Bishops sentence example

bishops
  • Early in 1443 the college was opened by Chicheley with four bishops in state.
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  • But as the idea that bishops were successors of the apostles came to prevail, presbyters, though sharing in the deliberations, gradually ceased to share in the voting; while synods insensibly acquired more and more coercive control over the churches of the area represented.
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  • They were, as Milton said, " faithful and freeborn Englishmen and good Christians constrained to forsake their dearest home, their friends, and kindred, whom nothing but the wide ocean and the savage deserts of America could hide and shelter from the fury of the bishops."
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  • On the other hand, the authority of the bishops of Riga was soon completely destroyed (1566).
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  • When the Long Parliament met, Williams was made chairman of a committee of inquiry into innovations in the church; and he was one of the bishops consulted by Charles as to whether he should veto the bill for the attainder of Strafford.
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  • In the same month he was one of the twelve bishops impeached by the Commons for high treason and committed to the Tower.
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  • A less likely view is that the " angels " are the human representatives of the churches, the bishops or chief presbyters.
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  • While incumbent of Curdridge Chapel near Bishops Waltham in Hampshire, he published (1835) The Story of Justin Martyr and Other Poems, which was favourably received, and was followed in 1838 by Sabbation, Honor Neale, and other Poems, and in 1842 by Poems from Eastern Sources.
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  • Banjaluka is the seat of Roman Catholic and Orthodox bishops, a district court, and an Austrian garrison.
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  • Weilburg was in the 11th century the property of the bishops of Worms, from whom it passed to the house of Nassau.
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  • The city is the seat of Anglican and Roman Catholic bishops.
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  • Hobart's zeal for the General Seminary and the General Convention led him to oppose the plan of Philander Chase, bishop of Ohio, for an Episcopal seminary in that diocese; but the Ohio seminary was made directly responsible to the House of Bishops, and Hobart approved the plan.
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  • Upon his return he preached a characteristic sermon entitled The United States of America compared with some European Countries, particularly England (published 1826), in which, although there was some praise for the English church, he so boldly criticized the establishment, state patronage, cabinet appointment of bishops, lax discipline, and the low requirements of theological education, as to rouse much hostility in England, where he had been highly praised for two volumes of Sermons on the Principal Events and Truths of Redemption (1824).
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  • As he refused to give up his duchy he was kept in prison, while Henry confiscated the estates of powerful nobles, demanded the restoration of ducal lands by the bishops, and garrisoned newly-erected forts with Swabians, who provisioned themselves from the surrounding country.
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  • In 1180, however, he was placed under the imperial ban and Saxony was broken up. Henry retained Brunswick and Luneburg; Westphalia, as the western portion of the duchy was called, was given to Philip, archbishop of Cologne, and a large part of the land was divided among nine bishops and a number of counts who thus became immediate vassals of the emperor.
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  • The stole is worn immediately over the alb; by deacons, scarf-wise over the left shoulder, across the breast and back to the right side; by priests and bishops, dependent from the neck, the two ends falling over the breast.
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  • The stole of priests and bishops, decorated with crosses, was worn originally in all rites as in the West, i.e.
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  • Hartwig, archbishop of Bremen, wished these sees to be under his authority, but Henry contested this claim, and won the right to invest these bishops himself, a privilege afterwards confirmed by the emperor Frederick I.
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  • In 355 Liberius was one of the few who, along with Eusebius of Vercelli, Dionysius of Milan and Lucifer of Cagliari, refused to sign the condemnation of Athanasius, which had anew been imposed at Milan by imperial command upon all the Western bishops; the consequence was his relegation to Beroea in Thrace, Felix II.
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  • Athanasius and Hilarius, retained the bishops who had signed and then withdrawn their adherence.
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  • His biographers used to be perplexed by a letter purporting to be from Liberius, in the works of Hilary, in which he seems to write, in 352, that he had excommunicated Athanasius at the instance of the Oriental bishops; but the document is now held to be spurious.
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  • The Roman Catholic Church, in all countries, has become more and more dependent on the Curia: the bishops have lost their autonomous standing, and their position is little more than that of papal delegates, while all important questions are referred to Rome or settled by the nuncios.
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  • He had some difficulties with the bishops in Africa on the question of appeals to Rome, and with the bishops of Provence with regard to the doctrines of St Augustine.
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  • There were then neither dioceses nor parishes in Ireland and Celtic Scotland; and by the Columbite rule the bishops themselves, although they ordained the clergy, were subject to the jurisdiction of the abbots of Iona, who, like the founder of the order, were only presbyters.
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  • Nestorius, with sixteen bishops and a large following of armed men, was among the first to arrive; soon afterwards came Cyril with fifty bishops.
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  • The reply they received was that he would appear as soon as all the bishops were assembled; and at the same time the imperial commissioner, Candidian, presented himself in person and formally protested against the opening of the synod.
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  • Notwithstanding these circumstances, Cyril and the one hundred and fifty-nine bishops who were with him proceeded to read the imperial letter of convocation, and afterwards the letters which had passed between Nestorius and his adversary.
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  • A few days afterwards (June 26th or 27th) John of Antioch arrived, and efforts were made by both parties to gain his ear; whether inclined or not to the cause of his former co-presbyter, he was naturally excited by the precipitancy with which Cyril had acted, and at a conciliabulum of forty-three bishops held in his lodgings shortly after his arrival he was induced by Candidian, the friend of Nestorius, to depose the bishops of Alexandria and Ephesus on the spot.
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  • The union even then met with resistance from a number of bishops, who, rather than accede.to it, submitted to deposition and expulsion from their sees; and it was not until these had all died out that, as the result of stringent imperial edicts, Nestorianism may be said to have become extinct throughout the Roman empire.
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  • While he gave full toleration to the Greek Churches, he created new Latin bishoprics at Syracuse and Girgenti and elsewhere, nominating the bishops personally, while he turned the archbishopric of Palermo into a Catholic see.
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  • In it kings and princes, bishops and popes alike are shown to be in bondage to Folly; and no class of men is spared.
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  • But Count Amadeus of Savoy not merely seized (1287) the castle built by the bishops (about 1219) on the Ile, but also (1288) the office of vicedominus [vidomne], the official through whom the bishop exercised his minor judicial rights.
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  • In December 1602 Francois de Sales was consecrated bishop of Geneva (since 1535 the bishops had lived at Annecy), and a few days later the duke of Savoy made a final attempt to get hold of the city by a surprise attack in the night of 11-12th December 1602 (Old Style), known in history as the "Escalade," as ladders were used to scale the city walls.
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  • In view of this difficulty, it was claimed that the apostles had appointed the bishops as their successors, and that the latter were in possession of special divine grace enabling them to transmit and to interpret without error the teaching of the apostles committed to them.
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  • Saving grace is recognized as apostolic grace, and the bishops as successors of the apostles become its sole transmitters.
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  • These bishops were originally not diocesan but congregational, that is, each church, however small, had its own bishop. This is the organization testified to by Ignatius, and Cyprian's insistence upon the bishop as necessary to the very existence of the Church seems to imply the same thing.
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  • The infallibility of the episcopate guarantees the infallibility of a general council in which not the laity and not the clergy in general, but the bishops as successors of the apostles, speak officially and collectively.
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  • In canon 6 of the council of Nicaea the jurisdiction of the bishops of Alexandria, Rome and Antioch over a number of provinces is recognized.
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  • To the bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Antioch and Alexandria was added at the council of Chalcedon (session 7) the bishop of Jerusalem, the mother church of Christendom, and the bishops thus recognized as possessing supreme jurisdiction were finally known as patriarchs.
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  • The documents comprise imperial edicts, rescripts, &c., liturgies, acts of councils, decretals and letters of bishops, references in contemporary heathen writings, and above all the works of the Church Fathers.
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  • Since the emperor ruled the Church there was no longer any question of independence far the bishops, least of all for the patriarch in Constantinople; they were in every respect subordinate to the emperor.
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  • The bishops continued to meet in synods as before, but the councils became territorial synods; they were called together at irregular intervals by the king, and their decisions obtained legal effect only by royal sanction.
