This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience. Learn more

bismuth

bismuth

bismuth Sentence Examples

  • There are veins of bismuth near Sodaville.

    17
    0
  • As another instance of this kind, the decomposition of bismuth chloride by water may be cited.

    13
    0
  • Manganese ore is mined for export, and bismuth is reported to have been discovered.

    10
    0
  • The large Hall effect in bismuth was discovered by Righi, Journ.

    6
    0
  • Bismuth oxychloride.

    1
    1
  • tin, bismuth) to give the alloy certain properties.

    1
    1
  • tin, bismuth) to give the alloy certain properties.

    1
    1
  • Bismuth is known to exist in all the Australian states, but up to the present time it has been mined for only in three states, viz.

    0
    0
  • rend., 1904 seq.) by fractional crystallization of the nickel double nitrates, the ethyl sulphates, and the bismuth double nitrates of the terbium earths.

    0
    0
  • If a very large quantity of water be added, the chloride is entirely decomposed in the manner represented by the equation BiC1 3 -fOH, = BiOCI -F2HC1, Bismuth chloride.

    0
    0
  • when H =2000 is of the order of 1/100 volt for iron, I/IOoo volt for nickel and I/Io,000 for bismuth.

    0
    0
  • ] Bismuth.

    0
    0
  • Most metals form carbonates (aluminium and chromium are exceptions), the alkali metals yielding both acid and normal carbonates of the types Mhco 3 and M 2 CO 3 (M = one atom of a monovalent metal); whilst bismuth, copper and magnesium appear only to form basic carbonates.

    0
    0
  • The crystals belong to the following systems: regular system - silver, gold, palladium, mercury, copper, iron, lead; quadratic system - tin, potassium; rhombic system - antimony, bismuth, tellurium, zinc, magnesium.

    0
    0
  • Antimony, bismuth and zinc exhibit a very distinct crystalline structure: a bar-shaped ingot readily breaks, and the crystal faces are distinctly visible on the fracture.

    0
    0
  • Volatilized more or less readily when heated beyond their fusing points in open crucibles: antimony (very readily), lead, bismuth, tin, silver.

    0
    0
  • By the joint action of water and air, thallium, lead, bismuth are oxidized, with formation of more or less sparingly soluble hydroxides (ThHO, PbH 2 O 2, BiH303), which, in the presence of carbonic acid, pass into still less soluble basic carbonates.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth is similarly attacked, but slowly, at a white heat.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth and antimony give (the latter very readily) sesquioxide (Bi 2 O 3 and Sb203, the latter being capable of passing into Sb204).

    0
    0
  • Of the several individual chlorides, the following are liquids or solids, volatile enough to be distilled from glass vessels: AsC13, SbC1 3, SnCl 4, BiCl 3, HgC1 2, the chlorides of arsenic, antimony, tin, bismuth, mercury respectively.

    0
    0
  • Moreover, zinc and bismuth were confused, and the word spiauter (the modern spelter) was indiscriminately given to both these metals.

    0
    0
  • Within these limits are to be found most of the minerals known - gold, silver, quicksilver, copper, lead, zinc, iron, manganese, wolfram, bismuth, thorium, vanadium; mica, coal, &c. On or near the coast are coal, salt, sulphur, borax, nitrates and petroleum.

    0
    0
  • It may conveniently be extended to similar mixtures of sulphur and selenium or tellurium, of bismuth and sulphur, of copper and cuprous oxide, and of iron and carbon, in fact to all cases in which substances can be made to mix in varying proportions without very marked indication of chemical action.

    0
    0
  • Spring has shown that by compressing a finely divided mixture of i 5 parts of bismuth, 8 parts of lead, 4 parts of tin and 3 parts of cadmium, an alloy is pro duced which melts at ioo C., that is, much below the meltingpoint of any of the four metals.

    0
    0
  • Various compounds of the alkali metals with bismuth, antimony, tin and lead have been prepared in a pure state.

    0
    0
  • The ternary alloys containing bismuth, tin and lead have been studied in this way by F.

    0
    0
  • Alloys represented by points on Ee, when they begin to solidify, deposit crystals of lead and bismuth simultaneously; Ee is a eutectic line, as also are E'e and E"e.

    0
    0
  • As the lines of the surface which correspond to Ee, &c., slope downwards to their common intersection it follows that the alloy e has the lowest freezing-point of any mixture of the three metals; this freezing-point is 96° C., and the alloy e contains about 32% of lead, 15-5% of tin and 52.5% of bismuth.

    0
    0
  • In the cases of aluminium dissolved in tin and of mercury or bismuth in lead, it is at least probable that the molecules in solution are Al 2j Hg 2 and Bit respectively, while tin in lead appears to form a molecule of the type Sn4.

    0
    0
  • The presence of minute quantities of cadmium, lead, bismuth, antimony, arsenic, tin, tellurium and zinc renders gold brittle, 2 ' 0 15th part of one of the three metals first named being sufficient to produce that quality.

    0
    0
  • A native gold amalgam is found as a rarity in California, and bismuth from South America is sometimes rich in gold.

    0
    0
  • It appears that amalgamation is often impeded by the tarnish found on the surface of the gold when it is associated with sulphur, arsenic, bismuth, antimony or tellurium.

    0
    0
  • It is necessary to remove as completely as possible any lead, tin, bismuth, antimony, arsenic and tellurium, impurities which impair the properties of gold and silver, by an oxidizing fusion, e.g.

    0
    0
  • Bock, however, in 1880 (Bergand hiittenmannische Zeitung, 1880, p. 411) described a process used at the North German Refinery in Hamburg for the refining of gold containing platinum with a small proportion of silver, lead or bismuth, and a subsequent patent specification (1896) and a paper by Wohlwill (Zeus.

    0
    0
  • In this process all the anode metals pass into solution except iridium and other refractory metals of that group, which remain as metals, and silver, which is converted into insoluble chloride; lead and bismuth form chloride and oxychloride respectively, and these dissolve until the bath is saturated with them, and then precipitate with the silver in the tank.

    0
    0
  • BISMUTH, a metallic chemical element; symbol Bi, atomic weight 208.5 (0 = 16).

    0
    0
  • The principal source of bismuth is the native metal, which is occasionally met with as a mineral, usually in reticulated and arborescent shapes or as foliated and granular masses with a crystalline fracture.

    0
    0
  • Although bismuth is readily obtained in fine crystals by artificial means, yet natural crystals are rare and usually indistinct: they belong to the rhombohedral system and a cube-like rhombohedron with interfacial angles of 92° 20' is the predominating form.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth occurs in metalliferous veins traversing gneiss or clay-slate, and is usually associated with ores of silver and cobalt.

    0
    0
  • It is the chief commercial source of bismuth.

    0
    0
  • The oxide, bismuth ochre, Bi 2 O 3, and the sulphide, bismuth glance or bismuthite, are also of commercial importance.

    0
    0
  • The former is found, generally mixed with iron, copper and arsenic oxides, in Bohemia, Siberia, Cornwall, France (Meymac) and other localities; it also occurs admixed with bismuth carbonate and hydrate.

    0
    0
  • Of the rarer bismuth minerals we may notice the following: - the complex sulphides, copper bismuth glance or wittichenite, BiCu 3 S 3, silver bismuth glance, bismuth cobalt pyrites, bismuth nickel pyrites or saynite, needle ore (patrinite or aikinite), BiCuPbS 3, emplectite, CuBiS 2, and kobellite, BiAsPb 3 S 6; the sulphotelluride tetradymite; the selenide guanajuatite, B12Se3, Iv.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth is extracted from its ores by dry, wet, or electro-metallurgical methods, the choice depending upon the composition of the ore and economic conditions.

    0
    0
  • The extraction from ores in which the bismuth is present in the metallic condition may be accomplished by a simple liquation, or melting, in which the temperature is just sufficient to melt the bismuth, or by a complete fusion of the ore.

    0
    0
  • The fusion process is preferably carried out in crucible furnaces; shaft furnaces are unsatisfactory on account of the disintegrating action of the molten bismuth on the furnace linings.

    0
    0
  • A certain amount of bismuth sulphate is always formed during the calcination; this is subsequently reduced to the sulphide and ultimately to the metal in the fusion.

    0
    0
  • Calcination in reverberatory furnaces and a subsequent smelting in the same type of furnace with the addition of about 3% of coal, lime, soda and fluorspar, has been adopted for treating the Bolivian ores, which generally contain the sulphides of bismuth, copper, iron, antimony, lead and a little silver.

    0
    0
  • The lowest layer of the molten mass is principally metallic bismuth, the succeeding layers are a bismuth copper matte, which is subsequently worked up, and a slag.

    0
    0
  • In the wet process the ores, in which the bismuth is present as oxide or carbonate, are dissolved out with hydrochloric acid, or, if the bismuth is to be extracted from a matte or alloy, the solvent employed is aqua regia or strong sulphuric acid.

    0
    0
  • The solution of metallic chlorides or sulphates so obtained is precipitated by iron, the metallic bismuth filtered, washed with water, pressed in canvas bags, and finally fused in graphite crucibles, the surface being protected by a layer of charcoal.

    0
    0
  • Another process consists in adding water to the solution and so precipitating the bismuth as oxychloride, which is then converted into the metal.

    0
    0
  • A dry method of purification consists in a liquation on a hearth of peculiar construction, which occasions the separation of the unreduced bismuth sulphide and the bulk of the other impurities.

