Early in 1443 the college was opened by Chicheley with four bishops in state.
The bishops refused to allow a voice to any not of their own order, and in the end the decrees of Pistoia were supported by a minority of only three.
It is worn by bishops, priests, deacons and subdeacons under the other eucharistic vestments, either at Mass or at functions connected with it.
It is worn girdled by bishops and priests in all rites, by subdeacons in the Greek and Coptic rites.
The colour of the vestment is usually white for bishops and priests (this is the rule in the Coptic Church); for the other orders there is no rule, and all colours,.
In the Armenian and Coptic rites the vestment is often elaborately embroidered; in the other rites the only ornament is a cross high in the middle of the back, save in the case of bishops of the Orthodox Church, whose sticharia are ornamented with two vertical red stripes (7rorayof, " rivers").
The chapter on the infallibility was only added at the request of the bishops and after long hesitation on the part of the cardinal presidents.
The definition once proclaimed, controversies rapidly ceased; the bishops who wer: among the minority one after the other formulated their loyal adhesion to the Catholic dogma.
Though no bishops abandoned it, a few priests, suc as Father Hyacinthe Loyson, and a few scholars at the Ger an universities refused their adhesion.
On the 30th of November 1411 Chicheley, with two other bishops and three earls and the -4 prince of Wales, knelt to the king to receive public thanks for their administration.
Leo treated the Uniate Greeks with great loyalty, and by bull of the 18th of May 1521 forbade Latin clergy to celebrate mass in Greek churches and Latin bishops to ordain Greek clergy.
He in turn referred it to the bishops of Spires and Worms, who gave decision in March 1514 in favour of Reuchlin.
These decrees were issued together with a pastoral letter of Bishop de' Ricci, and were warmly approved by the grand-duke, at whose instance a national synod of the Tuscan bishops met at Florence on the 23rd of April 1787.
The bishops appointed "chatelains," one of whom was the celebrated "Wild Boar of the Ardennes," William de la Marck.
He was given the right to dispense justice, to coin money and to appoint the bishops in Bavaria.
Some see the guarantee, or at least the indication, of infallibility in the consensus of the Church (quod semper, ubique, et ab omnibus) expressed from time to time in general councils; others see it in the special grace conferred upon St Peter and his successors, the bishops of Rome, as heads of the Church; others again see it in the inspired Scriptures, God's Word.
Successful feuds with the bishops of Strassburg and Basel further augmented his wealth and his reputation; rights over various tracts of land were purchased from abbots and others; and he was also the possessor of large estates in the regions now known as Switzerland and Alsace.
In 1712 George Hickes was the only survivor of the nonjuring bishops, and in the next year Collier was consecrated.
Several conventions guarantee the free communication of the bishops, clergy and laity with the Holy See; and this admits of the publication and execution of apostolic letters in matters spiritual.
In all cases canonical institution (which confers ecclesiastical jurisdiction) is reserved to the pope or the bishops.
The pope preserved the right to nominate to vacant benefices in curia and to certain benefices of the chapters, but all the others were in the nomination of the bishops or other inferior collators.
In the debate abolishing the court of wards he spoke, like most landed proprietors, in favour of laying the burden on the excise instead of on the land, and on the question of the restoration of the bishops carried in the interests of the court an adjournment of the debate for three months.
Their bishops and priests, who wear the moustache in deference to popular prejudice, are typical specimens of the church militant.
It contains a few handsome monuments to its former bishops, but until 1890, when a monument was erected, had nothing to preserve the memory of the illustrious Dr George Berkeley, who held the see from 1734 to 1753.
LAMBETH CONFERENCES, the name given to the periodical assemblies of bishops of the Anglican Communion (Pan-Anglican synods), which since 1867 have met at Lambeth Palace, the London residence of the archbishop of Canterbury.
They therefore requested him to call a "national synod of the bishopsof the Anglican Church at home and abroad," to meet under his leadership. After consulting both houses of the Convocation of Canterbury, Archbishop Longley assented, and convened all the bishops of the Anglican Communion (then 144 in number) to meet at Lambeth in 1867.
Many Anglican bishops (amongst them the archbishop of York and most of his suffragans) felt so doubtful as to the wisdom of such an assembly that they refused to attend it, and Dean Stanley declined to allow Westminster Abbey to be used for the closing service, giving as his reasons the partial character of the assembly, uncertainty as to the effect of its measures and "the presence of prelates not belonging to our Church."
Seventy-six bishops accepted the primate's invitation to the first conference, which met at Lambeth on the 24th of September 1867, and sat for four days, the sessions being in private.
On this occasion no hesitation appears to have been felt; 100 bishops were present, and the opening sermon was preached by the archbishop of York.
on the best mode of maintaining union, voluntary boards of arbitration, missionary bishops and missionaries, continental chaplains and the report of a committee on difficulties submitted to the conference.
It was decided to send a deputation of bishops with a letter of greeting to the national council of the Russian Church about to be assembled (60) and certain conditions were laid down for intercommunion with certain of the Churches of the Orthodox Eastern Communion (62) and the "ancient separated Churches of the East" (63-65).
So far as the organization of the Anglican Church is concerned, the most important outcome of the conference was the reconstruction of the Central Consultative Body on representative lines (54-56); this body to consist of the archbishop of Canterbury and seventeen bishops appointed by the various Churches of the Anglican Communion throughout the world.
Davidson, The Lambeth Conferences of 1867, 187.8 and 1888 (London, 1896); Conference of Bishops of the Anglican Communion, Encyclical Letter, &c. (London, 1897 and 1908).
monsignore, my lord), a title of honour granted by the pope to bishops and to high dignitaries and officials of the papal household.
THE System Described As compared with the Church of England (Episcopal) in which there are three orders of clergy - bishops, priests and deacons, Order.
Take heed to all the flock over which the Holy Ghost bath made you bishops."
elders or bishops, are the highest permanent officers in the Church and are of equal rank; (3) that an outward and visible Church is one in the sense that a smaller part is controlled by a larger and all the parts by the whole.'9 Though Presbyterians are unanimous in adopting the general system of church polity as here outlined, and in claiming New 1 Phil.
"The rule of dissolute bishops, and the example of a turbulent and immoral clergy, had poisoned the morals of the city.
Latimer and Hooper maintained that Bishops and presbyters were identical; and Pilkington, bishop of Durham, and Bishop Jewel were of the same mind.
The latter, about the time of Elizabeth's succession, expressed his hope that the bishops would become pastors, labourers and watchmen; and that the great riches of bishoprics would be diminished and reduced to mediocrity; that, being delivered from courtly and regal pomp, the bishops might take care of the flock of Christ.
Its bishop Cadalus (1046-1071) was elected to the papacy by the Lombard and German bishops in 1061, and marched on Rome, but was driven back by the partisans of Alexander III.
At the head of the Argentine hierarchy are one archbishop and five suffragan bishops, who have five seminaries for the education of the priesthood.
The bishops and archbishops, formerly nominated by the government and canonically confirmed by the pope, are now chosen by the latter.
The appointment of cures rested with the bishops and had to be confirmed by the government, but this confirmation is now dispensed with.
The archbishops used to receive an annual salary of 600 each and the bishops 400.
At the verge of the rock on the western side is the old baronial castle, erected by King John in 1185, which was the residence of the bishops till the 14th century.
Henry II., after landing at Waterford, received in Lismore castle the allegiance of the archbishops and bishops of Ireland.
There the nineteen bishops and twenty-four presbyters, from all parts of Spain, but chiefly from the south, assembled, probably at the instigation of Hosius of Cordova, but under the presidency of Felix of Accis, with a view to restoring order and discipline in the church.
The bishop has acquired control of the sacraments, presbyters and deacons acting only under his orders; the episcopate appears as a unit, bishops being bound to respect one another's disciplinary decrees.
The Netherlanders detested the Spaniards and everything Spanish, and this foreign mercenary force, together with the new bishops, was looked upon as part of a general plan for the gradual overthrow of their rights and liberties.
Such opinions, combated by bishops and councils, were due to the influence of the consolamentum of the Cathars.
Bishops of Icosium - which was created a Latin city by Vespasian - are mentioned as late as the 5th century.
There arose a class of king's thegns, corresponding to the earlier thegns, and a larger class of inferior thegns, some of them the thegns of bishops or of other thegns.
The whole land was full of violence, the very bishops storming rich monasteries at the head of armed retainers.
He immediately brought forward a scheme for improving the condi - tion of the poorer clergy by equalizing the incomes of the bishops, the reception of which at the time may be imagined, though it was substantially the same as that carried into effect by Lord Melbourne's government fifty years later.
6 suburbicarian seesOstia and Velletri, Porto and Sta Rufina, Albano, Frascati, Palestrina, Sabinaall held by cardinal bishops.
