borders of Lithuania to the shores of the Black Sea.
After occupying various important posts he became grand vizier in 1697, and owing to his ability and energy the Turks were able to drive the Austrians back over the Save, and Turkish fleets were sent into the Black Sea and the Mediterranean.
The peninsula between the Bay of Sevastopol and the Black Sea was known in the 7th century as the Heracleotic Chersonese.
This village, after the Russian conquest in 1783, was selected for the chief naval station of the empire in the Black Sea and received its present name ("the August City,").
In the same way a mean angle of slope of approximately half a degree was found for the Adriatic and the Black Sea.
The bottom of the Black Sea is covered by a stiff blue mud in which Sir John Murray found much sulphide of iron,' grains or needles of pyrites making up nearly 50% of the deposit, and there are also grains of amorphous calcium carbonate evidently precipitated from the water.
The formation of the blue mud is largely aided by the putrefaction of organic matter, and as a result the water deeper than 120 fathoms is extraordinarily deficient in dissolved oxygen and abounds in sulphuretted hydrogen, the formation of which is brought about by a special bacterium, the only form of life found at depths greater than 120 fathoms in the Black Sea.
Such, for instance, were those of Spindler and Wrangell in the Black Sea by sinking an electric lamp, those of Paul Regnard by measuring the change of electric resistance in a selenium cell or the chemical action of the light on a mixture of chlorine and hydrogen, by which he found a very rapid diminution in the intensity of light even in the surface layers of water.
When these processes continue for a long time in deep water shut off from free circulation so that it does not become aerated by contact with the atmosphere the water becomes unfit to support the life of fishes, and when the accumulation of putrefying organic matter gives rise to sulphuretted hydrogen as in the Black Sea below 125 fathoms, life, other than bacterial, is impossible.
Although it is mentioned in the 16th century, and coal was discovered there at the time of Peter the Great, it was not until 1 795 that an Englishman, Gascoyne or Gaskoin, established its first iron-works for supplying the Black Sea fleet and the southern fortresses with guns and shot.
In view of this general demoralization not even the victorious outcome of the campaigns in Georgia, the Crimea, Daghestan, Yemen and Persia (1578-1590) could prevent the decay of the Ottoman power; indeed, by weakening the Mussulman states, they hastened the process, since they facilitated the advance of Russia to the Black Sea and the Caspian.
He undertook the long and perilous journey from Sardis to the Persian capital Susa, visited Babylon, Colchis, and the western shores of the Black Sea as far as the estuary of the Dnieper; he travelled in Scythia and in Thrace, visited Zante and Magna Graecia, explored the antiquities of Tyre, coasted along the shores of Palestine, saw Gaza, and made a long stay in Egypt.
He next organized an extensive international business in coal, and had 13 steamers trading to and from North Sea, Baltic, Mediterranean and Black Sea ports.
The Committee was all-powerful in the Government, and a small group of leaders - Enver, Talaat, Djemal Pasha and others, supported by the presence at Constantinople of two German warships, the "Goeben" and "Breslau," were able to commit the country to hostilities, by the bombardment of Russian Black Sea ports by these vessels under the Turkish flag.
In this mountainous region, between the Black Sea and the Persian frontier, the war was carried on with fluctuating fortune.
It was also proposed to link up the Elbe and the Danube by a canal which would enable direct transport to be effected from North and Baltic Seas to the Black Sea.
The valleys towards the Black Sea abound in fruit trees of all kinds, while the valley of the Sangarius and the plains near Brusa and Isnik (Nicaea) are fertile and well cultivated.
The chief rivers are the Rion, which enters the Black Sea at Poti; the Chorokh, which enters the same sea at Batum; and the Ingur, the Kodor and the Bzyb, also flowing into the Black Sea in Abkhasia.
The contrast between the case of railway freight and ocean freight is to be explained by the greater length of the present ocean voyage, which now extends to 1 o,000 miles in the case of Europe's importation of white wheat from the Pacific Coast of the United States and Australia, in contrast with the short voyage from the Black Sea or across the English Channel or German Ocean.
His son and successor, Kaikaus, made peace with Lascaris and extended his frontiers to the Black Sea by the conquest of Sinope (1214).
The Black Sea squadron of the Rumanian fleet is stationed here.
The second occasion was during the Franco-German War of 1870-71, when the cabinet of St Petersburg boldly declared that it considered itself no longer bound by the Black Sea clause of the treaty of Paris.
The lighter oil is conveyed to Batum on the Black Sea in pipes, and is there shipped for export; the heavier oils reach the same port and the ports of Novorossiysk and Poti, also on the Black Sea, in tank railway-cars.