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  • In the Empire all churches, and all the property of the Church, were at the disposal of the bishops; in Germanic countries, on the contrary, the territorial nobles were looked upon as the owners of churches built upon their lands, and these became " proprietary churches."
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  • Of more importance is the fact that, in co-operation with the bishops of Rome, he carried out the organization of the church in Bavaria, and began the reorganization of the Frankish church, which had fallen into confusion and decay during the political disorders of the last years of the Merovingians.
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  • From the priests he demanded faithfulness in preaching and teaching, from the bishops the conscientious government of their dioceses.
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  • Charlemagne followed his father's policy in carrying out his ecclesiastical measures in close association with the bishops of Rome.
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  • At Rome canonical election was alone regarded as lawful; in Germany, on the other hand, developments since the time of Charlemagne had led to the actual appointment of bishops being in the hands of the king, although the form of ecclesiastical election was preserved.
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  • A large number of the reformed monasteries attached themselves to the congregation of Cluny, thus assuring the influence of reformed monasticism upon the Church, and securing likewise its independence of the diocesan bishops, since the abbot of Cluny was subordinate of the pope alone.
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  • The essential part of this was that the Empire accepted the canonical election of bishops, and allowed the metropolitan to confer the sacred office by gift of ring and pastoral staff; while the Church acknowledged that the bishop held his temporal rights from the Empire, and was therefore to be invested with them by a touch from the royal sceptre.
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  • German priests and bishops carried the Christian faith to the Czechs and the Moravians, laboured among the Hungarians and the Poles, and won the wide district between the Elbe and the Oder at once for Christianity and for the German nation.
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  • The canonical election of bishops also continued to be discussed; but the old electors, i.e.
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  • He described their speeches and proceedings, caricatured their motives, denounced the exercise of the right of private judgment, and set forth the divine right of bishops in such strong language that one of the queen's councillors held it to amount to a threat against the supremacy of the crown.
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  • By the king's desire he undertook the vindication of the practices of confirmation, absolution, private baptism and lay excommunication; he urged, but in vain, the reinforcement of an ancient canon, "that schismatics are not to be heard against bishops"; and in opposition to the Puritans' demand for certain alterations in doctrine and discipline, he besought the king that care might be taken for a praying clergy; and that, till men of learning and sufficiency could be found, godly homilies might be read and their number increased.
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  • In the last few months of his life he took part in the discussion about the consecration of certain Scottish bishops, and it was in pursuance of his advice that they were consecrated by several bishops of the English church.
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  • The idea that presbyters and bishops are priests and the successors of the Old Testament priesthood first appears in full force in the writings of Cyprian, and here it is not the notion of priestly mediation but that of priestly power which is insisted on.
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  • From 1028 onwards it was ruled by local counts, the vassals of the bishops, but after Tirol fell into the hands of the Habsburgers (1363) their power grew at the expense of that of the bishops.
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  • In 1381 Leopold granted to the citizens the privilege of having a town council, while in 1462 the bishops resigned all rights of jurisdiction over the town to the Habsburgers, so that its later history is merged in that of Tirol.
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  • As a young man he saw service in the Netherlands under the command of his brother, and in the "Bishops' War" he commanded a troop of horse in King Charles I.'s army.
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  • But though he met with sufficient success to encourage him to issue a charter in 858, dated "the first year of the reign in West Francia," treachery and desertion in his army, and the loyalty to Charles of the Aquitanian bishops brought about the failure of the enterprise, which Louis renounced by a treaty signed at Coblenz on the 7th of June 860.
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  • The palace of the bishops of Durham, which stands at the northeast end of the town, is a spacious and splendid, though irregular pile.
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  • It may be most generally described by saying that the idea was taken from the consistorial courts through which the medieval bishops managed the affairs of their dioceses.
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  • Instead of the appointments to the membership of the consistories being made by the bishops, they were made by the supreme civil authority, whatever that might be.
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  • The position and functions of the bishops vary in the different countries.
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  • The manor, called in the 13th century Haringee (a name which survives as Harringay), belonged from an early date to the see of London, the bishops having a seat here.
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  • A few weeks after the victory the towns of Thorn, Elbing, Braunsberg and Danzig submitted to the Polish king; and all the Prussian bishops voluntarily offered to render him homage.
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  • The bishops were, for the most part, elegant triflers, as pliant as reeds, with no fixed principles and saturated with a false humanism.
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  • The bishops at once made a high bid for the favour of the new Sigis- king by consenting to the coronation of his Calvinist munddl., consort (Dec. 7, 1550) and the king five days l.,48-1572.
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  • Encouraged by this pleasing symptom of orthodoxy the bishops, instead of first attempting to put their own dilapidated house in order, at once proceeded to institute pr e osecutions for heresy against all and sundry.
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  • At the diet of Piotrkow, 1558-1559, the onslaught of the szlachta on the clergy was fiercer than ever, and they even demanded the exclusion of the bishops from the senate.
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  • The king, however, perceiving a danger to the constitution in the violence of the szlachta, not only supported the bishops, but quashed a subsequent reiterated demand for a national synod.
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  • In Poland the bishops and most of the Catholic magnates were for an Austrian archduke, while the strongly anti-German szlachta were inclined to accept almost any candidate but a German, so long as he came with a gift in his hand and was not a Muscovite.
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  • Gallus was followed by Matthew Cholewa and Vincent Kadlubek, two bishops of Cracow, and Bogufal or Boguchwal (Gottlob), bishop of Posen, who all used Latin.
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  • A few fragments printed in Polish had appeared before this, as the Lord's Prayer in the statutes of the bishops of Breslau in 1475, the story of Pope Urban in Latin, German and Polish in 1505, &c.; but the first complete work in the Polish language appeared from the press of this printer at Cracow in 1521, under the title, Speeches of the Wise King Solomon.
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  • The opportunity came with the old king's death in 1625, for James, with all his pedantry, was too wise and cautious to embark in Laud's rash undertakings, and had already shown a prudent moderation, after setting up bishops in Scotland, in going no further in opposition to the religious feelings of the people.
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  • The new prayer-book and canons were drawn up by the Scottish bishops with his assistance and enforced in the country, and, though not officially connected with the work, he was rightly regarded as its real author.
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  • Laud's infatuated policy could go no further, and the etcetera oath, according to which whole classes of men were to be forced to swear perpetual allegiance to the "government of this church by archbishops, bishops, deans and archdeacons, &c.," was long remembered and derided.
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  • Many bishops and divines considered the proposed definition a false one.
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  • The three Dutch Old Catholic bishops declared themselves ready to consecrate a bishop, if it were desired.
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  • The momentous question was discussed at a meeting of the opponents of the Vatican decrees, and it was resolved to elect a bishop and ask the Dutch bishops to consecrate him.
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  • Saarburg, which has been identified with the Pons Saravi of the Romans, belonged to France from 1661 to 1871, its earlier owners having been the bishops of Metz and the dukes of Lorraine.
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  • Yet he was not like the ordinary fighting bishops of the Middle Ages, whose sole concession to their sacred calling was to avoid the "shedding of blood" by using a mace in battle instead of a sword.
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  • Here again his zeal for the supremacy of the church led him to break the agreement between the state and the Catholic bishops which he had signed at his installation, and he was arrested by the Prussian government in November 1837.
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  • The moment of transition is clearly marked in the Didache, where the charismatic ministry of " apostles and prophets " is beginning to give place to permanent local officials of the Church, bishops, presbyters and deacons.
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  • In the fixing of the Canon, as in the fixing of doctrine, the decisive influence proceeded from the bishops and the theologians of the period 325-450.
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  • It belonged to the bishops of Thetford before the Conquest and remained with the see when it was translated to Norwich.
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  • But he distinguished himself, even among the bishops of that age, as a builder and a pious founder.
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  • She respected the bishops only as supporters of her throne; and, although the well-known letter beginning "Proud Prelate" is an 18th-century forgery, it is hardly a travesty of Elizabeth's attitude.
