Biology Sentence Examples
You need to have a basic understanding of how things work in biology.
The optical properties of sea-water are of immediate importance in biology, as they affect the penetration of sunlight into the depths.
After completing his system (1896) Spencer continued to revise it, and brought out new editions of the Biology (1898-1899) and First Principles (1900).
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to biology.
He teaches all areas of biology, including field botany and ecology.Advertisement
He was an apprentice draper, teacher and biology student before he became a professional journalist and writer.
If you think back to high school biology, you may remember that human cells contain mitochondria.
There are many educational podcasts you can listen to that explain many facets of marine life and biology.
Biology comparative anatomy This is perhaps the bed-rock of most dinosaur science.
He was educated at Midhurst grammar school and at the Royal College of Science, where he was trained in physics, chemistry, astronomy, geology and biology.Advertisement
The word is thus transferred, in biology, to an animal or plant upon which a parasite lives.
But they rarely prosecuted researches in physics or astronomy, and the newly created sciences of biology and comparative anatomy received no adequate recognition from them.
Pharmacology is a branch of biology; it is also closely connected with pathology and bacteriology, for certain drugs produce structural as well as functional changes in the tissues, and in germ diseases the peculiar symptoms are caused by foreign substances (toxins) formed by the infective organisms present in the body.
Applicants should have a strong record of productivity and a background of research excellence in molecular biology, cell biology or cellular biophysics.
They want to biology through X-ray crystallography is true of.Advertisement
When I was at college they were postgraduate demonstrators in Environmental Biology.
In correspondence with these four aspects of its subject, biology is logically divisible into four chief subdivisions - I.
A similarly woeful tale can be told of biology.
At the present day, however, not only have hundreds of forms or species been described, but our knowledge of their biology has so extended that we have entire laboratories equipped for their study, and large libraries devoted solely to this subject.
He begins by finding an ultimate opposition between the instincts of self-assertion and instincts which secure the production and protection of the coming generation even in the infra-ethical world with which biology deals.Advertisement
Browsing can be done by taxonomic hierarchy, concepts hierarchy, by curriculum, or by biology course.
In order to give an adequate account of its subject-matter, psychology may require higher or more complex categories than are employed in the other sciences, just as biology, for example, cannot work with mechanical categories alone, but introduces the conception of development or growth.
In 1906 he gave an account of the early stages of development of the male and female organs and, among other interesting statements in regard to the general biology of Welwitschia, he expressed the opinion that, as Hooker suspected, the ovules are pollinated by insect-agency.
Psychology is with Cabanis directly linked on to biology, for sensibility, the fundamental fact, is the highest grade of life and the lowest of intelligence.
A consideration of the biology of the sorus gives an insight into the advantages obtained by the one type over the preceding, as regards protection, spore production and the dispersal of the spores, and thus indicates the way in which natural selection may have acted.Advertisement
The influence of ideas borrowed from biology is everywhere manifest in the ethical speculations of modern times.
What is of lasting importance is the re-affirmation upon metaphysical grounds of the right of the moral consciousness to state and solve its own difficulties, and the successful repulsion of the claims of particular sciences such as biology to include the sphere of conduct within their scope and methods.
This underlying biology allows us to understand the way in which left handedness has been treated in history.
The research group is working on conditionally immortalized cell lines by analyzing their structural and functional biology in both health and disease.
This tool is provided by Computational molecular biology at the US National Institutes of Health.
Synthetically manufactured peptide antigens and antigens produced using molecular biology are also being examined in an attempt to improve test specificity.
Professor Morris, whose research interest is in neuro- and cellular endocrinology, teaches neuroanatomy, systems, and reproductive biology.
His research interests include neurobiology, cell biology, and the emerging field of computational cell biology.
His research has been in immunology, cell biology, and developmental neurobiology.
First, the Division needs to extend its initiative in Developmental Biology into cellular neurobiology, with particular emphasis on stem cell research.
They built on kids ' naÃ¯ve notions of biology in just the way that psychologists would say you should do.
By PLoS Biology The genetic code of the gray, short-tailed opossum reveals insights into the evolution of the major histocompatibility complex.
Topics cover physics, chemistry and biology, including optical illusions and the psychology of science.
