Belt Sentence Examples
She tugged on the belt of his robe.
The Norfolk and Portsmouth Belt Line encircles the two cities, and connects the various trunk lines.
He nodded, pointing to his belt buckle.
He unfastened the belt around her waist and flung it into the darkness.
He waited while she buckled her seat belt and stashed her things.Advertisement
It was a good thing he was wearing that big belt buckle.
From these streets others strike at right angles down to the harbour, while others again lead obliquely up towards the Belt, beyond which are extensive suburbs.
The coastal belt of Australia is everywhere well watered, with the exception of the country around the Great Australian Bight and Spencer Gulf.
Yet this narrow belt of water is the boundary line between the Australasian and the Indian regions.
She only made it a few steps away from him when she felt a tug on her back belt loop.Advertisement
She darted after Arnie and snatched his belt.
He ripped the clothing from her, then sliced through her belt, shoving her over the stack of trunks.
She shoved one blade into her belt and stripped the knives off the dead men, putting them in her cargo pockets.
Xander tied the necklace around his belt and stood.
Xander dropped his feet from the other chair and hauled her in front of him, then yanked her belt to bring her into his lap.Advertisement
But it is notable that all recent volcanic action was confined to a wide belt parallel to the coast.
From the western end of the Yablonoi range, on the 115th meridian, a mountainous belt extends along a somewhat irregular line to the extremity of Pamir, known under various names Mongolia.
Along the eastern border of this delta, and southward of it, along the Mississippi itself, extends a belt of hills or bluffs (sometimes called "cane-hills"), which is cut by deep ravines and, though very narrow in the north, has in the south an average width of about to m.
East of the belt are level or gently rolling prairies, and along the Gulf Coast is a low, marshy tract.
The portion of Asia which lies between the Arctic Ocean and the mountainous belt bounding Manchuria, Mongolia and Turkestan Siberia.Advertisement
It thus places a broad width of independent territory between the boundaries of British India (which have remained practically, though not absolutely, untouched) and Afghanistan; and this independent belt includes Swat, Bajour and a part of the Nlohmand territory north of the Kabul river.
North of this lies a broad belt in which the Mesozoic deposits and even the lower divisions of the Tertiary system are thrown into folds which extend in a series of arcs from west to east and now form the principal mountain ranges of central Asia.
The Kuen-lun, Nan-shan and the mountain ranges of southern China are, perhaps, of earlier date, but nevertheless they lie in the same belt.
North of the folded belt, and including Emery the greater part of Siberia, Mongolia and northern China, lies another area which is, in general, free from any important folding of Mesozoic or Tertiary age.
Besides the three chief regions into which the mainland is thus seen to be divided, attention should be drawn to the festoons of islands which border the eastern side of the continent, and which are undoubtedly due to causes similar to those which produced the folds of the folded belt.Advertisement
Overlooking all smaller details, we may consider Asia to consist of a northern mass and a southern mass, too rigid to crumple, but not too strong to fracture, and an intermediate belt of softer rock which was capable of folding.
The belt of folding does not precisely coincide with this central sea, but the correspondence is fairly close.
Between India and China there is a broad belt in which marine deposits of Mesozoic and Tertiary age are well developed.
In the southern region of unfolded beds are found the lavas of the " harras " of Arabia, and in India the extensive flows of the Deccan Trap. In the central folded belt lie the great volcanoes, now mostly extinct, of Asia Minor, Armenia, Persia and Baluchistan.
This belt, which embraces Asia Minor, northern Persia, Afghanistan, and the southern slopes of the Himalaya, from its elevation has a temperate climate, and throughout it the rainfall is sufficient to maintain a vigorous vegetation, while the summers, though hot, and the winters, though severe, are not extreme.
North of the lower course of the Maumee river is a belt of sand, but Ohio drift generally contains a large mixture of clay.
One of Philip's ideals was the curbing of colonial "aggression" by the creation of a belt of native states around Cape Colony.
During June and the first fortnight in July plenty of sunshine is necessary, accompanied by sufficient rain to promote healthy, but not excessive, growth; the normal rainfall in the cotton belt for this period is about 42 in.
The exhaustion of the soil under cotton culture is chiefly due to the loss of humus, and nature soon puts this back in the excellent climate of the cotton-growing belt.
