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bituminous

bituminous

bituminous Sentence Examples

  • The production of bituminous coal has also increased very rapidly.

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  • The usual coal deposits of Alberta are of bituminous or semi-bituminous coal.

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  • The usual coal deposits of Alberta are of bituminous or semi-bituminous coal.

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  • Coal, chiefly bituminous, occurs in large quantities in Nova Scotia, British Columbia and in various parts of the north-west (lignite), though most of the anthracite is imported from the United States, as is the greater part of the bituminous coal used in Ontario.

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  • Thus the bituminous and fatty matters found about the mummies and their wrappings were employed as a sovereign remedy, particularly for wounds and contusions, and a brisk trade began in these "exudations" of mummies.

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  • Thus the bituminous and fatty matters found about the mummies and their wrappings were employed as a sovereign remedy, particularly for wounds and contusions, and a brisk trade began in these "exudations" of mummies.

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  • Both anthracite and bituminous deposits have been found.

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  • Sulphur is obtained near Apt (Vaucluse) and in a few other localities of south-eastern France; bituminous schist near Autun (Sane-et-Loire) and Buxires (Allier).

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  • Sulphur is obtained near Apt (Vaucluse) and in a few other localities of south-eastern France; bituminous schist near Autun (Sane-et-Loire) and Buxires (Allier).

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  • Springfield is a trading and shipping centre for a prosperous agricultural region, and ships large quantities of bituminous coal from the immediate vicinity.

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  • At Esperanza and other places in the Santa Clara province, bituminous plant-bearing beds occur beneath the Tertiary limestones, and at Baracoa a Radiolarian earth occupies a similar position.

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  • Bituminous products of every grade, from clear translucent oils resembling petroleum and refined naphtha, to lignite-like substances, occur in all parts of the island.

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  • Much of the bituminous deposits is on the dividing line between asphalt and coal.

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  • Bituminous products, though, as already stated, widely distributed, are not as yet much developed.

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  • The mineral wealth of the department is considerable, including coal as well as manganese and bituminous schist; plaster, building stone and hydraulic lime are also produced.

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  • From the name schistos, and the mode of formation, there can be little doubt that this species was the salt which forms spontaneously on certain slaty minerals, as alum slate and bituminous shale, and which consists chiefly of the sulphates of iron and aluminium.

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  • Bituminous coal of an inferior quality is mined to a limited extent in Rio Grande do Sul, and another mine has been opened in Santa Catharina.

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  • above sea-level, in a wheat-growing region, in which bituminous coal, limestone, and brick and potter's clay abound.

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  • Bituminous coal and natural gas are found in the vicinity, and the borough ships coal and lumber, and has various important manufactures.

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  • Anthracite is mined in the St Lucia Bay district, and bituminous coal is found in the Nqutu and Kyudeni hills.

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  • Charleston is in the midst of a region rich in bituminous coal, the shipment of which by river and rail constitutes one of its principal industries.

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  • Bituminous coal, natural gas and oil abound in the vicinity; the river provides excellent water-power; the borough is a manufacturing centre of considerable importance, its products including iron and steel bridges, boilers, steam drills, carriages, saws, files, axes, shovels, wire netting, stoves, glass-ware, scales, chemicals, pottery, cork, decorative tile, bricks and typewriters.

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  • The maximum hardness is from 2.5 to 3 in anthracite and hard bituminous coals, but considerably less in lignites, which are nearly as soft as rotten wood.

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  • The most important class of coals is that generally known as bituminous, from their property of softening or undergoing an apparent fusion when heated to a temperature far below that at which actual combustion takes place.

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  • That nothing analogous to bitumen exists in coals is proved by the fact that the ordinary solvents for bituminous substances, such as bisulphide of carbon and benzol, have no effect upon them, as would be the case if they contained bitumen soluble in these re-agents.

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  • The proportion of carbon in bituminous coals may vary from 80 to 90% the amount being highest as they approach the character of anthracite, and least in those which are nearest to lignites.

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  • In Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas, and along the line of the Rocky Mountains, extensive fields occur, producing lignite and bituminous coal.

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  • The gases from the bituminous house coals of South Wales are comparatively free from marsh gas, as compared with those from the steam coal and anthracite pits.

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  • The value of the bituminous coal output was $465,900 (184,440 short tons) in 1890; $1,581,914 (968,373 short tons) in 1900; $ 2, 77 8, 811 (1,648,069 short tons) in 1907; and $3,419,481 (1,805,377 short tons) in 1908.

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  • The principal mineral of Iowa, however, is bituminous coal; it ranked in 1908 eighth among the coal-producing states of the Union, its product being valued at $11,706,402.

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  • Bituminous coal is extensively mined in the vicinity.

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  • The coal underlying the east half of the state, the " Great Plains," is lignitic and of inferior quality, but that in the mountain districts is bituminous and generally suitable for coking.

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  • They are rarely metamorphosed to the point of recrystallization, though locally shales are altered to roofing slates, sandstones are indurated, limestones slightly marblized, and coals, originally bituminous, are changed to anthracite in northern Pennsylvania, and to graphite in Rhode Island.

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  • The coal of some of the beds is bituminous, and of others anthracite.

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  • Besides building materials, such as sandstone, slate, &c., the only mineral to be found within the canton is bituminous shale, the products of which can be used for petroleum and asphalt.

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  • The coal is of two varieties: bituminous and semi-bituminous.

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  • The bituminous is of excellent quality for the manufacture of coke and gas, but up to 5902 had been mined only in small quantities.