The molecular biology of helminth parasites (worms) is also under study in 3IR.
He also works on the cell biology of the invasive Salmonella food-borne pathogen, supported by a Wellcome Trust Program grant.
Dr. Christophe Lacomme, of SCRI, whose interests include the molecular and cell biology of cereal pathogens.
Teaching The Department teaches veterinary Biology to BVSc students during their first two years of their course, and also veterinary pharmacology.
Evidence that the phylogeny inferred from protein and DNA sequence comparisons is correlated with the phylogeny inferred from evolutionary biology.
We are studying the structural biology of members of the serpin family of serine proteinase inhibitors using X-ray crystallography.
Sexual organs are reproductive organs, part of what any biology textbook will tell you is the reproductive organs, part of what any biology textbook will tell you is the reproductive system.
Early clinical studies and retinoid development commenced without an understanding of retinoid development commenced without an understanding of retinoid molecular biology.
Our sister divisions of Environmental Biology and other groups within the Biomedical sciences are in the adjacent building.
Students take core modules in biology, geography and earth sciences but the course also offers considerable choice through a range of module options.
That is why they have conceded large swaths of biology to Darwinism.
Both biology and social biology are taught to A-level, using the highly-successful Cambridge modular syllabuses.
Miss Natasha Wind Natasha is an experienced research technician whose work focuses on cell biology.
Entire biochemistry and cell biology textbooks are still being written without ever mentioning the role of water.
I liked the practical aspect of Biology and the fun trips we went on including the zoo!
About this time Hansen, who had long been engaged in researches on the biology of the fungi of fermentation, demonstrated that yeast free from bacteria could nevertheless occasion diseases in beer.
Chemistry and biology are alike swallowed up in the one science of physics, and reduced to a problem of mechanism.
It is remarkable that each of these writers seems to have been led, independently and contemporaneously, to invent the same name of " biology " for the science of the phenomena of life; and thus, following Buffon, to have recognized the essential unity of these phenomena, and their contradistinction from those of inanimate nature.
If Meckel's proposition is so far qualified, that the comparison of adult with embryonic forms is restricted within the limits of one type of organization; and if it is further recollected, that the resemblance between the permanent lower form and the embryonic stage of a higher form is not special but general, it is in entire accordance with modern embryology; although there is no branch of biology which has grown so largely, and improved its methods so much since Meckel's time, as this.
That branch of biology which is termed morphology is a commentary upon, and expansion of, the proposition that widely different animals or plants, and widely different parts of animals or plants, are constructed upon the same plan.
Geography is a synthetic science, dependent for the data with which it deals on the results of specialized sciences such as astronomy, geology, oceanography, meteorology, biology and anthropology, as well as on topographical description.
The evolutionary idea has revolutionized and unified geography as it did biology, breaking down the old hard-and-fast partitions between the various departments, and substituting the study of the nature and influence of actual terrestrial environments for the earlier motive, the discovery and exploration of new lands.
The word is used literally in biology; and metaphorically in prosody or grammar for a verse or sentence with a beginning wanting.
This, indeed, holds good of the study of biology in general.
Its existence as a science could never have been recognized so long as the subjects of physics, chemistry and biology, in the widest acceptation of the term, remained unevolved.
For the natural philosopher the whole point of view of things was changed; in biology not only had the anthropocentric point of view been banished, but the ancient concept of perpetual flux was brought home to ordinary men, and entered for good into the framework of thought.
Comte separates the collective facts of society and history from the individual phenomena of biology; then he withdraws these collective facts from the region of external volition, and places them in the region of law.
In the Principles of Biology the most notable points are the definition of life as the continuous adjustment of internal to external relations, and the consequent emphasis on the need of adapting the organism to its environment.
In literature there may be, e.g., an adaptation of a novel for a drama, or in music an arrangement of a piece for two hands into one for four, &c. In biology, according to the doctrine of evolution, adaptation plays a prominent part as the process by which an organism or species of organisms becomes modified to suit the conditions of its life.
Here then we have the basis of a view in which there are not two media to be considered, but one medium, homogeneous in essence and differentiated as regards its parts only by the presence of nuclei of intrinsic strain or motion - in which the physical activities of matter are identified with those arising from the atmospheres of modified aether which thus belong to its atoms. As regards laws of general physical interactions, the atom is fully represented by the constitution of this atmosphere, and its nucleus may be left out of our discussions; but in the problems of biology great tracts of invariable correlations have to be dealt with, which seem hopelessly more complex than any known or humanly possible physical scheme.
