For root-feeders, bisulphide of carbon injected into the soil is of particular value.
It is decomposed by water, and with a solution of yellow phosphorus in carbon bisulphide it gives a red powder of composition PBI 2, which sublimes in vacuo at 210° C. to red crystals, and when heated in a current of hydrogen loses its iodine and leaves a residue of boron phosphide PB.
Boron sulphide B 2 S 3 can be obtained by the direct union of the two elements at a white heat or from the tri-iodide and sulphur at 44 0 ° C., but is most conveniently prepared by heating a mixture of the trioxide and carbon in a stream of carbon bisulphide vapour.
A pentasulphide B2S5 is prepared, in an impure condition, by heating a solution of sulphur in carbon bisulphide with boron iodide, and forms a white crystalline powder which decomposes under the influence of water into sulphur, sulphuretted hydrogen and boric acid.
It has a characteristic smell, and a biting taste; it is poisonous, and acts as a powerful antiseptic. It dissolves in water, 15 parts of water dissolving about one part of phenol at 16-17° C., but it is miscible in all proportions at about 70° C.; it is volatile in steam, and is readily soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, carbon bisulphide, chloroform and glacial acetic acid.
Bollman in 1867 the ore may be extracted by carbon bisulphide.
Rhombic sulphur may be obtained artificially by slowly crystallizing a solution of sulphur in carbon bisulphide, or, better, by exposing pyridine saturated with sulphuretted hydrogen to atmospheric oxidation (Ahrens, Ber., 1890, 23, p. 2708).
It is insoluble in water,' but readily soluble in carbon bisulphide, sulphur chloride and oil of turpentine.
it is soluble in carbon bisulphide.
Amorphous sulphur or Sy exists in two forms, one soluble in carbon bisulphide, the other insoluble.
The solid derived from SA is crystalline and soluble in carbon bisulphide, that from S, is amorphous and insoluble.
Sulphur chloride, S2C12, is obtained as a by-product in the manufacture of carbon tetrachloride from carbon bisulphide and chlorine, and may also be prepared on the small scale by distilling sulphur in a chlorine gas, or by the action of sulphur on sulphuryl chloride in the presence of aluminium chloride (0.
It boils at 139° C. and is solid at - 80° C. It is soluble in carbon bisulphide and in benzene.
The crude solid product from the tar distillate is digested with carbon bisulphide to dissolve the pyrene, the solution filtered and the solvent evaporated.
These seed-feeders may be killed in the seeds by subjecting them to the fumes of bisulphide of carbon.
CARBON BISULPHIDE, CS 2, a chemical product first discovered in 1796 by W.
It may be more conveniently prepared by passing the vapour of sulphur over red hot charcoal, the unccndensed gases so produced being led into a tower containing plates over which a vegetable oil is allowed to flow in order to absorb any carbon bisulphide vapour, and then into a second tower containing lime, which absorbs any sulphuretted hydrogen.
The crude product is very impure and possesses an offensive smell; it may be purified by forcing a fine spray of lime water through the liquid until the escaping water is quite clear, the washed bisulphide being then mixed with a little colourless oil and distilled at a low temperature.
When perfectly pure, carbon bisulphide is a colourless, somewhat pleasant smelling, highly refractive liquid, of specific gravity 1 2661 (18°/4°) (J.
A mixture of carbon bisulphide vapour and nitric oxide burns with a very intense blue-coloured flame, which is very rich in the violet or actinic rays.
Potassium, when heated, burns in the vapour of carbon bisulphide, forming potassium sulphide and liberating carbon.
A mixture of carbon bisulphide vapour and sulphuretted hydrogen, when passed over heated copper, gives, amongst other products, some methane.
Carbon bisulphide slowly oxidizes on exposure to air, but by the action of potassium permanganate or chromic acid it is readily oxidized to carbon dioxide and sulphuric acid.
By the action of aqueous alkalis, carbon bisulphide is converted into a mixture of an alkaline carbonate and an alkaline thiocarbonate (J.