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  • The higher olefines are found in the tar which is obtained by distilling bituminous shales, in illuminating gas, and among the products formed by distilling paraffin under pressure (T.

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  • Bituminous coal is the principal mineral, and in 1907 Kentucky ranked eighth among the coal-producing states of the Union; the output in 1907 amounted to 10,753,124 short tons, and in 1902 to 6,766,984 short tons as compared with 2,399,755 tons produced in 1889.

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  • All Kentucky coal is either bituminous or semi-bituminous, but of several varieties.

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  • The leading products, as reported by the Geological Survey for 1907, were as follows: coal, $614,798,898 (85,604,312 tons of anthracite coal, 394.759,112 of bituminous); petroleum, $120,106,749; natural gas, ~54,222,399; iron ore, $131,996,147 (pig iron, $529,958,000); copper, refined, $173,799,300; gold, coinage value, $90,435,700; buii~..ing-stone, $71,105,805; silver, commercial value, ~272OO,700: lean.

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  • Coal exists in the United States in large quantity in each of its important varieties: anthracite, or hard coal; bituminous, or soft coal; and lignite; and in various intermediate and c al special grades.

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  • Geologically the anthracite and bituminous coals mainly belong to the same formation, the Carboniferous, and this is especially true of the better qualities; though it is stated by the United States Geological Survey that the geQlogic age of the coal beds ranges from Carboniferous in the Appalachian and Mississippi Valley provinces to Miocene (Tertiary) on the Pacific coast, and that the quality of the coal varies only to a very uncertain degree with the geologic age.

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  • m., of which 250,531 are credited to anthracite and bituminous, 97,636 to sub-bituminous and 148,609 to lignite; (2) total original coal supply of the country, 3,076,204,000,000 short tons, including 21,000,000,000 tons of anthracite in Pennsylvania, and small amounts elsewhere (semi-anthracite and semi-bituminous), 650,157,000,000 tons of sub-bituminous and 743,590,000,000 tons of lignite; (3) easily accessible coal still available, 1,992,979,000,000 tons; (4) available coal accessible with difficulty, f,153,225,000,000 tons.

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  • Pennsylvania (117,179,527 tons of bituminous and 83,268,754 of anthracite), Illinois (47,659,690), West Virginia (41,897,843), Ohio (26,270,639), Indiana (12,314,890) and Alabama (11,604,593) were the states of greatest production.

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  • Up to 1870 there was more anthracite mined in Pennsylvania than bituminous in the whole country, but since that year the production of the latter has become vastly the greater, the totals in 1907, in which year each stood at its maximum, being 83,268,754 and 332,573,944 tons respectively.

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  • Inasmuch as the present production is not considered locally and with more or less justiceas at all indicative of the wealth in coal of the respective states, it may be said that according to estimates of the Geological Survey the following states are credited with the deposits indicated of true bituminous coal, including local admixtures of anthracite, the figures being millions of short tons:

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  • At the same time there are estimated deposits of sub-bituminous coal, isolated or mixed with bituminous, amounting to 75,498 millions of tons in Colorado (which is probably the richest coal area of the country); and in other states as follows: Wyoming, 423,952 millions of tons; New Mexico, I3,975; Washington, 20,000; Montana, 18,560; California and Oregon, 1000 each; and lesser amounts elsewhere.

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  • Coal of a bituminous and also semi-anthracite kind is produced, the best mined on the Pacific slope of the continent, the coking coals of the Fernie region supplying the fuel of the great metal mining districts of the Kootenays in British Columbia, and of Montana and other states to the south.

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  • At Esperanza and other places in the Santa Clara province, bituminous plant-bearing beds occur beneath the Tertiary limestones, and at Baracoa a Radiolarian earth occupies a similar position.

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  • From the name schistos, and the mode of formation, there can be little doubt that this species was the salt which forms spontaneously on certain slaty minerals, as alum slate and bituminous shale, and which consists chiefly of the sulphates of iron and aluminium.

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  • Anthracite is mined in the St Lucia Bay district, and bituminous coal is found in the Nqutu and Kyudeni hills.

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  • The maximum hardness is from 2.5 to 3 in anthracite and hard bituminous coals, but considerably less in lignites, which are nearly as soft as rotten wood.

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  • That nothing analogous to bitumen exists in coals is proved by the fact that the ordinary solvents for bituminous substances, such as bisulphide of carbon and benzol, have no effect upon them, as would be the case if they contained bitumen soluble in these re-agents.

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  • The value of the bituminous coal output was $465,900 (184,440 short tons) in 1890; $1,581,914 (968,373 short tons) in 1900; $ 2, 77 8, 811 (1,648,069 short tons) in 1907; and $3,419,481 (1,805,377 short tons) in 1908.

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  • The coal underlying the east half of the state, the " Great Plains," is lignitic and of inferior quality, but that in the mountain districts is bituminous and generally suitable for coking.

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  • The coal is of two varieties: bituminous and semi-bituminous.

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  • The bituminous is of excellent quality for the manufacture of coke and gas, but up to 5902 had been mined only in small quantities.

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  • The higher olefines are found in the tar which is obtained by distilling bituminous shales, in illuminating gas, and among the products formed by distilling paraffin under pressure (T.

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  • The bituminous coal of West Virginia is a particularly good coking coal, and in 1905, 1906, 1907 and 1908 West Virginia ranked second (to Pennsylvania) among the states of the Union in the amount of coke manufactured; the Flat Top district is the principal cokemaking region.

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  • Below Mosul, for some distance, occur sulphurous and bituminous springs.

