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biological

biological

biological Sentence Examples

  • He's not your biological father?

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  • It was time to accept that they would never have biological children.

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  • In the Origin of Species, and in his other numerous and important contributions to the solution of the problem of biological evolution, Darwin confined himself to the discussion of the causes which have brought about the present condition of living matter, assuming such matter to have once come into existence.

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  • The town hall, Athenaeum and museum are noteworthy buildings, the last having a fine biological collection.

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  • Alex was uneasy because he and his biological father had never seen eye to eye.

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  • It won't make any difference to you whether they are adopted or biological - not in how much you love them or how you treat them.

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  • She was hung up on the biological issue – insisting that if they were patient, God would work miracles and they would have a child, as her parents had.

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  • Harvey in that remarkable work 1 which would give him a claim to rank among the founders of biological science, even had he not been the discoverer of the circulation of the blood.

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  • The distribution of life is discussed in the various articles in this Encyclopaedia dealing with biological, botanical and zoological subjects.'

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  • Carmen was right; he had forgiven his mother but not his biological father.

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  • He had long ago accepted the fact that he would have no biological children.

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  • Additionally, we will at some point in the not-too-distant future have enough biological understanding of the genome and enough computer horsepower to model complex interactions in the body.

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  • The pollination, of flowers and the dispersal of seeds by various animals are biological factors; but pollination and dispersal by the wind cannot be so regarded.

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  • The pollination, of flowers and the dispersal of seeds by various animals are biological factors; but pollination and dispersal by the wind cannot be so regarded.

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  • Huxley, who in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia traced the history of the growth of the biological idea of evolution from its philosophical beginnings to its efflorescence in Charles Darwin.

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  • A normal biological process?

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  • They pulled up in a van full of guys dressed in those white biological suits that cover you head to toe.

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  • If she hadn't been so obsessed with the idea of having biological children, she might have seen it.

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  • The Royal Society awarded him the Copley medal in 5892, and selected him as Croonian lecturer in the following year, his subject being the position of pathology among the biological sciences; and in 1898 he delivered the second Huxley memorial lecture at Charing Cross Hospital.

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  • No biological generalization rests on a wider series of observations, or has been subjected to a more critical scrutiny than that every living organism has come into existence from a living portion or portions of a pre-existing organism.

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  • The influence of man on plants and vegetation is also a biological factor, which is frequently ignored as such, and treated as if it were a thing apart.

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  • The influence of man on plants and vegetation is also a biological factor, which is frequently ignored as such, and treated as if it were a thing apart.

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  • She wasn't ready for that yet and she hadn't completely given up the idea of biological children.

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  • All these processes are regarded as a series of manifestations of a vital principle in higher and higher forms. Oken, again, who carries Schelling's ideas into the region of biological science, seeks to reconstruct the gradual evolution of the material world out of original matter, which is the first immediate appearance of God, or the absolute.

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  • The nasty field that dissolved any type of biological entity was one of the government's latest controversial creations.

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  • Carmen glanced at Señor Medena, who was beaming as if they were his children... or as if they were his biological grandchildren.

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  • He would likely use her desire for a biological child as a ploy.

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  • But in addition to bringing forward a fundamental and philosophical view of morbid processes, which probably contributed more than any other single cause to vindicate for pathology the place which he claimed for it among the biological sciences, Virchow made many important contributions to histology and morbid anatomy and to the study of particular diseases.

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  • But the subject requires elucidation from both chemical and biological points of view.

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  • Alex had endured a lot of embarrassment because of the relationship between his mother and biological father – and now this.

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  • But as a matter of fact no small part of the interest and value of investigations in this field of inquiry lies in the relationships which may thereby be established between biological and psychological interpretations.

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  • Each of these divisions is the home of a special fauna, many species of which are confined to it alone; in the Australian region, indeed, practically the whole fauna is peculiar and distinctive, suggesting a prolonged period of complete biological isolation.

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  • After unsuccessful attempts to rid themselves of the mice, the farmers appealed to the United States Biological Survey, and alfalfa hay poisoned with strychnia sulphate was used successfully in the Humboldt Valley in January 1908 and in the Carson Valley, where a similar plague threatened, in April 1908.5 Minerals.

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  • Investigation thus becomes more objective, and this is a distinct advantage from the biological point of view.

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  • Except on Charles Island, where settlement has existed longest, little or no influence of the presence of man is evident in the group; still, the running wild of dogs and cats, and, as regards the vegetation, especially goats, must in a comparatively short period greatly modify the biological conditions of the islands.

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  • 4 While 2 Both Lewes and du Bois Reymond have brought out the points of contact between Leibnitz's theory of monads and modern biological speculations (Hist.

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  • - Be fore leaving the German speculation of the first half of the century, a word must be said of von Baer, to whose biological contributions we shall refer later in this article, who recognized in the law of development the law of the universe as a whole.

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  • No truths brought to light by biological investigation were better calculated to inspire distrust of the dogmas intruded upon science in the name of theology than those which relate to the distribution of animals and plants on the surface of the earth.

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  • The term Anatomy, originally employed in biological science to denote a description of the facts of structure revealed on cutting up an organism, whether with or without the aid of lenses for the purposes of magnification, is restricted in the present article, in accordance with a common modern use, to those facts of internal structure not concerned with the constitution of the individual cell, the structural unit of which the plant is composed.

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  • From the underlying abstract mathematical considerations all through the superimposed physical, biological, anthropo.

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  • Again, the well-known action of earthworms may be said to be a biological work; but the resulting aeration of the soil causes edaphic differences; and earthworms are absent from certain soils, such as peat.

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  • This has been criticized both from the biological and from the psychological standpoint.

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  • From the biological point of view the reference of certain modes of behaviour, termed instinctive, to faculties of mind for which "instinct" is the generic term is scarcely satisfactory; from the psychological point of view the phrase "without necessary knowledge of the relation between the means employed and the end attained" is ambiguous.

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  • Again, the well-known action of earthworms may be said to be a biological work; but the resulting aeration of the soil causes edaphic differences; and earthworms are absent from certain soils, such as peat.

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  • Writers on biological subjects no longer have to waste space in weighing evolution against this or that philosophical theory or religious tradition; philosophical writers have frankly accepted it, and the supporters of religious tradition have made broad their phylacteries to write on them the new words.

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  • The full implications of the group of ideas require, and are likely to receive, much attention in the immediate future of biological investigation, but it is enough at present to point out that until the more obvious lines of inquiry have been opened out much more fully, we cannot be in a position to guess at the existence of a residuum, for which such a metaphysical conception as bathmism would serve even as a convenient disguise for ignorance.

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  • The extraordinary forms, colors and textures of the true galls have always formed some of the most interesting of biological questions, for not only is there definite co-operation I between a given species of insect and of plant, as shown by the facts that the same insect may induce galls of different kinds on different plants or organs, while different insects induce different galls on the same plante.g.

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  • It is in the adaptation of biological conceptions and methods, in the positive contributions of jurisprudence, law and history, in the rigorous application, where possible, of quantitative tests, that the explanation of the present position of economics is to be found.

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  • It is in the adaptation of biological conceptions and methods, in the positive contributions of jurisprudence, law and history, in the rigorous application, where possible, of quantitative tests, that the explanation of the present position of economics is to be found.

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  • At Beaufort the United States Bureau of Fisheries has a marine biological laboratory, established in 1901 for the study of the aquatic fauna of the south-east coast.

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  • Biological FactorsThese include the reactions of plants and animals on the habitat.

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  • The numerous facts, geological, geographical and biological, which when linked together lend great support to this theory, have been well worked out in Australia by Mr Charles Hedley of the Australian Museum, Sydney.

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  • Hume's empiricism, combined with a belief in biological evolution (derived from Herbert Spencer), was the chief feature in English thought during the third quarter of the 10th century.

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  • Much accumulated evidence, biological and geological, has pointed to a southern extension of India, an eastern extension of South Africa, and a western extension of Australia into the Indian Ocean.

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  • a, without, and Rropos, passage), a biological term meaning imperforate, or not porous: there is a group of corals called Aporosa.

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  • a, without, and Rropos, passage), a biological term meaning imperforate, or not porous: there is a group of corals called Aporosa.

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  • Eventually he was able to prove that the biological doctrine of omnis cellula ecellula applies to pathological processes as well as to those of normal growth, and in his famous book on Cellular-pathologic, published at Berlin in 1858, he established what Lord Lister described as the "true and fertile doctrine that every morbid structure consists of cells which have been derived from pre-existing cells as a progeny."

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  • In biological chemistry he worked at the problems of animal heat and at the phenomena accompanying the growth of plants, and he also devoted much time to meteorological questions and observations.

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  • the formation of nitrites and nitrates from ammonia and its compounds in the soil, was formerly held to be a purely chemical process, until Schloesing and Mintz suggested in 1877 that it was biological.

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  • The factors of the habitat may be grouped as follows: geographical, physical, and biological.

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  • A list of its birds, with some notes, bibliographical and biological, has been given as an Appendix to Baring-Gould's Iceland, its Scenes and Sagas (8vo, 1862); and Shepherd's North-west Peninsula of Iceland (8vo, 1867) recounts a somewhat profitless expedition made thither expressly for ornithological objects.

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  • If a brief definition of instinct, from the purely biological point of view be required, that given in the Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology may be accepted: "An inherited reaction of the sensori-motor type, relatively complex 3'p 3' p and markedly adaptive in character, and common to a group of individuals."

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  • It will be seen that from the biological standpoint there fall under the stricter definition those hereditary modes of behaviour which are analogous to hereditary forms of structure; and that a sharp line of distinction is drawn between the behaviour which is thus rendered definite through heredity, and the behaviour the distinguishing characteristics of which are acquired in the course of individual life.