For the scientific aspects of the processes involved in life and its cessation see Biology, Physiology, Pathology, and allied articles; and for the consideration of the prolongation of life see Longevity.
Septicaemia, tuberculosis, glanders, fowl-cholera, relapsing fever, and other diseases are now brought definitely within the range of biology, and it is clear that all contagious and infectious diseases are due to the action of bacteria or, in a few cases, to fungi, or to protozoa or other animals.
This research in the area of molecular biology, involved reporter assay methods to quantify gene expression and immunological techniques to measure protein concentrations.
Sexual organs are reproductive organs, part of what any biology textbook will tell you is the reproductive system.
Early clinical studies and retinoid development commenced without an understanding of retinoid molecular biology.
Biology Sam was n't always truthful about her interest in biology.
We also exploit a wide range of assays and functional studies to determine the precise role that the protein plays in trypanosome biology.
But the associations they disclose still need to be understood in terms of the underlying biology.
Concepts from evolutionary biology can, however, and could help unify the medical sciences.
A classical biology course will cover in vitro fertilization of urchin eggs and their observation.
My students are prepared for a career where chemistry and biology are utilized in conjunction with each other.
Our aim is to use these virus-host cell interactions to investigate fundamental aspects of cell biology, such as vesicle transport and secretion.
Biology The female beetle lays the whitish eggs in or on a suitable larval food.
I liked the practical aspect of Biology and the fun trips we went on including the zoo !
The diversity of plants and animals in the earth's biosphere amazed Catherine, so she decided to pursue a biology degree.
Within the subject of biology, Kyle focuses specifically on terrestrial sciences.
The ancilla my tutor gave me helped me to get an A on my biology test.
Even one second of tardiness to the biology lab would earn one a stern rebuke.
The question then becomes which features of feline biology allow cats to purr?
These leaders in the field understand the unique biology and physiology of cats based on experience and scientific research.
Cats, due to their unique biology, depend upon food sources for nutrients such as thiamine and amino acids called taurine and arginine.
First there were the natural sciences, themselves only just emerging from a confused conception of their true method; especially those which studied the borderland of physical and mental phenomena, the medical sciences; and pre-eminently that science which has since become so popular, the science of biology.
His ideology, he frankly stated, formed "a part of zoology," or, as we should say, of biology.
The most varied changes of this kind have been described, and are generally familiar as monstrosities; the study of them constitutes, under the name of teratology, a distinct department of biology.
We now have categories for Dutch writers, Dutch historians, Journalism (linked to Industry and business), Animal Husbandry and Horticulture (linked to agriculture and agriculture was linked to economics and biology).
There would probably have been no controversy at all on this subject but for the fact that economics was elaborated into systematic form, and made the basis of practical measures of the greatest importance, long before the remarkable development in the 19th century of historical research, experimental science and biology.
From the earliest times the shepherd, the farmer, the horticulturist, and the " fancier " had for practical purposes made themselves acquainted with a number of biological laws, and successfully applied them without exciting more than an occasional notice from the academic students of biology.
The biological sciences are those which deal with the phenomena manifested by living matter; and though it is customary and convenient to group apart such of these phenomena as are termed mental, and such of them as are exhibited by men in society, under the heads of psychology and sociology, yet it must be allowed that no natural boundary separates the subject matter of the latter sciences from that of biology.
Various accidental circumstances, however, have brought it about that the actual distribution of scientific work does not correspond with the logical subdivisions of biology.
In times past it has been the habit to look upon its sphere Connexion as lying really within that of practical medicine, and with human medicine more particularly; as something Biology.
It is when studied on these lines that pathology finds its proper place as a department of biology.
The geological formation is principally of volcanic rocks, with schists and tertiary limestone; and an early physical connexion of the islands with New Zealand is indicated by their geology and biology.
No polar expedition had been fitted out with greater care for the purpose of scientific research in meteorology, geology, glaciology and biology.