Carbon bisulphide combines with primary amines to form alkyl dithiocarbamates, which when heated lose sulphuretted hydrogen and leave a residue of a dialkyl thio-urea, CS 2 +2R NH 2 - R NH CSS NH 3 RCS(NHR)2+H2S; or if the aqueous solution of the dithiocarbamate be boiled with mercuric chloride or silver nitrate solution, a mustard oil (q.v.) is formed, R.NH CSS NH3R+HgC12-Hg(R NH CSS)2->2RNCS-}-HgS+H2S.
Carbon bisulphide is used as a solvent for caoutchouc, for extracting essential oils, as a germicide, and as an insecticide.
Carbon monosulphide, CS, is formed when a silent electric discharge is passed through a mixture of carbon bisulphide vapour and hydrogen or carbon monoxide (S.
If the plants are subjected to some process, before mounting, by which injurious organisms are destroyed, such as exposure in a closed chamber to vapour of carbon bisulphide for some hours, the presence of pieces of camphor or naphthalene in the cabinet will be found a sufficient preservative.
The best solvents for rubber are carbon bisulphide, benzol and mineral naphtha, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform.
Schultz, Ann., 1879, 196, p. 35); or the two hydrocarbons may be separated by carbon bisulphide, in which anthracene is insoluble.
Columbium oxysulphide, CbOS 3, is obtained as a dark bronze coloured powder when the pentoxide is heated to a white heat in a current of carbon bisulphide vapour; or by gently heating the oxychloride in a current of sulphuretted hydrogen.
Stannic bromide, SnBr 4, is a white crystalline mass, melting at 33° and boiling at 201°, obtained by the combination of tin and bromine, preferably in carbon bisulphide solution.
Silicon tetraiodide, Si14, is formed by passing iodine vapour mixed with carbon dioxide over strongly-heated silicon (C. Friedel, Comptes rendus, 1868, 67, p. 98); the iodo-compound condenses in the colder portion of the apparatus and is purified by shaking with carbon bisulphide and with mercury.
It is soluble in carbon bisulphide, and is decomposed by water and also by heat, in the latter case yielding the tetraiodide and the di-iodide, Si 2 I 4, an orange-coloured solid which is not soluble in carbon bisulphide.
It is also obtained by the action of hydriodic acid on silicon nitrogen hydride suspended in carbon bisulphide, or by the action of a benzene solution of hydriodic acid on trianilino-silicon hydride (0.
Silicon sulphide, SiS 2, is formed by the direct union of silicon with sulphur; by the action of sulphuretted hydrogen on crystallized silicon at red heat (P. Sabatier, Comptes rendus, 1880, 90, p. 819); or by passing the vapour of carbon bisulphide over a heated mixture of silica and carbon.
Carbon bisulphide >>
Primary amines heated with carbon bisulphide in alcoholic solution are converted into mustard oils, when the dithiocarbamate first produced is heated with a solution of mercuric chloride.
Insecticides, of which the bisulphide of carbon (CS 2) and the sulpho-carbonate of potassium (KS CS2) remain in use, were injected into the earth to kill the phylloxera on the roots of the vine.
That nothing analogous to bitumen exists in coals is proved by the fact that the ordinary solvents for bituminous substances, such as bisulphide of carbon and benzol, have no effect upon them, as would be the case if they contained bitumen soluble in these re-agents.
It burns when heated in an atmosphere of oxygen, forming carbon dioxide, and when heated in sulphur vapour it forms carbon bisulphide.
In The Latter Reaction Various Other Compounds, Such As Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Bisulphide And Hydrocyanic Acid, Are Produced.
It Is Also Formed When Sulphur Trioxide Reacts With Carbon Bisulphide At 100° C., Cs2 3S03 =Cos 4So 2, And By The Decomposition Of Ethyl Potassium Thiocarbonate With Hydrochloric Acid, Co(0C2115)Sk Hc1= Cos Kc1 C 2 H 5 Oh.
Wood, when white light is transmitted through a paste made of powdered quartz and a mixture of carbon bisulphide with benzol having the same refractive index as the quartz for yellow light.