    0
    0
  • Hampe prepared chemically pure bismuth by fusing the metal with sodium carbonate and sulphur, dissolving the bismuth sulphide so formed in nitric acid, precipitating the bismuth as the basic nitrate, redissolving this salt in nitric acid, and then precipitating with ammonia.

    0
    0
  • The bismuth hydroxide so obtained is finally reduced by hydrogen.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth is a very brittle metal with a white crystalline fracture and a characteristic reddish-white colour.

    0
    0
  • 2 9, p. 2 94), its specific gravity is 9.7 81 43; Roberts and Wrightson give the specific gravity of solid bismuth as 9.82, and of molten bismuth as to 055.

    0
    0
  • von Riemsdijk) and 270.5° (C. C. Person); commercial bismuth melts at 260° (Ledebur), and electrolytic bismuth at 264° (Classen).

    0
    0
  • In the last case it becomes coated with a greyish-black layer of an oxide (dioxide (?)), at a red heat the layer consists of the trioxide (B1203), and is yellow or green in the case of pure bismuth, and violet or blue if impure; at a bright red heat it burns with a bluish flame to the trioxide.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth combines directly with the halogens, and the elements of the sulphur group. It readily dissolves in nitric acid, aqua regia, and hot sulphuric acid, but tardily in hot hydrochloric acid.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth readily forms alloys with other metals.

    0
    0
  • A brittle potassium alloy of silver-white colour and lamellar fracture is obtained by calcining 20 parts of bismuth with 16 of cream of tartar at a strong red heat.

    0
    0
  • When present in other metals, even in very small quantity, bismuth renders them brittle and impairs their electrical conductivity.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth forms four oxides, of which the trioxide, B1203, is the most important.

    0
    0
  • This compound occurs in nature as bismuth ochre, and may be prepared artificially by oxidizing the metal at a red heat, or by heating the carbonate, nitrate or hydrate.

    0
    0
  • The hydrate, Bi(OH) 3 i is obtained as a white powder by adding potash to a solution of a bismuth salt.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth dioxide, BiO or Bi 2 O 2, is said to be formed by the limited oxidation of the metal, and as a brown precipitate by adding mixed solutions of bismuth and stannous chlorides to a solution of caustic potash.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth tetroxide, Bi 2 O 4, sometimes termed bismuth bismuthate, is obtained by melting bismuth trioxide with potash, or by igniting bismuth trioxide with potash and potassium chlorate.

    0
    0
  • It is also formed by oxidizing bismuth trioxide suspended in caustic potash with chlorine, the pentoxide being formed simultaneously; oxidation and potassium ferricyanide simply gives the tetroxide (Hauser and Vanino, Zeit.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth pentoxide, B12C,, is obtained by heating bismuthic acid, HBiO 3, to 130° C.; this acid (in the form of its salts) being the product of the continued oxidation of an alkaline solution of bismuth trioxide.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth forms two chlorides: BiC1 2 and BiC1 3.

    0
    0
  • Water decomposes it to metallic bismuth and the oxychloride, BiOC1.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth trichloride, BiC13, was obtained by Robert Boyle by heating the metal with corrosive sublimate.

    0
    0
  • It is the final product of burning bismuth in an excess of chlorine.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth trichloride forms double compounds with hydrochloric acid, the chlorides of the alkaline metals, ammonia, nitric oxide and nitrosyl chloride.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth trifluoride, BiF3, a white powder, bismuth tribromide, BiBr 3, golden yellow crystals, bismuth iodide, Bi13, greyish-black crystals, are also known.

    0
    0
  • The basic carbonate, 2(B10) 2 CO 3 4H 2 O, obtained as a white precipitate when an alkaline carbonate is added to a solution of bismuth nitrate, is employed in medicine.

    0
    0
  • This precipitate constitutes the "magistery of bismuth" or "subnitrate of bismuth" of pharmacy, and under the name of pearl white, blanc d'Espagne or blanc de fard has long been used as a cosmetic.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth combines directly with sulphur to form a disulphide, B12S2, and a trisulphide, B12S3, the latter compound being formed when the sulphur is in excess.

    0
    0
  • A hydrated disulphide, B12S2.2H20, is obtained by passing sulphuretted hydrogen into a solution of bismuth nitrate and stannous chloride.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth disulphide is a grey metallic substance, which is decomposed by hydrochloric acid with the separation of metallic bismuth and the formation of bismuth trichloride.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth trisulphide, B12S3, constitutes the mineral bismuthite, and may be prepared by direct union of its constituents, or as a brown precipitate by passing sulphuretted hydrogen into a solution of a bismuth salt.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth forms several oxysulphides: Bi 4 O,S constitutes the mineral karelinite found at the Zavodinski mine in the Altai; B1603S4 and Bi 2 OsS have been prepared artificially.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth also forms the sulphohaloids, BiSCI, BiSBr, BiSI, analogous to the oxyhaloids.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth sulphate, B12(S04)3, is obtained as a white powder by dissolving the metal or sulphide in concentrated sulphuric acid.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth forms compounds similar to the trisulphide with the elements selenium and tellurium.

    0
    0
  • Traces of bismuth may be detected by treating the solution with excess of tartaric acid, potash and stannous chloride, a precipitate or dark coloration of bismuth oxide being formed even when only one part of bismuth is present in 20,000 of water.

    0
    0
  • The blackish brown sulphide precipitated from bismuth salts by sulphuretted hydrogen is insoluble in ammonium sulphide, but is readily dissolved by nitric acid.

    0
    0
  • The subnitrate of bismuth is invaluable in certain cases of dyspepsia, and still more notably so in diarrhoea.

    0
    0
  • The alloy used is composed of 15 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead, 4 of tin and 3 of cadmium; it melts at 70°, and can be experimented with as readily as mercury.

    0
    0
  • It may be obtained by heating tellurium bismuth with sodium carbonate, lixiviating the fused mass with water, filtering, and exposing the filtrate to air, when the tellurium is gradually precipitated as a grey powder (J.

    0
    0
  • Other precipitants of phosphoric acid or its salts in solution are: ammonium molybdate in nitric acid, which gives on heating a canary-yellow precipitate of ammonium phosphomolybdate, 12[M00 3] (NH 4) 3 PO 4, insoluble in acids but readily soluble in ammonia; magnesium chloride, ammonium chloride and ammonia, which give on standing in a warm place a white crystalline precipitate of magnesium ammonium phosphate, Mg(NH 4)PO 4.6H 2 0, which is soluble in acids but highly insoluble in ammonia solutions, and on heating to redness gives magnesium pyrophosphate, Mg 2 P 2 0 7; uranic nitrate and ferric chloride, which give a yellowish-white precipitate, soluble in hydrochloric acid and ammonia, but insoluble in acetic acid; mercurous nitrate which gives a white precipitate, soluble in nitric acid, and bismuth nitrate which gives a white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid.

    0
    0
  • Copper, zinc and bismuth are also worked.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth >>

    0
    0
  • According to the official records, there were registered in September 1906, 23,191 mining properties, of which very nearly five-sixths were described as producing s:'ver, either by itself or in combination with other metals: The properties were classed as 1572 gold, 5461 silver, 970 copper, 383 iron, 151 mercury, 94 lead, 86 sulphur, 52 antimony, 49 zinc, 40 tin, 21 opals, 9 manganese, 6 " sal gema," 5 tourmalines, i bismuth and i turquoise - the remainder being various combinations of these minerals.

    0
    0
  • Antimony, bismuth, selenium, tellurium, chromic iron ore, tin, nickel, cobalt, vanadium, titanium, molybdenum, uranium and tantalum are produced in the United States in small amounts, but such production in several cases has amounted to only slight discoveries, and in general they are of little importance in the market.

    0
    0
  • The mineral resources include silver, gold, cinnabar, copper, bismuth, and various precious stones.

    0
    0
  • In the case of some metals, notably bismuth, the velocity measured was different for different lines, which seems intelligible only on the supposition that the metal vapour consists of different vibrating systems which can differ with different velocities.

    0
    0
  • While some of the phenomena seem to indicate that the projection of metallic vapours into the centre of the spark is a process of molecular diffusion independent of the mechanism of the discharge, the different velocities obtained with bismuth, and the probability that the vibrating systems are not electrically neutral, seem to indicate that the projected metallic particles are electrified and play some part in the discharge.

    0
    0
  • Lacombe in 1904 obtained the pure salts by fractional crystallization of the nitric acid solution with magnesium nitrate in the presence of bismuth nitrate.

    0
    0
  • After removing the uranium, it was found that the bismuth separated with a very active substance - polonium; this element was afterwards isolated by Marckwald, and proved to be identical with his radiotellurium; that the barium could be separated with another active substance - radium; whilst a third fraction, composed mainly of the rare earths (thorium, &c.), yielded to Debierne another radioactive element - actinium, which proved to be identical with the emanium of Giesel.

    0
    0
  • In the same neighbourhood are found cobalt, arsenic and bismuth.

    0
    0
  • The metals, which by combination with oxygen became oxides, were antimony, silver, arsenic, bismuth, cobalt, copper, tin, iron, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, gold, platinum, lead, tungsten and zinc; and the "simple earthy salifiable substances" were lime, baryta, magnesia, alumina and silica.