Man's place is not even central, as he appears a temporary inhabitant of a minor planet in one of the lesser stellar systems. Every science is involved, and theology has come into conflict with metaphysics, logic, astronomy, physics, chemistry, geology, zoology, biology, history and even economics and medicine.
Christianity is dependent upon the understanding of the universe; hence it is the duty of believers to put it into the new setting, so that it adopts and adapts astronomy, geology, biology and psychology.
There is no doubt that much remains still to be done in illustrating human morality by the facts and principles of biology and natural history.
Stretching in a semicircle round the broad campus are the library, the medical building, the biology building and museum, the school of practical science, the geology and chemistry buildings and the convocation hall, their architecture varying very greatly, beauty having been sacrificed to more practical considerations; the magnetic observatory is also in the grounds, but is overshadowed by some of the more recent erections.
The homologies between man and other animals which both schools try to account for; the explanation of the intervals, with apparent want of intermediate forms, which seem to the creationists so absolute a separation between species; the evidence of useless " rudimentary organs," such as in man the external shell of the ear, and the muscle which enables some individuals to twitch their ears, which rudimentary parts the evolutionists claim to be only explicable as relics of an earlier specific condition, - these, which are the main points of the argument on the origin of man, belong to general biology.
Parker (Elementary Biology) cites a passage from Alexander Ross, who, commenting on Sir Thomas Browne's doubt as to "whether mice may be bred by putrefaction," gives a clear statement of the common opinion on abiogenesis held until about two centuries ago.
It is clear, therefore, that any moral science which is to be of value must wait until the " laws of life " and " conditions of existence " have been satisfactorily determined, presumably by biology and the allied sciences; and there are few more melancholy instances of failure in philosophy than the paucity of the actual results attained by Spencer in his lifetime in his application of the socalled laws of evolution to human conduct - a failure recognized by Spencer himself.
Ridgeway, in his Origin and Influence of the Thoroughbred Horse (1905), reinvestigated the historical mystery as to the Arab breed, and its connexion with the English thoroughbred stock, but his conclusions have been hotly controverted; archaeology and biology are in fact still in the dark on the subject, but see the section on " Species " above.
They will be talking about the link between brain anatomy, physiology & intelligence, blending physics, chemistry and biology.
Biology, identification and control of the major greenhouse pests including aphids, whitefly and mites.
The III incorporates multiple research groups with expertise in molecular bacteriology, virology, chemical biology, immunology and cancer immunity.
Experience in cell biology and/or biochemistry would be great.
Research areas include bioenergetics, molecular biology, fermentation, protein biochemistry, kinetic and paramagnetic spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography.
The existence of primitive thought habits makes a great deal of sense in terms of evolutionary biology.
These species are widely used model organisms in developmental biology.
The downward causation observed in physics or biology does not have such a strong impact.
Ideally, 'a truly comparative natural biology would require inter-planetary travel, which is light-years away ' .
Students taking the Plant Biology option may attend a week-long field course in southern Portugal.
Up to now, evolutionary developmental biology, in its search for conserved molecular factors, has mainly focussed on this compositional aspect.
How could a biology book compare to an on-line version with a video clip of, say, a frog dissection?
Raven was doubtless an intellectual and was immensely learned, but he was a scientific dunce despite his nature study and biology lessons.
It combines the perspectives of molecular genetics, evolutionary biology and pollination ecology.
Specialist areas include entomology, vertebrates and marine and freshwater biology.
For example in our biology students we tried to find out about enzyme activity in sheep's liver and will be dissecting a frog.
It was used for physical oceanography, marine geophysics and marine biology including krill and fish.
Research is conducted on fiber production from cashmere goats and fine wool sheep and on the biology of growth and shedding of fibers.
Cardiac structural biology Research focuses upon studies of ion channels regulating calcium homeostasis in the heart.
The institute for Stem Cell Research The Institute for Stem Cell Research is an interdisciplinary research institute focussed on stem cell biology.
The institute for Stem Cell Research is a multidisciplinary research institute focused on the molecular, cellular and developmental biology of stem cells.
Mathematical Biology has thus developed into an active, varied and inherently interdisciplinary field of research.
However, it is rare that relationships in biology, including enzyme kinetics, follow a straight line.
Core modules include mathematical ecology, mathematical biology and medicine and applied linear algebra.