It is only very sparingly soluble in water, but dissolves readily in solutions of the alkaline iodides and in alcohol, ether, carbon bisulphide, chloroform, and many liquid hydrocarbons.
Its solutions in the alkaline iodides and in alcohol and ether are brown in colour, whilst in chloroform and carbon bisulphide the solution is violet.
Ind., 1893, 13, p. 887) digest carbon bisulphide with ammonia and lime in quantities slightly in excess of those demanded by the following equation: 2CS 2 + 2NH 3 + 2Ca(OH) 2 = Ca(SCN) 2 Ca(SH)2+4H20; the product is then treated with a current of carbon dioxide, calcium carbonate being precipitated, sulphuretted hydrogen escaping, and calcium sulphocyanide remaining in solution.
This law cannot be maintained in its generality, but nevertheless highly dispersive substances like carbon bisulphide are always found to produce a greater shift than liquids of smaller dispersion like water and alcohol.
The prism may be made of a dense flint glass or of quartz if the ultra-violet is to be explored, or it may be hollow and filled with carbon bisulphide, a-bromnaphthalene or other suitable liquid.
Rutherfurd devised one made of flint glass with two crown glass compensating prisms; whilst Thallon employed a hollow prism containing carbon bisulphide also compensated by flint glass prisms. In direct vision spectroscopes the refracting prisms and slit are in the observing telescope.
It was found that the machine acted better if the rubbers were covered with bisulphide of tin or with F.
Lanthanum sulphide, La 2 S 3, is a yellow powder, obtained when the oxide is heated in the vapour of carbon bisulphide.
It is easily soluble in hot alcohol, ether and carbon bisulphide.
When heated with alcohol in sealed tubes, it yields carbamic esters; with alcohol and carbon bisulphide at Ioo° C., carbon dioxide is liberated and ammonium sulphocyanide is formed.
Manganous Sulphide, MnS, found native as manganese glance, may be obtained by heating the monoxide or carbonate in a porcelain tube in a current of carbon bisulphide vapour.
Cerous sulphide, Ce2S3, results on heating cerium with sulphur or cerium oxide in carbon bisulphide vapour.
Tungsten disulphide, W52, is obtained as soft black acicular crystals by the action of sulphur, sulphuretted hydrogen or carbon bisulphide on tungsten.
Many remedies for this disease have been suggested, including total submersion of the vineyards, the use of carbon bisulphide for spraying, and of copper salts, but there appears to be little doubt that a really serious epidemic can only be dealt with by systematic destruction of the vines, followed by replanting with resistant varieties.
It is soluble in alcohol and in carbon bisulphide, and also in a small quantity of water; but with an excess of water it gives a precipitate of various oxychlorides, known as powder of algaroth.
Prepared in this way it contains a small quantity of the unaltered chloride, which can be removed by ether or carbon bisulphide.
Antimony tribromide, SbBr 3, and tri-iodide, SbI 31 may be prepared by the action of antimony on solutions of bromine or iodine in carbon bisulphide.
If a drop of alcohol be made to touch one side of a drop of oil on a glass plate, the alcohol will appear to chase the oil over the plate, and if a drop of water and a drop of bisulphide of carbon be placed in contact in a horizontal capillary tube, the bisulphide of carbon will chase the water along the tube.
The behaviour of a drop of carbon bisulphide placed upon clean water is also, at first sight, an exception to Marangoni's rule.
If after the deposition of the drop, a little lycopodium be scattered over the surface, it is seen that a circular space surrounding the drop, of about the size of a shilling, remains bare, and this, however often the dusting be repeated, so long as any of the carbon bisulphide remains.
The carbon bisulphide is really spreading all the while, but on account of its volatility is unable to reach any considerable distance.
Calderon), or 280° C. (C. Graebe), and is readily soluble in water, alcohol and ether, but insoluble in chloroform and carbon bisulphide.
It is slightly soluble in carbon bisulphide.
The red crystalline variety is obtained by crystallization of selenium from carbon bisulphide, or by leaving the amorphous form in contact with the same solvent.
