Bey Sentence Examples
The movement was checked and Selim Bey was deported to the coast.
Ali, the capitan pasha, was commander-in-chief, and he had with him Chulouk Bey of Alexandria, commonly called Scirocco, and Uluch Ali, dey of Algiers.
Founded, in 1262, by the Hungarian General Cotroman, under the name of Bosnavar or Vrhbosna, Serajevo was enlarged by Husref Bey two centuries later, and takes its name from the palace (Turkish, serai), which he founded.
Louis had been led to think that the bey of Tunis might be converted, and in that hope he resolved to begin this eighth and last of the Crusades by an expedition to Tunis.
Negotiating in the spirit of a Frederick II., and acting not as a Crusader but as a king of Sicily, he not only wrested a large indemnity from the bey for himself and the new king of France, but also secured a large annual tribute for his Sicilian exchequer.Advertisement
For the catacombs of Alexandria, Neroutsos Bey, L'Ancienne Alexandrie, may be consulted in addition to De Rossi's article mentioned in the text.
In his 1910 budget speech the minister of finance, Javid Bey, demanded authority to create a new aluminium coinage of 5, 10, 20 and 40 para pieces, of which he would issue, in the course of three years, a nominal amount of £T1,000,000 to those provinces in which there was a great scarcity of small coins.
Roustan therefore hastened to extort from the bey concessions calculated to neutralize the advantages which Italy had hoped to secure by the possession of the Tunis- Goletta line, and at the same time the French government prepared at Toulon an expeditionary corps for the occupation of the Regency.
He succeeded his father Da'ud as ruler of Khorasan in 1059, and his uncle Togrul Bey as sultan of Oran in 1063, and thus became sole monarch of Persia from the river Oxus to the Tigris.
The Turkish historian, Kutchi Bey, attributes the origin of the decline of the empire to the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566), when the conversion of many emiriye lands into vakufs was effected, and the system of farming out revenues first introduced.Advertisement
The cape at the western end of the peninsula is Ras et-Tin (Cape of Figs); the eastern cape is known as Pharos or Kait Bey.
These acquisitions were made between 1328 and 1338; in the latter year Orkhan achieved his first conquest from Mussulman hands by the capture of Karassi, the pretext being the quarrel for the succession on the death of the prince, Ajlan Bey.
In the same year Bey Shehr and other portions of the Hamid principality were acquired by purchase from their ruler Hussein Bey, as the Karamanian princes were beginning to cast covetous eyes on them; but the Karamanians were unwilling to resign their claims to be heirs of the Seljukian sultans, and not until the reign of Mahommed II.
Ali Bey, the prince at this time, took advantage of Murad's absence in Europe to declare war against him; but the Ottoman ruler returning crushed him at the battle of Konia.
These princes were viceroys of Kermian and Karassi respectively; the youngest son, Sauji Bey, governed at Brusa during his father's absence.Advertisement
Led away by evil counsellors, Sauji Bey plotted with Andronicus, son of the emperor, to dethrone their respective fathers.
Most of its members were military officers, prominent among them being Majors Enver Bey and Niazi Bey, who directed the propaganda in Albania and Macedonia.
They The struck their first blow on the 22nd of July 1908, when Niazi Bey and his troops raised the standard of 1908.
On the 23rd the committee of union and progress, under the presidency of Enver Bey, proclaimed the constitution in Salonica, while the second and third army corps threatened to march on Constantinople if the sultan refused to obey the proclamation.
Hilmi Pasha again became grand vizier, but resigned on the 28th of December 1909, when he was succeeded by Hakki Bey.Advertisement
On the 13th of September 1909 the Macedonian international commission of finance met for the last time; its members were reappointed to a higher finance board for the whole empire, under the presidency of Djavid Bey.
The chief poets of the transition are Fazil Bey, Wasif, notable for his not altogether unhappy attempt to write verses in the spoken language of the capital, `Izzet Molla, Pertev Pasha, `Akif Pasha, and the poetesses Fitnet and Leyla.
In the 18th century, in common with most of Anatolia, its actual lord was a Dere Bey.
Hussein Hilmi, he, with Niazi Bey, imported the flag of revolution in the Macedonian moun - tains, originally with the object of restoring the constitution of 1876, which had been disregarded by 'Abdul Hamid, but also to save himself from a threatened arrest.
