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Biot.

00The veteran Biot whose acquaintance Pasteur had made, was incredulous.

00Biot - who loved and admired him as a son - publicly announced that his enterprise was chimerical and the problem insoluble; Dumas evidently thought so too, for he advised Pasteur not to spend more of his time on such a subject.

00Biot and L.

00JEAN BAPTISTE BIOT (1774-1862), French physicist, was born at Paris on the 21st of April 1774.

00Biot was an extremely prolific writer, and besides a great number of scientific memoirs, biographies, &c., his published works include: Analyse de la mecanique celeste de M.

00Laplace is due the theoretical proof that this function is independent of temperature and pressure, and apparent experimental confirmation was provided by Biot and Arago's, and by Dulong's observations on gases and vapours.

00Biot, who assisted in the correction of its proof sheets, remarked that it would have extended, had the demonstrations been fully developed, to eight or ten instead of five volumes; and he saw at times the author himself obliged to devote an hour's labour to recovering the dropped links in the chain of reasoning covered by the recurring formula.

00Biot relates that, when he himself was beginning his career, Laplace introduced him at the Institute for the purpose of explaining his supposed discovery of equations of mixed differences, and afterwards showed him, under a strict pledge of secrecy, the papers, then yellow with age, in which he had long before obtained the same results.

00Biot and F.

00Biot, and on telegraph wires by Wertheim and Brequet.

00' Biot, Journ.

00Biot, E tudes sur l'Astronomie Indienne, p. 225.

00It was considered by Biot to have been originally twenty-four, but to have been enlarged to twenty-eight about i ioo B.C., by the addition of determinants for the solstices and equinoxes of that period.

0012 Biot, Journ.

00Chin., p. 77.14 Biot, Etudes, p. 136.

00Jean Baptiste Biot >>

00asiatique, August 1872, October 1874), the Chinese (Biot, Journ.

00Biot, "Notice sur Borda" in the Mem.

00(Biot, 1844; Regnault).

00That of Biot is far more complicated and troublesome, but admits greater accuracy of adaptation, as it contains five constants (or six, if 0 is measured from an arbitrary zero).

00The formulae of Rankine and Unwin, though probably less accurate over the whole range, are much simpler and more convenient in practice than that of Biot, and give results which suffice in accuracy for the majority of purposes.

00Biot, and above all, S.

00Biot, to complete the meridional measurements which had been begun by J.

00The two left Paris in 1806 and began operations among the mountains of Spain, but Biot returned to Paris after they had determined the latitude of Formentera, the southernmost point to which they were to carry the survey, leaving Arago to make the geodetical connexion of Majorca with Ivica and with Formentera.

00In 1816, along with Gay-Lussac, he started the Annales de chimie et de physique, and in 1818 or 1819 he proceeded along with Biot to execute geodetic operations on the coasts of France, England and Scotland.

00"All the compliments," he says, "that I have received from Arago, Laplace and Biot never gave me so much pleasure as the discovery of a theoretic truth, or the confirmation of a calculation by experiment."

00In Biot's earlier experiments the beam of light employed was nearly parallel: the phenomena of rings and brushes that are seen with a conical pencil of light were discovered by Sir David Brewster in the case of uniaxal crystals in 1813 and in that of biaxal crystals in 1815.

00Biot further ascertained that this rotation of the plane of polarization varies as the distance traversed in the plate and very nearly as the inverse square of the wave-length, and found that with certain specimens of quartz the rotation is in a clockwise or right-handed direction to an observer receiving the light, while in others it is in the opposite direction, and that equal plates of the rightand lefthand varieties neutralize one another's effects.

00There was an attempted insurrection by the royalists against the Convention and Biot took part.

00The veteran Biot whose acquaintance Pasteur had made, was incredulous.

00Biot - who loved and admired him as a son - publicly announced that his enterprise was chimerical and the problem insoluble; Dumas evidently thought so too, for he advised Pasteur not to spend more of his time on such a subject.

00Biot and L.

00JEAN BAPTISTE BIOT (1774-1862), French physicist, was born at Paris on the 21st of April 1774.

00Biot was an extremely prolific writer, and besides a great number of scientific memoirs, biographies, &c., his published works include: Analyse de la mecanique celeste de M.

00His SOD, Edouard Constant Biot (1803-1850), after amassing a competence from railway engineering, turned to the study of Chinese subjects, and published Causes de l'abolition de l'esclavage ancien en occident (1840); Dictionnaire des noms anciens et modernes des villes et des arrondissements compris dans l'empire chinois (1842); Essai sur l'histoire de l'instruction publique en Chine et de la corporation des lettres (1847); Memoire sur les colonies militaires et agricoles des chinois (1850).