It is a brickred powder which explodes when heated to 130° C. Selenium cyanide, Se(CN) 2, is obtained by decomposing silver selenocyanide with cyanogen iodide, or by the action of silver cyanide on a solution of selenium bromide in carbon bisulphide.
(German Patent, 26642.) The diluents in which bromine is employed are usually ether, chloroform, acetic acid, hydrochloric acid, carbon bisulphide and water, and, less commonly, alcohol, potassium bromide and hydrobromic acid; the excess of bromine being removed by heating, by sulphurous acid or by shaking with mercury.
The fracture is distinctly crystalline; large crystals, either regular dodecahedra or octahedra, may be obtained by crystallization from carbon bisulphide, sulphur chloride, &c., or by sublimation.
Beckmann obtained P4 molecules from the boiling-point of carbon bisulphide solutions, and Hertz arrived at the same conclusion from the lowering of the freezing-point in benzene solution; E.
Phosphorus is nearly insoluble in water, but dissolves in carbon bisulphide, sulphur chloride, benzene and oil of turpentine.
It is a dark red microcrystalline powder, insoluble in carbon bisulphide, oil of turpentine, &c., and having a density of 2.2.
The tertiary phosphines are characterized by their readiness to pass into derivatives containing pentavalent phosphorus, and consequently they form addition compounds with sulphur, carbon bisulphide, chlorine, bromine, the halogen acids and the alkyl halides with great readiness.
In front of the aperture were placed a plate of transparent rock-salt, and a flat cell of thin glass containing a solution of iodine in carbon bisulphide.
Both rock-salt and carbon bisulphide are extremely transparent to the luminous and also to the infra-red rays The iodine in the solution, however, has the property of absorbing the luminous rays, while transmitting the infra-red rays copiously, so that in sufficient thicknesses the solution appears nearly black.
Owing to the inflammable nature of carbon bisulphide, the plate of rock-salt was found to be hardly a sufficient protection, and Tyndall surrounded the iodine cell with an annular vessel through which cold water was made to flow.
The pentaiodide, AsI5, appears to be formed when a mixture of one part of arsenic and seven parts of iodine is heated to 190° C., but on dissolving the resulting product in carbon bisulphide and crystallizing from this solvent, only the tri-iodide is obtained.
When heated in a current of sulphuretted hydrogen, or carbon bisulphide, it yields a mixture of chromium sesquioxide and sulphide.
They are completely soluble in ether, carbon bisulphide, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, petroleum ether, and benzene.
Extraction by means o carbon bisulphide was first introduced in 1843 by Jesse Fisher of Birmingham.
Deiss of Brunswick again patented the extraction by means of carbon bisulphide (Eng.
Of course, the meal left by the process was so tainted with carbon bisulphide that it was absolutely out of the question to use the extracted meal as cattle food.
With the improvement in the manufacture of carbon bisulphide, these drawbacks have been surmounted to a large extent, and the process of extracting with carbon bisulphide has specially gained much extension in the extraction of expressed olive mare in the south of France, in Italy and in Spain.
Yet even now traces of carbon bisulphide are retained by the extracted meal, so that it is impossible to feed cattle with it.
But owing to the physiological effect carbon bisulphide has on the workmen, coupled with the chemical action of impure carbon bisulphide on iron which has frequently led to conflagrations, the employment of carbon bisulphide must remain restricted.
Carbon tetrachloride would be an ideal solvent, as it is non-inflammable and shares with carbon bisulphide the advantage of being heavier than water.
At the present time the choice lies practically only between the two solvents, carbon bisulphide and naphtha (petroleum ether).
Naphtha is preferable for oil seeds, as it extracts neither resins nor gummy matters from the oil seeds, and takes up less colouring matter than carbon bisulphide.
It is decomposed by water, and with a solution of yellow phosphorus in carbon bisulphide it gives a red powder of composition PBI 2, which sublimes in vacuo at 210Ã‚° C. to red crystals, and when heated in a current of hydrogen loses its iodine and leaves a residue of boron phosphide PB.