    0
    0
  • FUSIBLE METAL, a term applied to certain alloys, generally composed of bismuth, lead and tin, which possess the property of melting at comparatively low temperatures.

    0
    0
  • Newton's fusible metal (named after Sir Isaac Newton) contains 50 parts of bismuth, 31.25 of lead and 18.75 of tin; that of Jean Darcet (1725-1801), 50 parts of bismuth with 25 each of lead and tin; and that of Valentin Rose the elder, so of bismuth with 28 1 of lead and 24 I of tin.

    0
    0
  • These melt between 91° and 95° C. The addition of cadmium gives still greater fusibility; in Wood's metal, for instance, which is Darcet's metal with half the tin replaced by cadmium, the melting point is lowered to 66°-71° C.; while another described by Lipowitz and containing 15 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead, 4 of tin and 3 of cadmium, softens at about 55° and is completely liquid a little above 60°.

    0
    0
  • By suitable modification in the proportions of the components, a series of alloys can be made which melt at various temperatures above the boiling point of water; for example, with 8 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead and 3 of tin the melting point is 123°, and with 8 of bismuth, 30 of lead and 24 of tin it is 172°.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth and antimony chlorides are decomposed by water with production of oxychlorides, whilst titanium tetrachloride yields titanic acid under the same conditions.

    0
    0
  • Minerals produced in small quantities include gypsum, millstones, salt and sandstone, and among those found but not produced (in 1902) in commercial quantities may be mentioned allanite, alum, arsenic, bismuth, carbonite, felspar, kaolin, marble, plumbago, quartz, serpentine and tin.

    0
    0
  • The impurities contained in coarse-copper are mainly iron, lead, zinc, cobalt, nickel, bismuth, arsenic, antimony, sulphur, selenium and tellurium.

    0
    0
  • The principles have long been known on which is based the electrolytic separation of copper from the certain elements which generally accompany it, whether these, like silver and gold, are valuable, or, like arsenic, antimony, bismuth, selenium and tellurium, are merely impurities.

    0
    0
  • of cathode, and an electrolyte containing qlb of copper sulphate and z lb of sulphuric acid per gallon, all the gold, platinum and silver present in the crude copper anode remain as metals, undissolved, in the anode slime or mud, and all the lead remains there as sulphate, formed by the action of the sulphuric acid (or S04 ions); he found also that arsenic forms arsenious oxide, which dissolves until the solution is saturated, and then remains in the slime, from which on long standing it gradually dissolves, after conversion by secondary reactions into arsenic oxide; antimony forms a basic sulphate which in part dissolves; bismuth partly dissolves and partly remains, but the dissolved portion tends slowly to separate out as a basic salt which becomes added to the slime; cuprous oxide, sulphide and selenides remain in the slime, and very slowly pass into solution by simple chemical action; tin partly dissolves (but in part separates again as basic salt) and partly remains as basic sulphate and stannic oxide; zinc, iron, nickel and cobalt pass into solution - more readily indeed than does the copper.

    0
    0
  • Of the metals which dissolve, none (except bismuth, which is rarely present in any quantity) deposits at the anode so long as the solution retains its proper proportion of copper and acid, and the current-density is not too great.

    0
    0
  • Electrolytic copper should contain at least 99.92% of metallic copper, the balance consisting mainly of oxygen with not more than o oi% in all of lead, arsenic, antimony, bismuth and silver.

    0
    0
  • The phosphorescence of the sulphide obtained by heating the thiosulphate is much increased by adding uranium, bismuth, or thorium before ignition pr.

    0
    0
  • Thus carbolic acid or carbolized ammonia are sniffed into the nose to destroy the microbes there, or the nose is washed out by an antiseptic solution as a nasal douche; bismuth or morphine are insufflated, or zinc ointment is applied, to cover the mucous membrane, and protect it from further irritation; and various antiseptic gargles, paints and powders applied to the pharynx in order to prevent the microbic inflammation from extending to the pharynx and down the trachea and bronchi, for many a severe bronchitis begins first by sneezing and nasal irritation.

    0
    0
  • Others which may be mentioned are salicylate of bismuth, salol, 0-naphthol and naphthalene.

    0
    0
  • After the irritant has been removed and fermentation stopped, the irritation still remaining in the intestinal wall may be soothed by chalk mixture and bismuth, to which if necessary small quantities of opium may be added.

    0
    0
  • ANTIMONY (symbol Sb, atomic weight 120.2), one of the metallic chemical elements, included in the same natural family of the elements as nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, and bismuth.

    0
    0
  • Distinct crystals are rarely met with; these are rhombohedral and isomorphous with arsenic and bismuth; they have a perfect cleavage parallel to the basal plane, c (111), and are sometimes twinned on a rhombohedral plane, e (1 ro).

    0
    0
  • the basis of Britannia-metal, small quantities of copper, lead, zinc or bismuth being added.

    0
    0
  • The principal exports were (in 1903) silver and its ores 0636,743), tin and its ores (b,039,298), copper ores 0157,609), bismuth (b6,354), other minerals (20,948),rubber (260,559), coca 028,907), and cinchona 09 1 97) - total exports, £2,453,638.

    0
    0
  • The nitrates, chlorides, sugars and fats, as also the metals lead, bismuth and antimony, have a specific cohesion nearly equal to that of mercury.

    0
    0
  • It is the most malleable and ductile of all metals with the exception of gold: one gramme can be drawn out into a wire 180 metres long, and the leaf can be beaten out to a thickness of 0.0002 5 mm.; traces of arsenic, antimony, bismuth and lead, however, make it brittle.

    0
    0
  • It is prevented by preserving the molten metal from contact with air by covering the surface with non-oxidizing agents, or by traces of copper, bismuth or zinc.

    0
    0
  • Crude silver generally contains small amounts of copper, gold, bismuth, lead and other metals.

    0
    0
  • Thus arsenic, antimony, bismuth, tin or zinc render the metal brittle, so that it fractures under a die or rolling mill; copper, on the other hand, increases its hardness, makes it tougher and more readily fusible.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth, platinum, molybdenum and antimony are obtained in small quantities.

    0
    0
  • He was specially noted for his discovery of the electrical conductivity of bismuth and other metals, and for his pioneer work in wireless telegraphy.

    0
    0
  • Numerous gold mines are worked in the district, which also abounds in copper, silver, antimony, cinnabar, bismuth and nickel.

    0
    0
  • There is some roofing slate along the Rogue river, natural cement, nickel ore, bismuth and wolframite in Douglas county, gypsum in Baker county, fire-clay in Clatsop county, borate of soda on the marsh lands of Harney county, infusorial earth and tripoli in the valley of the Deschutes river, chromate of iron in Curry and Douglas counties, molybdenite in Union county, bauxite in Clackamas county, borate of lime in Curry county, manganese ore in Columbia county, and asbestos in several of the southern and eastern counties.

    0
    0
  • Gold is found in several places, and some arsenic, antimony, bismuth, manganese, mercury and sulphur.

    0
    0
  • Minerals which were not mined commercially in 1902 include asbestos, which occurs in Spartanburg and Pickens counties; fullers'-earth; graphite in Spartanburg and Greenville counties; iron ores in the north and north-west portions of the state; iron pyrites in Spartanburg and York counties; talc, bismuth, ochre, pyrites, ' galena, brown coal, malachite, phosphate of lead and barytes.

    0
    0
  • - These include iron, manganese, aluminium, chromium, zinc, copper, silver, gold, platinum, lead, mercury, and probably antimony, arsenic and bismuth.

    0
    0
  • Soluble salts of manganese, aluminium, zinc, copper, gold, platinum and bismuth have, when given by the mouth, little action beyond their local astringent or irritating effects; but when injected into a blood vessel they all exert much the same depressing effect upon the heart and nervous system.

    0
    0
  • The majority of the studies used bismuth alone or a single antibiotic alone.

    0
    0
  • bismuth subsalicylate is an effective, non-antibiotic approach to prevent travelers diarrhea with an overall efficacy of about 60% .

    0
    0
  • bismuth oxides which exhibit exceptionally high oxide ion conductivity at low temperatures.

    0
    0
  • bismuth salts are mildly astringent and antiseptic to soothe and protect raw areas.

    0
    0
  • bismuth citrate can cause the tongue to darken and stools to turn black.

    0
    0
  • bismuth alloys, there are patent implications.

    0
    0
  • bismuth shot: ' I've done all the proof tests from 4-bore down to 10.

    0
    0
  • Ranitidine bismuth citrate can cause the tongue to darken and stools to turn black.

    0
    0
  • The most common additives are sulfur and lead, other elements used include tellurium, selenium and bismuth.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth is known to exist in all the Australian states, but up to the present time it has been mined for only in three states, viz.

    0
    0
  • Molybdenum, in the form of molybdenite (sulphide of molybdenum), is found in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, associated in the parent state with tin and bismuth in quartz reefs.

    0
    0
  • rend., 1904 seq.) by fractional crystallization of the nickel double nitrates, the ethyl sulphates, and the bismuth double nitrates of the terbium earths.

    0
    0
  • There are veins of bismuth near Sodaville.

    0
    0
  • Manganese ore is mined for export, and bismuth is reported to have been discovered.

    0
    0
  • As another instance of this kind, the decomposition of bismuth chloride by water may be cited.

    0
    0
  • If a very large quantity of water be added, the chloride is entirely decomposed in the manner represented by the equation BiC1 3 -fOH, = BiOCI -F2HC1, Bismuth chloride.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth oxychloride.

