How to use Bifida in a sentence
She also suffered from severe spina bifida and congenital hydrocephalus.
Association for Spina Bifida and hydrocephalus Working with those in Sussex who have spina bifida and/or hydrocephalus to create and develop the best opportunities.
The third most common kind of defect affects the spinal cord, such as spina bifida.
Chiari II anomaly-A structural abnormality of the lower portion of the brain (cerebellum and brainstem) associated with spina bifida.
Pregnant women whose diets are deficient in folic acid have a greater chance of having a baby with neural tube defects (NTD), such as spina bifida.Advertisement
If this tube forms incompletely during the first few months of pregnancy, a serious, and often fatal, defect results in spina bifida or anencephaly (formation of the head without the brain).
Spina bifida is a birth abnormality in which the spine is malformed and lacks its usual protective skeletal and soft tissue coverings.
Spina bifida may appear in the body midline anywhere from the neck to the buttocks.
Spina bifida is usually readily apparent at birth because of the malformation of the back and paralysis below the level of the abnormality.
Various forms of spina bifida are known as meningomyelocele, myelomeningocele, spina bifida aperta, open spina bifida, myelodysplasia, spinal dysraphism, spinal rachischisis, myelocele, and meningocele.Advertisement
A related term, spina bifida occulta, indicates that one or more of the bony bodies in the spine are incompletely hardened, but that there is no abnormality of the spinal cord itself.
Spina bifida occurs worldwide, but there has been a steady downward trend in occurrence rates since about 1940, particularly in regions of high prevalence.
Spina bifida may occur as an isolated abnormality or in the company of other malformations.
As an isolated abnormality, spina bifida is caused by the combination of genetic factors and environmental influences that bring about malformation of the spine and spinal column.
The specific genes and environmental influences that contribute to the many-factored causes of spina bifida were not as of 2004 completely known.Advertisement
The recurrence risk after the birth of an infant with isolated spina bifida is 3 to 5 percent.
Recurrence may be for spina bifida or another type of spinal abnormality.
Spina bifida may arise because of chromosome abnormalities, single gene mutations, or specific environmental insults such as maternal diabetes mellitus or prenatal exposure to certain anticonvulsant drugs.
In most cases, spina bifida is obvious at birth because of malformation of the spine.
Spina bifida may occur anywhere from the base of the skull to the buttocks.Advertisement
In spina bifida, many complications arise, dependent in part on the level and severity of the spine malformation.
There are a number of mild variant forms of spina bifida, including multiple vertebral abnormalities, skin dimples, tufts of hair, and localized areas of skin deficiency over the spine.
In these conditions, a tumor of fatty tissue becomes isolated among the nerves below the spinal cord, which may result in tethering of the spinal cord and complications similar to those with open spina bifida.
Few disorders are to be confused with open spina bifida.
Aggressive surgical and medical management have improved the survival and function of infants with spina bifida.Advertisement
Although most individuals with spina bifida have normal intellectual function, learning disabilities or mental retardation occur in a minority.
Open fetal surgery has been performed for spina bifida during the last half of pregnancy.
More than 80 percent of infants born with spina bifida survive with surgical and medical management.
Prevention of isolated spina bifida and other spinal abnormalities became possible in the 1980s and 1990s.
For women who have had a previous child with spina bifida, the CDC recommends a daily intake of 4 milligrams of synthetic folic acid to help prevent a recurrence of spina bifida in future pregnancies.Advertisement
Caring for a child with spina bifida can be a daunting endeavor.
Children with spina bifida require a multidisciplinary team of healthcare providers, including surgeons, physicians, and therapists.
Children with spina bifida may have many surgical procedures throughout their lives.
Many children with spina bifida have non-surgical treatments as well, such as positional aides to help the child sit and stand, physical therapy, and bracing and splints usually of the lower extremities.
Parents of children with spina bifida experience an array of emotions, including grief, fear, anxiety, and stress.Advertisement
Spina bifida impacts not only the affected child but the entire family.
Groups and networks of other families affected by spina bifida can provide valuable support.
Finally, parents should remember that most children with spina bifida live productive and happy lives.
For the most part, children with spina bifida have average or above-average intelligence.
However in 1994 the first prenatal surgery to treat spina bifida (myelomeningocele) was performed.Advertisement
Spina bifida occurs during the first month of fetal development when a small bit of bone and skin fails to fully enclose the nerves of the spinal cord, leaving a hole or lesion.
Surgery for spina bifida requires closing the opening in the cord.
Since the damage from spina bifida occurs during fetal development, prenatal surgery may reduce the damage.