Boron sulphide B 2 S 3 can be obtained by the direct union of the two elements at a white heat or from the tri-iodide and sulphur at 44 0 Ã‚° C., but is most conveniently prepared by heating a mixture of the trioxide and carbon in a stream of carbon bisulphide vapour.
It has a characteristic smell, and a biting taste; it is poisonous, and acts as a powerful antiseptic. It dissolves in water, 15 parts of water dissolving about one part of phenol at 16-17Ã‚° C., but it is miscible in all proportions at about 70Ã‚° C.; it is volatile in steam, and is readily soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, carbon bisulphide, chloroform and glacial acetic acid.
As to the formation of precipitated sulphur, Smith considers that the element first separates in the liquid S,,, condition, which is transformed into SA and finally into Sa; the insoluble (in carbon bisulphide) forms arise when little of the Sw has been transformed; whilst the soluble consist mainly of Sa.
It boils at 139Ã‚° C. and is solid at - 80Ã‚° C. It is soluble in carbon bisulphide and in benzene.
When perfectly pure, carbon bisulphide is a colourless, somewhat pleasant smelling, highly refractive liquid, of specific gravity 1 2661 (18Ã‚°/4Ã‚°) (J.
Aqueous and alcoholic solutions of ammonia convert carbon bisulphide into ammonium dithiocarbamate, which readily breaks down into ammonium thiocyanate and sulphuretted hydrogen (A.
It has long been known that the definition of a carbon bisulphide prism may be much improved by a vigorous shaking.
Stannic bromide, SnBr 4, is a white crystalline mass, melting at 33Ã‚° and boiling at 201Ã‚°, obtained by the combination of tin and bromine, preferably in carbon bisulphide solution.
They give the isonitrile reaction (see above) when warmed with chloroform and a caustic alkali, and form alkyl thioureas when heated with an alcoholic solution of carbon bisulphide.
It Is Also Formed When Sulphur Trioxide Reacts With Carbon Bisulphide At 100Ã‚° C., Cs2 3S03 =Cos 4So 2, And By The Decomposition Of Ethyl Potassium Thiocarbonate With Hydrochloric Acid, Co(0C2115)Sk Hc1= Cos Kc1 C 2 H 5 Oh.
It may also be prepared by oxidizing benzyl alcohol with concentrated nitric acid; by distilling a mixture of calcium benzoate and calcium formate; by the condensation of chlor-oxalic ester with benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride, the ester of the ketonic acid formed being then hydrolysed and the resulting acid distilled: C 6 H 6 +Cl CO Cooc 2 H 5 = C,H5co COOC2H5d-HC1, C 6 H 5 CO 000H =C6H5CHO+C02; by the action of anhydrous hydrocyanic acid and hydrochloric acid on benzene, an aldime being formed as an intermediate product: C 6 H 6 +HCN+HC1= C6H5CH :NH HC1, Benzaldine hydrochloride C 6 H 5 CH: NH HC1+H 2 O =NH4C1+C6H5CHO; and by the action of chromium oxychloride on toluene dissolved in carbon bisulphide (A.
When heated with alcohol in sealed tubes, it yields carbamic esters; with alcohol and carbon bisulphide at IooÃ‚° C., carbon dioxide is liberated and ammonium sulphocyanide is formed.
Calderon), or 280Ã‚° C. (C. Graebe), and is readily soluble in water, alcohol and ether, but insoluble in chloroform and carbon bisulphide.
It is a brickred powder which explodes when heated to 130Ã‚° C. Selenium cyanide, Se(CN) 2, is obtained by decomposing silver selenocyanide with cyanogen iodide, or by the action of silver cyanide on a solution of selenium bromide in carbon bisulphide.
The pentaiodide, AsI5, appears to be formed when a mixture of one part of arsenic and seven parts of iodine is heated to 190Ã‚° C., but on dissolving the resulting product in carbon bisulphide and crystallizing from this solvent, only the tri-iodide is obtained.
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