In the cotton belt of the United States it would be possible to put a still greater acreage under this crop, but the tendency is rather towards what is known as " diversified " or mixed farming than to making cotton the sole important crop. Cotton, however, is in increasing demand, and the problem for the American cotton planter is to obtain a better yield of cotton from the same area, - by " better yield " meaning an increase not only in quantity but also in quality of lint.
The profits obtained from ground-nuts (Arachis hypogea) in Gambia, gold mining in the Gold Coast, and from products of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) in the palm-oil belt serve to prevent much attention being given to cotton in these districts.
The engine, which is provided with reversing gear, is of 12 or 15 horse-power and motion is communicated through a belt to the band-wheel, which operates the walking-beam by means of a crank.
Thus, although Alexius had been able, in the wake of the crusading armies, to recover a large belt of land round the whole coast of Asia Minor, - the interior remaining subject to the sultans of Konia (Iconium) and the princes of Sivas, - he left the territories to the east of the western boundary of Cilicia in the hands of the Latins when he died in 1118.
Geologically, Syria belongs to two distinct regions of the earth's crust, the northern and smaller portion lying within the great belt of folding of southern Europe and central Asia, and the southern and larger portion belonging to the Indo-African area, which, though often faulted, is usually free from crumpling.
Little is known of the part of Syria which lies within the folded belt, and includes the Amanus and Kurd mountains.
The principal minerals are rock phosphate and (recently more important) land and river pebble phosphate, found in scattered deposits in a belt on the " west coast " about 30 m.
As is shown by its name the province is situated in the centre of the Indian peninsula, comprising a large proportion of the broad belt of hill and plateau country which separates the plains of Hindustan from the Deccan.
To the north, west and south, a flat coastal belt, bordering the Irish Sea, with its inlets Morecambe Bay and Solway Firth, and broadest in the north, marks off the Lake District, while to the east the valleys of the Eden and the Lune divide it from the Pennine mountain system.
Old Red Sandstone, red grits, sandstones and marls and conglomerate occur in a narrow belt on the east side of Mainland from Sumburgh Head to Rova Head, north of Lerwick; they also form the island of Bressay.
In Unst the high ground on the west coast consists of gneiss, which is followed eastward by schists of various kinds, then by a belt of serpentine, 2 m.
Each of the larger streams, as well as a large proportion of the smaller ones, is accompanied by a belt of bottom land, of greater or less width, lying low as regards the stream, and liable to overflow at times of high water.
These flood plains form collectively what is known as the alluvial region, which extends in a broad belt down the Mississippi, from the mouth of the Ohio to the Gulf of Mexico, and up the Ouachita and its branches and the Red river to and beyond the limits of the state.
The eastern pine belt is composed of the long-leaf pine, interspersed with some loblolly.
Near the coast runs a continuous belt of plantations, while grazing, tobacco and general farm lands cover the lower slopes of the hills, and virgin forests much of the uplands and mountains.
This lowlying fertile belt stretches along the river for about 300 m., but is not more than a mile or two wide.
Below the mountain crests, where only the hardiest lichens and mosses can survive, comes a belt of large timber, including many giant trees, 200 ft.
In the northern part of the state the great pine belt stretches from the head of Lake Superior westward to the confines of the Red River Valley, while along the north border and in the north-east the forest growth is almost exclusively tamarack and dwarf pine.
The towns of the Red River Valley, which are nearer to the great wheat belt, give promise of developing into great flouring cities.
Outside of these alpine regions comes a broad belt of elevated plains, ranging between 1200 and 1700 ft.
In the region between Viluisk (on the Vilui) and Yeniseisk a broad belt of alpine tracts, reaching their greatest elevation in the northern Yeniseisk taiga (between the Upper Tunguzka and the Podkamennaya Tunguzka) and continued to the south-west in lower upheavals, separates the elevated plains from the lowlands which extend towards the Arctic Ocean.
In West Siberia these high plains seem to form a narrower belt towards Barnaul and Semipalatinsk, and are bordered by the Aral-Caspian depression.
Farther to the north-west, beyond these high plains, comes a broad belt of lowlands.
Two such folds maybe distinguished, corresponding on a smaller scale to the belt of alpine tracts which fringe the plateau on the north-west.
The resemblance is further sustained by a broad belt of elevated plains, 'ranging from 1200 to 1700 ft., which s The upper Bukhtarma valley in the Sailughem range of the Altai system appears to belong to the same type.
It is thus used as the name of a surgical appliance, a belt with an elastic spring keeping in place a pad used as a support in cases of hernia.