I speak of the natural Turks, who trade either into the black Sea or some part of the Morea, or between Constantinople and Alexandria, and not of the Pyrats of Barbary, who are for the most part Renegado's, and learnt their skill in Christendom..
There is a good road to Aleppo and Alexandretta on the Mediterranean, and to Samsun on the Black Sea by Kharput, Malatia and Sivas.
One result of this limit, marked out by Nature herself, is that the waters which flow down the northern slope of the Alps find their way either into the North Sea through the Rhine, or into the Black Sea by means of the Danube, not a drop reaching the Baltic Sea.
It was inhabited by a number of tribes whose settlements lay chiefly along the shore of the Black Sea.
Russia, regarding it as the main obstacle to the possession of the Black Sea littoral, besieged it in 1737, when it was captured by Marshal Miinnich, but in the following year it was abandoned, and in 1739 restored to Turkey.
More than this, the Caspian was also, it is pretty certain, at the same epoch, and later, in direct communication with the Sea of Azov, no doubt by way of the Manych depression; for in the limans or lagoons of the Black Sea many faunal species exist which are not only identical with species that are found in the Caspian, but also many which, though not exactly identical, are closely allied.
After the great ice cap had thawed and a period of general desiccation set in, the Caspian began to shrink in area, and simultaneously its connexions with the Black Sea and the Sea of Aral were severed.
The proportion of salt in the water of the Caspian, though varying in different parts and at different seasons, is generally much less than the proportion in oceanic water, and even less than the proportion in the water of the Black Sea.
While the proportion of common salt to sulphate of magnesia is as r r to r in the water of the Black Sea and as 2 to 1 in the Caspian water generally, it is as 12.8 to 5.03 in the Kara-boghaz.
In 1900 the Hydrotechnical Congress of Russia discussed the plan of constructing a canal to connect the Caspian more directly with the Black Sea by cutting an artificial waterway about 22 ft.
By the middle of the 4th century the Goths had become the dominant power in eastern Germany, and their King Hermanaric held a supremacy which seenis to have stretched from the Black Sea to Holstein.
Meanwhile the ambition of Catherine of Russia, and the war with Turkey by which the empire of the tsars was advanced to the Black Sea and threatened to establish itself south of the Danube, were productive of consequences of Austria enormous importance to Austria in the East.
Great attempts were made by the Athenians to hold the Hellespont and then to protect the corn-supply from the Black Sea.
The Mamelukes (slaves), imported from the eastern borders of the Black Sea and then trained as soldiers, usurped the government of Egypt, and held it till 1517, when the Ottomans began to rule.
Besides these three great foreign wars, Justinian's reign was troubled by a constant succession of border inroads, especially on the northern frontier, where the various Slavonic and Hunnish tribes who were established along the lower Danube and on the north coast of the Black Sea made frequent marauding expeditions into Thrace and Macedonia, sometimes penetrating as far as the walls of Constantinople in one direction and the Isthmus of Corinth in another.
It is nowhere found in compact masses except in north-eastern Bulgaria and the region between Adrianople, .the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmora.
They inhabit the Black Sea littoral from Varna to the Bosporus, the shores of the Sea of Marmora and the Aegean, the Aegean archipelago, the mainland of Greece, Epirus and the western islands as far north as Corfu.
Under their tsar Krum (802-815) the Bulgars invaded the districts of Adrianople and central Macedonia; under Simeon (893-927), who fixed his capital at Preslav, their empire extended from the Adriatic to the Black Sea.
A large Bulgarian principality was created extending from the Danube to the Aegean and from the Black Sea to the river Drin in Albania; it received a considerable coast-line on the Aegean and abutted on the Gulf of Salonica under the walls of that town.
The Eastern Question, though its roots are set far back in history - in the ancient contest between the political and intellectual ideals of Greece and Asia, and in the perennial rivalry of the powers for the control of the great trade routes to the East - dates in its modern sense from the treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji in 1774, which marked the definitive establishment of Russia as a Black Sea power and formed the basis of her special claims to interfere in the affairs of the Ottoman empire.
The next critical phase was opened in 1871, when Russia took advantage of the collapse of France to denounce the Black Sea clauses of the treaty of 1856.
Whether the tradition which makes Ararat the resting-place of Noah's Ark is of any historical value or not, there is at least poetical fitness in the hypothesis, inasmuch as this mountain is about equally distant from the Black Sea and the Caspian, from the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf.
As a navigable river, and forming a portion of the canal system which unites the Black Sea with the Baltic, it is of importance for commerce, but is subject to severe floods.