    0
    0
  • Antimony and its compounds formed the subject of an elaborate treatise ascribed to this last writer, who also contributed to our knowledge of the compounds of zinc, bismuth and arsenic. All the commonly occurring elements and compounds appear to have received notice by the alchemists; but the writings assigned to the alchemical period are generally so vague and indefinite that it is difficult to determine the true value of the results obtained.

    0
    0
  • Antimonial, bismuth and arsenical compounds were assiduously studied, a direct consequence of their high medicinal importance; mercurial and silver compounds were investigated for the same reason.

    0
    0
  • If the substance does not melt but changes colour, we may have present: zinc oxide - from white to yellow, becoming white on cooling; stannic oxide - white to yellowish brown, dirty white on cooling; lead oxide - from white or yellowish-red to brownish-red, yellow on cooling; bismuth oxide - from white or pale yellow to orange-yellow or reddish-brown, pale yellow on cooling; manganese oxide - from white or yellowish white to dark brown, remaining dark brown on cooling (if it changes on cooling to a bright reddishbrown, it indicates cadmium oxide); copper oxide - from bright blue or green to black; ferrous oxide - from greyish-white to black; ferric oxide - from brownish-red to black, brownish-red on cooling; potassium chromate - yellow to dark orange, fusing at a red heat.

    0
    0
  • If the incrustation be white and readily volatile, arsenic is present, if more difficultly volatile and beads are present, antimony; zinc gives an incrustation yellow whilst hot, white on cooling, and volatilized with difficulty; tin gives a pale yellow incrustation, which becomes white on cooling, and does not volatilize in either the reducing or oxidizing flames; lead gives a lemon-yellow incrustation turning sulphur-yellow on cooling, together with metallic malleable beads; bismuth gives metallic globules and a dark orange-yellow incrustation, which becomes lemon-yellow on cooling; cadmium gives a reddish-brown incrustation, which is removed without leaving a gleam by heating in the reducing flame; silver gives white metallic globules and a dark-red incrustation.

    0
    0
  • If the bead is coloured we may have present: cobalt, blue to violet; copper, green, blue on cooling; in the reducing flame, red when cold; chromium, green, unaltered in the reducing flame; iron, brownish-red, light-yellow or colourless on cooling; in the reducing flame, red while hot, yellow on cooling, greenish when cold; nickel, reddish to brownish-red, yellow to reddish-yellow or colourless on cooling, unaltered in the reducing flame; bismuth, yellowish-brown, light-yellow or colourless on cooling; in the reducing flame, almost colourless, blackish-grey when cold; silver, light yellowish to opal, somewhat opaque when cold; whitish-grey in the reducing flame; manganese, amethyst red, colourless in the reducing flame.

    0
    0
  • The black films of antimony and bismuth and the grey mottled film of mercury are slowly soluble in the acid, and untouched by bleaching-powder.

    0
    0
  • The oxide films of antimony, arsenic, tin and bismuth are white, that of bismuth slightly yellowish; lead yields a very pale yellow film, and cadmium a brown one; mercury yields no oxide film.

    0
    0
  • The solution is filtered and treated with an excess of sulphuretted hydrogen, either in solution or by passing in the gas; this precipitates mercury (mercuric), any lead left over from the first group, copper, bismuth, cadmium, arsenic, antimony and tin as sulphides.

    0
    0
  • The precipitate formed by sulphuretted hydrogen may contain the black mercuric, lead, and copper sulphides, dark-brown bismuth sulphide, yellow cadmium and arsenious sulphides, orange-red antimony sulphide, brown stannous sulphide, dull-yellow stannic sulphide, and whitish sulphur, the last resulting from the oxidation of sulphuretted hydrogen by ferric salts, chromates, &c. Warming with ammonium sulphide dissolves out the arsenic, antimony and tin salts, which are reprecipitated by the addition of hydrochloric acid to the ammonium sulphide solution.

    0
    0
  • Filter from the bismuth hydrate, and if copper is present, add potassium cyanide till the colour is destroyed, then pass sulphuretted hydrogen, and cadmium is precipitated as the yellow sulphide.

    0
    0
  • In acid copper solutions, mercury is deposited before the copper with which it subsequently amalgamates; silver is thrown down simultaneously; bismuth appears towards the end; and after all the copper has been precipitated, arsenic and antimony may be deposited.

    0
    0
  • It holds its own, however, when base bullion contains bismuth in appreciable amounts, as in the Pattinson process bismuth follows the lead to be cupelled, while in the Parkes process it remains with the desilverized lead which goes to market, and lead of commerce should contain little bismuth.

    0
    0
  • The base bullion is imperfectly Pattinsonized, giving lead rich in silver and bismuth, which is cupelled, and lead low in silver, and especially so in bismuth, which is further desilverized by the Parkes process.

    0
    0
  • An alloy consisting of 9 parts of lead, 2 of antimony and 2 of bismuth is used for stereotype plates.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth and Tin.

    0
    0
  • An alloy of 5 of lead, 8 of bismuth and 3 of tin fuses at 94.4° C., i.e.

    0
    0
  • An alloy of 15 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead, 4 of tin and 3 of cadmium (Wood's alloy) melts below 70° C.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth, the strongest of the diamagnetics, has a negative susceptibility which is numerically 20 times less than that of liquid oxygen.

    0
    0
  • The fact, which will be referred to later, that the electrical resistance of bismuth is very greatly affected by a magnetic field has been applied in the construction of apparatus for measuring field intensity.

    0
    0
  • A little instrument, supplied by Hartmann and Braun, contains a short length of fine bismuth wire wound into a flat double spiral, half an inch or thereabouts in diameter, and attached to a long ebonite handle.

    0
    0
  • Unfortunately the effects of magnetization upon the specific resistance of bismuth vary enormously with changes of temperature; it is therefore necessary to take two readings of the resistance, one when the spiral is in the magnetic field, the other when it is outside.

    0
    0
  • The metals used in different combinations included tin, aluminium, arsenic, antimony, bismuth and boron; each of these, when united in certain proportions with manganese, together with a larger quantity of copper (which appears to serve merely as a menstruum), constituted a magnetizable alloy.

    0
    0
  • Miscellaneous Effects Of Magnetization Electrical Conductivity.-The specific resistance of many electric conductors is known to be temporarily changed by the action of a magnetic field, but except in the case of bismuth the effect is very small.

    0
    0
  • Trans., 1883, Part I., 153) discovered in 1881 that the resistance of a bismuth rod was slightly increased when the rod was subjected to longitudinal magnetic force, and a year or two later A.

    0
    0
  • Lincei, 1883-1884, 19, 545) showed that a more considerable alteration was produced when the magnetic force was applied transversely to the bismuth conductor; he also noticed that the effect was largely dependent upon temperature (see also P. Lenard, Wied.

    0
    0
  • Mag., 1894, 38, 488) used a little spiral of the pure electrolytic bismuth wire prepared by Hartmann and Braun; this was placed between the pole-pieces of an electromagnet and subjected to fields of various strengths up to nearly 39,000 units.

    0
    0
  • Soc., 1897, 60, 425) worked with a similar specimen of bismuth, and their results for a constant temperature of 19° agree well with those of Henderson.

    0
    0
  • The following table gives some of their results, the specific resistance of the bismuth being expressed in C.G.S.

    0
    0
  • At the temperature of liquid air (-185°) the application of a field of 21,800 multiplied the resistance of the bismuth no less than 150 times.

    0
    0
  • Ber., 1886, 94, 560) have found that the rotational coefficient of tellurium is more than fifty times greater than that of bismuth, its sign being positive.

    0
    0
  • The large Hall effect in bismuth was discovered by Righi, Journ.

    0
    0
  • As to what effect, if any, is produced upon the thermo-electric quality of bismuth by a magnetic field there is still some doubt.

    0
    0
  • van Aubel I believes that in pure bismuth the thermo-electric force is increased by the field; impurities may neutralize this effect, and in sufficient quantities reverse it.

    0
    0
  • when H =2000 is of the order of 1/100 volt for iron, I/IOoo volt for nickel and I/Io,000 for bismuth.

    0
    0
  • - Bismuth is of special interest, as being the most strongly diamagnetic substance known, the mean value of the best determinations of its susceptibility being about - 14X 10-6 (see G.

    0
    0
  • Among the minerals are silver, platinum, copper, iron, lead, manganese, chromium, quicksilver, bismuth, arsenic and antimony, of which only iron and manganese have been regularly mined.

    0
    0
  • Throughout the world, primary deposits of tinstone are in or closely connected with granite or acid eruptive rocks of the same type, its mineral associates being tourmaline, fluorspar, topaz, wolfram and arsenical pyrites, and the invariable gangue being quartz: the only exception to this mode of occurrence is to be found in Bolivia, where the tin ore occurs intimately associated with silver ores, bismuth ores and various sulphides, whilst the gangue includes barytes and certain carbonates.

    0
    0
  • Iron renders the metal hard and brittle; arsenic, antimony and bismuth (up to 0.5%) reduce its tenacity; copper and lead (1 to 2%) make it harder and stronger but impair its malleability; and stannous oxide reduces its tenacity.

    0
    0
  • Most metals form carbonates (aluminium and chromium are exceptions), the alkali metals yielding both acid and normal carbonates of the types Mhco 3 and M 2 CO 3 (M = one atom of a monovalent metal); whilst bismuth, copper and magnesium appear only to form basic carbonates.