The leased area comprises, besides the harbour and island, a belt of the mainland, io English miles wide, skirting the whole length of the bay.
The Cevennes proper are formed by a folded belt of Palaeozoic rocks which lies along the south-east border of the central plateau of France.
The principal folding took place at the close of the Carboniferous period, and was contemporaneous with that of the old Hercynian chain of Belgium, &c. The Permian and later beds lie unconformably upon the denuded folds, and in the space between the Montagne Noire and the Cevennes proper the folded belt is buried beneath the horizontal Jurassic strata of the Causses.
This became universally adopted and developed into the three-mile belt (see Territorial Waters).
This range forms the true backbone of the maritime mountainous belt and rises from the plateau itself, while the Coast Range rises on its eastern margin and forms a rim to the plateau.
It has, indeed, been subject to oscillations, but the movements have been regional in character and have not been accompanied by the formation of any mountain chain or any belt of intense folding.
It lies in the north-east trade winds belt, but the mountain chain on its northern frontier robs these winds of their moisture and leaves the greater part of the Brazilian plateau rainless.
South of the Amazon valley and filling a great part of the eastern projection of the continent, is another arid, semi-barren plateau, lying within the southeast trade winds belt, and extending from Piauhy southward to southern Bahia.
The south-eastern sides of the mountains are in part covered with heavy timber, while the semi-tropical luxuriance of the coast belt has earned for Natal the title of " the garden colony."
Its banks in its upper course are wild and picturesque, with occasional wide deep valleys, with climate and vegetation resembling the coast belt.
The valleys and coast belt, though practically free from malarial fever, are hot and humid, and fires in dwelling houses are seldom required even in the coolest months; the lower plateaus are cool and the air dry; the uplands are bracing and often very cold, with snow on the ground in winter.
The trees and plants characteristic of each zone are not always confined to that zone, but in several instances, when common to the coast belt and the midlands, their character alters according to the elevation of the land.
The dense bush or jungle of evergreen trees, climbers and flowering shrub, which up to the middle of the 19th century covered the greater part of the coast belt, has largely disappeared.
There are still, however, in the coast belt woods of leguminous evergreens bearing bright-coloured flowers.
A grass belt separates the thorn bush from the districts carrying heavy timber, found mainly in the upland zone, along the sides of the mountains exposed to the rains and in kloofs.
Most of the tea estates are situated in the coast belt north of Durban.
The skirts were held in place by a thick rolled belt, and the upper part of the body remained quite nude in the earliest times; but from the middle Minoan period onward we often find an important addition in the shape of a low-cut bodice, which sometimes has sleeves, either tight-fitting or puffed, and ultimately develops into a laced corsage.
Valley gravel borders the Thames, with some interruptions, from Kingston to Greenwich, and extends to a wide belt, with ramifications, from Wandsworth south to Croydon, and in a narrower line from Greenwich towards Bromley.
The climate of the coast belt is semi-tropical and malaria is prevalent; that of the highlands temperate.
A railway, completed in 1904, which begins at Durban and crosses into Zululand by a bridge over the Tugela near the Lower Drift, runs along the coast belt over nearly level country to the St Lucia coal-fields in Hlabisa magistracy-167 m.
Sugar, tea and coffee are grown in the coast belt by whites.
The 1st division, under major-general Crealock, advanced along the coast belt and was destined to act as a support to the 2nd division, under major-general Newdigate, which with Wood's flying column, an independent unit, was to march on Ulundi from Rorke's Drift and Kambula.
The copper-bearing belt is about 250 m.
North of the plateau rises a well-watered and undulating belt of country, into which run low ranges of limestone hills, sometimes arid, sometimes covered with dwarf-oak, and often shutting in, between their northern and north-eastern flank and the main mountain-line from which they detach themselves, rich plains and fertile valleys.
It formerly abounded in sandalwood, and consists of a central plateau surrounded by a belt of cultivation.
The western escarpment of the plateau rises steeply from the Red Sea littoral to a height of from 4000 to 8000 ft., leaving a narrow belt of lowland rarely exceeding 30 m.
Dawasir, it runs eastward till it disappears in the belt of sandy desert 100 m.
Roudaire proposed to cut a canal through the belt of high ground between Gabes and the shats, and fixed on Wad Melah, a spot To m.
In a less marked way this fertile coast region is continued southwards in an ever-narrowing belt to the Tripolitan frontier.