Molecular Ecology of Methane oxidation We have been developing molecular biology techniques to study the ecology of methane oxidation We have been developing molecular biology techniques to study the ecology of methane oxidizers.
It covers identification, lifecycle and biology, the damage mistletoe causes to trees, and its management.
Biology Sam wasn't always truthful about her interest in biology.
Grinding things and shaking vials is the most trendy approach to biology.
As we arrive at the r 9th century, though yet before the days of Darwin, biology is already beginning to affect the general aspect of thought.
Comte does not recognize that this process is aided by any increase of innate capacity; on the contrary, progress is to him the unfolding of fundamental faculties of human nature which always pre-existed in a latent condition; yet he may perhaps be said to have prepared the way for the new conception of human progress by his inclusion of mental laws under biology.
Aristotle from the first profited by having a father who, being physician to Amyntas II., king of Macedon, and one of the Asclepiads who, according to Galen, practised their sons in dissection, both prepared the way for his son's influence at the Macedonian court, and gave him a bias to medicine and biology, which certainly led to his belief in nature and natural science, and perhaps induced him to practise medicine, as he did, according to his enemies, Timaeus and Epicurus, when he first went to Athens.
The word is applied to various small compartments which build up a compound structure such as a honeycomb, to the minute compartments in a tissue, &c. More particularly the word is used, in electrical science, of the single constituent compartments of a voltaic battery, and in biology of the living units of protoplasm of which plants and animals are composed (see Cytology).
One activity that has become a raving success is the human biology activity.
The Service is currently funding research examining the life history, captive rearing, and conservation biology of the sphinx moth.
The report outlines key features of stem cell biology and their potential therapeutic use.
The Cambridge region is home to numerous renowned centers of excellence in the fields of clinical medicine, genomics and structural biology.
Aaron's knowledge on biology has evolved from knowing a few basic facts to having a deep understanding of the subject.
You can begin with the biology and physiology of the cat to determine which foods are best.
Yes, there are vegetarian cat food brands available, but the biology of a cat and the overall performance of felines displays a need for bio-available animal protein of a high quality.
To help you make the best choice for your cat, you can begin by studying the unique biology of felines and how that plays a role in determining the best food.
Would you want to be treated by a doctor who cheated her way through biology or have your children taught by a teacher who bought his/her senior thesis?
The subjects covered include vocabulary, biology, math and more.
The school offers majors in everything from anthropology to marine biology to marketing to juvenile justice.
Division of Basic Sciences and Engineering offers study concentrations in areas like biology and engineering.
A basic understanding of hair biology and normal hair development is essential in distinguishing normal versus abnormal hair loss in children and adolescents.
In biology and medicine, the word pertains to inherited genetic characteristics.
Parents are on a journey of discovery with each child whose temperament, biology, and sleep habits result in a unique sleep-wake pattern.
Even though temperament is thought to be rooted in biology, different children in the same family may have very different temperaments.
Neither temperament nor biology is destiny.
You probably learned the basics of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) in your high school biology class.
Whether you're looking for basic reading or mathematics help or special lessons in biology or algebra, the web has brought the largest library of free and paid resources to your doorstep.
Typically, people who plan to go to medical school pursue undergraduate degrees in the field of Biology.
You can study the particular area of Biology that interests you in college, which will give you quite a bit of time to decide exactly what avenue you wish to pursue before making a decision about graduate school.
Students take courses in chemistry, biology, nutrition, disease and medications as well as specialized nursing classes and a structured clinical course.
Considering biology, the notion seems impossible but unusual circumstances may make pregnancy in men possible on some level.
Most of us know how babies are made, but do we really understand the biology and miracles involved in becoming pregnant?
Those that are still currently enrolled at school have majors that vary from biology to nursing.
Frances Crick, one of the two men credited with discovering the structure of DNA, called Pauling the father of molecular biology.
Huxley set up the Department of Biology at Rice University in Houston, and took his first exploratory trip of America that year (1912).
One of the best ways to do this is to help them observe nature and biology.
The physiology and biology of women will prevent this from occurring.
This figure is projected to increase to 42 percent by 2050, according to a 2010 study in PLoS Computational Biology.
After receiving a degree from Clemson in biology, he completed a graduate degree in nuclear medicine.