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  • Impurities render the mineral grey, greenish or reddish, bituminous matter being often present in the massive varieties.

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  • The Cambrian is represented by blue clays, ungulite sandstones and bituminous slates in Esthonia and St Petersburg.

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  • This maximum rate depends upon the kind of coal used, whether small, friable, bituminous or hard, upon the thickness of the fire, and upon the correct design and setting of the blast-pipe.

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  • The dark bituminous layers of clay slate, which occur intercalated among the quartzites, have led, here as elsewhere, to the hope of coming upon a seam of coal, but it is contrary to experience that coal of any value should be found in rocks of that age.

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  • The state has two small areas in which bituminous coal occurs; one in the basin of the Dan and one in the basin of the Deep. Very little coal was produced in the state until the Civil War, when, in 1862 and again in 1863, 30,000 short tons were obtained for the relief of the Confederate government, an amount which up to 1905, when the yield was only 1557 short tons (falling off from 7000 short tons in 1904), had not since been equalled; in 1906, in 1907 and in 1908 no coal was mined in the state.

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  • The mineral is usually found in a state of considerable chemical purity, though small amounts of strontium and calcium sulphates may isomorphously replace the barium sulphate: ammonium sulphate is also sometimes present, whilst clay, silica, bituminous matter, &c., may be enclosed as impurities.

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  • The mineral wealth of Ohio consists largely of bituminous coal and petroleum, but the state also ranks high in the production of natural gas, sandstone, limestone, grindstone, lime and gypsum.

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  • Of these early writers, Hatchett is the most explicit, the various bituminous substances being by him classified and defined.

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  • This area is divided into nearly two equal parts - one, the Lei river coal-fields, yielding anthracite, and the other the Siang river coal-fields, yielding bituminous coal.

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  • The alum schists employed in the manufacture of alum are mixtures of iron pyrites, aluminium silicate and various bituminous substances, and are found in upper Bavaria, Bohemia, Belgium and Scotland.

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  • Around Dundee and Newcastle the coals are bituminous.

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  • Four-sevenths of the coal is bituminous.

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  • Pennsylvania is by far the most important coalproducing state in the Union, and as much of the iron ore of the Lake Superior region is brought to its great bituminous coal-field for rendering into pig-iron, the value of the state's mineral products constitutes a large fraction of the total value for the entire country; in 1907, when the value of the mineral products of the state was $ 6 57,7 8 3,345, or nearly one-third that of all the United States, and in 1908 when the total for the state was $473,083,212, or more than one-fourth that of the whole United States, more than fourfifths of it was represented by coal and pig-iron.

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  • Besides having practically all the anthracite, Pennsylvania has the thickest bituminous coal-measures, and most of the coal obtained from these is of the best quality.

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  • The bituminous coal was first used at nearly the same time as the anthracite and it was first shipped from Pittsburg in 1803.

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  • In 1880 the output of coal (anthracite and bituminous) in Pennsylvania was 66% of that of the entire country; in 1908 it was 48.2%; but in the latter year the Pennsylvania mines produced more coal than the combined production of all the countries of the world excepting Great Britain, Germany and Austria-Hungary, and it was nearly four times as much as the total mined in Austria, nearly five times as much as that mined in France, and seven times as much as the output of Russia in that year.

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  • But the state's iron foundries moved rapidly westward after the first successful experiments in making pig-iron with bituminous coal, in 1845, and the discovery, a few years later, that rich ore could be obtained there at less cost from the Lake Superior region resulted in a decline of iron-mining within the state until, in 1902, the product amounted to only 822,932 long tons, 72.2% of which was magnetite ore from the Cornwall mines in Lebanon county which have been among the largest producers of this kind of ore since the erection of the Cornwall furnace in 1742.

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  • So long as charcoal only was used in the furnaces (until about 1840) and during the brief period in which this was replaced largely by anthracite, the industry was of chief importance in the eastern section, but with the gradual increase in the use of bituminous coal, or of coke made from it, the industry moved westward, where, especially in the Pittsburg district, it received a new impetus by The introduction of iron ore from the Lake Superior region.

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  • in breadth, is a rugged mass of limestone and bituminous shales (partly Tertiary), rising in its principal ridges to heights of 2000 and 3000 ft.

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  • The clayey siderite of the British coal measures is called " clay band," and that containing bituminous matter is called " black band."

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  • In addition, the blast-furnace uses a very cheap source of energy, coke, anthracite, charcoal, and even certain kinds of raw bituminous coal, and owing first to the intimacy of contact between this fuel and the ore on which it works, and second to the thoroughness of the transfer of heat from the products of that fuel's combustion in their long upward journey through the descending charge, even this cheap energy is used most effectively.

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  • " Anthracite " here includes iron made with anthracite and coke mixed, " Bituminous " includes iron made with coke, with raw bituminous coal, or with both, and " Charcoal " in 1900 and 1907 includes iron made either with charcoal alone or with charcoal mixed with coke.

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  • Carvill Lewis believed the blue ground to be true eruptive rock, and the carbon to have been derived from the bituminous shales of which it contains fragments.

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  • Other authors have sought the origin of the diamond in the action of the hydrated magnesian silicates on hydrocarbons derived from bituminous schists, or in the decomposition of metallic carbides.

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  • The salt is often grey, through bituminous matter or other impurity, and rarely green, blue or, violet.

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  • Few hands are employed in manufactures, but the mining industry is more important, coal being extensively worked - chiefly anthracite in the upper reaches of the Swansea and Neath valleys, and bituminous in the south-eastern corner of the county.