The wild olive, the wild cherry, two species of wild plums, the myrtle, the ivy, arbutus, and two species of holly are found in the mountains of Khmiria, at various sites at high elevation near Tunis and Bizerta, and along the mountainous belt of the south-west which forms the frontier region between Tunisia and Algeria.
The Maritime Cordillera of Peru has no connexion with the coast ranges of Chile, but is a continuation of the Cordillera Occidental of Chile, which under various local names forms the eastern margin of the coastal desert belt from Atacama northward into Peru.
Farther north, in the department of Ancachs, the Mesozoic belt is composed chiefly of sandstones and shales, and the limestones which form so prominent a feature above Lirna seem to have disappeared.
The southern half of the province, that portion south of the Yangtsze Kiang, forms part of the Nan-shan, or hilly belt of the south-eastern provinces, and produces, besides cotton, coal and iron ore, large quantities of green tea.
It will be observed that all the highest mountains of Japan form a species of belt across the widest part of the main island, beginning on the west with the Alps of Etchiu, Hida and Shinano, and ending on the east with Fuji-yama.
In all the regions of the main island southward of this belt the only mountains of conspicuous altitude are Omine (6169 ft.) and Odai-gaharazan (5540 ft.) in Yamato and Daisen or Oyama (5951 ft.) in HOki.
It was separated from the sea by a belt of marsh and fen uniting Friesland and North Holland, the original coast-line being still indicated by the line of the Frisian Islands.
Then a belt of imperial territory stretching from Rimini on the Adriatic, S.W.
At the end of the 6th century the exarchate included Istria; the maritime part of Venetia as distinct from the interior which was in the hands of the Lombard kings at Pavia; the exarchate proper, or territory around Ravenna on the eastern side of the Apennines, to which was added Calabria, which at that period meant the heel and not the toe of the boot; the Pentapolis, or coast from Rimini to Ancona with the interior as far as the mountains; the duchy of Rome, or belt of territory connecting the Pentapolis with the western coast, the coast of Naples, w i th Bruttium the toe of the boot, the modern Calabria, and Liguria, or the Riviera of Genoa.
There are belt conveyers for discharging the gravel and tailings at the end of the vessel remote from the buckets.
Pursuing his irresistible march, Charles X., with his eyes fixed steadily on Copenhagen, resolved to cross the frozen Great Belt also.
Thus the connecting belt of water is narrow as compared with the extent of the oceans from north to south - Drake Strait south of South America is barely 400 m.
In the north tropical belt of high pressure south of the Azores the atmospheric pressure in January is o 87 in.
In each of the three oceans there are two maxima of salinity-one in the north, the other in the south tropical belt, separated by a zone of minimum salinity in the equatorial region, and giving place poleward to regions of still lower salinity.
The comparatively fresh equatorial belt of water, has a salinity of 35.
The belt of equatorial minimum salinity corresponds with the excessively rainy belt of calms and of the equatorial countercurrent, the salinity diminishing towards the east.
When a belt, in which the maximum and minimum tensions are respectively P and p lb, drives a pulley, the torque exerted FIG.
P and p may be measured directly by leading the belt round two freely hanging guide pulleys, one in the tight, the other in the slack part of the belt, and adjusting loads on them until a stable condition of running is obtained.
H is a pulley to guide the approaching and receding parts of the belt to and from the beam in parallel directions.
In a belt dynamometer built for the Franklin Institute from the designs of Tatham, the weighing levers are separate and arranged horizontally at the top of the apparatus.
The arboreal flora of Louisiana and Arkansas extends into north-eastern Texas, conformable with the Coastal Plain, where, immediately south of the Colorado river, the great pine belt of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts terminates.
The eastern part of the Prairie Plains is a belt known as the Black Prairie, and it has a rich black soil derived from Upper Cretaceous limestone; immediately west of this is another belt with a thinner soil derived from Lower Cretaceous rocks; a southern part of the same plains has a soil derived from granite; in a large area in the north-west the plains have a reddish clay soil derived from Permian rocks and a variety of soils - good black soils and inferior sandy and clay soils - derived from Carboniferous rocks.
The crop of Indian corn is especially large in a belt of counties beginning near the north-eastern corner of the state and extending in a south-westerly direction.
