Antecedent poliomyelitis was demonstrated in all patients by electromyography or muscle biopsy or both.
A brain biopsy (surgical gathering of a small tissue sample) may be recommended in some cases in which treatment has thus far been ineffective and the cause of the encephalitis is unclear.
Physical examination and routine x rays may yield enough evidence to diagnose benign bone tumors, but removal of tumor tissue for microscopic analysis (biopsy) is the only sure way to rule out malignancy.
The biopsy provides information about the type of cancer, its stage, the aggressiveness of the cancer in invading nearby tissue or organs, and the extent of metastases at diagnosis.
If you suffer from gluten allergy, you may experience many of the more severe symptoms as your immune system produces antibodies for gluten, but in such cases a celiac disease biopsy will usually be negative.
Final diagnosis, however, depends on obtaining a tissue sample from the mass (biopsy) and examining it under a microscope in order to verify that it has the characteristics of a Wilms' tumor.
The removal and microscopic examination of tiny bits of tissue (biopsy) from any suspicious areas found on an x-ray exam can be performed by either traditional or newer surgical techniques.
If healing is evident, then gluten is reintroduced to the diet and a third biopsy is performed weeks to months later to see if the reintroduction of gluten results in villus atropy again.
If your gliadin antibody test indicates your immune system views gluten as a foreign invader, your physician will probably recommend an intestinal biopsy as the next step in diagnosis.
In some anemias, a bone marrow sample will be removed (bone marrow biopsy) for microscopic examination, especially to confirm iron deficiency anemia or the megaloblastic anemias.