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  • The thin seams of the Calciferous Sandstone are not workable, but the bituminous shales in the Firth of Forth basin are largely worked for the manufacture of mineral oil.

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  • Although the iron ore, for the iron and steel industry, is furnished by the mines of the Lake Superior region, bituminous coal and limestone are supplied by the Illinois deposits.

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  • Although the islands promise to become important, because of their excellent harbours, the discovery of good seams of bituminous coal (beside the anthracite already known), their abundant timber of certain kinds and their prolific fisheries, but little settlement has taken place.

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  • Californian coal is almost wholly inferior brown lignite, together with a small quantity of bituminous coals of poor quality; the state does not produce a tenth part of the coal it consumes.

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  • In 1908 Wyoming ranked twelfth among the states of the Union in the value of its output of bituminous coal.

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  • The original coal supply of the present state has been estimated (by the United States Geological Survey) at 424,085,000,000 short tons of the bituminous or sub-bituminous variety, this amount being second only to that for North Dakota, 500,000,000,000 short tons, which, however, is entirely lignite.

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  • By far the most valuable single product was bituminous coal ($3, 868, 5 2 4; 4, 2 59, 0 4 2 tons).

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  • It had served to draw Young's attention to the question of oil-production, and in 1850 he took out his fundamental patent for the distillation of bituminous substances.

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  • This was soon put into operation in Scotland, first with the Boghead coal or Torbanehill mineral, and later with bituminous shales, and though he had to face much litigation Young successfully employed it in the manufacture of naphtha and lubricating oils, and subsequently of illuminating oils and paraffin wax, until in 1866, after the patent had expired, he transferred his works to a limited company.

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  • It possesses unlimited supplies, as yet not greatly exploited, of fine building stones, some oil and asphalt, and related bituminous products, a few precious and semi-precious stones (especially tourmalines, beryls and aquamarines found near Canyon near the Royal Gorge of the Arkansas river), rare opalized and jasperized wood (in the eastern part of the El Paso county), considerable wealth of lead and copper, enormous fields of bituminous coal, and enormous wealth of the precious metals.

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  • From 1897 to 1902 the yield almost doubled, averaging 5,267,783 tons (lignite, semibituminous, bituminous, and a steady average production of 60,038 tons of anthracite).

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  • Much of the bituminous coal, especially that of the Canyon City field, is so hard and clean as to be little less desirable than anthracite; it is the favoured coal for domestic uses in all the surrounding states.

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  • Pittsburg is situated near the lead and zinc region of south-east Kansas and south-west Missouri, is in the midst of a large and rich bituminous coalfield, and lies near natural gas and oil fields.

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  • Bituminous coal and natural gas abound in the vicinity, and iron, steel, and tin and terne plate are extensively manufactured in the city, the tin-plate plant being one of the most important in the United States.

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  • high, in a good farming country, rich in bituminous coal, natural gas, building-stone, petroleum and clay.

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  • The upper divisions consist of bituminous limestones, clay-slates, alum-slate, and contain numerous species of trilobites of the genera Paradoxides, Conocoryphe, Agnostus, Sphaerophthalmus, Peltura, &c. The Ordovician formation occurs in two distinct facies - the one shaley and containing graptolites; the other calcareous, with brachiopods, trilobites, &c. The most constant of the calcareous divisions is the Orthoceras limestone, a red or grey limestone with Megalaspis and Orthoceras.

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  • Fields of bituminous coal extend over an area of over 10,000 sq.

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  • It is also found among the distillation products of bituminous coal, lignite, and various shales, and has been detected in fusel oil and crude petroleum.

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  • Washington is in a bituminous coal and natural gas region, and there are manufactories of glass, iron tubing and pipe, tin plate, steel, &c. The site was part of a tract bought in 1771 by David Hoge and was known at first as Catfish camp after an Indian chief, Tingooqua or Catfish.

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  • The coal is almost wholly bituminous, with very little cannelite.

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  • Among the industries of the town are the extraction of oil from the bituminous schist obtained in the neighbourhood, leather manufacture, metal-founding, marble-working, and the manufacture of machinery and furniture.

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  • In the east portion of the state are immense beds of bituminous coal, often at shallow depths or cropping out on the surface.

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  • Coal, the raw material from which the gas is produced by a process of destructive distillation, varies very widely in composition (see Coal), and it is only the class of coals rich in hydrogen, known as bituminous coal, that can with advantage be utilized in gas manufacture.

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  • Bituminous coal, however, may be looked upon as containing carbon and also simple hydrocarbons, such as some of the higher members of the paraffin series, and likewise organic bodies containing carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur.

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  • If bituminous coal is distilled at a low tempera- Destruc- ture, the tar is found to contain considerable quantities of tive dis- light paraffin oils; and there is no doubt that paraffin tillation hydrocarbons are present in the original coal.

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  • Tar derived from ordinary bituminous Liquid coal is a black, somewhat viscid liquid, varying in specific products.

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  • of the tar and flue-dust is also condensed, which is of importance where bituminous coal is employed for firing.

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  • The retort E is charged with ordinary bituminous coal which is submitted to destructive distillation by the heat communicated through the flues n 2 n 2, and is thus converted into coke.

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  • In quality the coal varies from a low grade to a high grade bituminous, and some of the latter is good for coking.

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  • South of the line between Galway and Dublin the coal is anthracitic, while north of this line it is bituminous.

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  • The origin of this bitumen is disputed: it was supposed to be derived from subaqueous strata of bituminous marl and rose to the surface when loosened by earthquakes.