In the south he was threatened by the dangerous rivalry of Kait Bey, the Mameluke sultan of Egypt, who had extended his power northwards as far as Tarsus and Adana.Advertisement
The first explorer to enter the sacred Hejaz with a definite scientific object was the Spaniard, Badia y aeblich, who, under the name of Ali Bey and claiming to be the last representative of the Abbasid Caliphs, arrived at Jidda in 1807, and performed the pilgrimage to Mecca.
In the marshy lake near Mater (north Tunisia), round the mountain island of Jebel Ashkel, is a herd of over 50 buffaloes; these are said to resemble the domestic (Indian) buffalo of the Levant and Italy, and to have their origin in a gift of domestic buffaloes from a former king of Naples to a bey or dey of Tunis.
The civil list paid to the Bey of Tunis amounts to £36,000 per annum, and the endowment of the princes and princesses of the beylical family to £31,200 a year more.
From a native's point of view Tunisia still appears to be governed by the Bey of Tunis, his Arab ministers and his Arab officials, the French only exercising an indirect - though a very real - control over the indigenous population (Mahommedans and Jews).
From 1631 to 1702 the office of Bey was hereditary in the descendants of Mural, a Corsican renegade, and their rivalry with the Deys and internal dissensions kept the country in constant disorder.
The release of all Christian slaves was not effected till after the bombardment of Algiers; and the definite abandonment of piracy may be dated from the presentation to the Bey in 1819 of a collective note of the powers assembled at Aix-la-Chapelle.
The French began to regard the dominions of the Bey as a natural adjunct to Algeria, but after the Crimean War Turkish rights over the regency of Tunis were revived.
After the Franco-German War the embarrassed Bey turned towards Great Britain for advice, and a British protectorate - suggested by the proximity of Malta - was not an impossibility under the remarkable influence of the celebrated Sir Richard Wood, British diplomatic agent at the court of Tunis from 1855 to 1879.
In 1881 a French force crossed the Algerian frontier under pretext of chastising the independent Khmir or Kroumir tribes on the north-east of the regency, and, quickly dropping the mask, advanced on the capital and compelled the Bey to accept the French protectorate.
The French protectorate over Tunisia, based on the treaty signed by the Bey at Bardo on the 12th of May 1881 and confirmed by the treaty of La Marsa (June 8, 1883), was With not recognized by Turkey, which claimed the regency Turkey.
General Gordon, who succeeded Baker, and who had Dr Emin Bey (afterwards Emin Pasha) as lieutenant, attempted through Colonel Charles Chaille Long, in 1874, not only to annex Unyoro but also Buganda to the Egyptian dominions, and thoroughly established Egyptian control on Albert Nyanza.
He brought away with him 8000 Sudanese men, women, children and slaves, under Selim Bey (an Egyptian officer).
Portal and his staff reached Uganda in March, and Williams left soon afterwards with the original troops of the company, leaving Selim Bey and the Sudanese and Portal's large escort in Uganda.
During Macdonald's administration the Sudanese under Selim Bey began to conspire against the British control.
Two months after the same Government had signed away their European provinces, Enver Bey at the head of a Turkish army overran Eastern Thrace and reentered Adrianople almost unopposed.
Under Talaat Bey, the Minister of the Interior, the process was begun in ruthless fashion during the spring of 1915.
Already, tion of in June 1823, the pasha's son-in-law Hussein Bey Mehemet had landed in Crete, and by April of the following All.
At the beginning of the 16th century the native dynasties Constantine, and the bey of the west who resided at Y Mascara and afterwards at Oran.
With the feeble resources at his disposal Clausel undertook an expedition against Bu-Meyrag, the bey of Titeri, took from him Blida and Medea, dismissed him, replaced him by a successor devoted to France, and returned to Algiers after having left a garrison in Medea.
He negotiated directly with the bey of Tunis with a view to installing as beys at Oran and Constantine Tunisian princes who recognized the authority of France.
At the same time the negotiations set on foot with the bey of Tunis were censured by the government, and General Clausel was recalled (February 1831) .
At once firm and conciliatory, he had been able to attach to the French cause the natives whom the cruelty of Ahmed, bey of Constantine, had alienated.
In Tunis "bey" has become the hereditary title of the reigning sovereigns (see Tunisia).