Vercelli Alessandria della Paglia, Biella, Casale, Mnnfprr,itn, Nnvsrs Vow~,~n Twelve archbishops and sixty-one bishops are independent of all metropolitan supervision, and hold directly of the Holy See.
The archbishops are those of Amalfi, Aquila, Camerino and Treia, Catania, Cosenza, Ferrara, Gaeta, Lucca, Perugia, Rossano, Spoleto, and Udine, and the bishops those of Acireale, Acquapendente, Alatri, Amelia, Anagni, Ancona-Umana, Aquino-Sora-Pontecorvo, Arezzo, Ascoli, Assisi, Aversa, Bagnorea, Borgo San Donnino, Cava-Sarno, Citt di Castello, Citt della Pieve, Civit Castellana-Orte-Gallese, Corneto-Civita Vecchia~ Cortona, Fabriano-Matelica, Fano,Ferentino Foggia, Foligno, Gravina-Montepeloso, Gubbio, Jesi, Luni-Sarzana and Bragnato, S.
Supplementary stipends to bishops and parochial clergy, assignments to Sardinian clergy and expenditure for education and charitable purposes - - 142,912 f28,52f Roman Charitable and Religious Fund.The law of the 19th of June 1873 contained special provisions, in conformity with the character of Rome as the seat of the papacy, and with the situation created by the Law of Guarantees.
Internally Charles left the affairs of the Italian kingdom much as he found them, except that he appears to have pursued the policy of breaking up the larger fiefs of the Lombards, substituting counts for their dukes, and adding to the privileges of the bishops.
The cities, exposed to pillage by Huns in the north and Saracens in the south, and ravaged on the coast by Norse pirates, asserted their right to enclose themselves with walls, and taught their burghers the use of arms. Within the circuit of their ramparts, the bishops already began to exercise authority in rivalry with the counts, to whom, since the days of Theodoric, had been entrusted the government of the Italian burghs.
Thus the titular king of Italy found himself simultaneously at war with those great vassals who had chosen him from their own class, with the turbulent factions of the Roman aristocracy, with unruly bishops in the growing cities and with the multitude of minor counts and barons who occupied the open lands, and who changed sides according to the interests of the moment.
We have seen how the cities enclosed themselves with walls, and how the bishops defined their authority against that of the counts.
Within those precincts the bishops and the citizens were independent of all feudal masters but the emperor.
These he abolished, and, taking the appointment into his own hands, gave German bishops to the see.
The popes were henceforth to be chosen by the cardinals, the bishops by the chapters subject to the popes approval.
As the bishops had helped to free them from subservience to their feudal masters, so the war of investitures relieved them of dependence on their bishops.
But, in proportion as the people gained more power in the field the consuls rose into importance, superseded the bishops and began to represent the city in transactions with its neighbors.
The Genoese undertook to bring the French bishops to this council.
Here again he cited the action of Charlemagne, his august predecessor, who had merely given certain domains to the bishops of Rome as fiefs, though Rome did not thereby cease to be part of his empire.
The advent of Thiers, his attitude towards the petition of French bishops on behalf of the pope, the recall of Senard, the French minister at Florencewho had written to congratulate Victor Emmanuel on the capture of Romeand the instructions given to his successor, the comte de Choiseul, to absent himself from Italy at the moment of the kings official entry into the new capital (2nd July 1871), together with the haste displayed in appointing a French ambassador to the Holy See, rapidly cooled the cordiality of Franco-Italian relations, and reassured Bismarck on the score of any dangerous intimacy between the two governments.
Article 12 provided for the transmission free of cost in Italy of all papal telegrams and correspondence both with bishops and foreign governments, and sanctioned the establishment, at the expense of the Italian state, of a papal telegraph office served b~ papal officials in communication with the Italian postal and telegraph system.
Bishops were further dispensed from swearing fealty tc the king, though, except in Rome and suburbs, the choice of bishop1 was limited to ecclesiastics of Italian nationality.
Article If abolished the need for reyal exequatur and placet for ecclesiastical publications, but stibordinated the enjoyment of temporalities by bishops and priests to the concession of state exequalur and placet.
to the bishops of the Catholic Church on the 15th of May 1871 repudiated the Law of Guarantees, and summoned Catholic princes to co-operate in restoring the temporal power.
For some time after the occupation of Rome the pope, in order to substantiate the pretence that his spiritual freedom had been diminished, avoided the creation of cardinals and the nomination of bishops.
On the 22nd of December 1873, however, he unexpectedly created twelve cardinals, and subsequently proceeded to nominate a number of bishops.
In June 1675 he signed the paper of advice drawn up by the bishops for the king, urging the rigid enforcement of the laws against the Roman Catholics, their complete banishment from the court, and the suppression of conventicles, 2 and a bill introduced by him imposing special taxes on recusants and subjecting Roman Catholic priests to imprisonment for life was only thrown out as too lenient because it secured offenders from the charge of treason.
In 1677, to secure Protestantism in case of a Roman Catholic succession, he introduced a bill by which ecclesiastical patronage and the care of the royal children were entrusted to the bishops; but this measure, like the other, was thrown out.
This was refused, and although some of the bishops entered a mild protest, the question was allowed to drop. Regarding another matter also, the extent of the royal forests, the prelates made a protest.
From Hartlepool Hilda moved to Whitby, where in 657 she founded the famous double monastery which in the time of the first abbess included among its members five future bishops, Bosa, 'Etta, Oftfor, John and Wilfrid II.
As neighbouring dioceses coalesced into " provinces " and provinces into larger districts (corresponding to the civil " dioceses " of the later Roman Empire), the provincial synods of bishops and the synods of the larger districts acquired a criminal jurisdiction, still purely spiritual, of their own.
At first this was " original " and mainly (although not exclusively) over bishops (of the province or larger district).
The theory, as expressed in legal phrase by St Cyprian in the 3rd century, was that the apostolic power of delegated sovereignty from the Lord, alike legislative and judicial, was held in joint-tenancy by the whole body of Catholic bishops.
Aurelian referred the matter to the bishop of Rome and the bishops of Italy, who gave their award in favour of the Antiochene Church.
Honorius, in the West, at the end of the 4th century, made a constitution providing that if any desired to litigate before the bishops they should not be forbidden, but that in civil matters the prelates should render judgment in the manner of arbitrators by consent (Cod.
in the West expressly provided that bishops were not to be permitted to be judges (that is, of course, in temporal causes), save by the consent of the parties.
It should be remembered that, from the latter part of the 3rd century, the leading bishops had generally been trained in secular learning.
The acts of councils of this age are full of the trials of bishops not only for heresy but for immorality and common law crimes.
A synod was held at Rome, attended by bishops from various regions, which reversed the original judgment of the synod of Tyre which had condemned Athanasius.
A bishop may appeal to a great assembly of bishops.
If a provincial synod be divided as to the guilt of a bishop, the metropolitan is to convene bishops from the neighbouring provinces to decide the cause jointly with the bishops of the original province.
This council endeavoured to set up a system of appeals in the case of bishops, in which the see of Rome was made to play a great part.
The growth of a special " original " jurisdiction at Constantinople, which perhaps developed earlier than the corresponding institution at Rome, may be traced to the fact that bishops from all parts were constantly in Constantinople.
Episcopis, &c., subjected clerics for small offences pertaining to the observances of religion to bishops and synods.
Ecc. et Cler., excluded bishops from accusations before secular judges and commanded such accusations to be speedily brought before the tribunal of other bishops.
Edgar, in a speech to St Dunstan and the bishops in synod (in 969), said, "I hold in my hands the sword of Constantine, you that of Peter.
At the council of " Nid " he was reconciled to the other bishops of the province, but not restored.
But the secular arm, from the time of Nicaea I., was in the habit of aiding spiritual decrees, as by banishing deposed bishops, and gradually by other ways, even with laymen.
Isolated examples in the early middle ages of metropolitans dealing with their suffragan bishops by imprisonment in chains were extra-canonical abuses, connected with the perversion of Church law which treated the metropolitan (who originally was merely convener of the provincial synod and its representative during the intervals of sessions) as the feudal " lord " of his comprovincials.
Much that had been done by bishops, sine strepitu forensi et figura judicii, is now done in the course of regular judicial procedure.
The court of the metropolitan takes the place of the provincial synod, except possibly for the trial of bishops, and even this becomes doubtful.
It was partly in order to counterpoise the power of archdeacons that bishops created officials (Fournier, p. 8).
So personal had the system of jurisdiction become that even the trials of bishops ceased to be necessarily conciliar.
(n) Officials, even of bishops and metropolitans, need not be in holy orders, though Bishop Stubbs in his paper in the Report of the Commission on Ecclesiastical Courts seems to say so.