The present climate is not favourable to permanent vegetation; the island lies within the belt of rain at all seasons of the year, and is reached by no drying winds; its temperature is kept ddwn by the surrounding vast expanse of sea, and it lies within the line of the cold Antarctic drift.
The buckwheat belt extends S.W.
Medina sandstones occur throughout a belt averaging about 10 m.
The Cretaceous system includes the Waipara series, a belt of chalky limestones with some phosphate beds at Clarendon in eastern Otago.
On the northern confines of the great forest belt live races of cannibals, whose existence was first made known by Captain d'0110ne in 1899.
Gold was also found later in Lawrence county north of Custer, and the Homestake Belt in the former county has ever since been the chief producer in the state.
The Appalachian belt includes, with the ranges enumerated above, the plateaus sloping southward to the Atlantic Ocean in New England, and south-eastward to the border of the coastal plain through the central and southern Atlantic states; and on the north-west, the Allegheny and Cumberland plateaus declining toward the Great Lakes and the interior plains.
A remarkable feature of the belt is the longitudinal chain of broad valleys - the Great Appalachian Valley - which, in the southerly sections divides the mountain system into two subequal portions, but in the northernmost lies west of all the ranges possessing typical Appalachian features, and separates them from the Adirondack group. The mountain system has no axis of dominating altitudes, but in every portion the summits rise to rather uniform heights, and, especially in the central section, the various ridges and intermontane valleys have the same trend as the system itself.
The main watershed follows a tortuous course which crosses the mountainous belt just north of New river in Virginia; south of this the rivers head in the Blue Ridge, cross the higher Unakas, receive important tributaries from the Great Valley, and traversing the Cumberland Plateau in spreading gorges, escape by way of the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers to the Ohio and Mississippi, and thus to the Gulf of Mexico; in the central section the rivers, rising in or beyond the Valley Ridges, flow through great gorges (water gaps) to the Great Valley, and by southeasterly courses across the Blue Ridge to tidal estuaries penetrating the coastal plain; in the northern section the water-parting lies on the inland side of the mountainous belt, the main lines of drainage running from north to south.
The crystallines are confined to the portion of the belt east of the Great Valley where Paleozoic rocks are always highly metamorphosed and occur for the most part in limited patches, excepting in New England and Canada, where they assume greater areal importance, and are besides very generally intruded by granites.
Produced by long-continued subaerial decay and erosion, in later Cretaceous times this lowland extended from the Atlantic Ocean well toward the interior of North America; since then the whole continent has been generally elevated, and by successive steps the Appalachian belt has been raised to form a wide but relatively low arch.
Of the zodiac in its true sense of a partitioned belt of the sphere there was no aboriginal knowledge on the American continent.
Along the northern margin lies the intensely folded belt which constitutes the coalfield of Namur, and, beneath the overlying Mesozoic beds, is continued to the Boulonnais, Dover and beyond.
The southern boundary of this belt is formed by a great thrust-plane, the faille du midi, along which the Devonian beds of the south have been thrust over the carboniferous beds of the coalfield.
The coastal plain comprises a sandy, unproductive belt immediately on the coast, back of which is a more fertile tertiary plain, well suited, near the higher country, to the production of sugar and cotton.
This has been from of old the chief product of the province, and the belt in which it occurs extends through the whole district from south-west to north-east.
Crossing the state along the lower edge of the Fall Line is a belt heavy with clay, but so impervious to water as to be of little value for agricultural purposes.
Skirmishes at Macon and Milledgeville alone varied the daily routine of railway-breaking and supply-finding, in which a belt of country 60 m.
In the South Pacific the northwest monsoon of Australia affects a belt running east of New Guinea to the Solomon Islands.
The trade-winds are generally weaker and less persistent in the Pacific than in the Atlantic, and the intervening belt of equatorial calms is broader.
The characteristic feature of the south-western Pacific is therefore the relatively low pressure and the existence of a true monsoon region in the middle of the tradewind belt.
Beyond the tropical high-pressure belt, the winds of the North Pacific are under the control of an area of low pressure, which, however, attains neither the size nor the intensity of the " Iceland " depression in the north Atlantic. The result is that north-westerly winds, which in winter are exceedingly dry and cold, blow over the western or Asiatic area; westerly winds prevail in the centre, and south-westerly and southerly winds off the American coast.
In the southern hemisphere there is a transition to the low-pressure belt encircling the Southern Ocean, in which westerly and north-westerly winds continue all the year round.
