Birth-rate sentence example
The average annual birth-rate is about 35 per 1000, and the death-rate about 15.5 About 26% of the births are illegitimate.
Although economic motives have become more complex, they have just as much and no more to do with general economic reasoning and analysis than the causes of death with the normal expectation of life, or domestic ideals with the birth-rate.
During 1897 the death-rate for the whole province rose to sixty-nine per thousand, or double the average, while the birth-rate fell to twenty-seven per thousand.
In 1900 the birth-rate was 26.90 per thousand, 7.8% of the births being illegitimate; the deathrate was 19.40 per thousand, and the marriage-rate 10 per thousand.
Others had withdrawn into the mountains and forests, and in the native villages under Spanish administration the birth rate had dropped to a small part of what it had been because the great bulk of the male population had been segregated in the mines and on the estates of the conquerors.Advertisement
In 1906 the birth-rate was 40.68 per thousand, and the excess of births over deaths 2637.
Sanitation decreases the death-rate, religion keeps up the birth-rate.
Between 1880 and 1892 the birth-rate fell by no less than 12.95 points - rather more than 1 a year.
A falling birth-rate, a falling death-rate, and the increase in the number of adult immigrants, are presumably the chief causes of this difference.
The median age of the population of cities of 25,000 or more inhabitants was 355 years greater than that of the inhabitants of smaller urban centres and rural districts, owing probably in the main to the movement of middle-aged native and foreign adults to urban centres, and the higher birth-rate of the rural, districts.Advertisement
The data gathered by the Federal census have never made possible a satisfactory and trustworthy calculation of the birthrate, and state and local agencies possess no such data Birth-rate for any considerable area.
But the evidence is on the whole cumulative and convincing that there was a remarkable falling off in the birth-rate during the 19th century.
So also the three decades immediately succeeding the above showed minimum decreases; and this has been attributed to a supposed greater birth-rate among the immiggants.
The change, wrote General Walker, which produced this falling off from the traditional rate of increase of about 3% per annum, was that from the simplicity of the early times to comparative luxury; involving a rise in the standard of living, the multiplication of artificial necessities, the extension of a paid domestic service, the introduction of women into factory labor.2 In his opinion the decline in the birth-rate coincidently with the increase of immigration, and chiefly in those regions where immigration was greatest, was no mere coincidence; nor was such immigrant invasion due to a weakening native increase, or economic defence; but the decline of the natives was the effect of the increase of the foreigners, which was a shock to the principle of population among the native element.
The assumption explicitly made by General Walker that among the immigrants no influence was yet excited in restriction of population, is also not only gratuitous, but inherently weak; the European peasant who landed (where the great majority have stayed) in the eastern industrial states was thrown suddenly under the influence of the forces just referred to; forces possibly of stronger influence upon him than upon native classes, which are in general economically and socially more stable, On the whole, the better opinion is probably that of a later authority on the vital statistics of the country, Dr John Shaw Billings,i that though the characteristics of modern life doubtless influence the birth-rate somewhat, by raising the average age of marriage, lessening unions, and increasing divorce and prostitution, their great influence is through the transmutation into necessities of the luxuries of simpler times; not automatically, but in the direction of an increased resort to means for the prevention of child-bearing.Advertisement
The birth-rate is high, especially in Quebec, where families of twelve to twenty are not infrequent, but is decreasing in Ontario.
The birth-rate of the people is considered to exceed the death-rate by very little, and the Red Karen habit of life is most unwholesome.
This emigration accounts in large measure for the slow increase of the population, though there has also been a slight decrease in the birth-rate.
The birth-rate is uniformly high and the death-rate low; and, despite the emigration of many families to South America and the United States, the census of 1900 showed that the population had increased by over 75,000 since 1877.
The average birth-rate in the Indian community is 37 per moo; in the non-Indian community 34 per moo.Advertisement
The mortality exceeds the birth-rate.
Very few inhabitants emigrate from this province, where the birth-rate considerably exceeds the death-rate.
The distribution of a population amongst the different periods of life is regulated, in normal circumstances, by the birth-rate, and, as the mortality at some of the periods is far greater than at others, the death-rate falls indirectly under the same influence.
The general results of the decline of the marriage-rate and the postponement of marriage upon the natural growth of population will be discussed in connection with the birth-rate, though the statistics available do not permit of the accurate measurement of the respective influence of these factors, and there are others, too, which have to be taken into consideration, as will appear below.
A birth-rate, taken as it usually is upon the total population, old and young, is open to the objections made above respecting the marriage-rate, and with even more force, as the basis is itself largely the product of the fact which is being measured by it.Advertisement
The crude birth-rate, it will be noted, is in general harmony with that of marriage.
Among the lower rates which prevail in western Europe, however, the connexion is not so direct, and a low birth-rate is sometimes found with a relatively higher marriage rate and vice versa, a deviation from the natural course of events which will be discussed presently.
The birth-rate, like the marriage-rate, seems to have reached its acme in the seventies, except in the three southern countries, France, Italy and Spain.
It is worth noting, too, that the fall in the crude birth-rate is not confined to, the Old World, but has attracted special attention in Australia and New Zealand, where a rate of 40 per mille in the period1861-1870has now given place to one of 26.