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  • In 1526, he was brought before the vice-chancellor for preaching a heterodox sermon, and was subsequently examined by Wolsey and four other bishops.
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  • In Russia the bishops are commonly selected from the archimandrites.
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  • On the other hand, it was also in Asia Minor that there appeared along with Montanus those energetic prophetesses who charged the churches and their bishops and deacons with becoming secularized, and endeavoured to prevent Christianity from being naturalized in the world, and to bring the churches once more under the exclusive guidance of the Spirit and His charismata.
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  • Both canons were innovations, designed to strike a fatal blow at prophecy and the church organization re-established by the prophets in Asia - the bishops not being quite prepared to declare boldly that the Church had no further need of prophets.
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  • Though in 1250 he provoked the English bishops by claiming the right of visitation in their dioceses, he took the lead at the council of Merton (1258) in vindicating the privileges of his order.
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  • In England the Roman Catholic bishops have agreed on the use of what is known as " The Penny Catechism," which is very lucid and well constructed.
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  • Pombal charged the whole Society with the possible guilt of a few, and, unwilling to wait the dubious issue of an application to the pope for licence to try them in the civil courts, whence they were exempt, issued on the 1st of September 1759 a decree ordering the immediate deportation of every Jesuit from Portugal and all its dependencies and their suppression by the bishops in the schools and universities.
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  • A royal commission, appointed by the duc de Choiseul to examine the constitutions, convoked a private assembly of fifty-one archbishops and bishops under the presidency of Cardinal de Luynes, all of whom except six voted that the unlimited authority of the general was incompatible with the laws of France, and that the appointment of a resident vicar, subject to those laws, was the only solution of the question fair on all sides.
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  • Seeing then that the Catholic sovereigns had been forced to expel them, that many bishops and other eminent persons demanded their extinction, and that the Society had ceased to fulfil the intention of its institute, the pope declares it necessary for the peace of the Church that it should be suppressed, extinguished, abolished and abrogated for ever, with all its houses, colleges, schools and hospitals; transfers all the authority of its general or officers to the local ordinaries; forbids the reception of any more novices, directing that such as were actually in probation should be dismissed, and declaring that profession in the Society should not serve as a title to holy orders.
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  • How, with this pope's support throughout his long reign, the gradual filling of nearly all the sees of Latin Christendom with bishops of their own selection, and their practical capture, directly or indirectly, of the education of the clergy in seminaries, they contrived to stamp out the last remains of independence everywhere, and to crown the Ultramontane triumph with the Vatican Decrees, is matter of familiar knowledge.
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  • From the 12th century onwards, its bishops, the first of whom appears to have lived about the 3rd century, began to encroach on the authority of the viscounts; the latter, after the Albigensian war, lost their estates, which passed to Simon de Montfort and then to the crown of France.
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  • By a convention concluded in 1264 the chief temporal power in the city was granted to the bishops.
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  • The church hierarchy consists of 3 archbishops and 23 suffragan bishops.
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  • It is the see of a Greek archbishop, and of one Armenian and two Bulgarian bishops.
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  • The bishops' registers bear sufficient testimony to this fact.
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  • It was a magnificent folio, generally known as the Bishops' Bible, since not less than eight of these dignitaries took part in the revision.
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  • Several editions of the Bishops' Bible were afterwards published, but it is doubtful whether the ecclesiastical authorities in spite of repeated enactments (Cardwell, Synodalia, pp. 115, 123, 210, 292) ever succeeded in entirely enforcing its public use in the churches.
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  • In the second edition of the Bishops' Bible, 1572, the two texts were actually printed side by side; in all later editions except one (1585) the older Psalter alone remained.
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  • The English Bible, which is now recognized as the Authorized Version wherever the English language is spoken, is a revision The of the Bishops' Bible, begun in 1604, and published Authorized in 1611.
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  • He " wished that some special pains should be taken in that behalf for one uniform translation - professing that he could never yet see a Bible well translated in English - and this to be done by the best learned in both the Universities; after them to be reviewed by the bishops and the chief learned of the Church; from them to be presented to the privy council; and lastly to be ratified by his royal authority; and so this whole church to be bound unto it and none other."
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  • This is one of the very few records that remain of their undertaking.4 " (1) The ordinary Bible read in the Church, commonly called the Bishops' Bible,' to be followed, and as little altered as the truth of the original will permit.
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  • Bishops have acquiesced and congregations approved.
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  • They appointed their first-fruits, having tested them by the Spirit, as bishops and deacons of those who should believe..
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  • It maintained that the church's infallible authority was committed to pope and bishops jointly.
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  • The pope decided in the first instance, but his judgments must be tacitly or expressly confirmed by the bishops before they had the force of law.
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  • This document lays down: (I) that the temporal sovereignty of kings is independent of the pope; (2) that a general council is above the pope; (3) that the ancient liberties of the Gallican Church are sacred; (4) that the infallible teaching authority of the church belongs to pope and bishops jointly.
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  • After his subsequent conversion by Laurentius, archbishop of Canterbury, he recalled the bishops Mellitus and Justus, and built a church dedicated to the Virgin at Canterbury.
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  • When Duke Henry the Lion of Saxony fell under the ban of the empire in 1 i 80, and his duchy was divided, the bishops of Munster and Paderborn became princes of the empire, and the archbishop of Cologne, Philip of Heinsberg, received from the emperor Frederick I.
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  • Many of the bishops of St David's during the 17th century occasionally resided here, and several are also buried here.
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  • It is the outermost garment worn by bishops and priests at the celebration of the Mass, forming with the alb the most essential part of the eucharistic vestments.
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  • There is some difference of opinion as to the derivation of the vestment in the latter case; the Five Bishops (Report to Convocation, 1908) deriving it, like the cope, from the birrus, while Father Braun considers it, as well as the cope, to be a modification of the paenula.'
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  • By the 14th century the use of these polystauria had been extended to metropolitans and later still to all bishops.
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  • The overlords were the bishops of Bath and Wells, who had a palace and park here.
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  • The time-honoured question of the filioque was still in the foreground when it seemed for several reasons advisable to transfer the council to Florence: Ferrara was threatened by condottieri, the pest was raging; Florence promised a welcome subvention, and a situation further inland would make it more difficult for uneasy Greek bishops to flee the synod.
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  • In this he failed, and Henry was crowned in Paris on the 17th of December 1431 by Henry Beaufort, cardinal bishop of Winchester, assisted by the bishops of Beauvais and Noyon.
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  • Otterbein and Boehm licensed some of their followers to preach and did a great work, especially through class-meetings of a Wesleyan type; 2 in 1789 they held a formal conference at Baltimore, and in 1800, at a conference near Frederick City, Maryland, the Church was organized under its present name, and Otterbein and Boehm were chosen its first bishops or superintendents.
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  • Bishops are elected for four years.
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  • In colonies which have parliamentary representation the crown cannot give to a metropolitan bishop jurisdiction or coercive legal authority over suffragan bishops or over any other person.
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  • Bishops and deacons hold a subordinate place in this document; but the contemporary Epistle of Clement of Rome attests that these bishops " had offered the gifts without blame and holily."
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  • Cyprian (Ep. 63) affirms (c. 250) that his predecessors on the throne of Carthage had used water, and that many African bishops continued to do so, " out of ignorance," he says, " and simplemindedness, and God would forgive them."
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  • The parties concerned were three clergymen, who appealed from the direction of their respective diocesans, the bishops of St Albans and Peterborough and the archbishop of York: in the two former cases the archbishop (Temple) of Canterbury was the principal and the archbishop of York (Maclagan) the assessor, whilst in the latter case the functions were reversed.
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  • There also existed a Manichaean book of memorabilia, and of prayers, in Greek, as well as many others,' all of which were destroyed by the Christian bishops acting in conjunction with the authorities.
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  • At the head stood the teachers (" the sons of meekness," Mani himself and his successors); then follow the administrators (" the sons of knowledge," the bishops); then the elders (" the sons of understanding," the presbyters); the electi (" the sons of mystery"); and finally the auditores (" the sons of insight").