    0
    0
  • The crystals belong to the following systems: regular system - silver, gold, palladium, mercury, copper, iron, lead; quadratic system - tin, potassium; rhombic system - antimony, bismuth, tellurium, zinc, magnesium.

    0
    0
  • Antimony, bismuth and zinc exhibit a very distinct crystalline structure: a bar-shaped ingot readily breaks, and the crystal faces are distinctly visible on the fracture.

    0
    0
  • Volatilized more or less readily when heated beyond their fusing points in open crucibles: antimony (very readily), lead, bismuth, tin, silver.

    0
    0
  • By the joint action of water and air, thallium, lead, bismuth are oxidized, with formation of more or less sparingly soluble hydroxides (ThHO, PbH 2 O 2, BiH303), which, in the presence of carbonic acid, pass into still less soluble basic carbonates.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth is similarly attacked, but slowly, at a white heat.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth and antimony give (the latter very readily) sesquioxide (Bi 2 O 3 and Sb203, the latter being capable of passing into Sb204).

    0
    0
  • Of the several individual chlorides, the following are liquids or solids, volatile enough to be distilled from glass vessels: AsC13, SbC1 3, SnCl 4, BiCl 3, HgC1 2, the chlorides of arsenic, antimony, tin, bismuth, mercury respectively.

    0
    0
  • Moreover, zinc and bismuth were confused, and the word spiauter (the modern spelter) was indiscriminately given to both these metals.

    0
    0
  • Within these limits are to be found most of the minerals known - gold, silver, quicksilver, copper, lead, zinc, iron, manganese, wolfram, bismuth, thorium, vanadium; mica, coal, &c. On or near the coast are coal, salt, sulphur, borax, nitrates and petroleum.

    0
    0
  • It may conveniently be extended to similar mixtures of sulphur and selenium or tellurium, of bismuth and sulphur, of copper and cuprous oxide, and of iron and carbon, in fact to all cases in which substances can be made to mix in varying proportions without very marked indication of chemical action.

    0
    0
  • Spring has shown that by compressing a finely divided mixture of i 5 parts of bismuth, 8 parts of lead, 4 parts of tin and 3 parts of cadmium, an alloy is pro duced which melts at ioo C., that is, much below the meltingpoint of any of the four metals.

    0
    0
  • Various compounds of the alkali metals with bismuth, antimony, tin and lead have been prepared in a pure state.

    0
    0
  • The ternary alloys containing bismuth, tin and lead have been studied in this way by F.

    0
    0
  • The solid alloy consists of crystals of pure tin in juxtaposition with crystals of almost pure lead and bismuth, these two metals dissolving each other in solid solution to the extent of a few per cent only.

    0
    0
  • The region PbEeE' contains all the alloys that commence their solidification by the crystallization of lead; similarly, the other two regions correspond to the initial crystallization of bismuth and tin respectively; these areas are the projections of the three sheets of the freezing-point surface.

    0
    0
  • Alloys represented by points on Ee, when they begin to solidify, deposit crystals of lead and bismuth simultaneously; Ee is a eutectic line, as also are E'e and E"e.

    0
    0
  • As the lines of the surface which correspond to Ee, &c., slope downwards to their common intersection it follows that the alloy e has the lowest freezing-point of any mixture of the three metals; this freezing-point is 96° C., and the alloy e contains about 32% of lead, 15-5% of tin and 52.5% of bismuth.

    0
    0
  • In the cases of aluminium dissolved in tin and of mercury or bismuth in lead, it is at least probable that the molecules in solution are Al 2j Hg 2 and Bit respectively, while tin in lead appears to form a molecule of the type Sn4.

    0
    0
  • The presence of minute quantities of cadmium, lead, bismuth, antimony, arsenic, tin, tellurium and zinc renders gold brittle, 2 ' 0 15th part of one of the three metals first named being sufficient to produce that quality.

    0
    0
  • A native gold amalgam is found as a rarity in California, and bismuth from South America is sometimes rich in gold.

    0
    0
  • It appears that amalgamation is often impeded by the tarnish found on the surface of the gold when it is associated with sulphur, arsenic, bismuth, antimony or tellurium.

    0
    0
  • It is necessary to remove as completely as possible any lead, tin, bismuth, antimony, arsenic and tellurium, impurities which impair the properties of gold and silver, by an oxidizing fusion, e.g.

    0
    0
  • Bock, however, in 1880 (Bergand hiittenmannische Zeitung, 1880, p. 411) described a process used at the North German Refinery in Hamburg for the refining of gold containing platinum with a small proportion of silver, lead or bismuth, and a subsequent patent specification (1896) and a paper by Wohlwill (Zeus.

    0
    0
  • In this process all the anode metals pass into solution except iridium and other refractory metals of that group, which remain as metals, and silver, which is converted into insoluble chloride; lead and bismuth form chloride and oxychloride respectively, and these dissolve until the bath is saturated with them, and then precipitate with the silver in the tank.

    0
    0
  • BISMUTH, a metallic chemical element; symbol Bi, atomic weight 208.5 (0 = 16).

    0
    0
  • The principal source of bismuth is the native metal, which is occasionally met with as a mineral, usually in reticulated and arborescent shapes or as foliated and granular masses with a crystalline fracture.

    0
    0
  • Although bismuth is readily obtained in fine crystals by artificial means, yet natural crystals are rare and usually indistinct: they belong to the rhombohedral system and a cube-like rhombohedron with interfacial angles of 92° 20' is the predominating form.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth occurs in metalliferous veins traversing gneiss or clay-slate, and is usually associated with ores of silver and cobalt.

    0
    0
  • It is the chief commercial source of bismuth.

    0
    0
  • The oxide, bismuth ochre, Bi 2 O 3, and the sulphide, bismuth glance or bismuthite, are also of commercial importance.

    0
    0
  • The former is found, generally mixed with iron, copper and arsenic oxides, in Bohemia, Siberia, Cornwall, France (Meymac) and other localities; it also occurs admixed with bismuth carbonate and hydrate.

    0
    0
  • Of the rarer bismuth minerals we may notice the following: - the complex sulphides, copper bismuth glance or wittichenite, BiCu 3 S 3, silver bismuth glance, bismuth cobalt pyrites, bismuth nickel pyrites or saynite, needle ore (patrinite or aikinite), BiCuPbS 3, emplectite, CuBiS 2, and kobellite, BiAsPb 3 S 6; the sulphotelluride tetradymite; the selenide guanajuatite, B12Se3, Iv.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth is extracted from its ores by dry, wet, or electro-metallurgical methods, the choice depending upon the composition of the ore and economic conditions.

    0
    0
  • The extraction from ores in which the bismuth is present in the metallic condition may be accomplished by a simple liquation, or melting, in which the temperature is just sufficient to melt the bismuth, or by a complete fusion of the ore.

    0
    0
  • The first process never extracts all the bismuth, as much as onethird being retained in the matte or speiss; the second is more satisfactory, since the extraction is more complete, and also allows the addition of reducing agents to decompose any admixed bismuth oxide or sulphide.

    0
    0
  • The fusion process is preferably carried out in crucible furnaces; shaft furnaces are unsatisfactory on account of the disintegrating action of the molten bismuth on the furnace linings.

    0
    0
  • A certain amount of bismuth sulphate is always formed during the calcination; this is subsequently reduced to the sulphide and ultimately to the metal in the fusion.

    0
    0
  • Calcination in reverberatory furnaces and a subsequent smelting in the same type of furnace with the addition of about 3% of coal, lime, soda and fluorspar, has been adopted for treating the Bolivian ores, which generally contain the sulphides of bismuth, copper, iron, antimony, lead and a little silver.

    0
    0
  • The lowest layer of the molten mass is principally metallic bismuth, the succeeding layers are a bismuth copper matte, which is subsequently worked up, and a slag.

    0
    0
  • In the wet process the ores, in which the bismuth is present as oxide or carbonate, are dissolved out with hydrochloric acid, or, if the bismuth is to be extracted from a matte or alloy, the solvent employed is aqua regia or strong sulphuric acid.

    0
    0
  • The solution of metallic chlorides or sulphates so obtained is precipitated by iron, the metallic bismuth filtered, washed with water, pressed in canvas bags, and finally fused in graphite crucibles, the surface being protected by a layer of charcoal.

    0
    0
  • Another process consists in adding water to the solution and so precipitating the bismuth as oxychloride, which is then converted into the metal.

    0
    0
  • A dry method of purification consists in a liquation on a hearth of peculiar construction, which occasions the separation of the unreduced bismuth sulphide and the bulk of the other impurities.

    0
    0
  • Hampe prepared chemically pure bismuth by fusing the metal with sodium carbonate and sulphur, dissolving the bismuth sulphide so formed in nitric acid, precipitating the bismuth as the basic nitrate, redissolving this salt in nitric acid, and then precipitating with ammonia.

    0
    0
  • The bismuth hydroxide so obtained is finally reduced by hydrogen.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth is a very brittle metal with a white crystalline fracture and a characteristic reddish-white colour.

    0
    0
  • 2 9, p. 2 94), its specific gravity is 9.7 81 43; Roberts and Wrightson give the specific gravity of solid bismuth as 9.82, and of molten bismuth as to 055.