Within the limits of these minor dynasties the same rules were observed, and the same may be said of the hereditary fiefs of Turkish amirs not belonging to the royal family, who bore ordinarily the title of atabeg or atabek (properly "father bey"), e.g.
Mariette was raised successively to the rank of bey and pasha in his own service.
It was taken by the Seljuks, Aidin and Mentesh, late in the 13th century, and about 1390, when ruled by Isa Bey, a descendant of the first-named, acknowledged Ottoman suzerainty.
The Enfida estate was granted by the bey Mahommed-esSadok to his chief minister Khaireddin Pasha in return for the confirmation by the sultan of Turkey in 1871, through the instrumentality of the pasha, of the right of succession to the beylik of members of Es-Sadok's family.
In 1821 Kordofan was conquered by Mahommed Bey the defterdar, son-in-law of Mehemet Ali, pasha of Egypt.
Until the time of the French occupation no Christian was allowed to pass through the gates without a special permit from the bey, whilst Jews were altogether forbidden to approach the holy city.
The task of constructing this great work was committed to Mougel Bey, a French engineer of ability, who designed and constructed the great barrage across the two branches of the Nile at the apex of the delta, about 1 2 m.
Roda Island contains a mosque built by Kait Bey, and at its southern extremity is the Nilometer, by which the Cairenes have for over a thousand years measured the rise of the river.
The mosque of sultan Hasan, below the citadel, those of Muayyad and Kalaun, with the Barkukiya and the mosque of Barkuk in the cemetery of Kait Bey, are instances of the second and more matured style of the period.
Of the last style of this period the Ghuriya and the mosque of Kait Bey in his cemetery are beautiful specimens.
Of the age of decline the finest monument is the mosque of Mahommad Bey Abu-Dahab.
Willmore, The Spoken Arabic of Egypt (2nd ed., London, 1905); Spitta Bey, Grammatik des arabischen Vulgardialektes von Agypten, Conies arabes modernes (Leiden, 1883).
This person, proving incompetent, was deposed by a revolution of the Mamelukes on the 4th of December 1467, when the Atabeg Timurbogha was proclaimed with the title Malik al-Zahir, In a months time, however, there was another palace revolution, and the new Atabeg Kait Bey or Kaietbai (January 3tst, 1468) was proclaimed sultan, the dethroned Timurbogha being, however, permitted to go free whither he pleased.
Owing to this, and also to the fact that an Indian embassy to the Ottoman sultan was intercepted by the agents of Kait Bey, Bayezid II.
In I49I, however, after the Egyptians had repeatedly defeated the Ottoman troops, Kait Bey made proposals of peace which were accepted, the keys of the towns which the Ottomans had seized being restored to the Egyptian sultan.
Kait Bey endeavoured to assist his co-religionists in Spain.
As the consequence of a palace intrigue, which Kait Bey was too old to quell, on the 7th of August 1496, a day before his death, his son Mahommed was proclaimed sultan.
In 1724 this person was assassinated through the machinations of the pasha, and Shirkas Bey, of the opposing faction, elevated to the office of Sheik al-B alad in his place.
After a short time he returned at the head of an army, and some engagements ensued, in the last of which Shirkas Bey met his end by drowning; Dhul-Fiqar was himself assassinated in.
His place was filled by Othman Bey, who had served as his general in this war.
In 1743 Othman Bey, who had governed with wisdom and moderation, was forced to fly from Egypt by the intrigues of two adventurers, Ibrahim and Rilwgn Bey, who, when their scheme had succeeded, began a massacre of beys and others thought to be opposed to them; they then proceeded to govern Egypt jointly, holding the two offices mentioned above in alternate years.
IbrfihIm shortly afterwards fell by the hand of an assassin who had aspired to occupy one of the vacant beyships himself, which was conferred instead on All, who as All Bey was destined to play an important part in the history of Egypt.
He thereby excited the suspicions of the Sheik al-Balad Khalil Bey, who organized an attack upon him in the streets of Cairo, in consequence of which he fled to Upper Egypt.
Here he met one Salib Bey, who had injuries to avenge on Khalil Bey, and the two organized a force with which they returned to Cairo and defeated KhalII, who was forced to fly to Iaifla, where for a time he concealed himself; eventually, however, he was discovered, sent to Alexandria and finally strangled.