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  • The group of instincts which we class as imitative (and they afford only the foundations on which intelligent imitation is based) are of biological value chiefly, if not solely, in those species which form larger or smaller communities.

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  • The existence of sulphuretted hydrogen in great quantities below loo fathoms, the extensive chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate, the stagnant nature of its deep waters, and the absence of deep-sea life are conditions which make it impossible to discuss it along with the physical and biological conditions of the Mediterranean proper.

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  • For fauna and flora: publications of U.S. Biological Survey (Department of Agriculture, Bibliographies).

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  • In connexion with the university is a botanical garden; with the national sanitary service, a biological laboratory, and special services for small-pox, glanders and yellow fever.

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  • Pop. (1905), 3735 It has a palace built about 1630 and now converted into a cadet school, a gymnasium and a biological station.

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  • It is proper, however, to point out at once how very complicated may be the relationships between oceanographical and strictly biological phenomena, though, of course, the latter are ultimately dependent on the former.

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  • Lister, F.R.S., who formed a larger biological and mineralogical collection.

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  • Joao Barbosa Rodrigues has done some good work in botany, especially in the study of the palms of the Amazon, and Joao Baptista de Lacerda has made important biological investigations at the national museum of Rio de Janeiro.

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  • The subject-matter of this new science, or branch of biological science, had been neglected: it did not form part of the studies of the collector and systematist, nor was it a branch of anatomy, nor of the physiology pursued by medical men, nor again was it included in the field of microscopy and the celltheory.

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  • The area of biological knowledge which Darwin was the first to subject to scientific method and to render, as it were, contributory to the great stream formed by the union of the various branches, is that which relates to the breeding of animals and plants, their congenital variations, and the transmission and perpetuation of those variations.

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  • This branch of biological science may be called thremmatology (0Au,ua, " a thing bred ").

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  • From the earliest times the shepherd, the farmer, the horticulturist, and the " fancier " had for practical purposes made themselves acquainted with a number of biological laws, and successfully applied them without exciting more than an occasional notice from the academic students of biology.

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  • General Tendencies Since Darwin Darwin may be said to have founded the science of bionomics, and at the same time to have given new stimulus and new direction to morphography, physiology, and plasmology, by uniting them as contributories to one common biological doctrine-the doctrine of organic evolution-itself but a part of the wider doctrine of universal evolution based on the laws of physics and chemistry.

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  • The biological sciences are those which deal with the phenomena manifested by living matter; and though it is customary and convenient to group apart such of these phenomena as are termed mental, and such of them as are exhibited by men in society, under the heads of psychology and sociology, yet it must be allowed that no natural boundary separates the subject matter of the latter sciences from that of biology.

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  • On the other hand, the biological sciences are sharply marked off from the abiological, or those which treat of the phenomena manifested by not-living matter, in so far as the properties of living matter distinguish it absolutely from all other kinds of things, and as the present state of knowledge furnishes us with no link between the living and the not-living.

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  • The broad distinctions which, as a matter of fact, exist between every known form of living substance and every other component of the material world, justify the separation of the biological sciences from all others.

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  • The difference in technical methods and the historical evolution of teaching posts (for in all civilized countries the progress of biological knowledge has been very closely associated with the existence of institutions for the diffusion of knowledge and for professional education) have been the chief contributory causes to this practical confusion.

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  • Our starting-point in this, as in all departments of biological study, must be the biological unit, and it is to the alterations to which this is subject, under varying conditions of nutrition and stimulation, that the science of pathology must apply itself.

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  • According to our present knowledge of physiological and pathological processes, we must regard the cell as the ultimate biological unit - a unit of structure and a unit of function; this was first put forward by Schleiden in 1838, and by Schwann in 1839, but we owe to Virchow the full recognition of the fundamental importance of the living cell in all the processes of life, whether in health or disease.

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  • Nowak, however, found later that he could generate it where the turpentine failed to induce suppuration; he believes that it may arise quite apart from the influence of the organisms of suppuration, that it is not a biological product of the micro-organisms of disease, and also that it has nothing to do with emaciation.

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  • Practical Applications Medicine and surgery have never been slow to appropriate and apply the biological facts of pathology, and at no period have they followed more closely in its wake than during the last quarter of the 19th century.

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  • conceptions will be opened out, not in bacteriology only, but also in biological chemistry and in molecular physics.

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  • To biological chemistry we have been deeply indebted during the latter half of the 19th century.

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  • and museum of morbid anatomy, and was fusing these gains in the laboratory so as to claim for itself, as a special branch of science by virtue of peculiar concepts, its due place and provision - provision in the establishment of chairs and of special laboratories for its chemical and biological subdivisions - clinical medicine, by the formal provision of disciplinary classes, was illustrating the truth of the experience that teaching and research must go hand-in-hand, the one reinforcing the other: that no teacher can be efficient unless he be engaged in research also; nay, that for the most part even the investigator needs the encouragement of disciples.

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  • hope dealing elements of disease, with its first beginnings; and in the field of therapeutics, chemical and biological experiment, as in the case of digitalis, mercury and the iodides, was rapidly simplifying remedies and defining their virtues, so that these agents could be used at the bedside with more precision.

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  • ,ppjv, male, and ToKOS, from Tlktecv, to beget), biological terms proposed by Leuckart and Eduard von Siebold to denote those parthenogenetic females which produce male young, while "thelytokous" and "thelytoky" would denote their producing female young.

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  • A sociological demonstration lies in the establishment of an accordance between the conclusions of historical analysis and the preparatory conceptions of biological theory.

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  • It has already been explained, however, that the biological foundations of the latter doctrine are questionable.

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  • This article is restricted to general oceanography in its physical aspects, the closely-related meteorological,, biological and economic aspects being dealt with elsewhere.

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  • Ingenious devices had indeed been tried in the 17th biological conditions of the ocean as a whole.

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  • Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.

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  • On the fauna and flora see Vernon Bailey, Biological Survey of Texas (Washington, D.C., 1905) in North American Fauna, No.

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  • and a marine biological laboratory.

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  • Since the tribes practised far more in-breeding than out-breeding, the tendency was toward forming not only verbal linguistic groups, but biological varieties; the weaker the tribe, the fewer the captures, the greater the isolation and harder the conditions - producing dolichocephaly, dwarfism and other retrogressive characteristics.

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  • The student will find differences among anthropologists in the interpretation of these marks - some averring that comparative anatomy is worthless as a means of subdividing the American subspecies, others that biological variations point to different Old World origins, a third class believing these structural variations to be of the soil.

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  • Zoologists divide the earth into biological areas or regions, so both archaeologists and ethnologists may find it convenient to have in mind some such scheme of provinces as the following, partly after the dominant ethnic provinces.

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  • The first is a biological problem.

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  • Palaeontology both borrows from and sheds light upon geology and other branches of the physical history of the earth, each of which, such as palaeogeography or palaeometeorology, is the more fascinating because of the large element of the unknown, the need for constructive imagination, the appeal to other branches of biological and physical investigation for supplementary evidence, and the necessity of constant comparison with the present aspects of nature.

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  • The subject will be treated in its biological aspects, because the relations of palaeontology to historical and stratigraphic geology are more appropriately considered under the article Geology.

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  • The absolute agreement in the results independently obtained by these various investigators, the interpretation of individual development as the guide to phyletic development, the demonstration of continuous genetic series, each mutation falling into its proper place and all showing a definite direction, constitute contributions to biological philosophy of the first importance, which have been little known or appreciated by zoologists because of their publication in monographs of very special character.

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  • The concurrence of botanical (Hooker, 1847), zoological, and finally of palaeontological evidence for the reconstruction of the continent of Antarctica, is one of the greatest triumphs of biological investigation.

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  • - Underlying Biological Principles As They Appear To The Palaeontologist It follows from the above brief summary that palaeontology affords a distinct and highly suggestive field of purely biological research; that is, of the causes of evolution underlying the observable modes which we have been describing.

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  • No complete study has ever been made of this fauna, but much has been, and is being done by the U.S. Biological Survey and Plant Industry Bureau.

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  • Important works of reference are: Anuario estadistico de la Republica Mexicana (Mexico); Mexican Year-book (London, 1908); Biological and botanical publications of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Washington); Statesman's Year-book (London); Handbook of Mexico (Washington), published by the Bureau of American Republics; Monthly Bulletin of the Bureau of American Republics (Washington); British Foreign Office Diplomatic and Consular Reports (London); and the U.S. Consular Reports (Washington).

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  • A peculiar feature in the behaviour of the parasites, which is most probably caused by unfavourable biological conditions -in the host, is that known as agglomeration.

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  • 10 of the United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Biological Survey (Washington, 1898); I.

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  • Such is the great mind of Aristotle manifested in the large map of learning, by which we have now to determine the order of his extant philosophical writings, with a view to studying them in their real order, which is neither chronological nor traditional, but philosophical and scientific. Turning over the pages of the Berlin edition, but passing over works which are perhaps spurious, we should put first and foremost speculative philosophy, and therein the primary philosophy of his Metaphysics (980 a 211093 b 29); then the secondary philosophy of his Physics, followed by his other physical works, general and biological, including among the latter the Historia Animalium as preparatory to the De Partibus Animalium, and the De Anima and Parva Naturalia, which he called " physical " but we call " psychological" (184 a 10-967 b 27); next, the practical philosophy of the Ethics, including the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia as earlier and the Nicomachean Ethics as later (1094-124 9 b 25), and of the Politics (1252-1342), with the addition of the newly discovered Athenian Constitution as ancillary to it; finally, the productive science, or art, of the Rhetoric, including the earlier Rhetoric to Alexander and the later Rhetorical Art, and of the Poetics, which was unfinished (1354-end).