    0
    0
  • von Riemsdijk) and 270.5° (C. C. Person); commercial bismuth melts at 260° (Ledebur), and electrolytic bismuth at 264° (Classen).

    0
    0
  • In the last case it becomes coated with a greyish-black layer of an oxide (dioxide (?)), at a red heat the layer consists of the trioxide (B1203), and is yellow or green in the case of pure bismuth, and violet or blue if impure; at a bright red heat it burns with a bluish flame to the trioxide.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth combines directly with the halogens, and the elements of the sulphur group. It readily dissolves in nitric acid, aqua regia, and hot sulphuric acid, but tardily in hot hydrochloric acid.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth readily forms alloys with other metals.

    0
    0
  • A brittle potassium alloy of silver-white colour and lamellar fracture is obtained by calcining 20 parts of bismuth with 16 of cream of tartar at a strong red heat.

    0
    0
  • When present in other metals, even in very small quantity, bismuth renders them brittle and impairs their electrical conductivity.

    0
    0
  • With mercury it forms amalgams. Bismuth is a component of many ternary alloys characterized by their low fusibility and expansion in solidification; many of them are used in the arts (see Fusible Metal).

    0
    0
  • Bismuth forms four oxides, of which the trioxide, B1203, is the most important.

    0
    0
  • This compound occurs in nature as bismuth ochre, and may be prepared artificially by oxidizing the metal at a red heat, or by heating the carbonate, nitrate or hydrate.

    0
    0
  • The hydrate, Bi(OH) 3 i is obtained as a white powder by adding potash to a solution of a bismuth salt.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth dioxide, BiO or Bi 2 O 2, is said to be formed by the limited oxidation of the metal, and as a brown precipitate by adding mixed solutions of bismuth and stannous chlorides to a solution of caustic potash.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth tetroxide, Bi 2 O 4, sometimes termed bismuth bismuthate, is obtained by melting bismuth trioxide with potash, or by igniting bismuth trioxide with potash and potassium chlorate.

    0
    0
  • It is also formed by oxidizing bismuth trioxide suspended in caustic potash with chlorine, the pentoxide being formed simultaneously; oxidation and potassium ferricyanide simply gives the tetroxide (Hauser and Vanino, Zeit.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth pentoxide, B12C,, is obtained by heating bismuthic acid, HBiO 3, to 130° C.; this acid (in the form of its salts) being the product of the continued oxidation of an alkaline solution of bismuth trioxide.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth forms two chlorides: BiC1 2 and BiC1 3.

    0
    0
  • Water decomposes it to metallic bismuth and the oxychloride, BiOC1.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth trichloride, BiC13, was obtained by Robert Boyle by heating the metal with corrosive sublimate.

    0
    0
  • It is the final product of burning bismuth in an excess of chlorine.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth trichloride forms double compounds with hydrochloric acid, the chlorides of the alkaline metals, ammonia, nitric oxide and nitrosyl chloride.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth trifluoride, BiF3, a white powder, bismuth tribromide, BiBr 3, golden yellow crystals, bismuth iodide, Bi13, greyish-black crystals, are also known.

    0
    0
  • The basic carbonate, 2(B10) 2 CO 3 4H 2 O, obtained as a white precipitate when an alkaline carbonate is added to a solution of bismuth nitrate, is employed in medicine.

    0
    0
  • This precipitate constitutes the "magistery of bismuth" or "subnitrate of bismuth" of pharmacy, and under the name of pearl white, blanc d'Espagne or blanc de fard has long been used as a cosmetic.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth combines directly with sulphur to form a disulphide, B12S2, and a trisulphide, B12S3, the latter compound being formed when the sulphur is in excess.

    0
    0
  • A hydrated disulphide, B12S2.2H20, is obtained by passing sulphuretted hydrogen into a solution of bismuth nitrate and stannous chloride.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth disulphide is a grey metallic substance, which is decomposed by hydrochloric acid with the separation of metallic bismuth and the formation of bismuth trichloride.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth trisulphide, B12S3, constitutes the mineral bismuthite, and may be prepared by direct union of its constituents, or as a brown precipitate by passing sulphuretted hydrogen into a solution of a bismuth salt.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth forms several oxysulphides: Bi 4 O,S constitutes the mineral karelinite found at the Zavodinski mine in the Altai; B1603S4 and Bi 2 OsS have been prepared artificially.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth also forms the sulphohaloids, BiSCI, BiSBr, BiSI, analogous to the oxyhaloids.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth sulphate, B12(S04)3, is obtained as a white powder by dissolving the metal or sulphide in concentrated sulphuric acid.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth forms compounds similar to the trisulphide with the elements selenium and tellurium.

    0
    0
  • Traces of bismuth may be detected by treating the solution with excess of tartaric acid, potash and stannous chloride, a precipitate or dark coloration of bismuth oxide being formed even when only one part of bismuth is present in 20,000 of water.

    0
    0
  • The blackish brown sulphide precipitated from bismuth salts by sulphuretted hydrogen is insoluble in ammonium sulphide, but is readily dissolved by nitric acid.

    0
    0
  • The salts of bismuth are feebly antiseptic. Taken internally the subnitrate, coming into contact with water, tends to decompose, gradually liberating nitric acid, one of the most powerful antiseptics.

    0
    0
  • The subnitrate of bismuth is invaluable in certain cases of dyspepsia, and still more notably so in diarrhoea.

    0
    0
  • The alloy used is composed of 15 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead, 4 of tin and 3 of cadmium; it melts at 70°, and can be experimented with as readily as mercury.

    0
    0
  • It may be obtained by heating tellurium bismuth with sodium carbonate, lixiviating the fused mass with water, filtering, and exposing the filtrate to air, when the tellurium is gradually precipitated as a grey powder (J.

    0
    0
  • Marckwald (Ber., 1903, 36, p. 2662) showed that the Joachimsthal pitchblende yields tellurium and a minute quantity of the strongly radioactive polonium which is precipitated by bismuth (see Radioactivity).

    0
    0
  • Other precipitants of phosphoric acid or its salts in solution are: ammonium molybdate in nitric acid, which gives on heating a canary-yellow precipitate of ammonium phosphomolybdate, 12[M00 3] (NH 4) 3 PO 4, insoluble in acids but readily soluble in ammonia; magnesium chloride, ammonium chloride and ammonia, which give on standing in a warm place a white crystalline precipitate of magnesium ammonium phosphate, Mg(NH 4)PO 4.6H 2 0, which is soluble in acids but highly insoluble in ammonia solutions, and on heating to redness gives magnesium pyrophosphate, Mg 2 P 2 0 7; uranic nitrate and ferric chloride, which give a yellowish-white precipitate, soluble in hydrochloric acid and ammonia, but insoluble in acetic acid; mercurous nitrate which gives a white precipitate, soluble in nitric acid, and bismuth nitrate which gives a white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid.

    0
    0
  • Copper, zinc and bismuth are also worked.

    0
    0
  • According to the official records, there were registered in September 1906, 23,191 mining properties, of which very nearly five-sixths were described as producing s:'ver, either by itself or in combination with other metals: The properties were classed as 1572 gold, 5461 silver, 970 copper, 383 iron, 151 mercury, 94 lead, 86 sulphur, 52 antimony, 49 zinc, 40 tin, 21 opals, 9 manganese, 6 " sal gema," 5 tourmalines, i bismuth and i turquoise - the remainder being various combinations of these minerals.

    0
    0
  • Antimony, bismuth, selenium, tellurium, chromic iron ore, tin, nickel, cobalt, vanadium, titanium, molybdenum, uranium and tantalum are produced in the United States in small amounts, but such production in several cases has amounted to only slight discoveries, and in general they are of little importance in the market.

    0
    0
  • The mineral resources include silver, gold, cinnabar, copper, bismuth, and various precious stones.

    0
    0
  • In the case of some metals, notably bismuth, the velocity measured was different for different lines, which seems intelligible only on the supposition that the metal vapour consists of different vibrating systems which can differ with different velocities.

    0
    0
  • While some of the phenomena seem to indicate that the projection of metallic vapours into the centre of the spark is a process of molecular diffusion independent of the mechanism of the discharge, the different velocities obtained with bismuth, and the probability that the vibrating systems are not electrically neutral, seem to indicate that the projected metallic particles are electrified and play some part in the discharge.

    0
    0
  • Lacombe in 1904 obtained the pure salts by fractional crystallization of the nitric acid solution with magnesium nitrate in the presence of bismuth nitrate.

    0
    0
  • After removing the uranium, it was found that the bismuth separated with a very active substance - polonium; this element was afterwards isolated by Marckwald, and proved to be identical with his radiotellurium; that the barium could be separated with another active substance - radium; whilst a third fraction, composed mainly of the rare earths (thorium, &c.), yielded to Debierne another radioactive element - actinium, which proved to be identical with the emanium of Giesel.

    0
    0
  • In the better explored parts along the great lakes and the railways, ores of gold, silver, nickel, cobalt, antimony, arsenic, bismuth and molybdenum have been obtained, and several important mines have been opened up. Gold has been found at many points across the whole province, from the mines of the Lakeof-the-Woods on the west to the discoveries at Larder Lake on the east; but in most cases the returns have been unsatisfactory, and only a few of the gold mines are working.

    0
    0
  • In the same neighbourhood are found cobalt, arsenic and bismuth.