Resuming his office he raised eighteen of his friends to the rank of bey, among them Ibrhim and Murd, who were afterwards at the head of affairs, as well as Mahommed Abul-Dhahab, who was closely connected with the rest of All Beys career.
In 1769 a demand came to All Bey for a force of 12,000 men to be employed by the Porte in the Russian war.
The Porte was not able at the time to take active measures for the suppression of All Bey, and the latter endeavoured to consolidate his dominions by sending expeditions against marauding tribes, both in north and south Egypt, reforming the finance, and improving the administration of justice.
An officer named IsmaIl Bey was sent with 8000 to acquire the eastern shore of the Red Sea, and one named Ilasan Bey to occupy Jidda.
Ismail Bey was sent by All Bey with a force of 3000 to check his advance; but at Bastin Ismil with his troops joined AbulDhahab.
He sent one of his officers, All Bey al-Tantawi, to recover the Syrian towns evacuated by Abul-Dhahab, and now in the possession of the Porte.
On the 1st of February 1773 he received information from Cairo that Abul-Dhahab had made himself Sheik al-Balad, and in that capacity was practising unheard-of extortions, which were making Egypt with one voice call for the return of All Bey.
After taking many cities in Palestine Abul-Dhahab died, the cause being unknown; and Murad Bey (another of the deserters at Salihia) brought his forces back to Egypt (26th of May 1775).
Ismll Bey now became Sheik al-B alad, but was soon involved in a dispute with Ibrhim and Murad, who after a time succeeded in driving IsmaIl out of Egypt and establishing a joint rule (as Sheik al-B alad and Amir al-I.Ijj respectively) similar to that which had been tried previously.
Murad Bey attempted to resist, but was easily defeated; and he with Ibrahim decided to fly to Upper Egypt and await the trend of events.
On the 1st of August 1782 the Turkish commander entered Cairo, and, after some violent measures had been taken for the restoration of order, Ismail Bey was again.
In January 1791 a terrible plague began to rage in Cairo and elsewhere in Egypt, to which Ismail Bey and most of his family fell victims. Owing to the need for competent rulers IbrghIm and Murad Bey were sent for from Upper Egypt and resumed their dual government.
After the battle of Ambabah, at which the forces of both Murd Bey and IbrhIm Bey were dispersed, the populace readily plundered the houses of the beys, and a deputation was sent from al-Azhar to Bonaparte to ascertain his intentions; these proved to be a repetition of the terms of his proclamation, and, though the combination of loyalty to the French with loyalty to the sultan was unintelligible, a good understanding was at first established between the invaders and the Egyptians.
Advantage had been taken of this opportunity by Murgd Bey and Ibrghim Bey to collect their forces and attempt a joint attack on.
Murgd Bey sought an.
He died shortly afterwards and was succeeded by Osman Bey al-Bardisi.
They offered an heroic resistance, but were overpowered, and iiome killed, some made prisoners; among the last was Osman Bey al-BardIsI, who was severely wounded.
In March 1803 the British evacuated Alexandria, and Mahommed Bey al-AlfI accompanied them to England to consult respecting the means to be adopted for restoring the former power of the Mamelukes, who meanwhile took Minia and interrupted communication between Upper and Lower Egypt.
Mehemet Ali, then in command of an Albanian regiment, became the head of the former, hut his party was the weaker, and he therefore entered into an alliance with the Mameluke leaders Ibrahim Bey and Osmn Bey al-BardisI.
The death of Ali Pasha produced only temporary tranquillity; in a few days (February 12, 1804) the return of Mahommed Bey al-AlIT (called the Great) from England was the signal for fresh disturbances, which, by splitting the Mamelukes into two parties, accelerated their final overthrow.
His partisans were collected opposite Cairo, and al-AlfI the Less held Giza; but treachery was among them; Husain Bey (a relative of al-Alfi)
Three days later (March 12th, 1804) they beset the house of the aged Ibrahim Bey, and that of al-Bardisi, both of whom effected their escape with difficulty.
Thus was the pasha relieved of his two most formidable enemies; and shortly after he defeated Shahin Bey, with the loss to the latter of his artillery and baggage and 300 men killed or taken prisoners.