00Laplace is due the theoretical proof that this function is independent of temperature and pressure, and apparent experimental confirmation was provided by Biot and Arago's, and by Dulong's observations on gases and vapours.

00Biot, who assisted in the correction of its proof sheets, remarked that it would have extended, had the demonstrations been fully developed, to eight or ten instead of five volumes; and he saw at times the author himself obliged to devote an hour's labour to recovering the dropped links in the chain of reasoning covered by the recurring formula.

00Biot relates that, when he himself was beginning his career, Laplace introduced him at the Institute for the purpose of explaining his supposed discovery of equations of mixed differences, and afterwards showed him, under a strict pledge of secrecy, the papers, then yellow with age, in which he had long before obtained the same results.

00Biot and F.

00In accordance with a general consequence of reflection and refraction, it is readily seen that the light of the rainbow is partially polarized, a fact first observed in 1811 by Jean Baptiste Biot (see Polarization).

00Biot, and on telegraph wires by Wertheim and Brequet.

00C. Biot to the date II II B.C. Measured from the winter solstice of that epoch, they corresponded, in conformity with the Chinese method of observation by intervals of what we now call righ t ascension, to equal portions of the celestial equator.

00' Biot, Journ.

00Biot, E tudes sur l'Astronomie Indienne, p. 225.

00It was considered by Biot to have been originally twenty-four, but to have been enlarged to twenty-eight about i ioo B.C., by the addition of determinants for the solstices and equinoxes of that period.

0012 Biot, Journ.

00Chin., p. 77.14 Biot, Etudes, p. 136.

00Jean Baptiste Biot >>

00asiatique, August 1872, October 1874), the Chinese (Biot, Journ.

00Biot, "Notice sur Borda" in the Mem.

00(Biot, 1844; Regnault).

00That of Biot is far more complicated and troublesome, but admits greater accuracy of adaptation, as it contains five constants (or six, if 0 is measured from an arbitrary zero).

00The formulae of Rankine and Unwin, though probably less accurate over the whole range, are much simpler and more convenient in practice than that of Biot, and give results which suffice in accuracy for the majority of purposes.

00Biot, and above all, S.

00The French mathematicians, Coulomb, Biot, Poisson and Ampere, had been content to accept the fact that electric charges or currents in conductors could exert forces on other charges or conductors at a distance without inquiring into the means by which this action at a distance was produced.

00This fact and hypothesis brought electrical phenomena within the domain of mathematical analysis and, as already mentioned, Laplace, Biot, Poisson, G.

00Biot, to complete the meridional measurements which had been begun by J.

00The two left Paris in 1806 and began operations among the mountains of Spain, but Biot returned to Paris after they had determined the latitude of Formentera, the southernmost point to which they were to carry the survey, leaving Arago to make the geodetical connexion of Majorca with Ivica and with Formentera.

00In 1816, along with Gay-Lussac, he started the Annales de chimie et de physique, and in 1818 or 1819 he proceeded along with Biot to execute geodetic operations on the coasts of France, England and Scotland.

00Fresnel's arguments in favour of that theory found little favour with Laplace, Poisson and Biot, the champions of the emission theory; but they were ardently espoused by Humboldt and by Arago, who had been appointed by the Academy to report on the paper.

00"All the compliments," he says, "that I have received from Arago, Laplace and Biot never gave me so much pleasure as the discovery of a theoretic truth, or the confirmation of a calculation by experiment."

00This phenomenon was subjected to a detailed investigation by Jean Baptiste Biot during the years 1812 to 1814, and from the results of his experiments Thomas Young, with his brilliant acumen, was led to infer that the colours were to be attributed to interference between the ordinary and extraordinary streams in the plate of crystal.

00In Biot's earlier experiments the beam of light employed was nearly parallel: the phenomena of rings and brushes that are seen with a conical pencil of light were discovered by Sir David Brewster in the case of uniaxal crystals in 1813 and in that of biaxal crystals in 1815.

00Biot further ascertained that this rotation of the plane of polarization varies as the distance traversed in the plate and very nearly as the inverse square of the wave-length, and found that with certain specimens of quartz the rotation is in a clockwise or right-handed direction to an observer receiving the light, while in others it is in the opposite direction, and that equal plates of the rightand lefthand varieties neutralize one another's effects.

00

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