    0
    0
  • The metals, which by combination with oxygen became oxides, were antimony, silver, arsenic, bismuth, cobalt, copper, tin, iron, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, gold, platinum, lead, tungsten and zinc; and the "simple earthy salifiable substances" were lime, baryta, magnesia, alumina and silica.

    0
    0
  • FUSIBLE METAL, a term applied to certain alloys, generally composed of bismuth, lead and tin, which possess the property of melting at comparatively low temperatures.

    0
    0
  • Newton's fusible metal (named after Sir Isaac Newton) contains 50 parts of bismuth, 31.25 of lead and 18.75 of tin; that of Jean Darcet (1725-1801), 50 parts of bismuth with 25 each of lead and tin; and that of Valentin Rose the elder, so of bismuth with 28 1 of lead and 24 I of tin.

    0
    0
  • These melt between 91° and 95° C. The addition of cadmium gives still greater fusibility; in Wood's metal, for instance, which is Darcet's metal with half the tin replaced by cadmium, the melting point is lowered to 66°-71° C.; while another described by Lipowitz and containing 15 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead, 4 of tin and 3 of cadmium, softens at about 55° and is completely liquid a little above 60°.

    0
    0
  • By suitable modification in the proportions of the components, a series of alloys can be made which melt at various temperatures above the boiling point of water; for example, with 8 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead and 3 of tin the melting point is 123°, and with 8 of bismuth, 30 of lead and 24 of tin it is 172°.

    0
    0
  • Dinitrobenzenes, C 6 H 4 (NO 2) 2 -Ortho-dinitrobenzene is formed in small quantity in the preparation of meta-dinitrobenzene, and also results from the action of nitro-sulphuric acid on bismuth triphenyl (A.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth and antimony chlorides are decomposed by water with production of oxychlorides, whilst titanium tetrachloride yields titanic acid under the same conditions.

    0
    0
  • Minerals produced in small quantities include gypsum, millstones, salt and sandstone, and among those found but not produced (in 1902) in commercial quantities may be mentioned allanite, alum, arsenic, bismuth, carbonite, felspar, kaolin, marble, plumbago, quartz, serpentine and tin.

    0
    0
  • The impurities contained in coarse-copper are mainly iron, lead, zinc, cobalt, nickel, bismuth, arsenic, antimony, sulphur, selenium and tellurium.

    0
    0
  • The principles have long been known on which is based the electrolytic separation of copper from the certain elements which generally accompany it, whether these, like silver and gold, are valuable, or, like arsenic, antimony, bismuth, selenium and tellurium, are merely impurities.

    0
    0
  • of cathode, and an electrolyte containing qlb of copper sulphate and z lb of sulphuric acid per gallon, all the gold, platinum and silver present in the crude copper anode remain as metals, undissolved, in the anode slime or mud, and all the lead remains there as sulphate, formed by the action of the sulphuric acid (or S04 ions); he found also that arsenic forms arsenious oxide, which dissolves until the solution is saturated, and then remains in the slime, from which on long standing it gradually dissolves, after conversion by secondary reactions into arsenic oxide; antimony forms a basic sulphate which in part dissolves; bismuth partly dissolves and partly remains, but the dissolved portion tends slowly to separate out as a basic salt which becomes added to the slime; cuprous oxide, sulphide and selenides remain in the slime, and very slowly pass into solution by simple chemical action; tin partly dissolves (but in part separates again as basic salt) and partly remains as basic sulphate and stannic oxide; zinc, iron, nickel and cobalt pass into solution - more readily indeed than does the copper.

    0
    0
  • Of the metals which dissolve, none (except bismuth, which is rarely present in any quantity) deposits at the anode so long as the solution retains its proper proportion of copper and acid, and the current-density is not too great.

    0
    0
  • Electrolytic copper should contain at least 99.92% of metallic copper, the balance consisting mainly of oxygen with not more than o oi% in all of lead, arsenic, antimony, bismuth and silver.

    0
    0
  • The phosphorescence of the sulphide obtained by heating the thiosulphate is much increased by adding uranium, bismuth, or thorium before ignition pr.

    0
    0
  • Thus carbolic acid or carbolized ammonia are sniffed into the nose to destroy the microbes there, or the nose is washed out by an antiseptic solution as a nasal douche; bismuth or morphine are insufflated, or zinc ointment is applied, to cover the mucous membrane, and protect it from further irritation; and various antiseptic gargles, paints and powders applied to the pharynx in order to prevent the microbic inflammation from extending to the pharynx and down the trachea and bronchi, for many a severe bronchitis begins first by sneezing and nasal irritation.

    0
    0
  • Others which may be mentioned are salicylate of bismuth, salol, 0-naphthol and naphthalene.

    0
    0
  • After the irritant has been removed and fermentation stopped, the irritation still remaining in the intestinal wall may be soothed by chalk mixture and bismuth, to which if necessary small quantities of opium may be added.

    0
    0
  • ANTIMONY (symbol Sb, atomic weight 120.2), one of the metallic chemical elements, included in the same natural family of the elements as nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, and bismuth.

    0
    0
  • Distinct crystals are rarely met with; these are rhombohedral and isomorphous with arsenic and bismuth; they have a perfect cleavage parallel to the basal plane, c (111), and are sometimes twinned on a rhombohedral plane, e (1 ro).

    0
    0
  • the basis of Britannia-metal, small quantities of copper, lead, zinc or bismuth being added.

    0
    0
  • The principal exports were (in 1903) silver and its ores 0636,743), tin and its ores (b,039,298), copper ores 0157,609), bismuth (b6,354), other minerals (20,948),rubber (260,559), coca 028,907), and cinchona 09 1 97) - total exports, £2,453,638.

    0
    0
  • The nitrates, chlorides, sugars and fats, as also the metals lead, bismuth and antimony, have a specific cohesion nearly equal to that of mercury.

    0
    0
  • It is the most malleable and ductile of all metals with the exception of gold: one gramme can be drawn out into a wire 180 metres long, and the leaf can be beaten out to a thickness of 0.0002 5 mm.; traces of arsenic, antimony, bismuth and lead, however, make it brittle.

    0
    0
  • It is prevented by preserving the molten metal from contact with air by covering the surface with non-oxidizing agents, or by traces of copper, bismuth or zinc.

    0
    0
  • Crude silver generally contains small amounts of copper, gold, bismuth, lead and other metals.

    0
    0
  • Thus arsenic, antimony, bismuth, tin or zinc render the metal brittle, so that it fractures under a die or rolling mill; copper, on the other hand, increases its hardness, makes it tougher and more readily fusible.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth, platinum, molybdenum and antimony are obtained in small quantities.

    0
    0
  • He was specially noted for his discovery of the electrical conductivity of bismuth and other metals, and for his pioneer work in wireless telegraphy.

    0
    0
  • Numerous gold mines are worked in the district, which also abounds in copper, silver, antimony, cinnabar, bismuth and nickel.

    0
    0
  • There is some roofing slate along the Rogue river, natural cement, nickel ore, bismuth and wolframite in Douglas county, gypsum in Baker county, fire-clay in Clatsop county, borate of soda on the marsh lands of Harney county, infusorial earth and tripoli in the valley of the Deschutes river, chromate of iron in Curry and Douglas counties, molybdenite in Union county, bauxite in Clackamas county, borate of lime in Curry county, manganese ore in Columbia county, and asbestos in several of the southern and eastern counties.

    0
    0
  • Gold is found in several places, and some arsenic, antimony, bismuth, manganese, mercury and sulphur.

    0
    0
  • Minerals which were not mined commercially in 1902 include asbestos, which occurs in Spartanburg and Pickens counties; fullers'-earth; graphite in Spartanburg and Greenville counties; iron ores in the north and north-west portions of the state; iron pyrites in Spartanburg and York counties; talc, bismuth, ochre, pyrites, ' galena, brown coal, malachite, phosphate of lead and barytes.

    0
    0
  • - These include iron, manganese, aluminium, chromium, zinc, copper, silver, gold, platinum, lead, mercury, and probably antimony, arsenic and bismuth.

    0
    0
  • Soluble salts of manganese, aluminium, zinc, copper, gold, platinum and bismuth have, when given by the mouth, little action beyond their local astringent or irritating effects; but when injected into a blood vessel they all exert much the same depressing effect upon the heart and nervous system.

    0
    0
  • The most common additives are sulfur and lead, other elements used include tellurium, selenium and bismuth.

    0
    0
  • The matte version does not contain bismuth oxychloride.

    0
    0
  • There are no parabens, dyes, or bismuth oxychloride.

    0
    0
  • This line does not contain bismuth oxychloride.

    0
    0
  • This line has no parabens, bismuth oxychloride, gluten, or talc.

    0
    0
  • Minerals such as zinc, iron oxides, ultramarine, titanium oxide, bismuth oxychloride and mica are all finely ground into a powder that is gently dusted onto the face with a makeup brush.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth oxychloride: Those women with sensitive skin should proceed with caution if a mineral makeup contains bismuth oxychloride, which can actually irritate the skin in some users.

    0
    0
  • If your skin itches or breaks out in a rash where you've applied the makeup, chances are, bismuth oxychloride is to blame.

    0
    0
  • The original formula contains bismuth oxychloride and offers a dewy finish to the skin; the matte formula does not contain bismuth oxychloride.

    0
    0
  • Some women find bismuth oxychloride irritating to the skin, so they may want to consider the matte product.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth and paraben are commonly found in cheaper brands, so check the ingredients list to make sure you're not buying a potentially harmful formula.