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  • Such is Aristotle's dual, or rather triple, realism, continued in his De Anima and other biological writings, especially De Generatione Animalium, ii.

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  • The book-lice are familiar wingless insects, often found in houses running about among old papers and neglected biological collections.

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  • He was also a diligent and skilful observer, and busied himself not only with astronomical subjects, such as the double stars, the satellites of Jupiter and the measurement of the polar and equatorial diameters of the sun, but also with biological studies of the circulation of the sap in plants, the fructification of plants, infusoria, &c.

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  • During the period he spent at Miilhausen, Schatzenberger paid special attention to industrial chemistry, particularly in connexion with colouring matters, but he also worked at general and biological chemistry which subsequently occupied the greater part of his time.

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  • Many of the young men and women, who were supposed to be qualifying as specialists in the various spheres of industrial and commercial enterprise, were in reality devoting their time to considering how human society in general, and Russian society in particular, could be reconstructed in accordance with the latest physiological, biological and sociological principles.

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  • This method of intermittent sterilization originated with Tyndall, and it was an important contribution to biological science and industrial practice.

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  • This principle he endeavoured to deduce from his knowledge of geology, in contrast to Lorenz Oken, who developed the same theory on biological grounds.

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  • Delage has distinguished as multiplication those cases in which the new individual arises from a mass of cells which remain a part of the maternal tissues during differentiation, reserving the term reproduction for those cases in which the spore or cell which is the starting-point of the new individual begins by separating from the maternal tissues; but the distinction is inconvenient in practice and does not appear to carry with it any fundamental biological significance.

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  • As reproduction is a general biological phenomenon, its manifestations should be dealt with simultaneously in the case of animals and plants, but many of the special details differ so much that it is practically convenient to make two headings.

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  • He was political director of the Siecle, and president of the French Colonization Society, and wrote, besides the books already mentioned, various works on political and biological questions.

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  • Nevertheless, certain biological phenomena in fungi are especially pronounced, and of these the following require particular notice.

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  • The terms biologic forms, biological species, physiological species, physiological races, specialized forms have all been applied to these; perhaps the term biologic forms is the most satisfactory.

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  • ava, up, (30Xri, a throw), the biological term for the building up in an organism of more complex from simpler substances, constructive metabolism.

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  • It is clear, however, that through Ray's work in the 17th century the common biological application of species became fixed much in its modern form, as denoting a group of animals or plants capable of interbreeding, and although not necessarily quite identical, with marked common characters.

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  • An observatory and biological station are maintained.

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  • It arises from a general awakening to the fact that the growth of our psychological and biological knowledge must profoundly transform the traditional epistemology.

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  • The statistical investigation of correlations forms a new branch of biological inquiry, generally termed "Biometrics," inaugurated by F.

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  • The theory of chance was applied to the study of human variation by Quetelet; but the most important applications of this theory to biological problems are due in the first instance to Francis Galton, who used the theory of correlation in describing the relation between the deviation of one character in an animal body from the mean proper to its race and that of a second character in the same body (correlation as commonly understood), or between deviation of a parent from the mean of its generation and deviation of offspring from the mean of the following generation (inheritance).

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  • The occurrence of anchovies in the English Channel has been carefully studied at the laboratory of the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth.

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  • In the above, and in other respects also, a survey of the history of Palestine suggests the necessity of modifying that " biological " treatment of the development of thought which pays insufficient attention to the persistence of the representatives of different stages by the side of or after the disappearance of the higher stages; see I.

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  • It would be impracticable to draw general conclusions as to the physical and biological conditions of the Antarctic regions until the researches of all the expeditions had been published in a comparable form.

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  • But the divorce of science of nature from mathematics, the failure of biological inquiry to reach so elementary a conception as that of the nerves, the absence of chemistry from the circle of the sciences, disappointed the promise of the dawn and the relative achievement of the noon-day.

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  • 1849-1851 Democrat 1851-1852 „ 1856-1858 Know Nothing 1858-1860 Lecompton Democrat 1860 (6 days) „ „ United States Censuses, reports on forests; United States Biological Survey, North American Fauna, No.

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  • Merriam, " Biological Survey of Mt.

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  • Although designed especially for advanced theological studies, it comprises a School of the Sacred Sciences, a School of Philosophy, a School of Letters, a School of Physical Sciences, a School of Biological Sciences, a School of Social Sciences, a School of Jurisprudence, a School of Law and a School of Technological Sciences.

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  • The learned societies of Washington are to a large degree more national than local in their character; among them are: the Washington Academy of Sciences (1898), a "federal head" of most of the societies mentioned below; the Anthropological Society (founded 1879; incorporated 1887), which has published Transactions (1879 sqq., with the co-operation of the Smithsonian Institution) and The American Anthropologist (1888-1898; since 1898 published by the American Anthropological Association); the National Geographic Society (1888), which since 1903 has occupied the Hubbard Memorial Building, which sent scientific expeditions to Alaska, Mont Pelee and La Souffriere, and which publishes the National Geographic Magazine (1888 sqq.), National Geographic Monographs (1895) and various special maps; the Philosophical Society of Washington (1871; incorporated 1901), devoted especially to mathematical and physical sciences; the Biological Society (1880), which publishes Proceedings (1880 sqq.); the Botanical Society of Washington (1901); the Geological Society of Washington (1893): the Entomological Society of Washington (1884), which publishes Proceedings (1884 sqq.); the Chemical Society (1884); the Records of the Past Exploration Society (1901), which publishes Records of the Past (1902 sqq.); the Southern History Association (1896), which issues Publications (1897 sqq.); the Society for Philosophical Inquiry (1893), which publishes Memoirs (1893 sqq.); the Society of American Foresters (1900), which publishes Proceedings (1905 sqq.); and the Cosmos Club.

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  • In comparative morphology it provides many illustrations of important biological principles (such, for example, as substitution and change of function of organs), and throws new light upon, or at least points the way to new ideas of, the primitive relations of different organic systems in respect of their function and topography.

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  • The university's biological station is on Winona Lake, Kosciusko county.

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  • On fauna and flora: United States Biological Survey, Bulletins (especially No.

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  • Even before the appearance of Sidgwick's book utilitarianism had entered upon its third or evolutional phase, in which principles borrowed from biological science make their entrance into moral philosophy.

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  • The main doctrine of evolutional or biological ethics is stated with admirable clearness in the third chapter of Darwin's Descent of Man (pub.

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  • This is mainly occupied by Djurgarden (the deer-park), a beautiful park containing the buildings of the northern museum, a collection of Scandinavian costumes and domestic and agricultural utensils, and a biological museum housed in a wooden building imitating the early Norwegian timber churches (stavekirke).

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  • on the Possible Improvement of the Human Breed under the existing Conditions of Law and Sentiment (1901); see also Biometrika (a journal for the statistical study of biological problems, of which the first volume was published in 1902).

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  • Experiments with labelled plaice, carried out in 1904 by the Marine Biological Association, showed that small plaice transplanted to the Dogger Bank in spring grew three times as rapidly as those on the inshore grounds, and the same result, with insignificant variations, has been obtained by similar experiments in each succeeding year.

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  • The hatching of eggs, whether of fresh-water or salt-water fishes, presents no serious difficulties, if suitable apparatus is employed; but the rearing of fry to an advanced stage, without serious losses, is less easy, and in the case of sea-fishes with pelagic eggs, the larvae of which are exceedingly small and tender, is still an unsolved problem, although recent work, carried out at the Plymouth laboratory of the Marine Biological Association, is at least promising.

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  • 7 (1893); U.S. Biological Survey, Bulletin No.

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  • These forms are termed by Fischer Metatrophic, because they require various kinds of organic materials obtained from the dead remains of other organisms or from the surfaces of their bodies, and can utilize and decompose them in various ways (Polytrophic) or, if monotrophic, are at least unable to work them up. The true parasites - obligate parasites of de Bary - are placed by Fischer in a third biological group, Paratrophic bacteria, to mark the importance of their mode of life in the interior of living organisms where they live and multiply in the blood, juices or tissues.

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  • The full description of a particular bacterium implies an account not only of its microscopical characters, but also of its growth characters in various culture media, its biological properties, and the effects produced in animals by inoculation.

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  • The production of antitoxin is one of the most striking facts of biological science, and two important questions with regard to it must next be considered, viz.

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  • of Brooklyn, is a small unincorporated village, once famous for its whale-fisheries, and now best known for the presence here of the New York State Fish Hatchery, and of the Biological Laboratory of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences and of the laboratory of the Department of Experimental Evolution of the Carnegie Institution of Washington.

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  • In 1837 appeared his Memoires pour servir a l'histoire anatomique et physiologique des vegetaux et des animaux, a collection of all his more important biological papers.

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  • The new impulse given to biological research by the publication of the Origin of Species bore fruit in Fritz Muller's Filr Darwin, in which an attempt was made to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of the class.

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  • It is the same with the other sciences - especially the biological division, where the doctrine of evolution has induced an attitude of mind which is distinctly historical.

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  • The sloth, armadillo, opossum, skunk and a species of fox complete the list of the more common quadrupeds so far as known, though it is certain that a careful biological survey would discover many others.

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  • The museum contains a beautiful Maori house of carved woodwork, and biological collections.

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  • In more recent times the controversy has been concerned either with the attempted proof of determinism by the advocates of psychological Hedonism, an attempt which at the present time is generally admitted to have failed; or with the new biological knowledge concerning the influence of heredity and environment in its bearing upon the development of character and the possibility of freedom.

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  • The great advance of biological knowledge in recent times though it has in no sense created a new problem (men have always been aware of the importance of racial or hereditary physical qualities in their influence upon human conduct) has certainly rendered the existence of complete individual freedom (in the sense in which it was advocated by older libertarians) in the highest degree unlikely.