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  • According to Augustine the teachers were twelve and the bishops seventy-two in number.
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  • In the first place, there were in early days far more bishops in proportion to the number of believers than is the custom now; and, secondly, it was the rule (except in cases of emergency) to baptize only in the season from Easter to Pentecost, and the bishop was always present and laid his hands on the newly baptized.
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  • Later, when the Church had come to be tolerated and patronized by the state, her numbers increased, the rule that fixed certain days for baptism broke down, and it was impossible for bishops to attend every baptismal service.
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  • It is not later than 7 7 50 and, with its predecessor, was the cathedral of Moray during the rule of the first four bishops; the fourth bishop, Simon de Toeny, an Englishman, was buried in its precincts in 1184.
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  • Farnham Castle, on a hill north of the town, the seat of the bishops of Winchester, was first built by Henry de Blois, bishop of Winchester, and brother of King Stephen; but it was razed by Henry III.
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  • Though there is evidence of an early settlement in the neighbourhood, the town of Farnham (Ferneham) seems to have grown up round the castle of the bishops of Winchester, who possessed the manor at the Domesday Survey.
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  • In 1205 Farnham had bailiffs, and in 1207 it was definitely a mesne borough under the bishops of Winchester.
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  • In early times both the archbishop of Hamburg and the archbishop of York disputed with the Norwegians ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the Orkneys and the right of consecrating bishops; but ultimately the Norwegian bishops, the first of whom was William the Old, consecrated in 1102, continued the canonical succession.
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  • In 1869 he went to the Vatican Council as secretary to Cardinal Hohenlohe, and took an active part in opposing the dogma of papal infallibility, notably by supplying the opposition bishops with historical and theological material.
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  • It was his desire to unite the enthusiasm cf primitive Christianity with intelligent thought, the original demands of the Gospel with every letter of the Scriptures and with the practice of the Roman church, the sayings of the Paraclete with the authority of the bishops, the law of the churches with the freedom of the inspired, the rigid discipline of the Montanist with all the utterances of the New Testament and with the arrangements of a church seeking to set itself up within the world.
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  • Not only did the great chasm between the old Christianity, to which his soul clung, and the Christianity of the Scriptures as juristically and philosophically interpreted remain unbridged; he also clung fast, in spite of his separation from the Catholic church, to his position that the church possesses the true doctrine, that the bishops per successionem are the repositories of the grace of the teaching office, and so forth.
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  • The former palace of the bishops of Rochester was erected in 1777 in room of an older structure.
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  • The duke of Guise was now named lieutenant-general of the kingdom, but his Catholic leanings were somewhat held in check by the chancellor Michel de l'Hopital, through whose mediation the edict of Romorantin, providing that all cases of heresy should be decided by the bishops, was passed in May 1560, in opposition to a proposal to introduce the Inquisition.
    0
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  • There are no traces of the fortified palace of the bishops of Durham, of the White Friars' monastery founded in 13J4, or of the Austin priory founded in 1341.
    0
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  • Each congregation had a plurality of elders, pastors or bishops, who were chosen according to what were believed to be the instructions of Paul, without regard to previous education or present occupation, and who enjoy a perfect equality in office.
    0
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  • As a result the king summoned a conference of leading Puritan divines, and of bishops and other leading Anglican divines, which met under his presidency at Hampton Court in January 1604.
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  • The result was that a conference was held in 1661, known from its place of meeting as the Savoy Conference, the church being represented by twelve bishops and the Nonconformists by twelve eminent Presbyterian divines, each side accompanied by nine coadjutors.
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  • The objections raised from the Nonconformist point of view were numerous and varied, but they were thoroughly discussed between the first meeting on the 15th of April and the last on the 24th of July 1661; the bishops agreeing to meet the Puritan wishes on a few minor points but on none of fundamental importance.
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  • Tenison's reputation as an enemy of Romanism led the duke of Monmouth to send for him before his execution in 1685, when Bishops Ken and Turner refused to administer the Eucharist; but, although Tenison spoke to him in "a softer and less peremptory manner" than the two bishops, he was, like them, not satisfied with the sufficiency of Monmouth's penitence.
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  • Melbourne Hall, a building of the time of William III., surrounded by formal Dutch gardens, stands in a domain owned at an early date by the bishops of Carlisle, whose tithe barn remains near the church.
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  • For the con secration of bishops, see Bishop; for that of churches, see Dedication.
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  • Without entering into controversy it must suffice to point out that, from the point of view of all episcopal churches, the ministry of the bishops succeeding the ministry of the apostles, however it came to pass, was for fif teen centuries accepted as the pledge of unity.
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  • This sanctioned jurisdiction of Catholic bishops, and observance of certain rites, while all were to accept justification by faith (relegating sola to the adiaphora).
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  • From this work he was called to return as missionary bishop to his own country, being ordained by Eusebius of Nicomedia and "the bishops who were with him," probably at Antioch, in 341.
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  • Colchester was made the see of a suffragan bishop by King Henry VIII., and two bishops were in succession appointed by him; no further appointments, however, were made until the see was re-established under Queen Victoria.
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  • Close by is the castle, built in the early 15th century by the bishops, later the residence of the Bernese bailiffs and now the seat of the various branches of the administration of the canton of Vaud.
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  • The bishops obtained little by little great temporal powers (the diocese extended to the left bank of the Aar) and riches, becoming in 1125 princes of the empire, while their chapter was recruited only from the noblest families.
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  • In the 2nd century all Christendom flocked to Rome; there was a constant stream of people - bishops from distant parts, apologists or heresiarchs.
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  • Further, the direction of affairs, both ordinary and extraordinary, tended to pass from the bishops to the state, which was now christianized.
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  • This idea, moreover, that the bishops of Rome were the successors of St Peter was expressed very early - as far back as the 2nd century.
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  • Whatever may be said as to its historical value, it symbolizes very well the great authority of the Roman Church in the early days of Christianity; an authority which was then administered by the bishops of Rome, and came to be more and more identified with them.
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  • The appeal from all patriarchal or conciliary judgments was to him; and on those occasions when he had to depose bishops of the highest standing, notably those of Alexandria and Constantinople, Ms judgments were carried into effect.
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  • Practical Save in its own metropolitan province, it took no Applica- part in the nomination of bishops; the provincial tions of the or regional councils were held without its authori- Theory, zation; their judgments and regulations were carried out without any suggestion that they should be ratified by Rome.
    0
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  • And it should be noticed that this idea was put forward, not by the pope with the object of increasing his power, but by the opinion of the Church with a view to defending the bishops against unjust sentences, and especially those inspired by the secular authority.
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  • When he did exercise it, it was far more frequently at the request of bishops or princes, or of the faithful, than of his own initiative.
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  • The old Roman clergy, the deacons and priests of the church at Rome (presbyteri incardinati, cardinales) formed the pope's council, and when necessary his tribunal; to them were usually added the bishops of the neighbourhood.
    0
    0
  • The pope, like all the bishops, was chosen by means of election, in which both the clergy and the laity took part.
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  • The popes of Tusculum did, at least, belong to the country, while the German kings chose bishops from the other side of the Alps.
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  • Gregory claimed that the same condition should apply to bishops, and these were the grounds of the dispute about investitures - a dispute which could find no solution, for it was impossible for the Teutonic sovereigns to renounce all interest in a matter of such importance in the workings of their state.
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  • He simultaneously excommunicated several sovereigns and mercilessly persecuted the archbishops and bishops who were hostile to reform.
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  • Dividing what the irreconcilables of the Hildebrandine party considered as an indissoluble whole, they made a sharp distinction between the property of the Church and the Church itself, between the political and territorial power of the bishops and their religious authority, and between the feudal investiture which confers lands and jurisdiction and the spiritual investiture which confers ecclesiastical rights.
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  • The idea was contrary to the whole evolution of medieval Catholicism, and the German bishops were the first to repudiate it.
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  • To place itself in a better posture for combating the simoniacal and concubinary prelates, the court of Rome had had to multiply exemptions and accelerate the movement which impelled the monks to make themselves independent of the bishops.