" Greater causes " came in France to be restricted to criminal prosecutions of bishops.
Bishops had no exemption (Diet.
Bishops may now be summoned as assessors by 39 & 40 Vict.
None of these acts applies to the trial of bishops, who are left to the old jurisdictions, or whatever may be held to be the old jurisdictions (with that of the Roman See eliminated).
As to suffragan bishops in the province of Canterbury, see Read v.
The relations of their bishops, priests or other ministers and lay office-bearers inter se and to their lay folk depend upon contract; and these Y P P contracts will be enforced by the ordinary courts of law.
From 1787 onwards, colonial bishops and metropolitans were appointed by letters patent which purported to give them jurisdiction for disciplinary purposes.
In India the metropolitan of Calcutta and the bishops of Madras and Bombay have some very limited jurisdiction which is conferred by letters patent under the authority of the statutes 53 Geo.
But the other Indian bishops have no position recognized by the State and no jurisdiction, except consensual.
of testaments and other matters (Keith, History of the Scottish Bishops, Edinburgh, 1824, p. 38).
There was an interval of uncertainty, with at any rate titular bishops, till 1592.
Matrimonial matters and those relating to wills and succession (called in Scotland " consistorial " causes) were in 1563 taken from the old bishops' courts and given to " commissaries " appointed by the crown with an appeal to the court of session, which by act 1609, c. 6, was declared the king's great consistory.
(April 8, 1802), no express provision was made for ecclesiastical jurisdictions; but several bishops did create new ecclesiastical tribunals, " officialities " (Migne, Dict.
The Austrian bishops, however, maintain their tribunals for spiritual purposes, and insist that such things as divorced vinculo must be granted by their authority (Aichner, Compendium juris ecclesiastici, pp. 551-553).
Bishops and beneficed incumbents (cures) must be regularly tried; and where the Church is established the canonical courts are recognized.
These are (1) causes relating to elections, translations and deprivations of, and criminal prosecutions against, bishops, and (2) the matrimonial cases of princes (Taunton, op. cit.
They are " anointed lords like the bishops " (Balsamon, in Conc. Ancyr.
The bishops had consistorial courts; the patriarchs, chanceries and consistories (ib.).
It consists of a small number of bishops and priests nominated by the tsar, and is assisted by a " procurator," who is a layman, who explains to it the limits of its jurisdiction and serves as the medium of communication between it and the autocrat and secular authorities.
The metropolitan of Athens is president, and there are four other members appointed by the government in annual rotation from the senior bishops.
Keith, History of the Scottish Bishops (Edinburgh, 1824); P. N.
With the growth of the Oxford Movement in the English Church, the practice of observing Lent was revived; and, though no rules for fasting are authoritatively laid down, the duty of abstinence is now very generally inculcated by bishops and clergy, either as a discipline or as an exercise in self-denial.
The manor was granted by King Offa to the bishopric of Worcester; and it was under the protection of the bishops of Worcester, who were granting them privileges as early as the reign of Richard I., that the inhabitants of the town assumed burghal rights at an early date.
He was a member of the commission for ecclesiastical causes, and although afterwards he claimed that he had used all his influence to dissuade James from removing the tests, and in other ways illegally favouring the Roman Catholics, he signed the warrant for the committal of the seven bishops, and appeared as a witness against them.
The bishops, who were ex officio inquisitors in their own dioceses, had not succeeded in putting a stop to the evils, nor had the friars, by whom they had been practically superseded.
The royal Inquisition thus started was subversive of the regular tribunals of the bishops, who much resented the innovation, which, however, had the power of the state at its back.
In 1537 he was invited to Denmark by Christian III., and remained five years in that country, organizing the church (though only a presbyter, he consecrated the new Danish bishops) and schools.
3 The bishops who sat in the great councils of the 4th century were known as "the 318 fathers" of Nicaea, and "the 150 fathers" of Constantinople.
Thus Athanasius writes (ad Afros vi.): "We have the testimony of fathers (the two Dionysii, bishops of Alexandria and Rome, who wrote in the previous century) for the use of the word oµoouatos."
In the narrower sense thus indicated the "fathers" of the Church are the great bishops and other eminent Christian teachers of the earlier centuries, who were conspicuous for soundness of judgment and sanctity of life; and whose writings remained as a court of appeal for their successors.
Thus the English canon of 1571 directs preachers "to take heed that they do not teach anything in their sermons as though they would have it completely held and believed by the people, save what is agreeable to the doctrine of the Old and New Testaments, and what the Catholic Fathers and ancient Bishops have gathered from that doctrine."
We see in them the thought of the ancient Church taking shape in the minds of her bishops and doctors; and in many cases they express the results of the great doctrinal controversies of their age in language which leaves little to be desired.6 Authorities.
It was the capital of the kingdom until 1443, and the residence of the bishops of Zealand until the Reformation.
In response to the imperial summons, five to six hundred bishops, all Eastern, except the Roman legates and two Africans, assembled in Chalcedon on the Sth of October 451.
The state religion is Roman Catholic, and there is an archbishop of Montevideo with two suffragan bishops.
The Western bishops who remained confirmed the previous decisions of the Roman synod; and by its 3rd, 4th and 5th decrees relating to the rights of revision, the council of Sardica endeavoured to settle the procedure of ecclesiastical appeals.
Several bishops of Lichfield are buried here, as Eccleshall Castle was the episcopal residence from the 13th century until 1867.
By the ancient canons all monasteries were to spend at least a tenth part of their income in alms to the poor, and all bishops were required to keep almoners.
At the head of the Church was a body of ten elders, elected by the synod; this synod consisted of all the ministers, and acted as the supreme legislative authority; and the bishops ruled in their respective dioceses, and had a share in the general oversight.
The orders of the ministry are bishops, presbyters, deacons.
But the bishops have no dioceses.
At the last meeting of the Lambeth Conference (1907) some overtures, on certain conditions, were made for (a) joint consecration of bishops, (b) joint ordination of ministers, (c) interchange of pulpits.
In the Christian church flagellation was originally a punishment, and was practised not only by parents and schoolmasters, but also by bishops, who thus corrected offending priests and monks (St Augustine, Ep. 1 59 ad Marcell.; cf.
On the 20th of October 1349 Clement published a bull commanding the bishops and inquisitors to stamp out the growing heresy, and in pursuance of the pope's orders numbers of the sectaries perished at the stake or in the cells of the inquisitors and the episcopal justices.
At a short distance from the town is the Altenburg (1266 ft.), a castle occupied from 1251 onwards by the bishops of Bamberg.
From the middle of the 13th century onward the bishops were princes of the Empire.
Spirito), erected by Theodoric for the Arian bishops, but entirely modified: the baptistery of this church (afterwards the oratory of S.
of Germany at once forced the pontiff to crown him emperor, and three or four years later took possession of the Norman kingdom of Sicily; he refused tribute and the oath of allegiance, and even appointed bishops subject to his own jurisdiction; moreover, he gave his brother in fief the estates which had belonged to the countess Matilda of Tuscany.
Till 1604 the bishops invariably signed themselves Sodorensis; after that date and till 1684, sometimes Soderensis and sometimes "Sodor and Man," and after 1684 always "Sodor and Man."
cardinals, archbishops and bishops.
In the Church of England the term prelate has been since the Reformation applied only to archbishops and bishops.
The vast majority of the Christian population belongs to the Orthodox (Greek) Church, which is governed by a synod of seven bishops under the presidency of the metropolitan of Candia.
He submitted to the opinion of the episcopate in the various parts of Christendom the divergence between the Easter usage of Rome and that of the bishops of Asia.
The bishops, particularly St Irenaeus of Lyons, declared themselves in favour of the usage of Rome, but refused to associate themselves with the excommunication pronounced by Victor against their Asiatic colleagues.
James Hamilton, 3rd marquess of Hamilton, was the king's commissioner; and when the Assembly insisted on proceeding with the trial of the bishops, he formally dissolved the meeting under pain of treason.
Acting on the constitutional principle that the king's right to convene did not interfere with the church's independent right to hold assemblies, they sat till the 10th of December, deposed all the Scottish bishops, excommunicated a number of them, repealed all acts favouring episcopacy, and reconstituted the Scottish Kirk on thorough Presbyterian principles.
While Scotland and England were preparing for the " First Bishops' War," Henderson drew up two papers, entitled respectively The Remonstrance of the Nobility and Instructions for Defensive Arms. The first of these documents he published himself; the second was published against his wish by John Corbet (1603-1641), a deposed minister.
The " First Bishops' War " did not last long.
The Pacification of Birks had been wrung from the king; and the Scots, seeing that he was preparing for the "Second Bishops' War," took the initiative, and pressed into England so vigorously that Charles had again to yield everything.