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  • There are, nevertheless, serious difficulties involved in the supposition that the changes in the brain with which physiology and the biological sciences deal can be satisfactorily explained by the mechanical and mathematical conceptions common to all these sciences, or, indeed, that any of these organic changes is susceptible in the last resort of explanation derived from purely material premises.

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  • But the attempt not only to treat ethics scientifically, but actually to subordinate the principles of conduct to the principles of existing biological science or group of sciences biological in character, was reserved for postDarwinian moral philosophers.

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  • Spencer looked to ideas derived from the biological sciences to provide a solution of all the enigmas of morality, as of most other departments of life; and he conceived it " to be the business of moral science to deduce from the laws of life and the conditions of existence what kinds of action necessarily tend to produce happiness and what kinds to produce unhappiness."

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  • It is frequently impossible to discover whether he wishes by an appeal to evolutionary principles to reinforce the sanctions and emphasize the absolute character of the traditional morality which in the main he accepts without question from the current opinions about conduct of his age, or whether he wishes to discredit and disprove the validity of that morality in order to substitute by the aid of the biological sciences a new ethical code.

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  • Nor is his attempt to construct a scientific criterion out of data derived from the biological sciences productive of satisfactory results.

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  • The legitimate inference which should follow would be the denial of the validity of those moral laws which have hitherto been regarded as absolute in character, and the substitution for all customary moral terms of an entirely new set based upon biological considerations.

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  • Nebraska lies partly in the arid, or Upper Sonoran, and partly in the humid, or Carolinian, area of the Upper Austral lifezone; the divisional line being placed by the United States Biological Survey at about too° W.

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  • His investigations must embrace not only the comparative morphology and anatomy of fossil plants, but also their distribution over the earth's surface at different periods - a part of the subject which, besides its direct biological interest, has obvious bearings on ancient climatology and geography.

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  • Moreover, while Celebes has species which are peculiar to itself and one other of the islands just mentioned, it has none which it shares exclusively with Borneo, and thus the importance of the Macassar Strait as a biological division is indicated.

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  • Having a biological child wasn't his only reason for proposing a surrogacy pregnancy.

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  • It might be their last chance to have a biological child.

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  • Maybe that was why having a biological child was so important to him.

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  • Alex was uneasy because he and his biological father had never seen eye to eye.

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  • In the same way, Grandma and Grandpa Reynolds were related because they were Destiny's biological grandparents.

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  • Carmen glanced at Señor Medena, who was beaming as if they were his children... or as if they were his biological grandchildren.

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  • It won't make any difference to you whether they are adopted or biological - not in how much you love them or how you treat them.

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  • He's not your biological father?

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  • They pulled up in a van full of guys dressed in those white biological suits that cover you head to toe.

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  • Carmen was right; he had forgiven his mother but not his biological father.

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  • He had long ago accepted the fact that he would have no biological children.

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  • The nasty field that dissolved any type of biological entity was one of the government's latest controversial creations.

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  • It might be more an obsession about biological kin.

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  • She wasn't ready for that yet and she hadn't completely given up the idea of biological children.

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  • If she hadn't been so obsessed with the idea of having biological children, she might have seen it.

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  • He would likely use her desire for a biological child as a ploy.

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  • She was hung up on the biological issue – insisting that if they were patient, God would work miracles and they would have a child, as her parents had.

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  • She could have a biological child.

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  • It was time to accept that they would never have biological children.

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  • Alex had endured a lot of embarrassment because of the relationship between his mother and biological father – and now this.

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  • By doing this they are protecting natural populations in the forest, sustaining biological diversity in vivo.

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  • activated sludge being more common than biological filter beds.

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  • Page 7 PREV PAGE TOP OF DOC Biological weapons are becoming easier for state and nonstate actors to develop as biological technologies proliferate.

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  • advances in modern biology have produced various methods of investigation of biological micro-organisms.

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  • Thus in regions where there is strong horizontal advection our 1-d model can not hope to reproduce the patterns in biological activity.

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  • We suspect that these refurbished trainer aircraft have been modified for delivery of chemical or, more likely, biological warfare agents.

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  • Fine hair can be removed by gentle agitation and decanting, before leaving a further 4 hours or so in some biological detergent.

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  • albino mice and rats, hamsters, and guinea pigs are widely used as laboratory animals for biological and medical purposes.

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  • An important biological marker for monitoring residual disease is the promyelocytic retinoic acid receptor alpha (PML-RARalpha) fusion transcript.

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  • See also biological filtration and ion exchange for methods to remove ammonia from the water.

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  • Biological production of methane up to now was considered only to occur under strictly anaerobic conditions.

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  • This approach can also be used to automatically test biological genome annotations.

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  • anthrax as a weapon does not understand biological warfare.

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  • Harvard biological anthropologist, Richard Wrangham, believes that humanity may have been launched by an ape learning to cook.

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  • Dr. Charlotte Roberts is a Senior Lecturer in biological anthropology at the University of Bradford.

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  • Howard Bloom (The Lucifer principle) talks about the coming biological apocalypse.

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  • augmentative biological control industry through advocacy, education and quality assurance ' .

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  • avalanche photodiodes (APDs) for measuring the tritium content of biological specimens.

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  • Current Status Biological status lowland beech and yew woodland spans a variety of distinctive vegetation types reflecting differences in soil and topographical conditions.

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  • bewailed colleagues, they always wish to go back to biological advantage.

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  • biological weapons is mostly a medical problem.

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  • biological diversity.

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  • biological agents could also pose a risk to residents.

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  • biological warfare.

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  • biological sciences are present.

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  • biological macromolecules.

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  • Such interests are common to most human beings, and are functions of the fact that human beings are purely biological creatures.

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  • Amazing how often one finds non-trained biologists giving their point of view about the strictly biological side of things.

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  • We believe North Korea has active CW and BW programs and probably has chemical and possibly biological weapons ready for use.

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  • See also biological filtration and ion exchange for methods to remove ammonia from the water.

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  • It is not biological or ' scientific ' racism.

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  • Is it possible to have an exclusively biological theory of human nature?

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  • Freshwater Ecology (GCSE and A-Level) A number of stream sites are studied using biological, chemical and environmental sampling techniques.

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  • biological warfare in the 20 th century and emerging infectious diseases.

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  • It aims to synthesize 'any and all biological phenomena, from viral self-assembly to the evolution of the entire biosphere ' .

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  • castor bean pulp can be used in the production of the biological agent ricin " .

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  • biological catalysts called enzymes bring about chemical reactions in cells.

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  • Crystal is thrust into a past ruled by superstition, then catapulted into a future devastated by biological weapons.

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  • Be exposed to any harmful chemical, physical or biological substances.

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  • A study of young chimpanzees living in the wild might explain the biological reason why infant girls tend to learn faster than infant boys.

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  • Numerous chemical and biological phenomena are modeled by non-linear ODE's, for example chemical reactions and voltage clamped nerve cells.

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  • Scared that her biological clock is going tick tick tick boom.

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  • Very few analytic models require that these links be defined as biological links, as is required to legitimately calculate inbreeding coefficients.

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  • colloquium series, national and international speakers visit and contribute to a lively debate on all aspects of biological chemistry.

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  • It is intended for those professionals who are designing and building biological containment Level 3 laboratories for the MRC or Imperial College.

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  • outline content: Spiders are common in a wide range of terrestrial habitats and are of major importance in biological pest control.

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  • These have evolved from learning models to large population settings and ultimately converged on biological concepts.

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  • The medieval Latin versions of the Aristotelian scientific corpus, with special reference to the biological works, London.

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  • cultivar resistance, alternative biological control methods are being investigated.

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  • Biological control can include choosing resistant turf grass cultivars or using soil bacteria to help improve the turf grasses ' health.

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  • A novel method for the prediction of functional biological activity of polyethylene wear debris.

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  • denatured whey protein has little or no biological activity.

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  • However, I do not believe in biological determinism.

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  • discredited theories of biological racial superiority.

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  • discuss the implications of BSE for biological products containing bovine extracted material.

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  • ecosystem ecology, then, be regarded as an instance of the unification of the physical and biological sciences?

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  • eddy fluxes in order to represent adequately the ocean's biological carbon pump?

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  • In biological systems the reference values are often encoded genetically, in the binding constants of proteins for their allosteric effectors.

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  • Biological effects The initial report describing the phenomenon of calcium efflux was published in 1975.

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  • So do other biological processes, such as the voltages in hearts detected using electrocardiographs.

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  • electromagnetic ' smog ' can affect all biological systems by disorientating their positive polarity field.

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  • Athens encyclopedia of Life sciences Online encyclopedia of the biological sciences in 3,000 continually updated articles.

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  • As we enter a post-genomics era, this Section plans to be at the leading edge of biological discovery.

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  • One of the earliest uses of biological weapons occurred in the 6th century BC when the Assyrians poisoned enemy wells with rye ergot.

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  • quantitative estimation of rare adverse events which follow a biological progression: a new model applied to chronic NSAID use.

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  • If as a society we embrace biological eugenics, then it's only fair that society bears the danger.

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  • The current rate at which human DNA is being updated by biological evolution is about one bit a year.

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  • For biological systems, sub 300 nm laser excitation sources would be of great benefit, particularly to protein scientists.

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  • He said: " I'm not James's biological father.

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  • Gavin's brother Star, meanwhile, says " He actually seemed more fatherly than like our biological father.

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  • Concentrated filtrates were also assayed for biological activity on radish.

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  • Who knows, maybe the latest wave of freshers ' flu is the product of a biological weapons experiment?

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  • Rudolf guides Santa's sleigh with the biological aberration of a red, glowing nose capable of penetrating thick fog?

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  • The aim is to ensure that the Rowett remains at the international forefront of biological research.