Before, on the 9th of July, the Russian fleet, with the Russian troops on board, weighed anchor for the Black Sea, there was signed at the palace of Unkiar Skelassi the famous treaty (July 8, 1833) which, under the guise of an offensive and defensive alliance, practically made Russia the custodian of the gates of the Black Sea.
Taylor, however, derived the runes from the alphabet of a Greek colony on the Black Sea.
He now crossed the Black Sea to Kaffa, then mainly occupied by the Genoese, and apparently the first Christian city he had seen, for he was much perturbed by the bell-ringing.
On the east, no natural boundary separates it from the Armenian plateau; but, for descriptive purposes, it will suffice to take a line drawn from the southern extremity of the Giaour Dagh, east of the Gulf of Alexandretta along the crest of that chain, then along that of the eastern Taurus to the Euphrates near Malatia, then up the river, keeping to the western arm till Erzingan is reached, and finally bending north to the Black Sea along the course of the Churuk Su, which flows out west of Batum.
On the north the plateau is supported by a range of varying altitude, which follows the southern coast of the Black Sea and has no distinctive name.
The best routes from the plateau to the Black Sea were followed by the Roman roads from Tavium and Sebasteia to Sinope and Amisus, and those from Sebasteia to Cotyora and Cerasus-Pharnacia, which at first ascend the upper Halys.
In the east a well-defined mountain system runs nearly parallel to the Black Sea coast from Batum to Sinope, forming a gentle curve with its convexity facing southwards.
Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous beds form a band south of the Sea of Marmora, probably the continuation of the Mesozoic band of the Black Sea coast.
On the north coast the winter is cold, and the winds, sweeping across the Black Sea from the steppes of Russia, are accompanied by torrents of rain and heavy falls of snow.
In the centre there is a rapid current from the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmora, but a counter-current sets in the opposite direction below the surface and along the shores.
But, while the Russians were driven from the Black Sea by the Khazars, and later on by a tide of Ugrian migration from the north-east, a stream of Sla y s moved slowly towards the north-east, down the upper Oka, into the borderland between the Finnish and Turkish regions.
Two centuries more elapsed before the Russians secured a free passage to the Black Sea and became masters of the Sea of Azov and the Crimea; the Volga, however, was their route.
The Taitza lake is divided only by a strip of marshland from Lake Razim, a broad landlocked sheet of water which opens on the Black Sea.
He also extended his power to the Black Sea and the Caucasus; on the other hand, a siege of Edessa failed (544).
He died in exile at Rodosto on the shores of the Black Sea.
Without further resistance the Turks retired into the famous Chatalja lines, a well-fortified position between Lake Derkos on the Black Sea and Biiyiik Chekmeje lake on the sea of Marmora.
Owing to its situation on the navigable river Don and at the junction of three railways, radiating to north-western Russia, Caucasia and the Volga respectively, Rostov has become the chief seaport of south-eastern Russia, being second in importance on the Black Sea to Odessa only.
Macedonian opium, especially that 1 Gheve is the commercial name for opium from Geiveh on the river Sakaria, running into the Black Sea.
It thus includes the governments of Baku, Elisavetpol, Erivan, Kutais and Tiflis; the provinces of Batum, Daghestan and Kars; and the military districts of the Black Sea (Chernomorsk) and Zakataly.
A motley host, made up out of the tribes bordering on the Black Sea and the Caspian, hovered round his small army, but failed to hinder him from laying siege to the town.
The passes lie at relatively great altitudes and are few in number, so that although the northern versants of the various ranges all have a tolerably gentle slope, communication between the Black Sea and the valley of the Kuban, and the low steppe country beyond, is the reverse of easy.
But the most noteworthy feature of this section is the broad highland region of Daghestan, which flanks the main range on the north, and sinks down both eastwards to the Black Sea and northwards to the valley of the Terek.
In this section of the Caucasus the passes run somewhat lower than those between Elbruz and Kasbek, though still at appreciable heights, fully equal to those that lead up from the Black Sea to the valley of the Kuban in the western section of the range.
He next appears in " Cambaliech " or Peking, and wrote letters (of January 8, 1305, and February 13, 1306), describing the progress of the Roman mission in the Far East, in spite of Nestorian opposition; alluding to the Roman Catholic community he had founded in India, and to an appeal he had received to preach in " Ethiopia " and dealing with overland and oversea routes to " Cathay," from the Black Sea and the Persian Gulf respectively.
The eastern boundary is formed by the river Pruth (Prutu), between Moldavia and Russia; farther south by the Kilia mouth of the Danube (Dunarea), between the Dobrudja and Russia, and by the Black Sea.