While he was in London he had a personal interview with the king, with the view of obtaining assistance for the Scottish universities from the money formerly applied to the support of the bishops.
He was, however, restrained from actually proceeding to enforce the decree of excommunication, owing to the remonstrance of Irenaeus and the bishops of Gaul.
According to him the word was first used on the 27th of December 1641 by a disbanded officer named David Hide, who during a riot is reported to have drawn his sword and said he would "cut the throat of those round-headed dogs that bawled against bishops."
76, 88, 139) cites it of bishops, and Philip I.
In 1784 John Wesley, in disregard of the authority of the Established Church, took the radical step of appointing the Rev. Thomas Coke (1747-1814) and Francis Asbury superintendents or "bishops" of the church in the United States.
,uLrpa, a band, head-band, head-dress), a liturgical head-dress of the Catholic Church, generally proper to bishops.
Bishops alone, including of course the pope and his cardinals, are entitled to wear the pretiosa and auriphrygiata; the others wear the mitra simplex.
At provincial synods archbishops wear the pretiosa, bishops the auriphrygiata, and mitred abbots the simplex.
From Leo IX.'s time papal grants of the mitre to eminent prelates became increasingly frequent, and by the 12th century it had been assumed by all bishops in the West, with or without papal sanction, as their proper liturgical head-dress.
It was not till the 12th century that the mitre came to be regarded as specifically episcopal, and meanwhile the custom had grown up of granting it honoris causa to other dignitaries besides bishops.
They have continued to be worn, however, by the bishops of the Scandinavian Lutheran Y P Churches.
There is some evidence to show that it was used in consecrating bishops up to 1552, and also that its use was revived by the Laudian bishops in the 17th century (Hierurgia anglicana ii.
310, as carried by the bishop of Rochester at an investiture of the Knights of the Bath (1725), and by the archbishops and bishops at the coronation of George II.
The tradition of the mitre as an episcopal ornament has, nevertheless, been continuous in the Church of England, " and that on three lines: (i) heraldic usage; (2) its presence on the head of effigies of bishops, of which a number are extant, of the 16th, 17th, 18th and 19th centuries; (3) its presence in funeral processions, where 1 In Father Braun's opinion, expressed to the writer, this mitre, which was formerly at Sens, belongs probably to the 13th century.
mitra) is, as in the Western Church, proper only to bishops.
In the Armenian Church priests and archdeacons, as well as the bishops, wear a mitre.
The biruna of the Chaldaean Nestorians, on the other hand, worn by all bishops, is a sort of hood ornamented with a cross.
Coptic priests and bishops wear the ballin, a long strip of stuff ornamented From Braun's Lit with crosses &c., and wound turban-wise gische Gewandung.
A hundred years later the mitre, originally confined to the patriarch, was worn by all bishops.
For example, the priests are not to be chosen by the people; penitents are not to be present at ordinations (lest they should hear the failings of candidates discussed); bishops are to be appointed by the metropolitan and his suffragan; sub-deacons may not distribute the elements of the Eucharist; clerics are forbidden to leave a diocese without the bishop's permission.
It developed into a title implying jurisdiction over metropolitans, partly as a result of the organization of the empire into " dioceses," partly owing to the ambition of the greater metropolitan bishops, which had early led them to claim and exercise authority in neighbouring metropolitanates.
In this locality was Winchester House, a seat of the bishops of Winchester for five centuries from 1107.
Ely Place takes its name from a palace of the bishops of Ely, who held land here as early as the 13th century.
Thirty-three bishops are included in the most authentic list of signatures, among them three from Britain, - York, London and "Colonia Londinensium" (probably a corruption of Lindensium, or Lincoln, rather than of Legionensium or Caerleon-on-Usk).
For the consecration of a bishop at least three bishops are required.
The church officers (generally unpaid) comprise bishops (or ministers), elders, teachers, deacons (or visiting brethren) and deaconesses - chiefly aged women who are permitted at times to take leading parts in church services.
The bishops are chosen from the teachers; they are itinerant, conduct marriage and funeral services, and are present at communions, at ordinations, when deacons are chosen or elected, and at trials for the excommunication of members.
The government of the church is chiefly according to the congregational principle, and the women have an equal voice with the men; but annual meetings, attended by the bishops, teachers and other delegates from the several congregations are held, and at these sessions the larger questions involving church polity are considered and decided by a committee of five bishops.
He arrogated to himself the privileges of royalty, made servants attend him upon their knees, compelled bishops to tie his shoelatchets and dukes to hold the basin while he washed his hands, and considered it condescension when he allowed ambassadors to kiss his fingers; he paid little heed to their sacrosanct character, and himself laid violent hands on a papal nuncio.
There were no struggles of Church and State in its dominions: the state was also the church: the bishops and the canons of the four bishoprics (with the exception of Ermeland) were priests of the Order.
Through his friendship with Sir William Hicks Strype obtained access to the papers of Sir Michael Hicks, secretary to Lord Burghley, from which he made extensive transcripts; he also carried on an extensive correspondence with Archbishop Wake and Bishops Burnet, Atterbury and Nicholson.
In the East, in the 5th century, the archdeacons were already charged with the proof of the qualifications of candidates for ordination; they attended the bishops at ecclesiastical synods, and sometimes acted as their representatives; they shared in the administration of sees during a vacancy.
The bishops, now increasingly absorbed in secular affairs, were content with a somewhat theoretical power of control, while the archdeacons rigorously asserted an independent position which implied great power and possibilities of wealth.
The archdeacons are appointed by their respective bishops, and they are, by an act of 1840, required to have been six full years in priest's orders.
With their consent the king promulgated laws, made grants of land, appointed bishops and ealdormen, and discharged the other duties of government.
It consisted, in addition to the king, his sons and other relatives, of the bishops and later some abbots, of some under-kings and the ealdormen of the shires or provinces, and of a number of ministri, or king's thegns.
931 were the two archbishops, two Welsh princes, seventeen bishops, fif teen ealdormen, five abbots and fifty-nine ministri.
934, were present the two archbishops, four Welsh kings, seventeen bishops, four abbots, twelve ealdormen and fiftytwo ministri.
966 contained the king's mother, two archbishops, seven bishops, five ealdormen and fifteen ministri; and this is a fair specimen of the usual proportion" (Stubbs, Const.
He was elected on the 1st of August 1559; but it was difficult to find the requisite four bishops willing and qualified to consecrate him, and not until the 17th of December did Barlow, Scory, Coverdale and Hodgkins perform that ceremony at Lambeth.
Many of the reformers wanted no bishops at all, while the Catholics wanted those of the old dispensation, and the queen herself grudged episcopal privilege until she discovered in it one of the chief bulwarks of the royal supremacy.
The bishops' Interpretations and Further Considerations, issued in 1560, tolerated a lower vestiarian standard than was prescribed by the rubric of 1559; the Advertisements, which Parker published in 1566, to check the Puritan descent, had to appear without specific royal sanction; and the Reformatio legum ecclesiasticarum, which Foxe published with Parker's approval, received neither royal, parliamentary nor synodical authorization.
Parliament even contested the claim of the bishops to determine matters of faith.
of France, and in 1310, in a general council at Dundee, the clergy of Scotland, all the bishops being present, recognized Bruce as king.
There the bishops of Jerusalem and Caesarea received him in the most friendly manner, and got him to deli;per public lectures in the churches.
On his way to Greece (apparently in the year 230) Origen was ordained a presbyter in Palestine by his friends the bishops.
A second synod, composed entirely of bishops, determined that Origen must be deposed from the presbyterial status.
The celebrations are directly traceable to the pagan Saturnalia of ancient Rome, which in spite of the conversion of the Empire to Christianity, and of the denunciation of bishops and ecclesiastical councils, continued to be celebrated by the people on the Kalends of January with all their old licence.
How little effect this had, however, is shown by the fact that in 1265 Odo, archbishop of Sens, could do no more than prohibit the obscene excesses of the feast, without abolishing the feast itself; that in 1444 the university of Paris, at the request of certain bishops, addressed a letter condemning it to all cathedral chapters; and that King Charles VII.
At a council held in London on the 6th of April 1152 Stephen induced a small number of barons to do homage to Eustace as their future king; but the primate, Theobald, and the other bishops declined to perform the coronation ceremony on the ground that the Roman curia had declared against the claim of Eustace.
Copies were smuggled into England but were suppressed by the bishops, and William Warham, archbishop of Canterbury, even bought up copies on the Continent to destroy them.
There are many Nonconformists (18,00o) among the Russians, Tulchin being the seat of their bishops and a centre of propaganda.
The names of two other bishops of the 5th and 6th centuries have come down to us.