    0
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  • The cathedral chapters took advantage of this situation to oppose their jurisdiction to that of the bishops, and to encroach on their prerogatives.
    0
    0
  • Other adversaries of the episcopate, the burgesses and the petty nobles dwelling in the city, also profited by these frequent changes of bishops, and the disorders that ensued.
    0
    0
  • It was the monarchy of the bishops of Rome that naturally benefited by these attacks on the aristocratic principle represented by the high prelacies in the Church.
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  • Before his coronation he had renounced the right, so jealously guarded by Henry V., of assisting in the election of bishops and abbots, and he even undertook to refrain from exacting homage from the prelates and to content himself with fealty.
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    0
  • When the universal Church assembled at the second Lateran Council (1139), this leader of religion declared to the bishops that he was the absolute master of Christendom.
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  • The practice of the nomination of bishops by the Curia and of papal recommendation to prebends and benefices of every kind grew daily more general, and the number of appeals to Rome and exemptions granted to abbeys and even to simple churches increased continually.
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  • Although he had saved the papal institution from one of the gravest perils it had ever encountered, the cardinals, the court of Rome and Innocent himself could not easily pardon him for being what he had become - a private person more powerful in the Church than the pope and the bishops, and holding that power by his personal prestige.
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  • The bishops resisted centralization.
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  • When a question arose at Toulouse in 1160 as to the best means of settling the papal schism, this audacious statement was made before the kings of France and England: " That the best course was to side with neither of the two popes; that the apostolic see had been ever a burden to the princes; that advantage must be taken of the schism to throw off the yoke; and that, while awaiting the death of one of the competitors, the authority of the bishops was sufficient in France and England alike for the government of the churches."
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  • The principle of election by canons was repeatedly violated, and threatened to disappear; and at the end of the 13th century the spectacle was common of prelates, whether nominated or confirmed by the pope, entitling themselves " bishops by the grace of the Holy See."
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  • The custom in force required bishops established by papal authority to take an oath of fidelity to the pope and the Roman Church, and this oath bound them in a particular fashion to the Curia.
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  • Those bishops, however, who had been elected under normal conditions, conformably to the old law, were deprived of the essential parts of their legitimate authority.
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  • The regular clergy, who were almost wholly sheltered from the power of the diocesan bishops, found themselves, even more than the secular priesthood, in a state of complete dependence on the Curia.
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  • In 1566 he gave publicity to the Tridentine catechism; in 1568 he introduced the amended Roman breviary; everywhere he insisted on strict monastic discipline, and the compulsory residence of bishops within their sees.
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  • The number of cardinals was fixed at seventy - six bishops, fifty priests and fourteen deacons.
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  • The majority of the priests and bishops refused to swear assent to what they held to be an invasion of the divine right of the hierarchy, and after some months of unfortunate indecision Pius VI.
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  • In the concordat of 1801 the papacy recognized the validity of the sales of Church of 180E g Y property, and still further reduced the number of dioceses; it provided that the government should appoint and support the archbishops and bishops, but that the pope should confirm them; and France recognized the temporal power, though shorn of Ferrara, Bologna and the Romagna.
    0
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  • The captive was, however, by no means powerless; by refusing canonical institution to the French bishops he involved the ecclesiastical system of Napoleon in inextricable confusion.
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  • After the return from Moscow the emperor negotiated with his prisoner a new and more exacting concordat, but two months later the repentant pope abrogated this treaty and declared all the official acts of the new French bishops to be invalid.
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  • In France agitation was directed chiefly against the Jesuits, active in the movement to displace ancient local catechisms and liturgies by the Roman texts, to enroll the laity in Roman confraternities, and to induce the bishops to visit Rome more frequently.
    0
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  • The fact that the bishops were prepared to forego their opposition was not unknown in Rome.
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  • He also received the right to appoint bishops, who - except in Rome and the suburbicarian districts - were to be Italian subjects; and, with a significant exception, the exequatur, placet regium, and every form of government permission for the publication and execution of acts of ecclesiastical authority were abolished.
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  • Those bishops who, like him, had passed through the school of Lucian were not inclined to let him fall without a struggle, as they recognized in the views of their fellow-student their own doctrine, only set forth in a somewhat radical fashion.
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  • Arius and the two bishops of Marmarica Ptolemais, who refused to subscribe the creed, were excommunicated and banished to Illyria, and even Eusebius of Nicomedia, who accepted the creed, but not its anathemas, was exiled to Gaul.
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  • Under the sons of Constantine Christian bishops in numberless synods cursed one another turn by turn.
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  • In the western half of the empire Arianism found no foothold, and even the despotic will of Constantius, sole emperor after 351, succeeded only for the moment in subduing the bishops exiled for the sake of their belief.
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  • The choosing of bishops, which had in recent times been entrusted to the Holy Office, was given to the Consistorial Congregation, and dispensations from religious vows to the Congregation of the Religious Orders.
    0
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  • He further entrusted to this Congregation everything relating to the supervision of bishops and of the condition of the dioceses, and business connected with the seminaries.
    0
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  • It is the result of the fusion of two previous commissions; that for the affairs of bishops, established by Gregory XIII., and that for the affairs of the regular clergy, founded by Sixtus V.; the fusion dates from Clement VIII.
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  • It is also the work of the Propaganda to appoint the bishops for the countries it administers.
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  • To the former were attached two commissions, one for the approbation of those religious congregations which devote themselves to missions, which is now transferred to the Congregation of the Religious Orders; the other for the examination of the reports sent in by the bishops and vicars apostolic on their dioceses or missions.
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  • The pontifical "chapel" (capella) is the papal court for purposes of religious worship. In it the pope is surrounded by the cardinals according to their order; by the patriarchs, archbishops and bishops attending at the throne, and others; by the prelates of the Curia, and by all the clergy both secular and regular.
    0
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  • Disregarding the wishes of the Great Council, and excluding all the more important of the barons and bishops from office, he acted as his own chief minister and never condescended to justify his policy except when he stood in need of subsidies.
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  • Archbishop Edmund Rich was timid and inexperienced; his successor, Boniface of Savoy, was a kinsman of the queen; Grosseteste, the most eminent of the bishops, died in 1253, when he was on the point of becoming a popular hero.
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  • Among the bishops of the see, which still exists, with its seat in Frauenberg, may be mentioned Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, afterwards Pope Pius II., and Cardinal Stanislaus Hosius (1504-1579), the founder of the Jesuit college in Braunsberg.
    0
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  • But there was a tradition of a line of bishops earlier than Gregory in Siuniq, a region east of Ararat along the Araxes (Aras), which in early times claimed to be independent of the catholicus.
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  • It insists on the erection of fonts; on distinction of grades among the ordained clergy; on not postponing baptism too long; on bishops and priests alone, and not deacons, being allowed to baptize and lay hands on or confirm the baptized; on avoiding communion with Arians; on the use of unleavened bread in the Sacrament, &c. We learn from it that the bishop of Basen and Bagrevand was an Arian at that time.
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  • By the year 450 these two districts already had separate bishops of their own.
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  • Eventually this interesting church was engulfed by the rising tide of Mahommedan conquest, but not before one of their bishops, named Israel, had converted (677-703) the Huns who lay to the north of the Caspian and had translated the Bible and liturgies into their language.
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  • A synod of bishops, monks and doctors meets regularly to transact under his eye the business of the convent and the oecumenical affairs of the church; but its decisions are subject to the veto of a Russian procurator.
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  • Forty bishops present.
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  • All the Armenian bishops attended, as also the metropolitan of Urhha (Edessa), Jacobite bishops of Gartman, of Nfrkert, Amasia, by command of the archbishop of Antioch.
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  • He was appointed dean of Peterborough in 1679, and bishop of Chichester in 1689, in which year he was employed, along with others of the new bishops, to settle the affairs of the Church in Ireland.
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  • Dalmatic and tunicle are never worn by priests, as priests, but both are worn by bishops under the chasuble (never under the cope) and also by those prelates, not being bishops, to whom the pope has conceded the right to wear the episcopal vestments.