In an act of desperation, after even visiting dermatologists to no avail, I ordered Skin Biology's CP Serum and emu oil.
Through the group's combined expertise in biochemistry, dermatology, clinical methods and molecular biology, the Pro X line was formed.
My main interests are in studying many aspects of the common dolphin population in the Northeast Atlantic, and reproductive biology in small cetaceans.
In between these extremes you will find groundbreaking activity in many traditional areas for structural biology.
In contrast to our advanced knowledge of WT genetics, we know little or nothing about the cell biology of WT.
Functions in relation to marine and freshwater biology, and fishery research, were passed to the Natural Environment Research Council in 1965.
Other grants will generate new insights into basic stem cell biology to increase understanding of how stem cells function.
I am carrying out an A-level biology investigation into Vitamin C. What is the function of Vitamin C in the orange fruit itself.
This aspect of our conservation biology work is already well developed under the able leadership of Peter Harvey.
The research is aimed at three aspects of the parasites biology relevant to disease control.
As a carnivore, the best diet for your cat will reflect her biology.
When choosing a food for your cat, the diet should match her biology, activity level and any other special dietary needs she may have.
Most students have taken biology prior to enrolling in chemistry, which has already introduced you to the basics of lab time and group projects.
All Science Fair Projects - This site breaks down projects by area of interest, such as biology, physics, engineering and earth science.
High school courses include Career and Life Management, English, Mathematics, Applied Mathematics, Pure Mathematics, Physical Education, Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Science, and Social Studies.
Fawcett majored in biology at the University of Texas at Austin but switched to an art major before dropping out.
After graduating high school, Pinsky attended Amherst College in Massachusetts majoring in biology.
Academic programs at Ashford University include a variety of Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees; choose from a substantial list ranging from biology to special education classroom teaching.
Bioengineering, also referred to as biotechnological engineering or biological engineering, involves the application of engineering principles in the fields of healthcare and biology.
This type of engineering involves the use of biological substances and the application of engineering principles to the fields of protein chemistry, immunology, molecular biology, cytology, pharmacology, microbiology and biochemistry.
Bioengineering degree programs combine coursework in the fields of biology and engineering to give students a solid education in the principles and techniques of this discipline.
Prerequisites include courses in communication, psychology, biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics.
It is preferred that individuals have a firm science background that includes biology, anatomy and physiology, microbiology and courses in human growth and development.
During the high school years, it's important to get outstanding grades and take as many biology and chemistry courses as you possibly can in preparation for the next four years you'll spend earning a Bachelor's Degree (BA) in college.
According to a 2003 feature article published in the academic journal PLoS Biology, corn is one of the most common genetically modified crops, second only to soybeans.
Grass and hay are a more natural diet for them and better suited to their biology.
Middle school students are generally exposed to a number of different science labs, including chemistry, biology, physical science, and earth science.
Remember that BIOME is still a computer game and not an advanced course in biology at your local college.
Advances in molecular biology and cancer genetics have contributed greatly to the development of therapies that provide cell-targeted treatment.
Parents can be assured of access to the current knowledge base in molecular biology and advanced treatment technologies that promise better outcomes.
They offer help in Math, Algebra, Calculus, Statistics, Economics, Finance, Accounting, Physics, Programming, Biology, Chemistry, and Psychology.
The work achieved by Russian savants, especially in biology, physiology and chemistry, and in the sciences descriptive of the vast territory of Russia, is well known to Europe.
Similarly Karl Hoffmann of Wiirzburg wasted his appreciations of the newer schools of developmental biology in fanciful notions of human diseases as reversions to normal stages of lower animals; scrofula being for him a reversion to the insect, rickets to the mollusc, epilepsy to the oscillaria, and so forth.
Linnaeus' invention of binomial nomenclature for designating species served systematic biology admirably, but at the same time, by attaching preponderating importance to a particular grade in classification, crystallized the doctrine of fixity.
That these areas had deep significance for the native races is shown by the results, both in biology and culture.
Williams observes (Geological Biology, p. 268) that the evolution of those fundamental characters which mark differences between separate classes, orders, sub-orders, and even families of organisms, took place in relatively short periods of time.