It may be added that this belt narrows greatly towards the east, mainly from the south, in sympathy with the northward flow of cold water off the coast of South America.
The narrow mountain belt is part of the western edge of the Appalachian Mountain Province in which parallel ridges of folded mountains, the Cumberland and the Pine, have crests2000-3000ft.
This plateau belt is exceedingly rugged with sharp ridges alternating with narrow valleys which have steep sides but are seldom more than 150o ft.
The Sierra Madre Occidental consists of several parallel ranges in the north, where a broad belt of country is covered with a labyrinth of ridges and valleys.
The lowland or tierra caliente region, which lies between the sierras and coast on both sides of Mexico, consists of a sandy zone of varying width along the shore-line, which is practically a tidewater plain broken by inland channels and lagoons, and a higher belt of land rising to an elevation of about 3000 ft.
The coast is low and extremely arid, and would be uninhabitable were it not for the proximity of the Sierra Madre, where a light rainfall is experienced, and for the numerous rivers that cross the arid belt between the mountains and the sea.
On the Pacific coast the belt of calms, known as the northern horse latitudes, crosses the northern parts of Lower California and Sonora, which accounts for their extreme aridity.
Sea-fowl are most numerous on the coasts of Lower California, where certain islands in the arid belt are frequented at night by countless numbers of them.
Lying between these two regions is the subtropical belt where coffee of an excellent quality is produced, and where cotton is cultivated.
The Tigris may have swept the western wall, though now a wide belt of sand has accumulated between the ruins and its present channel which is perpetually shifting.
In winter of a nearly uniform ash-grey above and white beneath, in summer the feathers of the back are black, with deep rust-coloured edges, and a broad black belt occupies the breast.
The area of the United States, as here considered, exclusive of Alaska and outlying possessions, occupies a belt nearly twenty degrees of middle latitude in width, and crosses Boundaries sad Area, North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The southern boundary is naturally defined on the east by the Gulf of Mexico; its western extension crosses obliquely over the western highlands, along an irregular line determined by aggressive Americans of Anglo-Saxon stock against Americans of Spanish stock.
The area of the United States may be roughly divided into the Appalachian belt, the Cordilleras and the central plains, as already indicated.
In a north-eastern section, practically all of New England is occupied by the older crystalline belt; the corresponding northern part of the stratified belt in the St Lawrence and Champlain-Hudson valleys on the inland side of New England is comparatively free from the ridge-making rocks which abound farther south; and here the plateau member is wanting, being replaced, as it were, by the Adirondacks, an outlier of the Laurentian highlands of Canada which immediately succeeds the deformed stratified belt west of Lake Champlain.
In a south-western section the crystalline belt again assumes importance in breadth and height, and the plateau member maintains the strength that it had in the middle section, but the intermediate stratified belt again has fewer ridges, -because of the infrequence here of ridge-making strata as compared to their frequency in the middle section.
The crystalline belt of the middle Appalachians, 60 or 80 m- wide, is to-day of moderate height because the Tertiary upwarping was there of moderate amotint.
The height is greatest along the inner or north-western border of the belt, and here a sub-mountainous topography has been produced by normal dissection, chiefly in the Tertiary cycle; the valleys being narrow because the rocks are resistant.
Wit continued decrease of altitude south-eastward, the crystalline belt dips under the coastal plain, near a line marked by the Delaware river from Trenton to Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, and thence south-south-westward through Maryland and Virginia past the cities of Baltimore, Washington and Richmond.
The rivers which most perfectly exemplify this habit are the Delaware, Susquehanna and Potomac; the Hudson, the north-eastern boundary of the middle section, is peculiar in having headwaters in the Adirondacks as well as in the Catskills (northern part of the plateau); the James, forming the south-western boundary of the section, rises in the inner valleys of the stratified belt, instead of in the plateau.
For the most part the rivers follow open valleys along belts of weak strata; but they frequently pass through sharp-cut notches in the na1row ridges of the stratified beltthe Delaware water-gap is one of the deepest of these notches; and in the harder rocks of the crystalline belt they have eroded steep-walled gorges, of which the finest is that of the Hudson, because of the greater height and breadth of the crystalline highlands there than at points where the other rivers cross it.
The rivers are shallow and more or less broken by rapids in the notches; rapids occur also near the outer border of the crystalline belt, as if the rivers there had been lately incited to downward erosion by an uplift of the region, and had not yet had time to regrade their courses.