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  • Last year, SARS gave several countries a small foretaste of what a biological or chemical attack might be like.

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  • A Multidisciplinary Institute, encompassing social, psychological and biological gerontology.

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  • The time taken to reduce the concentration of a substance in the body to 50% is known as its biological half-life.

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  • hibiscus mealybug has served to sensitize a wide spectrum of the public about biological control.

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  • imagine early hominids who, for good biological reasons, gained the ability to imitate each other and to develop simple language.

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  • This biological activity produces a humus sludge which settles out in special humus tanks.

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  • This would eventually cause the polar ice caps to melt, and thus generate an environment in which biological life could be sustained.

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  • West Angle Bay) have a considerable marine biological and conservation importance.

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  • inbred mice for biological studies removes the variation from experimental results caused by individuals having different sets of genes.

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  • The biological sample taken at the test site provides an Observed Fauna from which biotic indices are also calculated.

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  • inert in the atmosphere, becomes highly reactive in oceans, leading to physical, biological, and geological changes.

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  • inexplicable in purely biological terms - the celibate priest.

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  • The biological inoculants tended to have contrasting effects on silage total fatty acid compared with the other additives.

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  • insectivorous bats, Interactive Biological Sonar Web Project.

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  • introgression of a few individual transgenes is unlikely to have any major biological effect on genetic diversity in maize landraces.

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  • invadencing our own immune response to biological agents, because our immune system is capable just to fight invading microorganisms.

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  • Despite this, considerable indirect evidence suggests that biological kinship plays an important role in altruistic behavior.

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  • laboratorymical and biological science graduates currently find work in analytical laboratories.

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  • Laminin receptors The distinct biological activities of laminin receptors The distinct biological activities of laminins can also depend on the repertoire of laminin receptors expressed by the specific cell type involved.

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  • Essentially biological liposuction works because it is possible to trick the immune defenses into thinking that the fat cells are appropriate targets for elimination.

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  • litrey then did the inspectors find over 8,000 liters of concentrated anthrax and other biological weapons, and a factory to make more.

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  • We get none of the biological absurdities of abduction lore, no switching off of witnesses, no mind rays.

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  • Apoptosis is an important biological factor in low-grade lymphomas, and NO is able to prevent apoptosis.

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  • The disk is made up of a large number of biological macromolecules.

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  • manipulation of biological molecules and organisms.

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  • The basic individual protection against a biological agent attack is the wearing of the protective mask with hood attached.

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  • The success with control of the hibiscus mealybug has served to sensitize a wide spectrum of the public about biological control.

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  • Also analysis using biological reagents is an interest, as in the development of quartz crystal microbalance technology.

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  • BYERS: A biological equivalent of a silicon microchip.

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  • There is a need within the biological community, especially for drug targeting, for subcellular radioisotope imaging (~10 microns ).

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  • Irwin MM: Patients receiving biological response modifiers: overview of nursing care.

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  • Cancer bioinformatics aims to integrate molecular, biological and clinical knowledge about cancer with analytic methods from bioinformatics.

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  • All living organisms consist of cells; spherical aggregates of biological molecules surrounded by a thin membrane.

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  • mouthpiece for the industry, nor am I in any way qualified in the chemical or biological sciences.

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  • Nature has developed biological nanotechnology for billions of years of evolution.

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  • What do naturalists want out of a centralized biological resource?

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  • It then went through biological treatment, which reduced the biological oxygen demand and ammoniacal nitrogen.

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  • The opening chapter summarizes the case, including a much appreciated explanation of how biological nitrogen fixation actually works, at a simple level.

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  • biological nomenclature is of central importance to the recovery and establishment of links between data from different sources and of different types.

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  • The Group has established common export controls for chemical and biological weapons nonproliferation purposes.

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  • This asserts the US ' right to use nuclear weapons pre-emptively to stop states from acquiring nuclear, chemical or biological weapons.

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  • Additionally there are observations over at least 20 years of basic biological oceanography.

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  • These were the recycling of animal waste, biological medicinal products, research, and the use of ruminant offal in baby food.

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  • The biological significance of loop formation and RNA synthesis in heterochromatic band loops in growing oocytes is briefly discussed.

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  • His research interests include organic, inorganic and biological chemistry.

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  • UK society does not consider that knowledge of a child's biological parentage belongs to the child.

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  • The demand for fathers ' rights is not only related to the obligations of biological paternity.

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  • Pattern formation is a wide-ranging subject encompassing areas from fluid mechanics to solid-state physics, and from chemical to biological systems.

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  • Climate models include as many physical, chemical and biological processes as possible.

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  • The life sciences group deal with biological protection and plant physiology.

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  • plaice stock is currently considered outside safe biological limits.

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  • We are living in an age of biological Platonism.

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  • The project aims to compare the biological activity of conventional and cross-linked polyethylene using the rat subcutaneous air pouch in vivo model.

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  • hydrophobic polypeptides and proteins play a crucial role in biological processes.

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  • The spokesman said U.N. weapons inspectors affirmed that Iraq no longer possessed biological weapons or any other banned weapons.

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  • Do they just ignore the extreme hunger pains or do they just have a biological predisposition to enjoy famine.

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  • prevaricated Saddam of prevaricating for 12 years and failing to disarm his " horrific arsenal " of chemical and biological weapons.

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  • It is a type of protein, called a protease, which acts like a pair of biological scissors to break down other proteins.

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  • Real science takes on the myths of biological psychiatry.

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  • radiotherapy chemotherapy Biological therapies Surgery Surgery is the main treatment for cancer of the small bowel.

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  • We have a certain biological reciprocity with plants, don't we?

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  • However you seem to be unwilling to let go of biological reductionism.

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  • The logic of biological disarmament requires an absolute renunciation of biological warfare.

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  • LANL's ASC Q Machine has been used for biological research into the creation of proteins with a cellular factor called a ribosome.

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  • The residue from the castor bean pulp can be used in the production of the biological agent ricin " .

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  • rotenone treatments have been successful, and such drastic treatment is only possible in short rivers with favorable biological and geographical conditions.

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  • Turtles: After being trapped, live turtles are shipped to biological supply companies in burlap sacks labeled " seafood.

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  • Image analysis, modeling skills, and experience with biological samples will be an advantage.

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  • We can all construct scenarios that terrify: the suicide bomber coupled with biological, chemical or nuclear capabilities.

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  • A proper understanding of global change requires a fusion of the ' old ' academic disciplines and the integration of physical and biological sciences.

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  • Only some 0.0001 per cent of the deep seafloor has been subject to biological investigations.

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  • secretariat of the convention of Biological Diversity, 1994.

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  • segments of DNA that regulate biological activity.

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  • serve as vital catalysts for the biological reactions that take place within the body.

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  • signatory nation to the Convention on Biological Diversity.

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  • Yvonne Ridley's account of a missing FMD:O vial was not the only report of possible biological skulduggery.

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  • Computer simulations in this field provide biological insights, and also have spinoffs such as the realistic flock of bats in Cliffhanger.

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  • The European Corn Borer is traditionally controlled using chemical or biological insecticide sprays which are applied to the outside of the plant.

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  • Hence, a degree in the Biological Sciences is an excellent springboard to a successful future career in a wide range of fields.

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  • It possesses the greatest stockpiles of chemical and biological weapons and the most advanced and extensive research in mass destruction weaponry in the world.

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  • Eleven PhD studentships had been allocated to soils by the Agri-Food and Engineering and Biological Sciences Committees.

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  • The Faculty of Biological Sciences has been awarded 3 vacation studentships by the BBSRC for 2006.

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  • substratum of biological effects studies and the use of artificial substrata and sediments in marine pollution monitoring is also discussed.

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  • We have a project looking at the use of biological systems to produce surfactant.

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  • Click Here Further Details The Internet Biodiversity Service This internet Biodiversity service gives you access to information about biological systematics, Ecology and Evolution.

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  • Species are the smallest unit of biological taxonomy, and are grouped together with similar species to form a genus.

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  • Jeff then followed with a review of the way in which molecular biological techniques are rapidly becoming tools of patient management.

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  • We also cross the Antarctic Convergence, a biological barrier where cold polar waters sink beneath the warmer waters of the more Temperate Zones.

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  • CAT will become central to AstraZeneca's plans to establish a major international presence in the research and development of biological therapeutics.

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  • However, reliable biological assays for measurement of immune function remain slow and cumbersome (e.g. lymphocyte proliferation by uptake of tritiated thymidine ).

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  • Information coming from this project suggests ways in which biological energy transduction systems might have evolved in primitive life.

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  • transition metal ions are often at the ' heart ' of many biological catalysts.

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  • tufa formation at Nash Brook appears to reflect the interaction of hydrological and biological controls.

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  • The Effects of Anthrax In 1941 the Russians developed tularemia as a biological weapon.

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  • We are in the realm of human volition, not biological reflex.

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  • Susan Lambert's film tells us above all about the science behind biological warfare.

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  • Biological weapons can be delivered in a missile warhead or in the form of a bomb.

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  • In my opinion, the problem of defense against biological weapons is mostly a medical problem.

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  • Biological detergents as well as perfumes; optical whiteners and other ingredients in ordinary washing detergents may cause skin irritation.

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  • whiting stock is also outside safe biological limits and a recovery plan with zero catch rate proposed.

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  • Biodiversity is the word coined by the zoologist E. O. Wilson to summarize the phrase biological diversity.

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  • The term ' biodiversity ' was coined by the American zoologist Edward O. Wilson and is an abbreviation of ' biological diversity ' .

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  • the formation of nitrites and nitrates from ammonia and its compounds in the soil, was formerly held to be a purely chemical process, until Schloesing and Mintz suggested in 1877 that it was biological.