On the 1st of March, Shhhin Bey and the other chiefs (one only excepted) repaired with their retinues to the citadel, and were courteously received by the pasha.
One of these is said to have been a bey.
Here the want of provisions forced them to evacuate the place; a few who surrendered were beheaded, and the rest went farther south and built the town of New D,ongola (correctly Dunkulah), where the venerable Ibrahim Bey died in 1816, at the age of eighty.
The cotton grown had been brought from the Sudan by Maho Bey, and the organization of the new industryfrom which in a few years Mehemet Ali was enabled to extract considerable revenueswas entrusted to a Frenchman named Jumel.
Mahommed Bey, the defterdgr, with another force of about the same strength, was then sent by Mehemet Ali against Kordofan with a like result, but not without a hard-fought engagement.
The Nationalists were, too, divided into many warring sectionsMahommed Bey Fend, chosen as successor to Mustafa Kamel, had to contend with the pretensions of several other leaders.
That town was captured, after an obstinate defence, on the 17th of January 1883, by which time almost the whole of the Sudan south of Khartum was in open rebellion, except the Bahr-elGhazal and the Equatorial provinces, where for a time Lupton Bey and Emin Pasha were able to hold their own.
The escape from Omdurman of Father Ohrwalder and of two of the captive nuns in December 1891, of Father Rossignoli in October 1894, and of Siatin Bey in February 1895, revealed the condition of the Sudan to the outside world, threw a vivid light on the rule of the khalif a, and corroborated information already received of the discontent which existed among the tribes with the oppression and despotism under which they lived.
Darfur and Kordofan.On the outbreak of the mahdis rebellion Slatin Bey was governor of the province, and when Madibbo, the insurgent sheikh of Rizighat, attacked and occupied Shakka and was following up his success, Slatin twice severely defeated him, and, having concentrated his forces at El Fasher, repulsed the enemy again at Om Shanga.
In January 1884 Zogal, the new dervish amir of the province, attacked El Fasher, where Said Bey Guma and an Egyptian garrison 1000 strong with 10 guns was still holding out, and captured it.
Equatoria.In the Equatorial Province, which extended from the Albert Nyanza to Lado, Emin Bey, who had a force of 1300 Egyptian troops and 3000 irregulars, distributed aniong many stations, held out, hoping for reinforcdments.
They did not, however, follow up their victory, and under the leadership of Fadl-el-Maula Bey remained al?out Wadelai, while the dervishes strengthened their post at Rejaf.
In 1893 FadI-el-Maula Bey and, many of his men took service with Baert of the Congo State expedition.
The bey was killed fighting the dervishes at Wandi in January 1894, and the remnant of his men eventually were found by Captain Thruston from Uganda on the 23rd of March 1894 at Mahagi, on the Albert Nyanza, whither they had drifted from Wadelai in search of supplies.
He was one of the Toske tribe, and his ancestors had for some time held the hereditary office of bey of Tepeleni.
The occasion came in 1820 when Ali, emboldened by impunity, violated the sanctity of Stamboul itself by attempting to procure the murder of his enemy Pacho Bey in the very precincts of the palace.
See Keratry, Mourad V., prince, sultan, prisonnier d'etat 1840-1876 (Paris, 1878); Djemaleddin Bey, Sultan Murad V., the Turkish Dynasty Mystery, 1876-1895 (London, 1895).
Edhem Bey (1904), and by chance discoveries, fine-art products have come to light on the site.
He had, however, incurred punishment for refusing to obey a command of his master, Mahommed Bey.
After five years Mahommed Bey died and el-Jazzar returned to Egypt.
The palace, built by Ahmed Pasha, the last bey of Constantine, between 1830 and 1836, is one of the finest specimens of Moorish architecture of the 19th century.
The fine mosque of Sidi-el-Kattani (or Salah Bey) dates from the close of the 18th century; that of Suk-er-Rezel, now transformed into a cathedral, and called Notre-Dame des Sept Douleurs, was built about a century earlier.
Frequently taken and retaken by the Turks, Constantine finally became under their dominion the seat of a bey, subordinate to the dey of Algiers.
To Salah Bey, who ruled from 1770 to 1792, we owe most of the existing Moslem buildings.
On the 21st of June his envoy, Sami Bey, actually arrived at Constantinople, ostensibly to congratulate the sultan on the birth of a daughter, really to make use of the French influence now supreme at the Porte in order to effect a settlement.