Hence rivers in the Appalachians are not navigable; it is only farther down-stream, where the rivers have been converted into estuaries and bayssuch as Chesapeake and Delaware baysby a slight depression of the coastal plain belt, that they serve the purposes of navigation.
The community of characteristics that is suggested by the association of six north-eastern states under the name New England The North- is in large measure warranted by the inclusion of easternA all these states within the broadened crystalline belt palachians of the north-eastern Appalachians, which is here 150 m.
The Appalachian trends (N.E.S.W.) that are so prominent in the stratified belt of the middle Appalachians, and are fairly well marked in the crystalline belt of New Jersey and Pennsylvania, are prevailingly absent in New England.
As in the north-east, so in the south-west, the crystalline belt widens and gains in height; but while New England is an indivisible unit, the southern crystalline belt must be subdivided The Southinto a higher mountain belt on the north-west, 60 m.
This subdivision is already necessary in Maryland, where the mountain belt is represented by the Blue Ridge, which is rather a narrow upland belt than a ridge proper where the Potomac cuts across it; while the piedmont belt, relieved by occasional monadnocks stretches from the eastern base of the Blue Ridge to the coastal plain, into which it merges.
Farther south, the mountain belt widens and attains its greatest development, a true highland district, in North Carolina, where it includes several strong mountain groups.
The height and massiveness of the mountains decrease to the south-west, where the piedmont belt sweeps westward around them in western Georgia and eastern Alabama Some of the residual mountains hereabouts are reduced to a mere skeleton or framework by the retrogressive penetration of widening valleys between wasting spurs; the very type of vanishing forms, Certain districts within the mountains, apparently consisting of less resistant crystalline rocks, have been reduced to basin-like peneplains in the same time that served only to grade the slopes and subdue the summits of the neighboring mountains of more resistant rocks; the best example of this kind is the Asheville peneplain in North Carolina, measuring about 40 by 20 m.
The rivers of the mountain belt, normally dividing and subdividing in apparently fnsequent fashion between the hills and spurs, generally follow open valleys; there are few waterfalls, the streams being as a rule fairly well graded, though their current is rapid and their channels are set with coarse waste.
It is a peculiar feature of the drainage in North Carolina that the headwaters lie to the east of the highest mountains, and that the chief rivers flow north-westward through the mountains to the broad valley lowland of the stratified belt and then through the plateau, as the members of the Mississippi system.
The piedmont belt may be described as a maturely dissected peneplain over much of its extent; it is indeed one of the best examples of that class of forms. Its uplands are of fairly accordant altitude, which gradually decreases from 500 to 1000 ft.
The piedmont belt merges south-eastward into the coastal plain, the altitudes of the piedmont uplands and of the coastal plain hills being about the same along their line of junction.
The feature referred to results from the occurrence here of a weak basal formation of clay overlaid by more resistant sandy strata; the clay belt has been stripped for a score or more of miles from its original inland overlap, and worn down in a longitudinal inner lowland, while the sandy belt retains a significant altitude of 200 or 300 ft.
The same Paiaeozoic formations that are folded in the belt of the Alleghany ridges lie nearly horizontal in the plateau district next north-west.
The chief upland belt or cuesta is formed by the firm Niagara limestone, which takes its name from the gorge and falls cut through the upland by the Niagara river.
The cuesta begins where its determining limcstone begins, in west-central New York; there it separates the lowlands that contain the basins of lakes Ontario and Erie; thence it curves to the north-west through the province of Ontario to the belt of islands that divide1 Georgian Bay from Lake Huron; then westward throtigh the land-arm between lakes Superior and Michigan, and south-westward into the narrow points that divide Green Bay from Lake Michigan, and at last westward to fade away again with the thinning out of the limestone; it is hardly traceable across the Mississippi river.
When the two lowlands are traced eastward they become confluent after the Niagara limestone has faded away in central New York, and the single lowland is continued under the name of Mohawk Valley, an east-west longitudinal depression that has been eroded on a belt of relatively weak strata between the resistant crystalline rocks of the Adirondacks on the north and the northern escarpment of the Appalachian plateau (Catskills-Helderbergs) on the south; forming a pathway of great historic and economic importance between the Atlantic seaports and the interior.
Its inner border affords admirable examples of topographical discordance where it sweeps north-westward square across the trend of the piedmont belt, the ridges and valleys, and the plateau of the Appalachians, which are all terminated by dipping gently beneath the unconformable cover of the coastal The, lain strata.
