The plains inland from Berbera, and the maritime margins between the coast and foot of the plateau, consist of limestones of Lower Oolitic age with Belemnites subhastatus.
the expedition was attacked by Somali near Berbera, both Bur-, ton and Speke being wounded, and another officer, Lieut.
The occupation of Berbera by the Egyptians in 1875 was, however, followed by several journeys into the interior.
Lort-Phillips - penetrated from Berbera as far as the Webi-Shebeli, and returned in safety.
In the following year he went from Mukdishu to Obbia, and thence crossed through Ogaden to Berbera on.
In the same year Prince Eugenio Ruspoli made a journey southwards from Berbera, while two other Italians penetrated to Imi on the upper Shebeli, which place was.
Cavendish (1896-1897) followed somewhat in Donaldson Smith's steps, and the last named traveller again crossed Somaliland in his journey from Berbera via Lake Rudolf to the Upper Nile (1899-Igoo).
South of Berbera are two ranges nearly parallel with the coast.
Westward of Berbera the ascent to the high country is not so abrupt as in the east but is made by several steps, the mountains forming a chaotic mass.
The average annual rainfall at Berbera is about 8 in., and more than half of this amount has fallen in one day.
- Berbera (q.v.) is the capital and chief seaport of the protectorate.
west of Berbera is the exposed port of Bulhar.
East of Berbera are Las Korai, Karam, Hais and other small seaports.
Sheikh, Burao and Bohotle are all on the caravan route from Ogaden to Berbera.
The important exports are gums and resin, fibre, hides, ivory, ostrich feathers, coffee, ghee, livestock, gold ingots from Abyssinia and mother-of-pearl; the shells being found along the coast from Zaila to beyond Berbera.
From this time onward the Indian government exercised considerable influence on the Somali coast, but British authority was not definitely established, and in 18J4 Richard Burton's expedition was attacked at Berbera.
In1874-1875the ambition of Ismail Pasha, khedive of Egypt, who claimed jurisdiction over the whole coast as far as Cape Guardafui, led him to occupy the ports of Tajura, Berbera and Bulhar as well as Harrar in the hinterland.
Thereupon Great Britain, partly to secure the route to the East via the Suez Canal, which the occupation of the country by another power might menace, occupied Zaila, Berbera and Bulhar, officials being sent from Aden to govern the ports.
south and east of Berbera, and declared himself the mandi.
Colonel Swayne was not able to continue the pursuit, and returned to Berbera.
(The proposal to build a railway from Zaila or Berbera to Harrar, which would have competed with the French line from Jibuti for the trade of southern Abyssinia, had been vetoed on grounds of general policy.) Before the withdrawal arrangements - more or less ineffective - were made for arming and organizing the tribes in the protectorate in their own defence.
BERBERA, chief town and principal port of the British Somaliland protectorate, North-East Africa, 155 m.
Berbera stands at the head of a deep inlet which forms the only completely sheltered haven on the south side of the Gulf of Aden.
The trade is almost entirely with Aden, of which Berbera may be considered a commercial dependency.
Berbera is said to have been founded by the Ptolemies among the Barbari of the adjacent coast lands.
- Abyssinia being without seaports, the external trade is through Massawa (Italian) in the north, Jibuti (French), Zaila and Berbera (British) in the south, and for all these ports Aden is a distributing centre.
Ismail subsequently (1870-1875) extended his sway over the whole coast from Suez to Cape Guardafui and garrisoned the towns of Berbera, Zaila, &c., while in 1874 the important town of Harrar, the entrepot for southern Abyssinia, was seized by Egyptian troops.
Thence, packed in sheepand goat-skins, in quantities of 20 to 40 lb, it is carried on camels to Berbera, for shipment either to Aden, Makalla and other Arabian ports, or directly to Bombay.'
In 1892 Captain Vittorio Bottego and a companion left Berbera and made their way past Imi to the upper Juba, which Bottego explored to its source, both travellers finally making their way via Lugh to the east coast.
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