Indeed, during the last generation, this proportion has been in most cases slightly increased, in consequence of the fall of the birth-rate which set in anterior to this period.
In England the marriage-rate (on the age basis) fell off by 4.6% and in Scotland by 2%, whilst the crude birth-rate declined by 15 and 1r% respectively.
In Ireland the case was different, as the marriage-rate declined by 12% and the birth-rate by no more than 5.7%.
On the continent of Europe, however, looking at the divergence in direction between the crude marriage-rate and that corrected to an age-basis, it is not improbable that the decline in the former may be attributable to some cause mentioned in connexion with the marriage-rate, and in the figures relating to some 30 years back some traces can be found of a connexion between a high birth-rate and a high proportion of young wives.
If abstinence from marriage and the curtailment of the reproductive period by postponement of marriage be insufficient to account for the material change which has taken place in the birth-rate within the last few decades, it is clear that the latter must be attributable to the diminished fertility of those who are married.
The decline in Italy and Norway is small, but in France, where for a long time the fertility of the population has been very much below that of any other European country, the birth-rate thus calculated fell by nearly 20%, the same figure' being approached in Belgium, where however, the fertility of married women is considerably greater.
In both the crude birth-rate is far below that of any other European country.
The registrar general for England, indeed, has stated that whilst no more than about 17% of the decline in the birth-rate can be attributed to abstinence or postponement of marriage, nearly 70% should be ascribed to voluntary restriction.
The decline in mortality has been much greater than that in the crude birth-rate everywhere except in France, Australia, and, of course, Ireland; and it is only in the two former that it has been exceeded by that in the fertilityrate.
A high birth-rate is accompanied by high mortality; conversely, when one is low, so is the other.
On the other hand, an accidental set-back to population, such as that caused by famine or a disastrous war, leaves room which an increasing birth-rate hastens to occupy.
The death-rate, however, is often taken by itself as the measure of the relatively favourable conditions or otherwise of the different countries; but it indicates at best the maintaining power of the community, whereas the increasing power, as manifested in the birth-rate, has also to be taken into account.
Sweden falls below its geographical neighbours owing to its low birth-rate, and Finland because of its higher mortality.
England and Scotland, in spite of their higher birth-rates, are kept below Scandinavia by the higher death-rate, but their birth-rate places them above Belgium.
The birth-rate between 1876 and 1900 averaged 28.51 per thousand; the death-rate between 1891 and 1900 was 16.36 per thousand, the lowest ever recorded over such a period for any European country.
Few immigrants enter the country, but the birth-rate is about 30 per 1000, while the mortality is only about 20 per 1000.
The birth-rate is about 30, and the death-rate 20 per 1000 inhabitants a year.
The idea that systematic efforts should be made to improve the breed of mankind by checking the birth-rate of the unfit and furthering the productivity of the fit was first put forward by him in 1865; he mooted it again in 1884, using the term "eugenics" for the first time in Human Faculty, and in 1904 he endowed a research fellowship in the university of London for the promotion of knowledge of that subject, which was defined as "the study of agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations, either physically or mentally."
The birth-rate has fallen very much, especially since 1899.
Among the European population the birth-rate is about 33.00 per thousand, and the death-rate 14 oo per thousand.
The birth-rate among the coloured inhabitants is about the same as with the whites, but the death-rate is higher-about 2 5 oo per thousand.
Fevers and agues are prevalent owing to bad drainage and the overflowing of the river; and the death-rate is higher than the birth-rate.
The birth-rate is exceptionally high, largely because of the immigrant population, the greater part of which is concentrated in or near the large cities.
The teen birth rate declined by 30 percent over the past decade to a historic low and the rate for black teens was down by more than 40 percent.
In 1994, for example, the twin birth rate ranged from 19.8 per 1,000 live births in Idaho and New Mexico to 27.7 per thousand in Connecticut and Massachusetts.
Ethnicity is another factor that may correlate to the twin birth rate.
For 1994, the twin birth rate among non-Hispanic white mothers was 24.3 per 1000 live births; among non-Hispanic black mothers, 28.3 per 1000; and among Hispanic mothers, 18.6 per 1000.
The birth rate averages 26.28 per thousand of the population and the death rate 12.28, showing a net increase of 14 per thousand by reason of the excess of births over deaths.
Slaves, heirs, women and children, were benefited, and he made serious attempts to deal with the steady fall in the birth-rate of legitimate children.
Finally, the temporary reduction of the birth-rate, consequent upon the withdrawal of perhaps one-fourth of the national militia (males of 18 to 44 years) during two-fifths of the decade, may be estimated at perhaps 750,000.
In applying to the total population of 1790 the rate of growth shown since 1790 by the white people of the South, this rate, for the purpose of the above compirtations, is taken in its entirety only up to 1870, and thereafterin view of the notorious lesser birth-rate since that year in the North and Westonly one half of the rate is used.
The excess of births over deaths shows considerable variationsowing to a very low birth-rate, it was only 3.12 per 1000 in 1880, but has averaged 11.05 per 1000 from 1896 to 1900, reaching 11.98 in 1899 and 11.14 in 1902.