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  • The name in Josephus is Asphaltites, referring to the bituminous deposits above alluded to.

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  • In the vicinity are deposits of bituminous coal, fire-clay and moulding sand.

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  • Other indications of volcanic agency are the oil springs occurring on the coast, and even in the bed of the sea near Cape Skinari on the north side, and especially the famous pitch or bituminous wells already mentioned by Herodotus (Hist., bk.

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  • The coal is of the soft or " bituminous " kind, generally of excellent quality, and much of it suitable for conversion into gas and coke, of which latter 468,092 long tons were produced in 1905.

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  • bituminous paper shales with occasional beds of beef.

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  • bituminous coal he decided to become a producer rather than just a supplier.

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  • bituminous mixtures.

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  • bituminous paint should be used to completely seal the compound.

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  • bituminous materials, can be carried out by our own trained operatives.

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  • bituminous macadam, laid on top of concrete.

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  • These expose a dark gray, finely crystalline and often bituminous limestone.

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  • Chimneys using bituminous coal should be swept at least once a year.

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  • Chimneys using bituminous coal should be swept at least once a year.

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  • These expose a dark gray, finely crystalline and often bituminous limestone.

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  • These kits are also suitable for fixing seats onto surfaces of bituminous macadam, laid on top of concrete.

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  • These beds normally consist of brown bituminous paper shales with occasional beds of beef.

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  • Similarly, bituminous underlay can become adhered to the underside of the valley trough after periods of hot weather.

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  • unmakee are usually unmade (no bituminous surface) or setts (cobbles ).

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  • (more than 70% of the total) of the state's area, and bituminous coal has been found in 51 of the 55 counties; this is one of the largest continuous coal fields in the world.

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  • The seams are principally above water levels and in many cases have been laid bare by erosion; and the supply is varied - besides a " fat coking, gassy bituminous," there are an excellent grade of splint coal (first mined in 1864 at Coalburg, Kanawha county) and (except that in Kentucky) the only important supply of cannel coal in the United States.

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  • The bituminous coal of West Virginia is a particularly good coking coal, and in 1905, 1906, 1907 and 1908 West Virginia ranked second (to Pennsylvania) among the states of the Union in the amount of coke manufactured; the Flat Top district is the principal cokemaking region.

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  • Below Mosul, for some distance, occur sulphurous and bituminous springs.

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  • Amber is not homogeneous in composition, but consists of several resinous bodies more or less soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform, associated with an insoluble bituminous substance.

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  • Impurities render the mineral grey, greenish or reddish, bituminous matter being often present in the massive varieties.

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  • This area is divided into nearly two equal parts - one, the Lei river coal-fields, yielding anthracite, and the other the Siang river coal-fields, yielding bituminous coal.

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  • The Cambrian is represented by blue clays, ungulite sandstones and bituminous slates in Esthonia and St Petersburg.

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  • This maximum rate depends upon the kind of coal used, whether small, friable, bituminous or hard, upon the thickness of the fire, and upon the correct design and setting of the blast-pipe.

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  • The dark bituminous layers of clay slate, which occur intercalated among the quartzites, have led, here as elsewhere, to the hope of coming upon a seam of coal, but it is contrary to experience that coal of any value should be found in rocks of that age.

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  • The greater part of the " camp " (the open country) is formed of peat, which in some places is of great age and depth, and at the bottom of the bed very dense and bituminous.

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  • The state has two small areas in which bituminous coal occurs; one in the basin of the Dan and one in the basin of the Deep. Very little coal was produced in the state until the Civil War, when, in 1862 and again in 1863, 30,000 short tons were obtained for the relief of the Confederate government, an amount which up to 1905, when the yield was only 1557 short tons (falling off from 7000 short tons in 1904), had not since been equalled; in 1906, in 1907 and in 1908 no coal was mined in the state.

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  • The mineral is usually found in a state of considerable chemical purity, though small amounts of strontium and calcium sulphates may isomorphously replace the barium sulphate: ammonium sulphate is also sometimes present, whilst clay, silica, bituminous matter, &c., may be enclosed as impurities.

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  • The mineral wealth of Ohio consists largely of bituminous coal and petroleum, but the state also ranks high in the production of natural gas, sandstone, limestone, grindstone, lime and gypsum.

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  • Of these early writers, Hatchett is the most explicit, the various bituminous substances being by him classified and defined.

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  • Two large refineries, one on Newtown Creek, Long Island, and another in South Brooklyn, also on Long Island, were in successful operation when the abundant pr oduction of petroleum, which immediately followed the completion of the Drake well, placed at the disposal of the refiner a material which could be worked more profitably than bituminous shale.

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  • Springfield is a trading and shipping centre for a prosperous agricultural region, and ships large quantities of bituminous coal from the immediate vicinity.

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  • Bituminous products of every grade, from clear translucent oils resembling petroleum and refined naphtha, to lignite-like substances, occur in all parts of the island.

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  • Much of the bituminous deposits is on the dividing line between asphalt and coal.

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  • Bituminous products, though, as already stated, widely distributed, are not as yet much developed.

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  • The mineral wealth of the department is considerable, including coal as well as manganese and bituminous schist; plaster, building stone and hydraulic lime are also produced.

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  • The alum schists employed in the manufacture of alum are mixtures of iron pyrites, aluminium silicate and various bituminous substances, and are found in upper Bavaria, Bohemia, Belgium and Scotland.

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  • Bituminous coal of an inferior quality is mined to a limited extent in Rio Grande do Sul, and another mine has been opened in Santa Catharina.

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  • Around Dundee and Newcastle the coals are bituminous.