The lakes of the Dobrudja likewise abound in molluscs; parent forms, in many cases, of species which reappear, greatly modified, in the Black Sea.
Af ter 1880, however, the steady decrease of aliens, and the development of the Black Sea ports, rendered the Dobrudja a source of prosperity to Rumania.
The wild tribes of the Caucasus were cowed by the Roman arms, and Mithradates himself fled across the Black Sea to Panticapaeum (modern Kertch).
Yielding to popular opinion, the British ministry assented to a suggestion of the French emperor that the fleets of the allied powers should enter the Black Sea and invite every Russian vessel to return to Sevastopol.
The peace set back the boundaries of Russia from the Danube to the Pruth; it secured the free navigation of the first of these rivers; it opened the Black Sea to thy commercial navies of the world, closing it to vessels of war, and forbidding the establishment of arsenals upon its shores.
War unexpectedly broke out between Black Sea France and Prussia.
German armies marched on Paris; and the Russian government, at Count Bismarcks instigation, took advantage of the collapse of France to repudiate the clause in the treaty of 1856 which neutralized the Black Sea.
Another of his great projects was the opening up of the Danube for trade from Buda to the Black Sea.
The Ust-Urt plateau and the Mugojar Mountains prevented it from spreading north-westward, and a narrow channel connected it along the Uzboi with the Caspian, which sent a broad gulf to the east, spread up to the Volga, and was connected by the Manych with the Black Sea basin.
The city stands at the southern extremity of the Bosporus, upon a hilly promontory that runs out from the European or western side of the straits towards the opposite Asiatic bank, as though to stem the rush of waters from the Black Sea into the Sea of Marmora.
The narrow straits in which the waterway connecting the Mediterranean with the Black Sea contracts, both to the north and to the south of the city, could be rendered impassable to hostile fleets approaching from either direction, while on the landward side the line of defence was so short that it could be strongly fortified, and held against large numbers by a comparatively small force.
Since 1885, a French company, La Compagnie des Eaux, has rendered a great service by bringing water to Stamboul, Pera, and the villages on the European side of the Bosporus, from Lake Dercos, which lies close to the shore of the Black Sea some 29 m.
He was the Russian plenipotentiary at the peace of Adrianople, and in 1833 was appointed Russian ambassador at Constantinople, holding at the same time the post of commanderin-chief of the Black Sea fleet.
In the beginning of the 6th century they descended to the shores of the Black Sea.
Tradition relates that he preached in Asia Minor and in Scythia, along the Black Sea as far as the Volga.
On the opening, early in 1896, of the Constantinople-Salonica railway, which has a station here, a large proportion of the extensive transit trade which Enos, situated at the mouth of the Maritza, had acquired, was immediately diverted to Dedeagatch, and an era of unprecedented prosperity began; but when the railway connecting Burgas on the Black Sea with the interior was opened, in 1898, Dedeagatch lost all it had won from Enos.
From this point it runs in an easterly direction until it falls into the Black Sea some 1750 m.
The St George's branch, holding a general, though winding, course to the south-east, discharges by two channels into the sea; and the Sulina branch, taking an easterly direction, emerges into the Black Sea 20 m.
Russia, in the Chernomorsk or Black Sea territory, on a bay of the same name (also named Tsemes), on the N.E.
I've only just started reading the Black Sea Letters, the verse epistles published in the same Penguin volume.
Omme ignotum pro magnifico, and so with heavy hearts we start to find what ships leave for the Black Sea last night.
Marine life is made up of crustaceans, echinoderms, spiny black sea urchins and a resident school of spotted sweetlips.
The " Mediterranean region," as a geographical unit, includes all this area; the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmora are within its submerged portion, and the climate of the whole is controlled by the oceanic influences of the Mediterranean Sea.
In the straits joining it with the Atlantic and the Black Sea the fresher surface waters of these seas flow inwards to assist in making good the loss by evaporation at the surface of the Mediterranean, and in both cases dense water makes its way outwards along the bottom of the channels, the outflowing currents being less in volume and delivery than the inflowing.
Under Pericles Athens also attained her greatest measure of commercial prosperity, and the activity of her traders all over the Levant, the Black Sea and the West, is attested not only by literary authority, but also by numerous Attic coins, vases, &c.
The chief incidents of Rhodian history during this period are a memorable siege by Demetrius Poliorcetes in 304, who sought in vain to force the city into active alliance with King Antigonus by means of his formidable fleet and artillery; a severe earthquake in 227, the damages of which all the other Hellenistic states contributed to repair, because they could not afford to see the island ruined; some vigorous campaigns against Byzantium, the Pergamene and the Pontic kings, who had threatened the Black Sea trade-route (220 sqq.), and against the pirates of Crete.