The town was ruled by a semiindependent Kurdish bey as late as 1836.
The bey of Mascara watched his opportunity, and at length, in 1708, the weakness of Spain and the treason of the count of Vera Cruz obliged the city to capitulate.
By prodigies of energy the Spanish commander held out till August 1791, when the Spanish government having made terms with the bey of Algiers, he was allowed to set sail for Spain with his guns and ammunition.
The bey Mahommed took possession of Oran in March 1792, and made it his residence instead of Mascara.
On the fall of Algiers the bey (Hassan) placed himself under the protection of the conquerors, and shortly afterwards removed to the Levant.
On the death of the Shah Rukh in 1446 he was succeeded by his son Ulugh Bey, whose scientific tastes are demonstrated in the astronomical tables bearing his name, quoted by European writers when determining the latitude of places in Persia.
Ulugh Bey was put to death by his son Abd ul-Latif, who, six months later, was slain by his own soldiers.
Zenos account is that a son named Allamur (called also, Alamut, Alvante, El-wand and Aiwung Bey) was the next king, who, Anaithy besides, Persia, possessed Diarbekr and part of greater Armenia near the Euphrates.
Zeno, the anonymous merchant and Angiolello affirm that the devotee was defeated and killed in battlethe first making his conqueror to be Alamut, the second a general of Alamuts, and the third an officer sent by Rustam named Suleiman Bey.
He was despatched by Salah Bey, captain of his guards (1747).
The town contains a summer palace of the bey, the old seraglio, arsenal and customhouse, and many villas, gardens and pleasure resorts, Goletta being a favourite place for sea-bathing.
The bey has a palace here, and the French resident-general, the British consul, other officials, and many Tunisians have country-houses, surrounded by groves of olive trees.
I, with various tactical incidents, of which the most important was a successful night-attack of the Bulgarians at Turk Bey, the Turks disengaged themselves, beginning from the left, and by the 2nd the three corps on the right were also in retreat.
On a knoll above is a ruined fortress formerly occupied by a Kurdish Bey.
He succeeded, on the 25th of September 1829, in forcing the Turkish commander Aslan Bey to sign a capitulation at the Pass of Petra, which ended the active operations of the war.
In 1803 he quarrelled with the Bey, was ordered from the country, and returned to the United States to urge American intervention for the restoration of Ahmet Karamanli to the throne of Tripoli, arguing that this would impress the Barbary States with the power of the United States.
The finest Greek examples are those found at Sidon in 1887 by Hamdy Bey, which are now in the Imperial Museum at Constantinople (see Greek Art).
On his death, however, the brief period of comparative prosperity which his architectural works attest was tragically interrupted, and it seemed for a time that Walachia was doomed to Turkish sink into a Turkish pashalic. The Turkish commander, Mahmud Bey, became treacherously possessed of Neagoe's young son and successor, and, sending him a prisoner to Stambul, proceeded to nominate Turkish governors in the towns and villages of Walachia.
The Walachians resisted desperately, elected Radu, a kinsman of Neagoe, voivode, and succeeded with Hungarian help in defeating Mahmud Bey at Grumatz in 1522.
The prosperity of Walachia, however, under its " Golden Bey," as Brancovan was known at Stambul, only increased the Turkish exactions; and, although all demands were punctually met, the sultan finally resolved on the removal of his too prosperous vassal.
The Travels of Aly Bey (Badia, London, 1816) describe a visit in 1807; Burton's Pilgrimage (3rd ed., 1879) often supplements Burckhardt; Von Maltzan's Wallfahrt nach Mekka (1865) is lively but very slight.
There were at the time several descendants of the Badr Khan Bey and Baban families in exile in Constantinople, and from these certain members were given considerable Government posts in the capital and in Syria and Anatolia.
When in 1908 the Turkish Revolution occurred, resulting in the deposition of the Sultan and the victory of Enver Bey's Young Turk party, Kurdistan remained generally loyal to the old regime, and Ibrahim Pasha Milli and Sheikh Said of Sulaimani both declared themselves loyalists.
About this time Russia began to formulate a policy to encourage the Kurdish national movement, for she hoped to use Kurdistan as a counterpoise to Armenia, and when in 1916 Russian forces were in possession of Erzerum and Bitlis, members of the Badr Khan Bey family were appointed as provincial governors in pursuance of the policy.