However, prenatal surgery for spina bifida has become enmeshed in the politics of reproductive rights and fetal rights.
As of 2004, prenatal surgery for spina bifida was available only as part of a prospective randomized clinical trial.Advertisement
Prenatal surgery for spina bifida does not cure the condition.
This condition can cause difficulties in breathing and swallowing and leads to death in 15 percent of children with spina bifida.
In addition, children who have prenatal surgery for spina bifida appear to have better brain function than children who do not have surgery.
People with spina bifida can suffer from bladder and bowel incontinence, cognitive (learning) problems, and limited mobility.
Some of these children have other defects such as cardiac anomalies, chromosomal abnormalities, kidney and genital anomalies, and neural tube defects, such as spina bifida.Advertisement
Other abnormalities that may require consideration of medical or surgical intervention include club foot, facial clefts, spina bifida, and hydrocephalus.
These types of defects include spinal column defects (spina bifida) and anencephaly (a severe and usually fatal brain abnormality).
For example, a deficiency in folic acid during the early stages of pregnancy may lead to neural tube defects such as spina bifida.
Failure of neural-tube closure below the level of the brain prevents full development of the surrounding vertebral bones and leads to spina bifida, or a divided spinal column.
Some cases of spina bifida are accompanied by another defect at the base of the brain, known as the Arnold-Chiari malformation or Chiari II malformation.
Some congenital brain defects, such as those associated with spina bifida have a higher prevalence, affecting as many as two to three per 1,000 live births.
Spina bifida may be treated with surgery to close the open portion of the spinal cord.
These malformations are part of a larger syndrome seen in children with spina bifida, a condition in which the spine and spinal cord have not formed properly.
Type II Chiari malformation may be diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound or shortly after birth during medical evaluation of the accompanying spina bifida.
In Type III malformation, parts of the cerebellum and the brain stem protrude into a spina bifida defect located at the base of the skull, on the neck.
Some neurologists do not consider it a Chiari malformation but rather a specific type of spina bifida called an encephalocervical meningocele.
However, the majority of all Chiari malformations are Type II and are almost exclusively associated with spina bifida defects.
Spina bifida occurs in approximately one to two per 1,000 births.
Type II malformation occurs almost exclusively with spina bifida, which causes symptoms that may include paralysis of the lower extremities (and less often, the upper limbs), and bowel and bladder dysfunction.
Because of the associated conditions of spina bifida and hydrocephalus, these children are usually quite ill.
Many have developmental delays and impaired intellectual functioning in addition to the physical limitations often caused by the accompanying spina bifida.
When a child has primarily motor delays, conditions such as cerebral palsy, ataxia, spina bifida, spinal muscular atrophy (withering) and myopathy may be present.
In rare cases, congenital torticollis can also be a symptom of other congenital disorders including abnormalities of the neck vertebra such as spina bifida or Arnold-Chiari syndrome.
Alpha fetoprotein test-A screening blood test that can be done after the sixteenth week of pregnancy to evaluate the possibility of spina bifida and other neural tube defects in the fetus.
According to the Spina Bifida Association of America, nearly 40 percent of shunts malfunction and may need to be replaced within one year, 60 percent will require revision within five years, and 80 to 90 percent within ten years.
Upto 6 percent of the general population suffers from an allergy to latex, and children with spina bifida who have had multiple surgical procedures are at higher risk for allergic reactions to latex.
Folic acid in early pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects such as spina bifida.
Low levels of folate are linked to serious neurological birth defects including spina bifida and anencephaly.
Babies with spina bifida may be unable to learn to walk, or to control their bowels and bladder.
This procedure enables an obstetrician to determine any chromosomal disorders or open neural tube defects, such as spina bifida, that the unborn fetus may have.
Spina bifida occurs when the spine is open, which can lead to paralysis.
The fluid is then sent to a lab where it will be tested for genetic abnormalities like Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and spina bifida.
Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and spina bifida are some of the most common abnormalities that an amnio can detect.
Taking a prenatal vitamin with folic acid is thought to reduce the risk of your baby developing anencephaly or spina bifida by 50 to 70 percent.
Other structural defects may be spina bifida or hypospadias.
Spina bifida is a defect in the structure of the spinal cord.
Neural tube defects like spina bifida and anencephaly are being researched as possible defects where environmental states may affect the development of the fetus as well as genetics.
Folate intake during pregnancy also protects against neural tube birth defects, which can result in spina bifida and anencephaly.
For example, in the Shining a young women in the bathtub turns into an old decaying woman, and Zelda, the elderly sister in Pet Cemetery died of spina bifida - the elderly, sickness and death became a recurring theme.