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  • The town hall, Athenaeum and museum are noteworthy buildings, the last having a fine biological collection.

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  • Besides recitation and residence halls, it has the Lawrence Hall Library (1846), containing (1910) 68,000 volumes, the Thompson Memorial Chapel (1904), the Lasell Gymnasium (1886), an infirmary (1895), the Hopkins Observatory (1837) and the Field Memorial Observatory (1882), the Thompson Chemical Laboratory (1892), the Thompson Biological Laboratory (1893) and the Thompson Physical Laboratory (1893).

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  • Eventually he was able to prove that the biological doctrine of omnis cellula ecellula applies to pathological processes as well as to those of normal growth, and in his famous book on Cellular-pathologic, published at Berlin in 1858, he established what Lord Lister described as the "true and fertile doctrine that every morbid structure consists of cells which have been derived from pre-existing cells as a progeny."

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  • But in addition to bringing forward a fundamental and philosophical view of morbid processes, which probably contributed more than any other single cause to vindicate for pathology the place which he claimed for it among the biological sciences, Virchow made many important contributions to histology and morbid anatomy and to the study of particular diseases.

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  • The Royal Society awarded him the Copley medal in 5892, and selected him as Croonian lecturer in the following year, his subject being the position of pathology among the biological sciences; and in 1898 he delivered the second Huxley memorial lecture at Charing Cross Hospital.

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  • Except on Charles Island, where settlement has existed longest, little or no influence of the presence of man is evident in the group; still, the running wild of dogs and cats, and, as regards the vegetation, especially goats, must in a comparatively short period greatly modify the biological conditions of the islands.

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  • Much accumulated evidence, biological and geological, has pointed to a southern extension of India, an eastern extension of South Africa, and a western extension of Australia into the Indian Ocean.

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  • The numerous facts, geological, geographical and biological, which when linked together lend great support to this theory, have been well worked out in Australia by Mr Charles Hedley of the Australian Museum, Sydney.

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  • We must content ourselves by referring to the progress of physical (including chemical) theory, which has led to the great generalization of the conservation of energy; to the discovery of the fundamental chemical identity of the matter of our planet and of other celestial bodies, and of the chemical relations of organic and inorganic bodies; to the advance of astronomical speculation respecting the origin of the solar system, &c.; to the growth of the science of geology which has necessitated the conception of vast and unimaginable periods of time in the past history of our globe, and to the rapid march of the biological sciences which has made us familiar with the simplest types and elements of organism; finally, to the development of the science of anthropology (including comparative psychology, philology, &c.), and to the vast extension and improvement of all branches of historical study.

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  • 4 While 2 Both Lewes and du Bois Reymond have brought out the points of contact between Leibnitz's theory of monads and modern biological speculations (Hist.

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  • All these processes are regarded as a series of manifestations of a vital principle in higher and higher forms. Oken, again, who carries Schelling's ideas into the region of biological science, seeks to reconstruct the gradual evolution of the material world out of original matter, which is the first immediate appearance of God, or the absolute.

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  • - Be fore leaving the German speculation of the first half of the century, a word must be said of von Baer, to whose biological contributions we shall refer later in this article, who recognized in the law of development the law of the universe as a whole.

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  • In the 19th century the doctrine of evolution received new biological contents and became transformed from a vague, partly metaphysical theory to the dominant modern conception.

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  • Huxley, who in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia traced the history of the growth of the biological idea of evolution from its philosophical beginnings to its efflorescence in Charles Darwin.

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  • In the earlier half of the 18th century the term " evolution " was introduced into biological writings in order to denote the mode in which some of the most eminent physiologists of that time conceived that the generation of living things took place; in opposition to the hypothesis advocated, in the preceding century, by W.

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  • Harvey in that remarkable work 1 which would give him a claim to rank among the founders of biological science, even had he not been the discoverer of the circulation of the blood.

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  • In the Origin of Species, and in his other numerous and important contributions to the solution of the problem of biological evolution, Darwin confined himself to the discussion of the causes which have brought about the present condition of living matter, assuming such matter to have once come into existence.

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  • No truths brought to light by biological investigation were better calculated to inspire distrust of the dogmas intruded upon science in the name of theology than those which relate to the distribution of animals and plants on the surface of the earth.

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  • Writers on biological subjects no longer have to waste space in weighing evolution against this or that philosophical theory or religious tradition; philosophical writers have frankly accepted it, and the supporters of religious tradition have made broad their phylacteries to write on them the new words.

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  • The full implications of the group of ideas require, and are likely to receive, much attention in the immediate future of biological investigation, but it is enough at present to point out that until the more obvious lines of inquiry have been opened out much more fully, we cannot be in a position to guess at the existence of a residuum, for which such a metaphysical conception as bathmism would serve even as a convenient disguise for ignorance.

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  • The term Anatomy, originally employed in biological science to denote a description of the facts of structure revealed on cutting up an organism, whether with or without the aid of lenses for the purposes of magnification, is restricted in the present article, in accordance with a common modern use, to those facts of internal structure not concerned with the constitution of the individual cell, the structural unit of which the plant is composed.

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  • But the subject requires elucidation from both chemical and biological points of view.

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  • The extraordinary forms, colors and textures of the true galls have always formed some of the most interesting of biological questions, for not only is there definite co-operation I between a given species of insect and of plant, as shown by the facts that the same insect may induce galls of different kinds on different plants or organs, while different insects induce different galls on the same plante.g.

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  • The factors of the habitat may be grouped as follows: geographical, physical, and biological.

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  • Biological FactorsThese include the reactions of plants and animals on the habitat.

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  • In one sense, the accumulation of humus and peat is a biological factor, as it is related to the work of organisms in the soil; but the occurrence or otherwise of these organisms in the soil is probably related to definite edaphic and climatic conditions.

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  • They include the biological nature of the organism and its physical environment, the latter involving conditions in which geographical elements, direct or indirect, preponderate.

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  • The distribution of life is discussed in the various articles in this Encyclopaedia dealing with biological, botanical and zoological subjects.'

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  • Each of these divisions is the home of a special fauna, many species of which are confined to it alone; in the Australian region, indeed, practically the whole fauna is peculiar and distinctive, suggesting a prolonged period of complete biological isolation.

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  • From the underlying abstract mathematical considerations all through the superimposed physical, biological, anthropo.

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  • /3los, life, and yEVevcs, generation, birth), a biological term for the theory according to which each living organism, however simple, arises by a process of budding, fission, spore-formation of sexual reproduction from a parent organism.

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  • No biological generalization rests on a wider series of observations, or has been subjected to a more critical scrutiny than that every living organism has come into existence from a living portion or portions of a pre-existing organism.

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  • After unsuccessful attempts to rid themselves of the mice, the farmers appealed to the United States Biological Survey, and alfalfa hay poisoned with strychnia sulphate was used successfully in the Humboldt Valley in January 1908 and in the Carson Valley, where a similar plague threatened, in April 1908.5 Minerals.

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  • At Beaufort the United States Bureau of Fisheries has a marine biological laboratory, established in 1901 for the study of the aquatic fauna of the south-east coast.

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  • He examined the yeasts under the microscope, and at once saw that the globules from the sound beer were nearly spherical, whilst those from the sour beer were elongated; and this led him to a discovery, the consequences of which have revolutionized chemical as well as biological science, inasmuch as it was the beginning of that wonderful series of experimental researches in which he proved conclusively that the notion of spontaneous generation is a chimera.

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  • Hume's empiricism, combined with a belief in biological evolution (derived from Herbert Spencer), was the chief feature in English thought during the third quarter of the 10th century.

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  • A list of its birds, with some notes, bibliographical and biological, has been given as an Appendix to Baring-Gould's Iceland, its Scenes and Sagas (8vo, 1862); and Shepherd's North-west Peninsula of Iceland (8vo, 1867) recounts a somewhat profitless expedition made thither expressly for ornithological objects.

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  • In biological chemistry he worked at the problems of animal heat and at the phenomena accompanying the growth of plants, and he also devoted much time to meteorological questions and observations.

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  • This has been criticized both from the biological and from the psychological standpoint.

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  • From the biological point of view the reference of certain modes of behaviour, termed instinctive, to faculties of mind for which "instinct" is the generic term is scarcely satisfactory; from the psychological point of view the phrase "without necessary knowledge of the relation between the means employed and the end attained" is ambiguous.

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  • Investigation thus becomes more objective, and this is a distinct advantage from the biological point of view.

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  • But as a matter of fact no small part of the interest and value of investigations in this field of inquiry lies in the relationships which may thereby be established between biological and psychological interpretations.

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  • If a brief definition of instinct, from the purely biological point of view be required, that given in the Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology may be accepted: "An inherited reaction of the sensori-motor type, relatively complex 3'p 3' p and markedly adaptive in character, and common to a group of individuals."

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  • It will be seen that from the biological standpoint there fall under the stricter definition those hereditary modes of behaviour which are analogous to hereditary forms of structure; and that a sharp line of distinction is drawn between the behaviour which is thus rendered definite through heredity, and the behaviour the distinguishing characteristics of which are acquired in the course of individual life.

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  • The group of instincts which we class as imitative (and they afford only the foundations on which intelligent imitation is based) are of biological value chiefly, if not solely, in those species which form larger or smaller communities.

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  • The existence of sulphuretted hydrogen in great quantities below loo fathoms, the extensive chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate, the stagnant nature of its deep waters, and the absence of deep-sea life are conditions which make it impossible to discuss it along with the physical and biological conditions of the Mediterranean proper.

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  • For fauna and flora: publications of U.S. Biological Survey (Department of Agriculture, Bibliographies).

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  • In connexion with the university is a botanical garden; with the national sanitary service, a biological laboratory, and special services for small-pox, glanders and yellow fever.