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  • Twothirds of the population were Sla y s and the remainder Italians, while nearly the whole of the inhabitants (99.6%) were Roman Catholics, under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of three bishops.
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  • The local Diet, which meets at Parenzo, and of which the three bishops are members ex-officio, is composed of 33 members, and Istria sends 5 deputies to the Reichsrat at Vienna.
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  • It is on one of the tributary streams of the Annalee river, in a broad valley surrounded on every side by elevated ground, with picturesque environs, notably the demesnes of Farnham and of Kilmore, which belongs to the bishops of that diocese.
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  • Adalberon wrote a satirical poem in the form of a dialogue dedicated to Robert, king of France, in which he showed his dislike of Odilo, abbot of Cluny, and his followers, and his objection to persons of humble birth being made bishops.
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  • In the Catholic Church bishops take rank at the head of the sacerdotal hierarchy, and have certain spiritual powers peculiar to their office, but opinion has long been divided as to whether they constitute a separate order or form merely a higher degree of the order of priests (ordo sacerdotium).
    0
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  • In some countries the bishop is elected by the cathedral chapter (as in Wurttemberg), or by the bishops of the provinces (as in Ireland).
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  • The bishop is consecrated, after taking the oath of fidelity to the Holy See, and subscribing the profession of faith, by a bishop appointed by the pope for the purpose, assisted by at least two other bishops or prelates, the main features of the act being the laying on of hands, the anointing with oil, and the delivery of the pastoral staff and other symbols of the office.
    0
    0
  • The potestas ordinis of the bishop is not peculiar to the Roman Church, and, in general, is claimed by all bishops, whether Oriental or Anglican, belonging to churches which have retained the Catholic tradition in this respect.
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  • Besides the full functions of the presbyterate, or priesthood, bishops have the sole right (I) to confer holy orders, (2) to administer confirmation, (3) to prepare the holy oil, or chrism, (4) to consecrate sacred places or utensils (churches, churchyards, altars, &c.), (5) to give the benediction to abbots and abbesses, (6) to anoint kings.
    0
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  • In the matter of their rights of jurisdiction, however, Roman Catholic bishops differ from others in their peculiar responsibility to the Holy See.
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  • Some of their powers of legislation and administration they possess motu proprio in virtue of their position as diocesan bishops, others they enjoy under special faculties granted by the Holy See; but all bishops are bound, by an oath taken at the time of their consecration, to go to Rome at fixed intervals (visitare sacra limina apostolorum) to report in person, and in writing, on the state of their dioceses.
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  • The spiritual function and character of the Anglican bishops, allowing for the doctrinal changes effected at the Reformation, are similar to those of the Roman.
    0
    0
  • In the established Church of England the appointment of bishops is vested effectively in the crown, though the old form of election by the cathedral chapter is retained.
    0
    0
  • The ecclesiastical importance of the monks in the various branches of the Orthodox Church lies in this, that as bishops must be celibate, whereas the parochial clergy must be married, the bishops are all recruited from the monks.
    0
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  • But it is the general opinion of historians that he had a high sense of his responsibilities and a strong love of justice; despite the looseness of his personal morals, he commanded the affection and respect of Gilbert Foliot and Hugh of Lincoln, the most upright of the English bishops.
    0
    0
  • But besides the king, the ealdormen, bishops and king's thegns themselves had their thegns, and to these it is more than probable that the name of cniht was applied.
    0
    0
  • And if the designation of knights was first applied to the military tenants of the earls, bishops and barons - who although they held their lands of mesne lords owed their services to the king - the extension of that designation to the whole body of military tenants need not have been a very violent or prolonged process.
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  • In 858 Louis the German, summoned by the disaffected nobles, invaded the kingdom of Charles, who fled to Burgundy, and was only saved by the help of the bishops, and by the fidelity of the family of the Welfs, who were related to Judith.
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  • Some of the bishops were men of great activity, and the bishopric attained a certain measure of importance in North Germany, in spite of ravages during the Thirty Years' War and the Seven Years' War.
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  • It has since remained, with the exception of the cope (q.v.), the sole vestment authorized by law for the ministers, other than bishops, of the Church of England (for the question of the vestments prescribed by the "Ornaments Rubric" see Vestments).
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    0
  • The Union has over 3000 members (of whom 1400 have gone to the field), and has adopted as its watchword, " The Evangelization of the World in this Generation "; and this motto has been approved by several bishops and other Christian leaders.
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    0
  • In the case of the two leading Church of England societies, the bishops (being members) are ex officio on all executive committees; but their labours in other directions prevent their ordinarily attending.
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    0
  • Of the religious societies engaged in the evangelization of these many fields of labour, some have been established exclusively for foreign missionary work among the heathen - notably the famous Societe des Missions Etrangeres of Paris, the oldest and greatest of all (dating from 1658, and consisting of 34 bishops, 1200 European missionaries and 700 native priests); the German " Society of the Divine Word," whose headquarters are at Steyl in Holland; the Belgian Society of Scheat; the celebrated French Society of the " White Fathers," founded by the late Cardinal Lavigerie for African missions; the English Society of St Joseph, founded at Mill Hill by Cardinal Vaughan; and some others.
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  • The work is carried on by eleven societies or religious orders with over 40 bishops and 1000 European priests, mostly French.
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    0
  • The bishops were declared " equal in rank to the viceroys and governors," and the priests " to the prefects of the first and second class "; and their influence and authority were to correspond.
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    0
  • The Anglican bishops agreed to decline these secular powers, as also did the heads of other Protestant missions.
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    0
  • On the 25th of March 1783 he was chosen their bishop by ten episcopal clergymen of Connecticut, meeting in Woodbury; as he could not take the British oath of allegiance, Seabury was shut out from consecration by the English bishops, and he was consecrated by Scotch bishops at Aberdeen on the 14th of November 1784.
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  • Of the Roman Catholic Church the heads are the two archbishops of Munich-Freising and Bamberg, and the six bishops of Eichstatt, Spires, Wurzburg, Augsburg, Regensburg and Passau, of whom the first three are suffragans of Bamberg.
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    0
  • Refusing to acknowledge the supremacy of the German king Conrad I., he was unsuccessfully attacked by the latter, and in 920 was recognized as duke by Conrad's successor, Henry I., the Fowler, who admitted his supremacy and the right to appoint the bishops, to coin money and to issue laws.
    0
    0
  • The government was inspired by the narrowest clericalism, which culminated in the attempt to withdraw the Bavarian bishops from the jurisdiction of the great German metropolitans and place them directly under that of the pope.
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    0
  • Upon this charter the bishops of Utrecht based their claim to the overlordship of the town, a claim which the citizens hotly disputed.
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  • At first the bishops were too strong for the townsmen; the defences built in i i 10 were pulled down by the bishop's order two years later; and during the 12th and 13th centuries the see of Utrecht, in spite of frequent revolts, succeeded in maintaining its authority.
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    0
  • Besides an archbishop at Utrecht, the Old Catholics have bishops at Deventer and Haarlem, and a training college at Amersfoort.
    0
    0
  • The decrees of councils would have no binding force "without the authority and consent of the apostolic see": appeals might be made to Rome against the decisions even of the patriarch of Constantinople: all bishops, including the patriarchs, if guilty of heresy or uncanonical proceedings, were subject to correction by the pope.
    0
    0
  • Gregory sought to protect the monks from episcopal oppression by issuing privilegia, or charters in restraint of abuses, in accordance with which the jurisdiction of the bishops over the monasteries was confined to spiritual matters, all illegal aggressions being strictly prohibited.
    0
    0
  • Bishop Hugh de Puiset rebuilt the church and built a manor house which was for many years the occasional residence of the bishops of Durham.
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    0
  • After the Norman Conquest, when the boundaries between church and state were more clearly marked, it became usual for patrons to appoint to livings not only without the consent, but even against the will, of the bishops.
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    0
  • Briefly, it prevents the dealing with the right of presentation as a thing apart from the advowson itself; increases the power of the bishops to refuse the presentation of unfit persons, and removes several abuses which had arisen in the transfer of patronage.