The moist soil encourages luxuriant thickets of willows (Salicineae), surrounded by dense chevaux-de-frise of wormwood and thornbearing Compositae, and interspersed with rich but not extensive prairies, harbouring a great variety of herbaceous plants; while in the deltas of the Black Sea rivers impenetrable beds of reeds (Arundo phragmites) shelter a forest fauna.
In the basin of the Rion, in that of the Chorokh (which runs off the Pontic highlands into the Black Sea south of Batum), and on the Black Sea littoral from Batum northwards to Sukhum-kaleh, and beyond, the climate is extremely hot and the rainfall heavy (see under Climate below).
Outside the domain of myth, the earliest connexion of the Greeks with that part of the world would appear to have been through the maritime colonies, such as Dioscurias, which the Milesians founded on the Black Sea coast in the 7th century B.C. For more than two thousand years the most powerful state in Caucasia was that of Georgia, the authentic history of which begins with its submission to Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. The southern portion of Transcaucasia fell during the ist century B.C. under the sway of Armenia, and with that country passed under the dominion of Rome, and so eventually of the Eastern empire.
The Black Sea porpoise (P. relicta) is a distinct species.
But the whole position was changed by the successes of Thrasybulus, who brought over the Odrysian king Medocus and Seuthes of the Propontis to the Athenian alliance, set up a democracy in Byzantium and reimposed the old io% duty on goods from the Black Sea.
The period when the character of Odysseus took shape among the Ionian bards was when the Ionian ships were beginning to penetrate to the farthest shores of the Black Sea and to the western side of Italy, but when Egypt had not yet been freely opened to foreign intercourse.
In the year 251 they defeated and slew the emperor Decius, and in the reign of Gallienus their fleets setting out from the north of the Black Sea worked great havoc on the coast of the Aegean (see GOTHS).
The war continued with varying fortunes for four years more in this quarter; while in the meantime an even fiercer struggle had begun in the mountainous region inhabited by the Lazi at the southeastern corner of the Black Sea (see CoLCHIs).
The other mountain-systems display great complexity of formation; beginning with the Dinaric Alps and the parallel ranges of Bosnia, they run, as a rule, from north-west to south-east; the great chain of Rhodope traverses the centre of the Peninsula, throwing out spurs towards the Black Sea and the Aegean; farther west are the lofty Shar Dagh and the mountains of Montenegro and Albania, continued by the Pindus range and the heights of Acarnania and Aetolia.
The Zeibeks of the west and south-west are apparently representatives of the Carians and Lycians; and the peasants of the Black Sea coast range of the people of Bithynia, Paphlagonia and Pontus.
By the ancients this name, signifying a strait, was especially applied to the Bosporus Cimmerius (see below), and the Bosporus Thracius; but when used without any adjective it now denotes the latter, which unites the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmora and forms part of the boundary between Europe and Asia.
In the south-western valleys and on the south-western slopes of the Caucasus, where a heavy rainfall is combined with a warm temperature, magnificent forests clothe the mountain-sides and dip their skirts into the waters of the Black Sea.
A century later their pciitical hegemony, extending from the Black Sea to the Strait of Gibraltar, began to disintegrate, and the Gauls then embarked on more distant migrations, from the Columns of Hercules to the plateaux of Asia Minor, taking Rome on their way.
Below them was a vast space, at the bottom of which was a black sea with rolling billows, through which little tongues of flame constantly shot up.
Golden Heights is a stunning development with unrivaled sea views across the Black Sea.
Enemy warships had been active against the Russians in the Black Sea.
The river runs from Germany to Hungary into the Black Sea.
It is noted for the fine boxwood grown in the vicinity, is a port of call for Black Sea coasting steamers and carries on a considerable trade with Constantinople which might be increased were it not for the obstruction of the harbour by a bar.
In the Black Sea they exploited the shores of Pontus and Scythia, whose products they exchanged for textiles spun from the wool of their own country.
Though only twenty-two years of age, Alexius was a man of ability and resolute will, and he succeeded without difficulty in making himself master of the greater part of the southern coast of the Black Sea.
We find them also at war with many of these powers, and with the Genoese, who endeavoured to monopolize the commerce of the Black Sea.
It is divided into three districtsNovorossiysk, with the town (pop. in 1897, 16,208) of the same name, which acts as the capital of the Black Sea district; Velyaminovsk; and Sochi.