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  • above sea-level, in a wheat-growing region, in which bituminous coal, limestone, and brick and potter's clay abound.

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  • Bituminous coal and natural gas are found in the vicinity, and the borough ships coal and lumber, and has various important manufactures.

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  • Both anthracite and bituminous deposits have been found.

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  • Charleston is in the midst of a region rich in bituminous coal, the shipment of which by river and rail constitutes one of its principal industries.

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  • Bituminous coal, natural gas and oil abound in the vicinity; the river provides excellent water-power; the borough is a manufacturing centre of considerable importance, its products including iron and steel bridges, boilers, steam drills, carriages, saws, files, axes, shovels, wire netting, stoves, glass-ware, scales, chemicals, pottery, cork, decorative tile, bricks and typewriters.

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  • The specific gravity is highest in anthracite and lowest in lignite, bituminous coals giving intermediate values (see Table I.).

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  • The most important class of coals is that generally known as bituminous, from their property of softening or undergoing an apparent fusion when heated to a temperature far below that at which actual combustion takes place.

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  • The proportion of carbon in bituminous coals may vary from 80 to 90% the amount being highest as they approach the character of anthracite, and least in those which are nearest to lignites.

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  • In Arkansas, Oklahoma and Texas, and along the line of the Rocky Mountains, extensive fields occur, producing lignite and bituminous coal.

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  • The gases from the bituminous house coals of South Wales are comparatively free from marsh gas, as compared with those from the steam coal and anthracite pits.

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  • The principal mineral of Iowa, however, is bituminous coal; it ranked in 1908 eighth among the coal-producing states of the Union, its product being valued at $11,706,402.

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  • Bituminous coal is extensively mined in the vicinity.

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  • Four-sevenths of the coal is bituminous.

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  • They are rarely metamorphosed to the point of recrystallization, though locally shales are altered to roofing slates, sandstones are indurated, limestones slightly marblized, and coals, originally bituminous, are changed to anthracite in northern Pennsylvania, and to graphite in Rhode Island.

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  • The coal of some of the beds is bituminous, and of others anthracite.

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  • Besides building materials, such as sandstone, slate, &c., the only mineral to be found within the canton is bituminous shale, the products of which can be used for petroleum and asphalt.

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  • Bituminous coal is the principal mineral, and in 1907 Kentucky ranked eighth among the coal-producing states of the Union; the output in 1907 amounted to 10,753,124 short tons, and in 1902 to 6,766,984 short tons as compared with 2,399,755 tons produced in 1889.

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  • All Kentucky coal is either bituminous or semi-bituminous, but of several varieties.

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  • The leading products, as reported by the Geological Survey for 1907, were as follows: coal, $614,798,898 (85,604,312 tons of anthracite coal, 394.759,112 of bituminous); petroleum, $120,106,749; natural gas, ~54,222,399; iron ore, $131,996,147 (pig iron, $529,958,000); copper, refined, $173,799,300; gold, coinage value, $90,435,700; buii~..ing-stone, $71,105,805; silver, commercial value, ~272OO,700: lean.

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  • Coal exists in the United States in large quantity in each of its important varieties: anthracite, or hard coal; bituminous, or soft coal; and lignite; and in various intermediate and c al special grades.

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  • Geologically the anthracite and bituminous coals mainly belong to the same formation, the Carboniferous, and this is especially true of the better qualities; though it is stated by the United States Geological Survey that the geQlogic age of the coal beds ranges from Carboniferous in the Appalachian and Mississippi Valley provinces to Miocene (Tertiary) on the Pacific coast, and that the quality of the coal varies only to a very uncertain degree with the geologic age.

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  • m., of which 250,531 are credited to anthracite and bituminous, 97,636 to sub-bituminous and 148,609 to lignite; (2) total original coal supply of the country, 3,076,204,000,000 short tons, including 21,000,000,000 tons of anthracite in Pennsylvania, and small amounts elsewhere (semi-anthracite and semi-bituminous), 650,157,000,000 tons of sub-bituminous and 743,590,000,000 tons of lignite; (3) easily accessible coal still available, 1,992,979,000,000 tons; (4) available coal accessible with difficulty, f,153,225,000,000 tons.

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  • Pennsylvania (117,179,527 tons of bituminous and 83,268,754 of anthracite), Illinois (47,659,690), West Virginia (41,897,843), Ohio (26,270,639), Indiana (12,314,890) and Alabama (11,604,593) were the states of greatest production.

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  • Up to 1870 there was more anthracite mined in Pennsylvania than bituminous in the whole country, but since that year the production of the latter has become vastly the greater, the totals in 1907, in which year each stood at its maximum, being 83,268,754 and 332,573,944 tons respectively.

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  • Inasmuch as the present production is not considered locally and with more or less justiceas at all indicative of the wealth in coal of the respective states, it may be said that according to estimates of the Geological Survey the following states are credited with the deposits indicated of true bituminous coal, including local admixtures of anthracite, the figures being millions of short tons:

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  • At the same time there are estimated deposits of sub-bituminous coal, isolated or mixed with bituminous, amounting to 75,498 millions of tons in Colorado (which is probably the richest coal area of the country); and in other states as follows: Wyoming, 423,952 millions of tons; New Mexico, I3,975; Washington, 20,000; Montana, 18,560; California and Oregon, 1000 each; and lesser amounts elsewhere.

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  • Coal of a bituminous and also semi-anthracite kind is produced, the best mined on the Pacific slope of the continent, the coking coals of the Fernie region supplying the fuel of the great metal mining districts of the Kootenays in British Columbia, and of Montana and other states to the south.