    0
    0
  • Our minerals are oil free, fragrance free, dye free, bismuth oxychloride free and non-comedogenic.

    0
    0
  • Bismuth Oxychloride is a skin irritant which also makes the skin look heavy and shiny.

    0
    0
  • Southern Magnolia Minerals uses 100% pure minerals that are free of chemicals, preservatives, dyes, oils, perfumes and bismuth oxychloride.

    0
    0
  • Allergies to mineral makeup can occur from bismuth oxychloride, a common ingredient used in many mineral-based products to add a touch of shine to the skin.

    0
    0
  • Traveler's diarrhea can be avoided by people using products containing bismuth, such as Pepto-Bismol and/or antibiotics.

    0
    0
  • Patients should be aware that bismuth turns bowel movements black.

    0
    0
  • Molybdenum, in the form of molybdenite (sulphide of molybdenum), is found in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, associated in the parent state with tin and bismuth in quartz reefs.

    0
    1
  • He found, however, that chromic acid, which he had represented as Cr06, neutralized a base containing 3 the 3 The following symbols were also used by Bergman: W, V, " + ", which represented zinc, manganese, cobalt, bismuth, nickel, arsenic, platinum, water, alcohol, phlogiston.

    0
    1
  • Antimonial, bismuth and arsenical compounds were assiduously studied, a direct consequence of their high medicinal importance; mercurial and silver compounds were investigated for the same reason.

    0
    1
  • If the substance does not melt but changes colour, we may have present: zinc oxide - from white to yellow, becoming white on cooling; stannic oxide - white to yellowish brown, dirty white on cooling; lead oxide - from white or yellowish-red to brownish-red, yellow on cooling; bismuth oxide - from white or pale yellow to orange-yellow or reddish-brown, pale yellow on cooling; manganese oxide - from white or yellowish white to dark brown, remaining dark brown on cooling (if it changes on cooling to a bright reddishbrown, it indicates cadmium oxide); copper oxide - from bright blue or green to black; ferrous oxide - from greyish-white to black; ferric oxide - from brownish-red to black, brownish-red on cooling; potassium chromate - yellow to dark orange, fusing at a red heat.

    0
    1
  • If the bead is coloured we may have present: cobalt, blue to violet; copper, green, blue on cooling; in the reducing flame, red when cold; chromium, green, unaltered in the reducing flame; iron, brownish-red, light-yellow or colourless on cooling; in the reducing flame, red while hot, yellow on cooling, greenish when cold; nickel, reddish to brownish-red, yellow to reddish-yellow or colourless on cooling, unaltered in the reducing flame; bismuth, yellowish-brown, light-yellow or colourless on cooling; in the reducing flame, almost colourless, blackish-grey when cold; silver, light yellowish to opal, somewhat opaque when cold; whitish-grey in the reducing flame; manganese, amethyst red, colourless in the reducing flame.

    0
    1
  • The black films of antimony and bismuth and the grey mottled film of mercury are slowly soluble in the acid, and untouched by bleaching-powder.

    0
    1
  • The oxide films of antimony, arsenic, tin and bismuth are white, that of bismuth slightly yellowish; lead yields a very pale yellow film, and cadmium a brown one; mercury yields no oxide film.

    0
    1
  • The solution is filtered and treated with an excess of sulphuretted hydrogen, either in solution or by passing in the gas; this precipitates mercury (mercuric), any lead left over from the first group, copper, bismuth, cadmium, arsenic, antimony and tin as sulphides.

    0
    1
  • The precipitate formed by sulphuretted hydrogen may contain the black mercuric, lead, and copper sulphides, dark-brown bismuth sulphide, yellow cadmium and arsenious sulphides, orange-red antimony sulphide, brown stannous sulphide, dull-yellow stannic sulphide, and whitish sulphur, the last resulting from the oxidation of sulphuretted hydrogen by ferric salts, chromates, &c. Warming with ammonium sulphide dissolves out the arsenic, antimony and tin salts, which are reprecipitated by the addition of hydrochloric acid to the ammonium sulphide solution.

    0
    1
  • To the filtrate add ammonia in excess: a white precipitate indicates bismuth; if the solution be blue, copper is present.

    0
    1
  • Filter from the bismuth hydrate, and if copper is present, add potassium cyanide till the colour is destroyed, then pass sulphuretted hydrogen, and cadmium is precipitated as the yellow sulphide.

    0
    1
  • In acid copper solutions, mercury is deposited before the copper with which it subsequently amalgamates; silver is thrown down simultaneously; bismuth appears towards the end; and after all the copper has been precipitated, arsenic and antimony may be deposited.

    0
    1
  • It holds its own, however, when base bullion contains bismuth in appreciable amounts, as in the Pattinson process bismuth follows the lead to be cupelled, while in the Parkes process it remains with the desilverized lead which goes to market, and lead of commerce should contain little bismuth.

    0
    1
  • The base bullion is imperfectly Pattinsonized, giving lead rich in silver and bismuth, which is cupelled, and lead low in silver, and especially so in bismuth, which is further desilverized by the Parkes process.

    0
    1
  • Bismuth and Tin.

    0
    1
  • An alloy of 5 of lead, 8 of bismuth and 3 of tin fuses at 94.4° C., i.e.

    0
    1
  • An alloy of 15 parts of bismuth, 8 of lead, 4 of tin and 3 of cadmium (Wood's alloy) melts below 70° C.

    0
    1
  • Bismuth, the strongest of the diamagnetics, has a negative susceptibility which is numerically 20 times less than that of liquid oxygen.

    0
    1
  • The fact, which will be referred to later, that the electrical resistance of bismuth is very greatly affected by a magnetic field has been applied in the construction of apparatus for measuring field intensity.

    0
    1
  • A little instrument, supplied by Hartmann and Braun, contains a short length of fine bismuth wire wound into a flat double spiral, half an inch or thereabouts in diameter, and attached to a long ebonite handle.

    0
    1
  • Unfortunately the effects of magnetization upon the specific resistance of bismuth vary enormously with changes of temperature; it is therefore necessary to take two readings of the resistance, one when the spiral is in the magnetic field, the other when it is outside.

    0
    1
  • The metals used in different combinations included tin, aluminium, arsenic, antimony, bismuth and boron; each of these, when united in certain proportions with manganese, together with a larger quantity of copper (which appears to serve merely as a menstruum), constituted a magnetizable alloy.

    0
    1
  • Trans., 1883, Part I., 153) discovered in 1881 that the resistance of a bismuth rod was slightly increased when the rod was subjected to longitudinal magnetic force, and a year or two later A.

    0
    1
  • Soc., 1897, 60, 425) worked with a similar specimen of bismuth, and their results for a constant temperature of 19° agree well with those of Henderson.

    0
    1
  • The following table gives some of their results, the specific resistance of the bismuth being expressed in C.G.S.

    0
    1
  • At the temperature of liquid air (-185°) the application of a field of 21,800 multiplied the resistance of the bismuth no less than 150 times.

    0
    1
  • Ber., 1886, 94, 560) have found that the rotational coefficient of tellurium is more than fifty times greater than that of bismuth, its sign being positive.

    0
    1
  • As to what effect, if any, is produced upon the thermo-electric quality of bismuth by a magnetic field there is still some doubt.

    0
    1
  • van Aubel I believes that in pure bismuth the thermo-electric force is increased by the field; impurities may neutralize this effect, and in sufficient quantities reverse it.

    0
    1
  • bismuth, Metal.

    0
    1
  • Hence may be deduced an explanation of the fact that, while the susceptibility of all known diamagnetics (except bismuth and antimony) is independent of the temperature, that of paramagnetics varies inversely as the absolute temperature, in accordance with the law of Curie.

    0
    1
  • Among the minerals are silver, platinum, copper, iron, lead, manganese, chromium, quicksilver, bismuth, arsenic and antimony, of which only iron and manganese have been regularly mined.

    0
    1
  • Throughout the world, primary deposits of tinstone are in or closely connected with granite or acid eruptive rocks of the same type, its mineral associates being tourmaline, fluorspar, topaz, wolfram and arsenical pyrites, and the invariable gangue being quartz: the only exception to this mode of occurrence is to be found in Bolivia, where the tin ore occurs intimately associated with silver ores, bismuth ores and various sulphides, whilst the gangue includes barytes and certain carbonates.

    0
    1
  • Iron renders the metal hard and brittle; arsenic, antimony and bismuth (up to 0.5%) reduce its tenacity; copper and lead (1 to 2%) make it harder and stronger but impair its malleability; and stannous oxide reduces its tenacity.

    0
    1
  • He found, however, that chromic acid, which he had represented as Cr06, neutralized a base containing 3 the 3 The following symbols were also used by Bergman: W, V, " + ", which represented zinc, manganese, cobalt, bismuth, nickel, arsenic, platinum, water, alcohol, phlogiston.

    0
    1
  • To the filtrate add ammonia in excess: a white precipitate indicates bismuth; if the solution be blue, copper is present.

    0
    1
  • bismuth, Metal.

    0
    1
  • Hence may be deduced an explanation of the fact that, while the susceptibility of all known diamagnetics (except bismuth and antimony) is independent of the temperature, that of paramagnetics varies inversely as the absolute temperature, in accordance with the law of Curie.

    0
    1
Browse other sentences examples →