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    0
  • He consulted the older and graver Laurentius Andreae, who told him how "Doctor Martinus had clipped the wings of the pope, the cardinals and the big bishops," which could not fail to be pleasing intelligence to a monarch who was never an admirer of episcopacy, while the rich revenues of the church, accumulated in the course of centuries, were a tempting object to the impecunious ruler of an impoverished people.
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    0
  • The hierarchy of the Church of Rome in Belgium is composed of the archbishop of Malines, and the bishops of Liege, Ghent, Bruges, Tournai and Namur.
    0
    0
  • The archbishop receives £800, and the bishops £600 apiece from the state yearly.
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    0
  • The principle of liberty of worship and of the press, which it laid down, was so offensive to the Catholics that the bishops condemned it publicly, and in the Doctrinal Judgment actually forbade their flocks to take the oath.
    0
    0
  • The establishment under the auspices of the king in 1825 of the Philosophical College at Louvain, and the requirement that every priest before ordination should spend two years in study there, gave great offence to the clerical party, and some of the bishops were prosecuted for the violence of their denunciations at this intrusion of the secular arm into the religious domain.
    0
    0
  • The bishops ordered that absolution be refused to teachers in the schools " sans Dieu," and to the parents who sent their children to them, and urged the establishment of private Catholic schools.
    0
    0
  • One diocese (Podlasie) was abolished, and a new one established at Kielce, while several bishops were sent out of the country.
    0
    0
  • He adjusted the difficulties over the regalia, and obtained from the French bishops the virtual repudiation of the Declaration of Gallican Liberties.
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    0
  • The eleventh contains the lives of all the bishops in order, and includes the chief events during their pontificates; the twelfth deals in the same way with the archbishops, not forgetting the writer himself.
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    0
  • He thought every one was amenable to reason - bishops and levellers included.
    0
    0
  • The senior members of the community, by virtue of their age and experience, watched over the conduct and guided the action of the younger and less experienced portion of the Church, though they held no official position and were not appointed for any particular work like the bishops and deacons.
    0
    0
  • If too, as seems most probable, bishops and presbyters were practically identical, there is of course a specific reference to them in Phil.
    0
    0
  • The officials were called by two names, "elders" and "bishops," the former denoting the office, the latter the function (exercising the oversight).
    0
    0
  • The Didache knows nothing of the presbyters; bishops and deacons are mentioned, but there is no reference to the second order.
    0
    0
  • The right to baptize and celebrate the communion was delegated to them by the bishop.5 In the fourth stage we find the presbyters, like the bishops, becoming endowed with special sacerdotal powers and functions.
    0
    0
  • Cyprian bestows the highest sacerdotal terms upon the bishops of course, but his references to the priestly character of the office of presbyter are also most definite.
    0
    0
  • With the rise of the diocesan bishops the position of the presbyters became more important.
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  • The charge of the individual church was entrusted to them and gradually they took the place of the local bishops of earlier days, so that in the 5th and 6th centuries an organization was reached which approximated in general outline to the system which prevails in the Anglican Church to-day.
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  • Episcopacy was restored, the court of high commission was revived, and ministers who refused to recognize the authority of the bishops were expelled from their livings.
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  • His action gave rise to the Marprelate tracts, in which the bishops and clergy were bitterly attacked.
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  • The succession of bishops in Cologne is traceable, except for a gap covering the troubled 5th century, from A.D.
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  • The palace of the bishops, where the memorable Confession of Faith was presented to Charles V., is now used for government offices.
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  • Nevertheless when the bishops arraigned the reformer for heresy John would not abandon him.
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  • It is a curious circumstance, in view of the subsequent history of Irish politics, that it was from the Protestant Established Church, and particularly from the Orangemen, that the bitterest opposition to the union proceeded; a,nd that the proposal found support chiefly among the Roman Catholic clergy and especially the bishops, while in no part of Ireland was it received with more favour than in the city of Cork.
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  • Roman Catholic emancipation, which he continued to advocate with unflagging energy though now advanced in age, became complicated after 1808 by the question whether a veto on the appointment of Roman Catholic bishops should rest with the crown.
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  • He had, besides, a relish for Hobbes's wit (as he used to say, " Here comes the bear to be baited "), and did not like the old man the less because his presence at court scandalized the bishops or the prim virtue of Chancellor Hyde.
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  • The letter just mentioned is the only indisputably contemporary document concerning him and was addressed to Dionysius and Maximus, respectively bishops of Rome and Alexandria, by seventy bishops, priests and deacons, who attended a synod at Antioch in 269 and deposed Paul.
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  • It met in the Lateran church, was attended by one hundred and five bishops (chiefly from Italy, Sicily and Sardinia, a few being from Africa and other quarters), held five sessions or "secretarii" from the 5th to the 31st of October 649, and in twenty canons condemned the Monothelite heresy, its authors, and the writings by which it had been promulgated.
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  • During the reigns of Julian and Jovian, Eunomius resided in Constantinople in close intercourse with Aetius, consolidating an heretical party and consecrating schismatical bishops.
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  • Like most great bishops of his age he had a passion for architecture.
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  • There are four bishops.
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  • The castle founded at Heilsberg by the Teutonic order in 1240 became in 1306 the seat of the bishops of Ermeland, an honour which it retained for 500 years.
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  • The manor of North Lambeth was given to the bishopric of Rochester in the time of Edward the Confessor, and the bishops had a house here till the 16th century.
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  • From that time the pontifical intervention became more and more frequent, and, in practice, the right of the bishops in the matter of canonization continued to grow more restricted.
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  • The council of bishops who met at Rakka in the summer of 818 to choose a successor to Cyriacus had great difficulty in finding a worthy occupant of the patriarchal chair, but finally agreed on the election of Dionysius, hitherto known only as an honest monk who devoted himself to historical studies.
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  • This year or the next a council was held near the River Nidd, the papal letters were read, and, despite the opposition of the bishops, Wilfrid once more received the abbeys of Ripon and Hexham.
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  • Enraged by this unexpected arrogance, Henry summoned a synod of German bishops to Worms in January 1076, and Hildebrand was declared deposed.
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  • Seven years before, at Eger in July 1213, he had made extensive concessions to the church, undertaking to take no part in episcopal elections, thus surrendering the advantages gained by the concordat of Worms, and to allow to German bishops the right of appeal to Rome.
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  • Thus there were archbishops, bishops, abbots, dukes, Inargraves, landgraves, countsforming together a large body each of whom claimed to have no superior save the emperor, whose authority they and their predecessors had slowly destroyed.
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  • In many places the lords yielded to these demands, among those who granted conCessions being the elector palatine of the Rhine, the bishops of Bamberg and of Spires, and the abbots of Fulda and of Hersfeld.
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  • Finally the decree of the diet, promulgated in November, ordered the execution of the edict of Worms, the restoration of all church property, and the maintenance of the jurisdiction of the bishops.
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  • It was left to the seven professors of Göttingen to protest; who, deprived of their posts, became as famous in the constitutional history of Germany as the seven bishops in that of England.
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  • Without the help of the bishops, the leaders had no legal basis; unsupported by the people, they were generals without an army, and the attempt to use the movement for political purposes failed.
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  • The third law appointed a court for trying ecclesiastical offences, to which was given the right of suspending both priests and bishops, and a fourth determined the procedure necessary for those who wished to sever their connection with the Roman Catholic Church.
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  • The opposition of the bishops to these laws was supported even by many Protestants, especially by the more orthodox Lutherans, who feared the effect of this increased subjection of all churches to the state; they were opposed also by the Conservative members of the Upper House.
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  • The bishops meanwhile had held a meeting at Fulda, at the tomb of St Boniface,whence they addressed a protest to the king, and declared that they would be unable to recognize the laws as valid.
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  • Within a year six Prussian bishops were imprisoned, and in over 1300 parishes the administration of public worship was suspended.