A great field for missionary enterprise opened itself in the Mongol empire, in which, as has already been mentioned, there were many Christians to be found; and by 1350 this field had been so well worked that Christian missions and Christian bishops were established from Persia to Peking, and from the Dnieper to Tibet itself.
He was kindly dismissed by the pope not long after, with a letter recommending him to the protection of the bishops of Tours and Angers, and another pronouncing anathema on all who should do him any injury or call him a heretic. He returned home, overwhelmed with shame and bowed down with sorrow for having a second time been guilty of a great impiety.
Henceforth the history of the city is that of the growing power, spiritual and temporal, of the bishops, whose secular influence was gradually supplanted in the 14th century by the advance of the rival power of the burghers.
In 747 a synod of the Frankish bishops sent to Rome a formal statement of their submission to the papal authority.
In 754 he assembled at the palace of Hiereion 338 bishops, by whom the worship of images was forbidden as opposed to all Christian doctrine and a curse pronounced upon all those who upheld it.
In the cases of Odo of Bayeux (1082) and of William of St Calais, bishop of Durham (1088), he used his legal ingenuity to justify the trial of bishops before a lay tribunal.
The first really notable council at St Paul's was that of 1075 under the presidency of Lanfranc; it renewed ancient regulations, forbade simony and permitted three bishops to remove from country places to Salisbury, Chichester and Chester respectively.
He himself once boasted that sixteen of the bishops who then occupied the bench had been birched with his "little rod."
Becket and the bishops were required to give these constitutions their approval.
Henry's demands were more defensible in substance than might be supposed from the manner in which he pressed them on the bishops.
His conduct may be excused on the ground that the bishops were subjected to unwarrantable intimidation.
But when he renounced his promise to observe the constitutions his conduct was reprobated by the other bishops, although approved by the pope.
In 1169 he took the same step against two of the royalist bishops.
If he had not given a definite pledge to forgive the bishops who had taken part in the young king's coronation, he had at least raised expectations that he would overlook all past offences.
But the archbishop prevailed upon the pope to suspend the bishops, and before his return published papal letters which, in announcing these sentences, spoke of the constitutions as null and void.
About the same period, too, the church of Bavaria was organized by St Boniface, and the country divided into several bishoprics; and we find frequent references to these bishops (in the plural) in the law of the Bavarians.
The following year, the question of the intervention of kings in the election of bishops having been raised in a pamphlet by Charles Hersent (Optatus Gallus de cavendo schismate, 1640), Marca defended what were then called the liberties of the Gallican Church, in his celebrated treatise De concordia sacerdotii et imperii, seu de libertatibus ecclesiae gallicanae (1641).
He maintained that the deposition of Bishop Colenso endangered the independence of bishops.
The bishops did not obtain possession until the reign of John, who during the interval in 1201 gave Hartlepool a charter granting the burgesses the same privileges that the burgesses of Newcastle enjoyed; in 1230 Bishop Richard Poor granted further liberties, including a gild merchant.
As a champion of the rights of conscience, and as the only one of the English bishops that dared to resist the king's will, Fisher commends himself to all.
It was thought that martyrdom would atone for sin, and imprisoned confessors not only issued to the Churches commands which were regarded almost as inspired utterances, but granted pardons in rash profusion to those who had been excommunicated by the regular clergy, a practice which caused Cyprian and his fellow bishops much difficulty.
The synod of Alexandria sent deputies to attempt an arrangement between the two anti-Arian Churches; but before they arrived Paulinus had been consecrated bishop by Lucifer of Calaris, and when Meletiusfree to return in consequence of the emperor Julian's contemptuous policy - reached the city, he found himself one of three rival bishops.
castle, at one time a residence of the bishops of Meissen and now utilized as law courts, several schools and an agricultural.
On the 25th of July 1898 he addressed to the Scottish Catholic bishops a letter, in the course of which he said that "many of the Scottish people who do not agree with us in faith sincerely love the name of Christ and strive to ascertain His doctrine and to imitate His most holy example."
The Irish and American bishops he summoned to Rome to confer with him on the subjects of Home Rule and of "Americanism" respectively.
We have, however, sufficient Theories of evidence that they were used as places of refuge from the use of the fury of the heathen, in which the believers - the cata- especially the bishops and clergy, who would naturally combs.
A bishop of York is mentioned, along with, and with precedence of, bishops of London and Lincoln (the last name is uncertain) as present at the council of Arles in 314.
Two fairs are held in Nola, on the 14th of June and the 12th of November; and the 26th of July is devoted to a great festival in honour of St Paulinus, one of the early bishops of the city, who invented the church bell (campana, taking its name from Campania).
From 968 to 1581 Meissen was the seat of a line of bishops, who ranked as princes of the empire.
The Eastern bishops subscribed, these edicts, and even Pope Vigilius yielded, in spite of the protests of the Western bishops, and at the 5th General Council (Constantinople, 553) agreed to the condemnation of the "three chapters" 1 and the anathematizing of any who should defend them by an appeal to the Definitions of Chalcedon.
took no action either way for six or seven years, and then instituted a quiet but thorough system of suppression, closing monophysite churches and imprisoning their bishops and priests.
A legend of the Council of Nicea 5 illustrates this point: "When the Bishops took their" Una questione sui numeri transfiniti,"Rend.
It is very striking that in his appeal to tradition Vincent assigns no part to the bishops as such - apart from the council; he appeals to the ancient "teachers," not to any apostolic succession.
The pastoral staff is the ensign proper of cardinals (except cardinal-deacons) and bishops; but the former are entitled to use it only in the churches from which they derive their titles,.
This was done both in the case of bishops' and of abbots' staves, but is now confined to the latter (Cerem.
sbot) is borne among the Syrians only by the patriarch, in all the other rites by all bishops, in the Greek 1 Among curious exceptions is the pastoral staff still carried by the Lutheran abbot of Lokkum.
The staff of Armenian bishops is reminiscent of that of the West, from which it is apparently derived; that of the vartapeds is encircled at the upper end by one or two snakes.
The bishops of the Coptic, Syrian and Nestorian Uniate Churches have adopted the Roman pastoral staff.
Marsilius denies, not only to the pope, but to the bishops and clergy, any coercive jurisdiction or any right to pronounce on their own authority excommunications and interdicts, or in any way to impose the observation of the divine law.
The pope, no longer possessing any more power than other bishops (though Marsilius recognizes that the supremacy of the Church of Rome goes back to the earliest times of Christianity), is to content himself with a pre-eminence mainly of an honorary kind, without claiming to interpret the Holy Scriptures, define dogmas or distribute benefices; moreover, he is to be elected by the Christian people, or by the delegates of the people, i.e.
Though the giving of blessings as a sacerdotal function is proper to the whole order of priests, particular benedictions have, by ecclesiastical authority, been reserved for the bishops, who may, however, delegate some of them; i.e.
the benediction of abbots, of priests at their ordination, of virgins taking the veil, of churches, cemeteries, oratories, and of all articles for use in connexion with the altar (chalices, patens, vestments, &c.), of military colours, of soldiers and of their arms. The holy oil is also blessed by bishops in the Roman Catholic Church; in the Greek Church, on the other hand, the oil for the chrism at baptism is blessed by the priest.
Thus in the 37th of the so-called "Canons of Hippolytus" we read: "As often as the bishops would partake of the Mysteries, the presbyters and deacons shall gather round him clad in white, quite particularly clean clothes, more beautiful than those of the rest of the people."
In the 9th century appeared the pontifical gloves; in the loth, the mitre; in the 11th, the use of liturgical shoes and stockings was reserved for cardinals and bishops.
By the 12th century, mitre and gloves were worn by all bishops, and in many cases they had assumed a new ornament, the rationale, a merely honorific decoration (supposed to symbolize doctrine and wisdom), sometimes of the nature of a highly ornamental broad shoulder collar with dependent lappets; sometimes closely resembling the pallium; rarely a "breast-plate" on the model of that of the Jewish high priest.'
This elaboration of the pontifical vestments was contemporaneous with, and doubtless partly determined by, the assimilation of the bishops during those centuries to the type of the great feudal nobles whose ambitions and love of pomp they shared.
It is now used only by the bishops of Eichstatt, Cracow, Paderborn and Toul, by the special concession of various popes.
Bishops, as belonging to the order of priesthood with completed powers, wear the same vestments as the priests, with the addition of ' The stole and maniple alone are symbolical of order, i.e.
Bishops also carry a pastoral staff, as symbol of their pastoral office.
- Trinity Sunday, all festivals of Christ (except those connected with the Passion), festivals of the Blessed Virgin, of the Holy Angels and Confessors, of holy virgins and women (not being martyrs), nativity of St John the Baptist, festivals of the chains of St Peter and of his see (cathedra Petri), Conversion of St Paul, All Saints, consecration of churches and altars, anniversary of election and coronation of popes, and of election and consecration of bishops.