The Munich collection was presented to the king of Bavaria by Clot Bey, the chief physician in the Egyptian army during its occupation of Syria; and for a number of the other manuscripts we are indebted to the elder Niebuhr.
The growth of the imperial museum of antiquities, under the direction of Hamdy Bey, within the grounds of the Seraglio, has been remarkable; and while the collection of the sarcophagi discovered at Sidon constitutes the chief treasure of the museum, the institution has become a rich storehouse of many other valuable relics of the past.
In the 14th century this region belonged to the Lithuanians, and in 1396 Olgerd, prince of Lithuania, defeated in battle three Tatar chiefs, one of whom, Khaji Beg or Bey, had recently founded, at the place now occupied by Odessa, a fort which received his name.
The average obtained by Pruner Bey was 84.7, by Virchow 82.5.
This army was commanded by Mahommed Bey, the Defterdar, son-in-law of Mehemet Ali.
At this time the high European officials in the Sudan, besides Gessi, included Emin Pasha - then a bey only - governor of the Equatorial Province since 1878, and Slatin Pasha - then also a bey - governor of Darfur.
Gessi, who had most successfully governed his province, found his position under Raouf intolerable, resigned his post in September 1880 and was succeeded by Frank Lupton, an Englishman, and formerly captain of a Red Sea merchant steamer, who was given the rank of bey.
In April following Lupton Bey, governor of Bahr-el-Ghazal, whose troops and officials had embraced the Mandist cause, surrendered and was sent captive to Omdurman, where he died on the 8th of May 1888.
In 1834 the independent power of the Kurds in Armenia was greatly curtailed; and risings under Bedr Khan Bey in 1843, and Sheik Obeidullah in 1880, were firmly suppressed.
Ten per cent of the value of the prizes was paid to the treasury of the pasha or his successors, who bore the titles of Agha or Dey or Bey.
In 1832 Mehemet Ali gave him the dignity of bey without requiring him to abjure his religion; and in 1836 he received the rank of general, and was appointed head of the medical administration of the country.
Soon after the events of April, Talaat Bey, destined to fame as a sinister figure largely responsible for the downfall of the Ottoman Empire, became Minister of the Interior as one of the Committee's nominees in the Government.
When a mosque is also the founder's tomb, it has a richly ornamented sepulchral chamber always covered by a dome (see further Mosque, which contains plans of the mosques of Amr and sultan Hasan, and of the tomb mosque of Kait Bey).
A horseman was seen to leave his tent one night at full gallop; he was the bearer of a letter to Osmgn Bey Hasan, the governor of Kine.
One bey and two others paid their ransom and were released; the rest, without exception, were tortured and put to death in the course of the ensuing night.
Famine and sickness had begun to aggravate the situation when the bey of Mascara appeared before the town with 30,000 men.
The lower town was rebuilt, and in the 17th and 18th centuries became a chief seat of the great Dere Bey family of Kara Osman Oglu (see Manisa), which did not resign it to direct Ottoman control until about 1825.
He courageously aided the escape of Youssouff, pursued by the soldiers of the bey, of whom he was one of the officers, for violation of the seraglio law.
The Begova Djamia (Djamia), or mosque of Husref Bey, is only surpassed, among European mosques, by those of Adrianople and Constantinople.
Though Yahsha Bey, grandson of Mahommed Karaman Oghlu, had declared himself the successor of the Seljukian sultans, the princes of Aidin, Sarukhan, Menteshe, Kermian, Hamid, Tekke and Karassi declined to recognize his authority, and considered themselves independent, each in his own dominions.
The principal educational establishments, besides that of the mosque of the Olive Tree, are the Sadiki College, founded in 1875, for free instruction in Arabic and European subjects, the Lycee Carnot in the Avenue de Paris, formerly the College of St Charles (founded by Cardinal Lavigerie), open to Christians and Moslems alike, and the normal school, founded in 1884 by the reigning bey, for the training of teachers in the French language and European ideas.
The war, hopeless from the first, continued for another six months, marked only by unavailing efforts in Tripoli by Enver Bey - the well-known member of the Committee of Union and Progress - at the head of Arab irregulars.