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  • Coal, chiefly bituminous, occurs in large quantities in Nova Scotia, British Columbia and in various parts of the north-west (lignite), though most of the anthracite is imported from the United States, as is the greater part of the bituminous coal used in Ontario.

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  • The production of bituminous coal has also increased very rapidly.

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  • - Obtained by distillation from the oil produced by the destructive distillation of bituminous shale (see Paraffin).

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  • Pennsylvania is by far the most important coalproducing state in the Union, and as much of the iron ore of the Lake Superior region is brought to its great bituminous coal-field for rendering into pig-iron, the value of the state's mineral products constitutes a large fraction of the total value for the entire country; in 1907, when the value of the mineral products of the state was $ 6 57,7 8 3,345, or nearly one-third that of all the United States, and in 1908 when the total for the state was $473,083,212, or more than one-fourth that of the whole United States, more than fourfifths of it was represented by coal and pig-iron.

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  • Besides having practically all the anthracite, Pennsylvania has the thickest bituminous coal-measures, and most of the coal obtained from these is of the best quality.

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  • The bituminous coal was first used at nearly the same time as the anthracite and it was first shipped from Pittsburg in 1803.

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  • In 1880 the output of coal (anthracite and bituminous) in Pennsylvania was 66% of that of the entire country; in 1908 it was 48.2%; but in the latter year the Pennsylvania mines produced more coal than the combined production of all the countries of the world excepting Great Britain, Germany and Austria-Hungary, and it was nearly four times as much as the total mined in Austria, nearly five times as much as that mined in France, and seven times as much as the output of Russia in that year.

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  • But the state's iron foundries moved rapidly westward after the first successful experiments in making pig-iron with bituminous coal, in 1845, and the discovery, a few years later, that rich ore could be obtained there at less cost from the Lake Superior region resulted in a decline of iron-mining within the state until, in 1902, the product amounted to only 822,932 long tons, 72.2% of which was magnetite ore from the Cornwall mines in Lebanon county which have been among the largest producers of this kind of ore since the erection of the Cornwall furnace in 1742.

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  • So long as charcoal only was used in the furnaces (until about 1840) and during the brief period in which this was replaced largely by anthracite, the industry was of chief importance in the eastern section, but with the gradual increase in the use of bituminous coal, or of coke made from it, the industry moved westward, where, especially in the Pittsburg district, it received a new impetus by The introduction of iron ore from the Lake Superior region.

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  • in breadth, is a rugged mass of limestone and bituminous shales (partly Tertiary), rising in its principal ridges to heights of 2000 and 3000 ft.

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  • The clayey siderite of the British coal measures is called " clay band," and that containing bituminous matter is called " black band."

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  • In addition, the blast-furnace uses a very cheap source of energy, coke, anthracite, charcoal, and even certain kinds of raw bituminous coal, and owing first to the intimacy of contact between this fuel and the ore on which it works, and second to the thoroughness of the transfer of heat from the products of that fuel's combustion in their long upward journey through the descending charge, even this cheap energy is used most effectively.

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  • - Though the electric processes which have been proposed for extracting the iron from iron ore, with the purpose of displacing the iron blast furnace, have not become important enough to deserve description here, yet it should be possible to devise one which would be useful in a place (if there is one) which has an abundance of water power and iron ore and a local demand for iron, but has not coke, charcoal or bituminous coal suitable for the blast furnace.

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  • " Anthracite " here includes iron made with anthracite and coke mixed, " Bituminous " includes iron made with coke, with raw bituminous coal, or with both, and " Charcoal " in 1900 and 1907 includes iron made either with charcoal alone or with charcoal mixed with coke.

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  • Carvill Lewis believed the blue ground to be true eruptive rock, and the carbon to have been derived from the bituminous shales of which it contains fragments.

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  • Other authors have sought the origin of the diamond in the action of the hydrated magnesian silicates on hydrocarbons derived from bituminous schists, or in the decomposition of metallic carbides.

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  • The salt is often grey, through bituminous matter or other impurity, and rarely green, blue or, violet.

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  • Few hands are employed in manufactures, but the mining industry is more important, coal being extensively worked - chiefly anthracite in the upper reaches of the Swansea and Neath valleys, and bituminous in the south-eastern corner of the county.

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  • The thin seams of the Calciferous Sandstone are not workable, but the bituminous shales in the Firth of Forth basin are largely worked for the manufacture of mineral oil.

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  • Although the iron ore, for the iron and steel industry, is furnished by the mines of the Lake Superior region, bituminous coal and limestone are supplied by the Illinois deposits.

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  • Although the islands promise to become important, because of their excellent harbours, the discovery of good seams of bituminous coal (beside the anthracite already known), their abundant timber of certain kinds and their prolific fisheries, but little settlement has taken place.

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  • Californian coal is almost wholly inferior brown lignite, together with a small quantity of bituminous coals of poor quality; the state does not produce a tenth part of the coal it consumes.

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  • In 1908 Wyoming ranked twelfth among the states of the Union in the value of its output of bituminous coal.

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  • The original coal supply of the present state has been estimated (by the United States Geological Survey) at 424,085,000,000 short tons of the bituminous or sub-bituminous variety, this amount being second only to that for North Dakota, 500,000,000,000 short tons, which, however, is entirely lignite.

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  • By far the most valuable single product was bituminous coal ($3, 868, 5 2 4; 4, 2 59, 0 4 2 tons).