The Report of the five bishops divides them into three schools: (1) the moralizing school, the oldest, by which - as in the case of St Jerome's treatment of the Jewish vestments - the vestments are explained as typical of the virtues proper to those who wear them; (2) the Christological school, i.e.
At the present day the Lutheran Churches of Denmark and Scandinavia retain the use of alb and chasuble in the celebration of the eucharist (stole, amice, girdle and maniple were disused after the Reformation), and for bishops the cope and mitre.
This result revolted public opinion; the bishops acquired the habit (rendered easier by the personal expense involved in setting the law in motion) of vetoing, under the power given to them in the act, all prosecutions; and the act became a dead letter.
Westerton (1857), and is admitted in the Report of the five bishops to Convocation on The Ornaments of the Church and its Ministers (1908), which adduces conclusive evidence.
Thirty years after the Ridsdale judgment, the ritual confusion in the Church of England was worse than ever, and the old ideal expressed in the Acts of Uniformity had given place to a desire to sanctify with some sort of authority the parochial "uses" which had grown up. In this respect the dominant opinion in the Church, intent on compromise, seems to have been expressed in the Report presented in 1908 to the convocation of the province of Canterbury by the sub-committee of five bishops appointed to investigate the matter, namely, that under the Ornaments Rubric the vestments prescribed in the first Prayer Book of Edward VI.
In the additional explanatory notes at the end of the book, after directions as to the wearing of surplice and hood in quire, in cathedral and collegiate churches (they are not made obligatory elsewhere), bishops are directed to wear, besides the rochet, a surplice or alb, and a cope or vestment, with a pastoral staff borne either by themselves or their chaplains.'
The five bishops in their Report, tracing the various vestments to their origins, conclude that they are meaningless in themselves, and therefore things indifferent.
In this he criticizes the bishops' Report in a sympathetic spirit, but points out how intimately the symbolism of the vestments had become associated with the doctrine of the Sacrifice of the Mass, and how logical was the action of the Reformers in rejecting certain of these vestments.
It was the seat of a bishopric, and its bishops are mentioned at the councils of 258, 348,393 and even later.
In the preface it is stated that Howel, "seeing the laws and customs of the country violated with impunity, summoned the archbishop of Menevia, other bishops and the chief of the clergy, the nobles of Wales, and six persons (four laymen and two clerks) from each comot, to meet at a place called Y Ty Gwyn ar Da y, or the white house on the river Tav, repaired thither in person, selected from the whole assembly twelve of the most experienced persons, added to their number a clerk or doctor of laws, named Bllgywryd, and to these thirteen confided the task of examining, retaining, expounding and abrogating.
The bishops denounced sentence of excommunication against all transgressors, and soon after Howel himself went to Rome attended by the archbishop of St David's, the bishops of Bangor and St Asaph and thirteen other personages.
They number about 80,000, are found in Syria, Palestine and Egypt, and are under the immediate rule of -the patriarch of Damascus and twelve bishops.
His son, Barton Boucher (1794-1865), rector of Fonthill Bishops, Wiltshire, in 1856, was well known as the author of religious tracts, hymns and novels.
At the Savoy conference of 1661 he was chief representative of the bishops.
The pope refused to interfere directly, and the nuncio, Mgr Lorenzelli, failed in securing more than ten public adhesions to the cardinal's condemnation from among the eighty bishops of France.
He wished to get rid of the bishops without making presbyters masters of the state.
He failed, because Charles could not even then consent to abandon the bishops, and because no Scottish party of any weight could be formed unless Presbyterianism were established ecclesiastically.
When Constantine deposed the orthodox bishops who resisted, Auxentius was installed into the seat of Dionysius, bishop of Milan, and came to be regarded as the great opponent of the Nicene doctrine in the West.
With the rise of Llanelly the industrial importance of Carmarthen has tended to decline; but owing to its central position, its close connexion with the bishops of St David's and its historic past the town is still the chief focus of all social, political and ecclesiastical movements in the three counties of Cardigan, Pembroke and Carmarthen.
The question of liability was then referred to commissioners appointed by each state, and, on their failing to agree, to Sir Edward Thornton, British minister at Washington, who by his award, in 1875, found there was due from Mexico to Upper California, or rather to the bishops there as administrators of the fund, an arrear of interest amounting to nearly $100,000, which was directed to be paid in gold.
Claim was thereupon made on Mexico by the United States on behalf of the bishops, but without success.
Formerly Brazil constituted an ecclesiastical province under the metropolitan jurisdiction of an archbishop residing at Bahia, with 11 suffragan bishops, 12 vicars-general and about 2000 curates.
The most famous of the Bishops was Gavin Douglas (1474-1522), translator of the Aeneid.
Of the hundred and seventy bishops assembled, about ninety were Homousians - principally from the West - while on the other side were eighty Eusebians from the East.
For as Athanasius and Marcellus of Ancyra appeared on the scene, and the Western bishops declined to exclude them, the Eusebian bishops of the East absolutely refused to discuss, and contented themselves with formulating a written protest addressed to numerous foreign prelates.
The bishops, however, who remained in Sardica (mod.
In the latter case, the tribunal was to consist of bishops from the neighbouring provinces, assisted - if he so chose - by legates of the Roman bishop. The clauses thus made the bishop of Rome president of a revisionary court; and afterwards Zosimus unsuccessfully attempted to employ these canons of Sardica, as decisions of the council of Nice, against the Africans.
Attempts to trace earlier bishops as far back as the 5th century have yielded only vague and contradictory results.
At first this local ministry was twofold, consisting of presbyters or bishops and deacons.
62 addressing the " saints " at Philippi " with the bishops and deacons."
To this it may be objected that presbyters and bishops are never mentioned together, and that the names were interchangeable (Acts xx.
Under the bishops or presbyters stood the deacons or " helpers " (Philipp. i.
Even when introduced, the monarchical episcopate was not thought necessary for the ordination of other bishops or presbyters.
The Anglican Church is content with the threefold ministry of bishops, priests and deacons, but in recent times the bishops have appointed lay-readers, licensed to read prayers and preach in buildings which are not consecrated.
cap. 2) only seven orders, and yet maintains (cap. 4) the ecclesiastical hierarchy of bishops, priests and ministers, the bishops as successors of the Apostles holding the highest place.
v.) shows that in exceptional cases men were consecrated bishops without previous ordination to the priesthood.
Cranmer also maintained that " bishops and priests are but both one office in the beginning of Christ's religion," ib.
Pope Stephen reconsecrated bishops consecrated in the usual way by his schismatical predecessor Constantine.
The necessity of reference to sacerdotal power in the ordination of priests and bishops will be considered a little farther on in connexion with Anglican orders.
The Lutheran Bugenhagen, who was in priest's orders, ordained seven superintendents, afterwards called bishops, for Denmark in 1527, and Norway, then under the same crown, derives its present episcopate from the same source.
There three bishops were consecrated in 1528 by Peter Magnusson, who had himself been consecrated by a cardinal with the pope's approval at Rome in 1524, for the see of Westiras, to which he had been elected by the chapter.
for the consecration of bishops, priests and deacons, contains all that is necessary for such ordination and nothing which is of itself superstitious.
Therein we are told that the threefold ministry of bishops, priests and deacons may be traced back to apostolic times, and in the final revision of 1662 a clause was added to the effect that no one is to be accounted " a lawful bishop, priest or deacon in the Church of England," unless he has had episcopal consecration or ordination.
In his instructions to the bishops (Burnet Collect., pt.
We may grant the pope's contention that the Edwardine church had no belief in priests who offered in sacrifice the body and blood of Christ or in bishops capable of ordaining such priests.
But then the liturgy of Serapion, the friend of Athanasius, recently discovered, contains forms for the ordination of priests and bishops which do not say a word about power to sacrifice, much less about power to sacrifice Christ's literal body and blood.
Aleppo is an important consular station for all European powers, the residence of the Greek and Armenian Patriarchs of Antioch, and of Jacobite and Maronite bishops, and a station of Roman Catholic and Protestant missions.
Bishop Colenso (q.v.), condemned in 1863 on a charge of heresy, ignored the authority of the court of South African bishops and was maintained in his position by decision of the Privy Council in England.
The Roman Catholic Church has 4 archbishops; Esztergom (Gran), Kalocsa, Eger (Erlau) and Zagrab (Agram), and 17 diocesan bishops; to the latter must be added the chief abbot of Pannonhalma, who likewise enjoys episcopal rights.
" the city of Blasius "), and 6 bishops.