By these, and other instruments of precision, such as the thermometer, of which we have already spok en, the eminently scientific discipline of the measurement of functional movements, so difficult in the complex science of biology, has been cultivated.
Not only has the number of known forms been greatly multiplied, but the study of the biology and life-history of the parasites has been attended in some cases with remarkable and unexpected results.
Nevertheless the resemblance between the biology of this organism in relation to syphilis (as regards mode of infection, habitat, &c.) and that of Trypanosoma equiperdum, the cause of dourine or " horse-syphilis," may not be without significance.
This tendency especially prevails in biology, which is so far off the general principles of natural philosophy that its votaries are often ignorant of the real nature of body as matter and force.
A co-ordinate woman's college, the William Smith school for women, opened in 1908, was endowed in 1906 by William Smith of Geneva, who at the same time provided for a Hall of Science and for further instruction in science, especially in biology and psychology.
But the modern conception of society or the state owes more to biology than philosophy, and actual research has destroyed more frequently than it has justified the assumptions of the older philosophical school.
Thus mysticism was finally banished from the domain of biology, and zoology became one of the physical sciences - the science which seeks to arrange and discuss the phenqmena of animal life and form, as the outcome of the operation of the laws of physics and chemistry.
His labours coincided in time with the great development of biology under the stimulus of the Darwinian theory, and the sympathizers with the new views, feeling the need of a comprehensive survey of the world as a whole, very widely accepted Spencer's philosophy at its own valuation, both in England and, still more, in America.
Co-operation of the two factors appears to supply a causal theory of the occurrence of evolution; the suggestion of their co-operation and the comparison of the possible results with the actual achievements of breeders in producing varieties were the features of Charles Darwin's theoretical work which made it a new beginning in the science of biology, and which reduced to insignificance all earlier work on the theory of evolution.
Evolution, or development, is, in fact, at present employed in biology as a general name for the history of the steps by which any living being has acquired the morphological and the physiological characters which distinguish it.
In biology conception is the coalescence of the male and female generative elements, producing pregnancy.
How far such adaptations are produced afresh in each generation, whether or no their effects are transmitted to descendants and so directly modify the stock, to what extent adaptations characteristic of a species or variety have come about by selection of individuals capable, in each generation, of responding favourably, or how far by the selection of individuals fortuitously suitable to the environment, or, how far, possibly by the inheritance of the responses to the environment, are problems of biology not yet definitely solved.
Darwin's introduction of thremmatology into the domain of scientific biology was accompanied by a new and special development of a branch of study which had previously been known as teleology, the study of the adaptation of organic structures to the service of the organisms in which they occur.
An increasing number of workers in this field of plant biology in England, on the Continent and in America has produced a great mass of observations, which have recently been brought together in Dr Paul Knuth's classic work, Handbook of Flower Pollination, an English translation of which has been published (1908) by the Clarendon Press.
In technical biology each species is designated by two words, one for the genus, printed with an initial capital, and one for the particular species, printed without an initial capital in Zoology, whilst in Botany the habit once common to both subjects is retained, and the specific name if derived from a proper name is printed with a capital.
Thus Bionomics is treated in such articles as Evolution, Heredity, Variation, Mendelism, Reproduction, Sex, &C.; Zoo-dynamics under Medicine, Surgery, Physiology, Anatomy, Embryology, and allied articles; Plasmology under Cytology, Protoplasm, &C.; and Philosophical Zoology under numerous headings, Evolution, Biology, &C. See also Zoological Distribution, Palaeontology, Ocranography, Microtomy, &C.
How otherwise, we wonder, could one man writing alone and with so few predecessors compose the first systematic treatises on the psychology of the mental powers and on the logic of reasoning, the first natural history of animals, and the first civil history of one hundred and fifty-eight constitutions, in addition to authoritative treatises on metaphysics, biology, ethics, politics, rhetoric and poetry; in all penetrating to the very essence of the subject, and, what is most wonderful, describing more facts than any other man has ever done on so many subjects ?
The importance of the osmotic pressure of sea-water in biology will be easily understood from the fact that a frog placed in sea-water loses water by exosmosis and soon becomes 20% lighter than its original weight, while a true salt-water fish suddenly transferred to fresh water gains water by endosmosis, swells up and quickly succumbs.