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  • Pop. (1905), 3735 It has a palace built about 1630 and now converted into a cadet school, a gymnasium and a biological station.

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  • It is proper, however, to point out at once how very complicated may be the relationships between oceanographical and strictly biological phenomena, though, of course, the latter are ultimately dependent on the former.

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  • Lister, F.R.S., who formed a larger biological and mineralogical collection.

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  • Joao Barbosa Rodrigues has done some good work in botany, especially in the study of the palms of the Amazon, and Joao Baptista de Lacerda has made important biological investigations at the national museum of Rio de Janeiro.

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  • The subject-matter of this new science, or branch of biological science, had been neglected: it did not form part of the studies of the collector and systematist, nor was it a branch of anatomy, nor of the physiology pursued by medical men, nor again was it included in the field of microscopy and the celltheory.

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  • The area of biological knowledge which Darwin was the first to subject to scientific method and to render, as it were, contributory to the great stream formed by the union of the various branches, is that which relates to the breeding of animals and plants, their congenital variations, and the transmission and perpetuation of those variations.

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  • This branch of biological science may be called thremmatology (0Au,ua, " a thing bred ").

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  • From the earliest times the shepherd, the farmer, the horticulturist, and the " fancier " had for practical purposes made themselves acquainted with a number of biological laws, and successfully applied them without exciting more than an occasional notice from the academic students of biology.

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  • General Tendencies Since Darwin Darwin may be said to have founded the science of bionomics, and at the same time to have given new stimulus and new direction to morphography, physiology, and plasmology, by uniting them as contributories to one common biological doctrine-the doctrine of organic evolution-itself but a part of the wider doctrine of universal evolution based on the laws of physics and chemistry.

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  • The biological sciences are those which deal with the phenomena manifested by living matter; and though it is customary and convenient to group apart such of these phenomena as are termed mental, and such of them as are exhibited by men in society, under the heads of psychology and sociology, yet it must be allowed that no natural boundary separates the subject matter of the latter sciences from that of biology.

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  • On the other hand, the biological sciences are sharply marked off from the abiological, or those which treat of the phenomena manifested by not-living matter, in so far as the properties of living matter distinguish it absolutely from all other kinds of things, and as the present state of knowledge furnishes us with no link between the living and the not-living.

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  • The broad distinctions which, as a matter of fact, exist between every known form of living substance and every other component of the material world, justify the separation of the biological sciences from all others.

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  • The difference in technical methods and the historical evolution of teaching posts (for in all civilized countries the progress of biological knowledge has been very closely associated with the existence of institutions for the diffusion of knowledge and for professional education) have been the chief contributory causes to this practical confusion.

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  • Our starting-point in this, as in all departments of biological study, must be the biological unit, and it is to the alterations to which this is subject, under varying conditions of nutrition and stimulation, that the science of pathology must apply itself.

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  • According to our present knowledge of physiological and pathological processes, we must regard the cell as the ultimate biological unit - a unit of structure and a unit of function; this was first put forward by Schleiden in 1838, and by Schwann in 1839, but we owe to Virchow the full recognition of the fundamental importance of the living cell in all the processes of life, whether in health or disease.

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  • Nowak, however, found later that he could generate it where the turpentine failed to induce suppuration; he believes that it may arise quite apart from the influence of the organisms of suppuration, that it is not a biological product of the micro-organisms of disease, and also that it has nothing to do with emaciation.

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  • Practical Applications Medicine and surgery have never been slow to appropriate and apply the biological facts of pathology, and at no period have they followed more closely in its wake than during the last quarter of the 19th century.

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  • The study of comparative pathology, yet in an inchoate stage, and of embryology, illuminated and enlarged biological conceptions, both normal and abnormal; and the ens reale subsistens in corpore disappeared for ever - at any rate from physiology and medicine.

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  • conceptions will be opened out, not in bacteriology only, but also in biological chemistry and in molecular physics.

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  • To biological chemistry we have been deeply indebted during the latter half of the 19th century.

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  • and museum of morbid anatomy, and was fusing these gains in the laboratory so as to claim for itself, as a special branch of science by virtue of peculiar concepts, its due place and provision - provision in the establishment of chairs and of special laboratories for its chemical and biological subdivisions - clinical medicine, by the formal provision of disciplinary classes, was illustrating the truth of the experience that teaching and research must go hand-in-hand, the one reinforcing the other: that no teacher can be efficient unless he be engaged in research also; nay, that for the most part even the investigator needs the encouragement of disciples.

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  • hope dealing elements of disease, with its first beginnings; and in the field of therapeutics, chemical and biological experiment, as in the case of digitalis, mercury and the iodides, was rapidly simplifying remedies and defining their virtues, so that these agents could be used at the bedside with more precision.

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  • ,ppjv, male, and ToKOS, from Tlktecv, to beget), biological terms proposed by Leuckart and Eduard von Siebold to denote those parthenogenetic females which produce male young, while "thelytokous" and "thelytoky" would denote their producing female young.

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  • " Modern biology has got beyond Aristotle's conception; but in the construction of the biological science, not even the most unphilosophical biologist would fail to recognize the value of Aristotle's attempt.

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  • A sociological demonstration lies in the establishment of an accordance between the conclusions of historical analysis and the preparatory conceptions of biological theory.

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  • There is at least one biological speculation of astounding audacity, that could be examined in nothing less than a treatise.

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  • It has already been explained, however, that the biological foundations of the latter doctrine are questionable.

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  • This article is restricted to general oceanography in its physical aspects, the closely-related meteorological,, biological and economic aspects being dealt with elsewhere.

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  • Ingenious devices had indeed been tried in the 17th biological conditions of the ocean as a whole.

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  • The received a great impetus from the enthusiasm of the great Amerieastern part of the North Atlantic has been the scene of many can oceanographer Captain Matthew Fontaine Maury, U.S.N., expeditions, often purely biological in their purpose, amongst who directed the whole impetuous strength of his character to which there may be mentioned the cruises of the " Travailleur " the task of compelling the silent depths of the ocean to tell their and " Talisman " under Professor Milne-Edwards in 1880-1883, tale.

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  • Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.

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  • KaT&, down, 1 30Xi, a throw), the biological term for the reverse of anabolism, namely the breaking down of complex into simpler substances, destructive metabolism (see Physiology).

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  • On the fauna and flora see Vernon Bailey, Biological Survey of Texas (Washington, D.C., 1905) in North American Fauna, No.

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  • and a marine biological laboratory.

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  • Boyd Dawkins and Brinton, that the French cave man came hither by way of Iceland; or with Keane, that two subvarieties, the long-headed Eskimo-Botocudo type and the Mexican roundheaded type, prior to all cultural developments, reached the New World, one by Iceland, the other by Bering Sea; or that Malayoid wanderers were stranded on the coast of South America; or that no breach of continuity has occurred since first the march of tribes began this way - ethnologists agree that the aborigines of the western came from the eastern hemisphere,and there is lacking any biological evidence of Caucasoid or Negroid blood flowing in the veins of Americans before the invasions of historic times.

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  • Since the tribes practised far more in-breeding than out-breeding, the tendency was toward forming not only verbal linguistic groups, but biological varieties; the weaker the tribe, the fewer the captures, the greater the isolation and harder the conditions - producing dolichocephaly, dwarfism and other retrogressive characteristics.

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  • The student will find differences among anthropologists in the interpretation of these marks - some averring that comparative anatomy is worthless as a means of subdividing the American subspecies, others that biological variations point to different Old World origins, a third class believing these structural variations to be of the soil.

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  • Zoologists divide the earth into biological areas or regions, so both archaeologists and ethnologists may find it convenient to have in mind some such scheme of provinces as the following, partly after the dominant ethnic provinces.

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  • The first is a biological problem.

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  • From the pupae, again, are developed sexual individuals, the females of which lay fecundated eggs productive of gall-founders, thus recommencing the biological cycle (see Compt.

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  • Palaeontology both borrows from and sheds light upon geology and other branches of the physical history of the earth, each of which, such as palaeogeography or palaeometeorology, is the more fascinating because of the large element of the unknown, the need for constructive imagination, the appeal to other branches of biological and physical investigation for supplementary evidence, and the necessity of constant comparison with the present aspects of nature.

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  • The subject will be treated in its biological aspects, because the relations of palaeontology to historical and stratigraphic geology are more appropriately considered under the article Geology.

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  • The absolute agreement in the results independently obtained by these various investigators, the interpretation of individual development as the guide to phyletic development, the demonstration of continuous genetic series, each mutation falling into its proper place and all showing a definite direction, constitute contributions to biological philosophy of the first importance, which have been little known or appreciated by zoologists because of their publication in monographs of very special character.

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  • The concurrence of botanical (Hooker, 1847), zoological, and finally of palaeontological evidence for the reconstruction of the continent of Antarctica, is one of the greatest triumphs of biological investigation.

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  • - Underlying Biological Principles As They Appear To The Palaeontologist It follows from the above brief summary that palaeontology affords a distinct and highly suggestive field of purely biological research; that is, of the causes of evolution underlying the observable modes which we have been describing.

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  • No complete study has ever been made of this fauna, but much has been, and is being done by the U.S. Biological Survey and Plant Industry Bureau.

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  • Important works of reference are: Anuario estadistico de la Republica Mexicana (Mexico); Mexican Year-book (London, 1908); Biological and botanical publications of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (Washington); Statesman's Year-book (London); Handbook of Mexico (Washington), published by the Bureau of American Republics; Monthly Bulletin of the Bureau of American Republics (Washington); British Foreign Office Diplomatic and Consular Reports (London); and the U.S. Consular Reports (Washington).

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  • A peculiar feature in the behaviour of the parasites, which is most probably caused by unfavourable biological conditions -in the host, is that known as agglomeration.