The Orthodox Eastern Church in Hungary is subject to the authority of the metropolitan of Carlowitz and the archbishop of Nagyszeben (Hermannstadt); under the former are the bishops of Bacs, Buda, Temesvar, Versecz and Pakracz, and under the latter the bishops of Arad and Karansebes.
Towns, most of them also the sees of bishops, now sprang up everywhere, including Szekesfehervar (Stuhlweissenburg), Veszprem, Pecs (Fiinfkirchen) and Gydr (Raab).
At one time, indeed, a Magyar archbishop and four or five bishops openly joined the Orthodox communion and willingly crowned Manuel's nominees despite the anathemas of their Catholic brethren.
The bishops prided themselves on being great statesmen, great scholars, great financiers, great diplomatists - anything, in fact, but good Christians.
With these he marched southwards to the plain of Mohacs, where, on the 29th of August, the Hungarians, after a two hours' fight, were annihilated, the king, both the archbishops, five bishops and 24,000 men perishing on the field.
Under Ferdinand the parochial clergy were tempted to become Lutherans by the prospect of matrimony, and, in reply to the remonstrances of their bishops, declared that they would rather give up their cures than their wives.
by Farkas Deal(and others (Pest, 1878-1891); Monumenta Vaticana historiam regni Hungariae illustrantia (8 vols., Budapest, 1885-1891), a valuable collection of materials from the Vatican archives, edited under the auspices of the Hungarian bishops; Principal Sources for the Magyar Conquest (Mag.), by Gyula Pauler and Sandor Szilagyi (ib.
Ep. 9); the bishop, as the successor of the apostles, is the centre of unity in his diocese, the unity of the Church as a whole is maintained by the intercommunion of the bishops, who for this purpose represent their dioceses.
The bishops, individually and collectively, are thus the essential ties of Catholic unity; they alone, as the depositories of the apostolic traditions, establish the norm of Catholic orthodoxy in the general councils of the Church.
The modern Roman Catholic Church is episcopal, for it preserves the bishops, whose potestas ordinis not even the pope can exercise until he has been duly consecrated; but the bishops as such are now but subordinate elements in a system for which "Episcopacy" is certainly no longer an appropriate term.
Thus in England the bishops, while retaining their potestas ordinis in virtue of their consecration as successors of the apostles, came to be regarded not as representing their dioceses in the state, but the state in their dioceses.
Of the reformed Churches of the continent of Europe only the Lutheran Churches of Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Finland preserve the episcopal system in anything of its historical sense; and of these only the two last can lay claim to the possession of bishops in the unbroken line of episcopal succession.
4 The superintendents (variously entitled also archpriests, deans, provosts, ephors) of the Evangelical (Lutheran) Church, as established in the several states of Germany and in Austria, are not bishops in any canonical sense, though their jurisdictions are known as dioceses and they exercise many episcopal functions.
The" bishops "of the Lutheran Church in Transylvania are equivalent to the superintendents.
4 During the crisis of the Reformation all the Swedish sees became vacant but two, and the bishops of these two soon left the kingdom.
In 1528 Magnusson consecrated bishops to fill the vacant sees, and, assisted by one of these, Magnus Sommar, bishop of Strengness, he afterwards consecrated the Reformer, Lawrence Peterson, as archbishop of Upsala, Sept.
The bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church, on the other hand, derive their orders from Thomas Coke, a presbyter of the Church of England, who in 1784 was ordained by John Wesley, assisted by two other presbyters, "superintendent" of the Methodist Society in America.
Gerbert proceeds to argue that the church councils admitted the right of metropolitan synods to depose unworthy bishops, but contends that, even if an appeal to Rome were necessary, that appeal had been made a year before without effect.
All chief writers were bishops, inferior clergy or monks, and their readers belonged to the same classes.
catholicus) of Seleucia from about 326 to 341 in succession to Papa, who in the face of opposition from other bishops had organized the church of Persia under the primacy of Seleucia.
His chief importance in the history of the Persian Church lies in his having induced a synod of bishops to declare that church independent of the see of Antioch and of the " Western Fathers " (Labourt, p. 122 sqq.).
For a long time, too, sanctus was an official title, particularly reserved for bishops (v.
The first to find a place in them were the bishops.
Some of the most famous bishops also ended by passing from one calendar into the other.
Fifty years later they were numerous in Syria and Cilicia, according to the Armenian bishops Nerses the Graceful and Nerses of Lambron.
(14) Christ did not lay hands on patriarchs and metropolitans and bishops and presbyters and deacons and monks, nor ordain their several prayers.
Then in April 1688 he took the suicidal step of issuing a proclamation to force the clergy and bishops to read the Declaration in their pulpits, and thus personally advocate a measure they detested.
Seven bishops refused, were indicted by James for libel, but acquitted amid the indescribable enthusiasm of the populace.
The trial of the seven bishops, and the birth of a son to James, now induced them to send William a definite invitation (June 30, 1688).
The Church hierarchy consists of one archbishop (Caracas) and four suffragan bishops (Merida, Guayana, Barquisimeto and Guarico).
More than three hundred bishops are reported to have been present.
The total included 412 bishops, with Boo priors and abbots, besides the representatives of absent prelates and a number of inferior clerics.
The bishops of the East, however, under the direction of St Basil, were involved in a struggle with the emperor Valens, whose policy was favourable to the council of Rimini.
The Eastern bishops triumphed in the end under Theodosius, at the council of Constantinople (381), in which the pope and the Western church took no part.
605, and rebuilt in 615, and was ruled by dukes; but in the 9th century the bishops of Cremona began to acquire considerable temporal power.
Jewish scholars, often under the patronage of Christian bishops, were especially active in the work.
He complained now that the bishops were "bishops of their dioceses but not bishops of England," and did all he could to make the Church a greater religious force in English life.
(August 2, 1571) to the bishops of the West Indies permitting the substitution of balsam of Peru for the balsam of the East in the preparation of the chrism to be used by the Catholic Church in America.
A proclamation issued (December 6, 1553) directed the churchwardens to obtain the proper ornaments for the churches; and the bishops (at any rate Bishop Bonner, see Visitation Articles 1 554, Cardwell's Doc. Ann.
Other ancient churches outside the City are few; but there may be noted St Margaret's, under the shadow of Westminster Abbey; and the beautiful Ely Chapel in Holborn (q.v.), the only remnant of a palace of the bishops of Ely, now used by the Roman Catholics.
Arundel House, originally a seat of the bishops of Bath, was the residence of Thomas Howard, earl of Arundel, whose famous collection of sculpture, the Arundel Marbles, was housed here until presented to Oxford University in 1667.
The list of bishops from Cedda to William (who is addressed in the Conqueror's Charter) is long, and each bishop apparently held a position of great importance in the government of the city.
Fabyan when recording the entire destruction of London by fire in the reign of !Ethelred (981) makes this remarkable statement - " Ye shall understand that this daye the cytie of London had more housynge and buyldinge Arrival consecrated two bishops: Mellitus and Justus.
Stubbs, in his introduction to the"'Chronicle of Roger de Hoveden, writes: " This done, oaths were largely taken: John, the Justiciar and the Barons swore to maintain the Communa of London; the oath of fealty to Richard was then sworn, John taking it first, then the two archbishops, the bishops, the barons, and last the burghers with the express understanding that should the king die without issue they would receive John as his successor."
The question of granting dispensations from such a vow gave rise to much canonical legislation, in which the papacy had finally to give in to the bishops.
In 743 a Roman synod decreed that all bishops subject to the metropolitan see of Rome should meet personally every year in that city to give an account of the state of their dioceses.
(by the bull Romanus Pontifex, Dec. 20, 1584) ordered the bishops of Italy, Dalmatia and Greece to visit Rome every three years; those of France, Germany, Spain and Portugal, Belgium, Hungary, Bohemia and the British Isles every four years; those from the rest of Europe every five years; and bishops from other continents every ten years.
Its early lords were the bishops of Metz, the counts of the lower Saargau, and the counts of the Ardennes.
His prose works include sermons, treatises on vices and on baptism, a penitential, capitularies and exhortations to bishops, priests and judges.
Constance profited by his absence by governing the duchy, and in 1194 she had Arthur proclaimed duke of Brittany by an assembly of barons and bishops.
THOMAS KEN (1637-17x1), the most eminent of the English non-juring bishops, and one of the fathers of modern English hymnology, was born at Little Berkhampstead, Herts, in 1637.
In 1688, when James reissued his "Declaration of Indulgence," Ken was one of the "seven bishops" who refused to publish it.
He was designated by Gregory as one of four men most worthy to succeed him, and, after a vacancy of more than five months following the decease of Victor III., he was elected pope on the 12th of March 1088 by forty cardinals, bishops, and abbots assembled at Terracina, together with representatives of the Romans and of Countess Matilda.
These clerics became the confessors in royal and noble houses, and were generally chosen from among bishops and other high dignitaries.