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  • He was then deprived of the temporalities of his office; but the Polish nobles continued to support him, and he continued to act as bishop. Heavy fines were imposed upon him, but he either could not or would not pay them, and in March 1874 he was condemned to imprisonment for two years, and dismissed from his bishopric. The bishop of Trier, the archbishop of Cologne, and other bishops soon incurred a similar fate.
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  • The bishops from their prisons continued to govern the dioceses; for this purpose they appointed representatives, to whom they transferred their rights as Qrdinary and secretly authorized priests to celebrate services and to perform the other duties of an incumbent.
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  • In Wurttemberg alone the government continued to live peaceably with the bishops.
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  • The general interest of the Church in the social question was recognized by a congress of the bishops at Fulda.
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  • The town, which was the seat of the bishops of Ermeland from 1255 to 1298, was granted the law of Lubeck " by its bishop in 1284, and admitted to the Hanseatic League.
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  • It is the seat of Bulgarian and Greek bishops.
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  • Already, at the Vatican Council, several bishops had submitted requests for a reform of the Index, but the Council was not able to deal with the question.
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  • This refusal led to a breach with Peter, and other Egyptian bishops who were willing to grant absolution to those who were willing to do penance for their infidelity.
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  • He ordained 29 bishops and encroached upon Peter's jurisdiction.
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  • The Council of Nicaea in 325 upheld the bishops, but Meletius was allowed to remain bishop of Lycopolis though with merely nominal authority.
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  • By a new law, papal bulls could not be published without the consent of the crown, and the direct intercourse of the bishops with Rome was forbidden; the privileges of the religious orders were curtailed; and the education of the clergy was brought under state control.
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  • Since that year the empire had been the subject of numerous experiments in government; by the last, which began in 1860, Landtage or diets have been instituted in each of the territories on a nearly uniform system and with nearly identical powers, and by the constitution published in February 1861 (the February Constitution, as it is called), which is still the ultimate basis for the government, there was instituted a Reichsrath or parliament for the whole empire; it consisted of a House of Lords (Herren- haus), in which sat the archbishops and prince bishops, members of the imperial family, and other members appointed for life, besides some hereditary members, and a Chamber of Deputies.
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  • The diets themselves were elected for six years; they were chosen generally (there were slight local differences) in the following way: (a) a certain number of bishops and rectors of universities sat in virtue of their office; (b) the rest of the members were chosen by four electoral bodies or curiae, - (i) the owners of estates which before 1848 had enjoyed certain feudal privileges, the so-called great proprietors; (2) the chambers of commerce; (3) the towns; (4) the rural districts.
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  • All the schools were under the control of the Church; the bishops could forbid the use of books prejudicial to religion; in elementary schools all teachers were subject to the inspection of the Church, and in higher schools only Roman Catholics could be appointed.
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  • These laws were carried through both Houses in May amid almost unparalleled excitement, and at once received the imperial sanction, notwithstanding the protest of all the bishops, led by Joseph Othmar Beust's compact with the Poles.
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  • The natural result was that when they were carried into effect the bishops in many cases refused to obey.
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  • Rudigier, bishop of Linz, was summoned to a criminal court for disturbing the public peace; he refused to appear, for by the concordat bishops were not subject to temporal jurisdiction; and when he was condemned to imprisonment the emperor at once telegraphed his full pardon.
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  • This declaration was signed by eighty-one members, including many of the feudal nobles and bishops.
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  • Trenton is the see of Protestant Episcopal and Roman Catholic bishops.
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  • The Coptic organization includes in Egypt three metropolitans and twelve bishops, under the headship of the patriarch of Alexandria.
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  • At that council the native Egyptian bishops were chiefly remarkable for their manly protest against enforcing celibacy on the clergy.
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  • According to Selden it denotes "an excellency or pre-eminence only, not a superiority or power over other dukes, as in archbishop it doth over other bishops."
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  • The bishops have no political function by reason of their office, although they may, and often do, take a prominent part in politics.
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  • The bishops have fixed salaries in lieu of tithes appropriated by the state.
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  • At the first of these assemblies held at Nyborg, Midsummer Day 1314, the bishops and councillors solemnly promised that the commonalty should enjoy all the ancient rights and privileges conceded to them by Valdemar II., and the wise provision that the Danehof should meet annually considerably strengthened its authority.
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  • On the other hand, the Odense Recess of the 10th of August 1527, which put both confessions on a footing of equality, remained unrepealed; and so long as it remained in force, the spiritual jurisdiction of the bishops, and, consequently, their authority over the " free preachers " (whose ambition convulsed all the important towns of Denmark and aimed at forcibly expelling the Catholic priests from their churches) remained valid, to the great vexation of the reformers.
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  • The war ended with the capture of Copenhagen by the forces of Christian III., on the 29th of July 1536, and the triumph of so devoted a Lutheran sealed the fate of the Roman Catholic Church in Denmark, though even now it was necessary for the victorious king to proceed against the bishops and their friends by a coup d'etat, engineered by his German generals the Rantzaus.
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  • The Recess of 1536 enacted that the bishops should forfeit their temporal and spiritual authority, and that all their property should be transferred to the crown for the good of the commonwealth.
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  • On the same day seven " superintendents," including Tausen and Sadolin, all of whom had worked zealously for the cause of the Reformation, were consecrated in place of the dethroned bishops.
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  • Thus the privileges of the bishops and of Copenhagen profoundly irritated the lower clergy and the unprivileged towns, and made a cordial understanding impossible, till Hans Svane, bishop of Copenhagen, and Hans Nansen the burgomaster, who now openly came forward as the leader of the reform movement, proposed that the privileges which divided the non-noble Estates should be abolished.
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  • At his own court at Schleswig he did his best to introduce the Reformation, despite the opposition of the bishops.
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  • In the paper which he left signed, and to which he referred in answer to the questions wherewith the busy bishops plied him, he expressed his sorrow for having assumed the royal style, and at the last moment confessed that Charles had denied to him privately, as he had publicly, that he was ever married to Lucy Walters.
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  • The emperors Zeno and Anastasius had been strongly suspected of it, and the Roman bishops had refused to communicate with the patriarchs of Constantinople since 484, when they had condemned Acacius for accepting the formula of conciliation issued by Zeno.
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  • This edict was circulated through the Christian world to be subscribed by the bishops.
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  • Among the Western bishops, who were less disposed both to Monophysitism and to subservience, and especially by those of Africa, the edict was earnestly resisted.
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  • According to his usual practice, he issued an edict enforcing this view, and requiring all patriarchs, metropolitans, and bishops to subscribe to it.
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  • The Nestorians and the Eutychian Monophysites were not threatened with such severe civil penalties, although their worship was interdicted, and their bishops were sometimes banished; but this vexatious treatment was quite enough to keep them disaffected, and the rapidity of the Mahommedan conquests may be partly traced to that alienation of the bulk of the Egyptian and a large part of the Syrian population which dates from Justinian's persecutions.
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  • Bishops and abbots were to be elected, in accordance with ancient custom, by their clergy.
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  • He was one of the bishops elect whom Anselm refused to consecrate (1101) as having been nominated and invested by the lay power.
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  • He was, however, one of the bishops who pressed Anselm, in 1106, to give way to the king.
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  • The severance of the colonies from their allegiance to the crown brought the English bishops for the first time face to face with the idea of an Anglican Church which should have nothing to do either with the royal supremacy or with British nationality.
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  • The Scottish bishops, however, being hampered by no such legal restrictions, were more amenable; and on the 11th of November 1784 Seabury was consecrated by them to the see of Connecticut.
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  • Since the Church of England, whatever her attitude towards the traditional Catholic doctrines, never disputed the validity of Catholic orders whether Roman or Orthodox, nor the jurisdiction of Catholic bishops in foreign countries, the expansion of the Anglican Church has been in no sense conceived as a Protestant aggressive movement against Rome.
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  • Thus down to 1840 there were but ten colonial bishops; and of these several were so hampered by civil regulations that they were little more than government chaplains in episcopal orders.
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  • The plan was taken up with enthusiasm, and on Whitsun Tuesday of 1841 the bishops of the United Kingdom met and issued a declaration which inaugurated the Colonial Bishoprics Council.
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