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  • 10 of the United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Biological Survey (Washington, 1898); I.

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  • Such is the great mind of Aristotle manifested in the large map of learning, by which we have now to determine the order of his extant philosophical writings, with a view to studying them in their real order, which is neither chronological nor traditional, but philosophical and scientific. Turning over the pages of the Berlin edition, but passing over works which are perhaps spurious, we should put first and foremost speculative philosophy, and therein the primary philosophy of his Metaphysics (980 a 211093 b 29); then the secondary philosophy of his Physics, followed by his other physical works, general and biological, including among the latter the Historia Animalium as preparatory to the De Partibus Animalium, and the De Anima and Parva Naturalia, which he called " physical " but we call " psychological" (184 a 10-967 b 27); next, the practical philosophy of the Ethics, including the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia as earlier and the Nicomachean Ethics as later (1094-124 9 b 25), and of the Politics (1252-1342), with the addition of the newly discovered Athenian Constitution as ancillary to it; finally, the productive science, or art, of the Rhetoric, including the earlier Rhetoric to Alexander and the later Rhetorical Art, and of the Poetics, which was unfinished (1354-end).

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  • Such is Aristotle's dual, or rather triple, realism, continued in his De Anima and other biological writings, especially De Generatione Animalium, ii.

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  • The book-lice are familiar wingless insects, often found in houses running about among old papers and neglected biological collections.

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  • In 1892 a biological institute, with a marine museum and aquarium (1goo) attached, was opened.

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  • He was also a diligent and skilful observer, and busied himself not only with astronomical subjects, such as the double stars, the satellites of Jupiter and the measurement of the polar and equatorial diameters of the sun, but also with biological studies of the circulation of the sap in plants, the fructification of plants, infusoria, &c.

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  • During the period he spent at Miilhausen, Schatzenberger paid special attention to industrial chemistry, particularly in connexion with colouring matters, but he also worked at general and biological chemistry which subsequently occupied the greater part of his time.

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  • Many of the young men and women, who were supposed to be qualifying as specialists in the various spheres of industrial and commercial enterprise, were in reality devoting their time to considering how human society in general, and Russian society in particular, could be reconstructed in accordance with the latest physiological, biological and sociological principles.

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  • This method of intermittent sterilization originated with Tyndall, and it was an important contribution to biological science and industrial practice.

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  • This principle he endeavoured to deduce from his knowledge of geology, in contrast to Lorenz Oken, who developed the same theory on biological grounds.

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  • ALBINO, a biological term (Lat.

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  • Delage has distinguished as multiplication those cases in which the new individual arises from a mass of cells which remain a part of the maternal tissues during differentiation, reserving the term reproduction for those cases in which the spore or cell which is the starting-point of the new individual begins by separating from the maternal tissues; but the distinction is inconvenient in practice and does not appear to carry with it any fundamental biological significance.

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  • As reproduction is a general biological phenomenon, its manifestations should be dealt with simultaneously in the case of animals and plants, but many of the special details differ so much that it is practically convenient to make two headings.

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  • He was political director of the Siecle, and president of the French Colonization Society, and wrote, besides the books already mentioned, various works on political and biological questions.

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  • Nevertheless, certain biological phenomena in fungi are especially pronounced, and of these the following require particular notice.

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  • The terms biologic forms, biological species, physiological species, physiological races, specialized forms have all been applied to these; perhaps the term biologic forms is the most satisfactory.

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  • ava, up, (30Xri, a throw), the biological term for the building up in an organism of more complex from simpler substances, constructive metabolism.

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  • It is clear, however, that through Ray's work in the 17th century the common biological application of species became fixed much in its modern form, as denoting a group of animals or plants capable of interbreeding, and although not necessarily quite identical, with marked common characters.

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  • An observatory and biological station are maintained.

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  • It arises from a general awakening to the fact that the growth of our psychological and biological knowledge must profoundly transform the traditional epistemology.

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  • Huxley pointed out in his essay on the reception of the Origin of Species in the second volume of Darwin's Life and Letters, " The suggestion that new species may result from the selective action of external conditions upon the variations from their specific type which individuals present - and which we call ` spontaneous ' because we are ignorant of their causation - is as wholly unknown to the historian of scientific ideas as it was to biological specialists before 1858.

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  • The statistical investigation of correlations forms a new branch of biological inquiry, generally termed "Biometrics," inaugurated by F.

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  • The theory of chance was applied to the study of human variation by Quetelet; but the most important applications of this theory to biological problems are due in the first instance to Francis Galton, who used the theory of correlation in describing the relation between the deviation of one character in an animal body from the mean proper to its race and that of a second character in the same body (correlation as commonly understood), or between deviation of a parent from the mean of its generation and deviation of offspring from the mean of the following generation (inheritance).

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  • The occurrence of anchovies in the English Channel has been carefully studied at the laboratory of the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth.

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  • In the above, and in other respects also, a survey of the history of Palestine suggests the necessity of modifying that " biological " treatment of the development of thought which pays insufficient attention to the persistence of the representatives of different stages by the side of or after the disappearance of the higher stages; see I.

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  • This the present writer is inclined to doubt, considering that he has received examples of the normal Amblystoma tigrinum from various parts of Mexico, and that Alfred Duges has described an Amblystoma from mountains near Mexico City; at the same time he feels very suspicious of the various statements to that effect which have appeared in so many works, and rather disposed to make light of the ingenious theories launched by biological speculators who have never set foot in Mexico, especially Weismann's picture of the dismal condition of the salt-incrusted surroundings which were supposed to have hemmed in the axolotl - the brackish Lago de Texcoco, the largest of the lakes near Mexico, being evidently in the philosopher's mind.

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  • It would be impracticable to draw general conclusions as to the physical and biological conditions of the Antarctic regions until the researches of all the expeditions had been published in a comparable form.

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  • But the divorce of science of nature from mathematics, the failure of biological inquiry to reach so elementary a conception as that of the nerves, the absence of chemistry from the circle of the sciences, disappointed the promise of the dawn and the relative achievement of the noon-day.

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  • 1849-1851 Democrat 1851-1852 „ 1856-1858 Know Nothing 1858-1860 Lecompton Democrat 1860 (6 days) „ „ United States Censuses, reports on forests; United States Biological Survey, North American Fauna, No.

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  • Merriam, " Biological Survey of Mt.

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  • Although designed especially for advanced theological studies, it comprises a School of the Sacred Sciences, a School of Philosophy, a School of Letters, a School of Physical Sciences, a School of Biological Sciences, a School of Social Sciences, a School of Jurisprudence, a School of Law and a School of Technological Sciences.

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  • The learned societies of Washington are to a large degree more national than local in their character; among them are: the Washington Academy of Sciences (1898), a "federal head" of most of the societies mentioned below; the Anthropological Society (founded 1879; incorporated 1887), which has published Transactions (1879 sqq., with the co-operation of the Smithsonian Institution) and The American Anthropologist (1888-1898; since 1898 published by the American Anthropological Association); the National Geographic Society (1888), which since 1903 has occupied the Hubbard Memorial Building, which sent scientific expeditions to Alaska, Mont Pelee and La Souffriere, and which publishes the National Geographic Magazine (1888 sqq.), National Geographic Monographs (1895) and various special maps; the Philosophical Society of Washington (1871; incorporated 1901), devoted especially to mathematical and physical sciences; the Biological Society (1880), which publishes Proceedings (1880 sqq.); the Botanical Society of Washington (1901); the Geological Society of Washington (1893): the Entomological Society of Washington (1884), which publishes Proceedings (1884 sqq.); the Chemical Society (1884); the Records of the Past Exploration Society (1901), which publishes Records of the Past (1902 sqq.); the Southern History Association (1896), which issues Publications (1897 sqq.); the Society for Philosophical Inquiry (1893), which publishes Memoirs (1893 sqq.); the Society of American Foresters (1900), which publishes Proceedings (1905 sqq.); and the Cosmos Club.

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  • In comparative morphology it provides many illustrations of important biological principles (such, for example, as substitution and change of function of organs), and throws new light upon, or at least points the way to new ideas of, the primitive relations of different organic systems in respect of their function and topography.

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  • The university's biological station is on Winona Lake, Kosciusko county.

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  • On fauna and flora: United States Biological Survey, Bulletins (especially No.

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  • Even before the appearance of Sidgwick's book utilitarianism had entered upon its third or evolutional phase, in which principles borrowed from biological science make their entrance into moral philosophy.

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  • The main doctrine of evolutional or biological ethics is stated with admirable clearness in the third chapter of Darwin's Descent of Man (pub.

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  • This is mainly occupied by Djurgarden (the deer-park), a beautiful park containing the buildings of the northern museum, a collection of Scandinavian costumes and domestic and agricultural utensils, and a biological museum housed in a wooden building imitating the early Norwegian timber churches (stavekirke).

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  • on the Possible Improvement of the Human Breed under the existing Conditions of Law and Sentiment (1901); see also Biometrika (a journal for the statistical study of biological problems, of which the first volume was published in 1902).

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  • Experiments with labelled plaice, carried out in 1904 by the Marine Biological Association, showed that small plaice transplanted to the Dogger Bank in spring grew three times as rapidly as those on the inshore grounds, and the same result, with insignificant variations, has been obtained by similar experiments in each succeeding year.

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  • The hatching of eggs, whether of fresh-water or salt-water fishes, presents no serious difficulties, if suitable apparatus is employed; but the rearing of fry to an advanced stage, without serious losses, is less easy, and in the case of sea-fishes with pelagic eggs, the larvae of which are exceedingly small and tender, is still an unsolved problem, although recent work, carried out at the Plymouth laboratory of the Marine Biological Association, is at least promising.

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