The rochet is proper to, and distinctive of, prelates and bishops: but the right to wear it is sometimes granted by the pope to others, especially the canons of cathedral churches.
- In the English Church the rochet is a vestment peculiar to bishops, and is worn by them, with the chimere both "at all times of their ministration" in church and also on ceremonial occasions outside, e.g.
The rochet is worn without the chimere under the cope by those bishops who use this vestment.
At his consecration the bishop-elect is, according to the rubric, presented to the consecrating bishops vested in a rochet only; after the "laying on of hands" he retires and puts on "the rest of the episcopal habit," i.e.
In the case of bishops, the full and formal title of address is the Lord Bishop of A., whether he be a spiritual peer or not.
As the proper form of address "my lord" is used not only to those members of the nobility to whom the title "Lord" is applicable, and to bishops, but also to all judges of the High Court in England, and of the Scottish and Irish Superior Courts, and to lord mayors and lord provosts.
Prynne now attacked the bishops and the Roman Catholics and defended the taking up of arms by the parliament.
He was foremost in support of the claims of the Presbyterians and against the bishops; advocated the indiscriminate infliction of penalties, and demanded that the officials of the commonwealth should be compelled to refund their salaries.
Among his first acts were the deposition of Cyrus, the orthodox patriarch of Constantinople, in favour of John, a member of his own sect, and the summoning of a conciliabulum of Eastern bishops, which abolished the canons of the sixth general council.
To the east of the remains of the bishop's palace are the ruins of the earl's palace, a structure in the Scottish Baronial style, built about 1600 for Patrick Stewart, 2nd earl of Orkney, and on his forfeiture given to the bishops for a residence.
He welcomed the Armenian bishops who came to England in 1713, and corresponded with the Prussian court on the possibility of the Anglican liturgy as a means of reconciliation between Lutherans and Calvinists.
He held a portion of a foreign sovereign, the emperor, and other portions of the duke of Burgundy, of two archbishops, of four bishops, and of the abbot of St Denis.
In their new environment the Nestorians abandoned some of the rigour of Catholic asceticism, and at a synod held in 499 abolished clerical celibacy even for bishops and went so far as to permit repeated marriages, in striking contrast not only to orthodox custom but to the practice of Aphraates at Edessa who had advocated celibacy as a condition of baptism.
The liberty here granted to bishops was enjoyed as late as the 12th century, but since then the Nestorian Church has assimilated its custom to that of the Greek Church.
The bishops are always celibates and are chosen from episcopal families.
One of the Nestorian bishops joined the Russian Orthodox Church in 1898, and returned the same year with a small band of missionaries sent by the Holy Synod of Russia.
Even the clergy were by no means altogether on Innocent's side; the council of Lyons was attended by but 150 bishops, mainly French and Spanish, and the deputation from England, headed by Robert Grossetete of Lincoln and Roger Bigod, came mainly in order to obtain the canonization of Edmund of Canterbury and to protest against papal exactions.
It received civic rights in 1225, and soon became a prosperous place, but much of its history consists of broils between the bishops and the citizens.
Amongst the earlier bishops was Pilgrin or Piligrim (d.
Its episcopate in the 10th century still numbered thirty members, but in 1076 the Church could not provide three bishops to consecrate a new member of the episcopate, and for that purpose Gregory VII.
named two bishops to act with the archbishop of Carthage.
Yet we may have to correct the dubious chronology of the first Roman bishops by this datum, and prolong his life to about A.D.
Constantius also issued an edict to the effect that the two bishops should rule conjointly, but Liberius, on his entrance into Rome in the following year, was received by all classes with so much enthusiasm that Felix found it necessary to retire at once from Rome.
Of more interest are the letters, nearly four hundred in number, and addressed to kings, popes, cardinals, bishops, conventual bodies, political corporations and private individuals.
Following the course of events common to most cities of north-eastern Italy, the history of Padua falls under eight heads: (1) the Lombard rule, (2) the Frankish rule, (3) the period of the bishops, (4) the emergence of the commune, (5) the period of the despots, (6) the period of Venetian supremacy, (7) the period of Austrian supremacy, and finally (8) the period of united Italy.
The general tendency of its policy throughout the war of investitures was Imperial and not Roman; and its bishops were, for the most part, Germans.
In the Church of England deans are addressed as "very reverend," bishops as "right reverend," archbishops as "most reverend."
Of its secular buildings the most noticeable are the town hall and the Leuchtenberg palace, once the residence of the prince bishops and later of the dukes of Leuchtenberg (now occupied by the court of justice of the district), with beautiful grounds.
The Wilibaldsburg, built on a neighbouring hill in the 14th century by Bishop Bertold of Hohenzollern, was long the residence of the prince bishops of Eichstatt, and now contains an historical museum.
The bishops of Eichstatt were princes of the Empire, subject to the spiritual jurisdiction of the archbishops of Mainz, and ruled over considerable territories in the Circle of Franconia.
The bishops were created princes of the empire in 1588.
Nearly all (98.74%), profess the Roman Catholic faith and are under the bishops of Seckau and of Lavant.
The local Diet, of which the two Roman Catholic bishops and the rector of the university of Graz are members ex officio, is composed of 63 members, while Styria sends 27 deputies to the Reichsrat at Vienna.
Many bishops approved the act, but Ambrose of Milan and Martin of Tours condemned it.
Rappoltsweiler, known in the 8th century as Rathaldovilare, passed from the bishops of Basel to the lords of Rappoltstein, who were among the most famous nobles in Alsace.
In 1252 the countship was sold to the bishops of Munster; but their rule soon became little more than nominal, and in Emden itself the family of Abdena, the episcopal provosts and castellans, established their practical independence.
He was patronized by Robert, earl of Gloucester, and by two bishops of Lincoln; he obtained, about 1140, the archdeaconry of Llandaff "on account of his learning"; and in 1151 was promoted to the see of St Asaph.
apxtE riQUoiros), in the Christian Church, the title of a bishop of superior rank, implying usually jurisdiction over other bishops, but no superiority of order over them.
In the next century its use would seem to have been more common as the title of bishops of important sees; for several archbishops are stated to have been present at the council of Chalcedon in 451.
The metropolitans now commonly assumed the title of archbishop to mark their preeminence over the other bishops; at the same time the obligation imposed upon them, mainly at the instance of St Boniface, to receive thepallium from Rome, definitely marked the defeat of their claim to exercise metropolitan jurisdiction independently of the pope.
present to benefices in the gift of bishops, if these neglect their duty in this respect.
The confirmation and consecration of bishops is now reserved to the Holy See.
Such are the titular archbishops in partibus, and certain archbishops of Italian sees who have no bishops under them.
Thus in Greece there are eleven archbishops p to thirteen bishops, the archbishop of Athens alone being metropolitan; in Cyprus, where there are four bishops and only one archbishop, all five are of metropolitan rank.
The Arches court was also the court of appeal from the consistory courts of the bishops of the province in all testamentary and matrimonial causes.
A right very rarely exercised by the archbishop of Canterbury, but one of great importance, is that of the visitation and deprivation of inferior bishops.
He is entitled to consecrate all the bishops within his province and was formerly entitled, upon consecrating a bishop, to select a benefice within his diocese at his option for one of his chaplains, but this practice was indirectly abolished by 3 and 4 Vict.
By acts of 1833 and 1834, the metropolitans of Cashel and of Tuam were reduced to the status of diocesan bishops.
1 The court of Peculiars is no longer held, inasmuch as the peculiars have been placed by acts of parliament under the ordinary jurisdiction of the bishops of the respective dioceses in which they are situated.
It is the seat of Anglican and Roman Catholic bishops.
As a rule, the bishops were resolute enemies of the Montanistic enthusiasm.
The "spirit" of Maximilla gained a signal victory, a certain Themiso in particular having reduced the bishops to silence.
In after times the only way in which the discomfiture of the bishops could be explained was by asserting that they had been silenced by fraud or violence.
Not only did an extreme party arise in Asia Minor rejecting all prophecy and the Apocalypse of John along with it, but the majority cf the Churches and bishops in that district appear (c. 178) to have broken off all fellowship with the new prophets, while books were written to show that the very form of the Montanistic prophecy was sufficient proof of its spuriousness.
The bishops and their flocks gave offence to the spiritualists on so many points that at last it could be endured no longer.
The latter wished for more fasting, the prohibition of second marriages, a frank, courageous profession of Christianity in daily life, and entire separation from the world; the bishops, on the other hand, sought to make it as easy as possible to be a Christian, lest they should lose the greater part of their congregations.
And lastly, the bishops were compelled more and more to take the control of discipline into their own hands, while the spiritualists insisted that God Himself was the sole judge in the congregation.