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  • It had served to draw Young's attention to the question of oil-production, and in 1850 he took out his fundamental patent for the distillation of bituminous substances.

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  • This was soon put into operation in Scotland, first with the Boghead coal or Torbanehill mineral, and later with bituminous shales, and though he had to face much litigation Young successfully employed it in the manufacture of naphtha and lubricating oils, and subsequently of illuminating oils and paraffin wax, until in 1866, after the patent had expired, he transferred his works to a limited company.

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  • It possesses unlimited supplies, as yet not greatly exploited, of fine building stones, some oil and asphalt, and related bituminous products, a few precious and semi-precious stones (especially tourmalines, beryls and aquamarines found near Canyon near the Royal Gorge of the Arkansas river), rare opalized and jasperized wood (in the eastern part of the El Paso county), considerable wealth of lead and copper, enormous fields of bituminous coal, and enormous wealth of the precious metals.

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  • From 1897 to 1902 the yield almost doubled, averaging 5,267,783 tons (lignite, semibituminous, bituminous, and a steady average production of 60,038 tons of anthracite).

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  • The true bituminous coal produced, which in 1897 was only equal to that of the lignitic and semi-bituminous varieties (1.75 million tons), had come by 1902 to constitute three-fourths (5.46 million tons) of the entire coal output.

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  • Much of the bituminous coal, especially that of the Canyon City field, is so hard and clean as to be little less desirable than anthracite; it is the favoured coal for domestic uses in all the surrounding states.

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  • Pittsburg is situated near the lead and zinc region of south-east Kansas and south-west Missouri, is in the midst of a large and rich bituminous coalfield, and lies near natural gas and oil fields.

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  • Bituminous coal and natural gas abound in the vicinity, and iron, steel, and tin and terne plate are extensively manufactured in the city, the tin-plate plant being one of the most important in the United States.

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  • high, in a good farming country, rich in bituminous coal, natural gas, building-stone, petroleum and clay.

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  • The upper divisions consist of bituminous limestones, clay-slates, alum-slate, and contain numerous species of trilobites of the genera Paradoxides, Conocoryphe, Agnostus, Sphaerophthalmus, Peltura, &c. The Ordovician formation occurs in two distinct facies - the one shaley and containing graptolites; the other calcareous, with brachiopods, trilobites, &c. The most constant of the calcareous divisions is the Orthoceras limestone, a red or grey limestone with Megalaspis and Orthoceras.

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  • Fields of bituminous coal extend over an area of over 10,000 sq.

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  • It is also found among the distillation products of bituminous coal, lignite, and various shales, and has been detected in fusel oil and crude petroleum.

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  • Washington is in a bituminous coal and natural gas region, and there are manufactories of glass, iron tubing and pipe, tin plate, steel, &c. The site was part of a tract bought in 1771 by David Hoge and was known at first as Catfish camp after an Indian chief, Tingooqua or Catfish.

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  • The coal is almost wholly bituminous, with very little cannelite.

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  • Among the industries of the town are the extraction of oil from the bituminous schist obtained in the neighbourhood, leather manufacture, metal-founding, marble-working, and the manufacture of machinery and furniture.

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  • In the east portion of the state are immense beds of bituminous coal, often at shallow depths or cropping out on the surface.

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  • Coal, the raw material from which the gas is produced by a process of destructive distillation, varies very widely in composition (see Coal), and it is only the class of coals rich in hydrogen, known as bituminous coal, that can with advantage be utilized in gas manufacture.

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  • Bituminous coal, however, may be looked upon as containing carbon and also simple hydrocarbons, such as some of the higher members of the paraffin series, and likewise organic bodies containing carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur.

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  • If bituminous coal is distilled at a low tempera- Destruc- ture, the tar is found to contain considerable quantities of tive dis- light paraffin oils; and there is no doubt that paraffin tillation hydrocarbons are present in the original coal.

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  • Tar derived from ordinary bituminous Liquid coal is a black, somewhat viscid liquid, varying in specific products.

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  • of the tar and flue-dust is also condensed, which is of importance where bituminous coal is employed for firing.

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  • The retort E is charged with ordinary bituminous coal which is submitted to destructive distillation by the heat communicated through the flues n 2 n 2, and is thus converted into coke.

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  • In quality the coal varies from a low grade to a high grade bituminous, and some of the latter is good for coking.

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  • South of the line between Galway and Dublin the coal is anthracitic, while north of this line it is bituminous.

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  • The origin of this bitumen is disputed: it was supposed to be derived from subaqueous strata of bituminous marl and rose to the surface when loosened by earthquakes.

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  • The name in Josephus is Asphaltites, referring to the bituminous deposits above alluded to.

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  • In the vicinity are deposits of bituminous coal, fire-clay and moulding sand.

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  • Other indications of volcanic agency are the oil springs occurring on the coast, and even in the bed of the sea near Cape Skinari on the north side, and especially the famous pitch or bituminous wells already mentioned by Herodotus (Hist., bk.

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  • The coal is of the soft or " bituminous " kind, generally of excellent quality, and much of it suitable for conversion into gas and coke, of which latter 468,092 long tons were produced in 1905.

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  • Similarly, bituminous underlay can become adhered to the underside of the valley trough after periods of hot weather.

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  • These are usually unmade (no bituminous surface) or setts (cobbles).

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  • Two large refineries, one on Newtown Creek, Long Island, and another in South Brooklyn, also on Long Island, were in successful operation when the abundant pr oduction of petroleum, which immediately followed the completion of the Drake well, placed at the disposal of the refiner a material which could be worked more profitably than bituminous shale.

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