Then comes the East Texas timber belt, broad in the north-east, narrowing to a point before reaching the Rio Grande, a low and thoroughly dissected cuesta of sandy Eocene strata; and this is followed by the Coast Prairie, a very young plain, with a seaward slope of less than 2 ft.
From the Colorado to the Rio Grande, the Black Prairie, the timber belt and the Coast Prairie merge in a vast plain, little differentiated, overgrown with chaparral (shrub-like trees, often thorny), widening eastward in the Rio Grande delta, and extending southward into Meico.
Along parts of their eastern border, where the rainfall is a little increased by the approach of the westerly winds to the Rocky Mountains, there is a belt of very deep, impalpably fine soil, supposed to be a dust deposit brought from the drier parts of the plains farther west; excellent crops of wheat are here raised.
The belt of ielative depression between the inner Pacific ranges and the Coast range is dhided by the fine volcano Mt Shasta (14,380 ft.) in northern California into unlike portions.
The warmed air of summer produces an area of low pressure in the west-central United States, which interrupts the belt of high pressure that planetary conditions alone would form around the earth about latitude 30; hence there is a tendency of the summer winds to blow inward from the northern Pacific over the Cordilleras toward the continental centre, and from the trades of the torrid Atlantic up the Mississippi Valley; conversely in winter time, the cold air over the lands produces a large area of high pressure from which the winds tend to flow outward; thus repelling the westerly winds of the northern Pacific and greatly intensifying the outflow southward to the Gulf of Mexico and eastward to the Atlantic. As a result of these seasonal alternations of temperature and pressure there is something of a monsoon tendency developed in the winds of the Mississippi Valley, southerly infiowing winds prevailing in summer and northerly outfiowing winds in winter; but the general tendency to inflow and outflow is greatly modified by the relief of the lands, to which we next turn.
Along the transition belt between plains and prairies the climate is peculiarly trying as to rainfall; one series of five or ten years may have sufficient rainfall to enable the farmers to gather good crops; but the next series following may be so dry that the crops fail year after year.
The cyclonic inflows and anticyclonic outflows, so characteristic of the belt of westerly winds the world over, are very irregular in the Cord illeran region; but farther eastward they are typically developed by reason of the great extent of open country.
The Tropical belt of southern Florida has the royal palm.
The development of the coal and iron interests, and the increasing importance of the gold product of the Appalachian auriferous belt, and also of the lead product of the Mississippi Valley, led to a more general and decided interest in geology and mining; and about 1830 geological surveys of several of the Atlantic states were begun, and more systematic explorations for the ores of the metals, as well as for coal, were carried on over all parts of the country then open to settlement.
In five years from the discovery of gold at Coloma on the American river, the yield from the auriferous belt of the Sierra Nevada had risen to an amount estimated at between sixty-five and seventy millions of dollars a year, or five times as much as the total production of this metal throughout the world at the beginning of the century.
The annual yield of gold in the Appalachian belt had fallen off to about $500,000 in value, that of California had risen to $36,000,000, and was rapidly approaching the epoch of its culmination (1851I 853).
The Rocky Mountain region as a whole, best named the Cordillera or Cordilleran belt, includes several parallel ranges of mountains of different structures and ages, the eastern one constituting the Rocky Mountains proper.
Summing up the economic features of the Cordilleran belt, it includes many of the best coal-mines and the most extensive deposits of gold, copper, lead and zinc of the Dominion, while in silver, nickel and iron Ontario takes the lead.
The flora of the forest belt of the North-West Territories differs little from that of northern Ontario.
In Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, the so-called railway belt of British Columbia and the territories, these crown lands are chiefly owned by the federal parliament; in the other provinces, by the local legislatures.
After prolonged discussions the company agreed to surrender to the crown, in consideration of a payment of £300,000, the rights and interests in the north-west guaranteed by its charter, with the exception of a reservation of one-twentieth part of the fertile belt, and 45,00 0 acres of land adjacent to the trading posts of the company.
Another route worked more cheaply than formerly is that by river, from the centre of the winter wheat belt, say at St Louis, to New Orleans, and thence by steamer to Liverpool.
As a centre of trade for the "Cotton Belt," it has a large wholesale and retail business; and it is an important cotton market.
This is a limestone belt with parallel hard rock ridges left standing by erosion to form mountains.
Extending from the Gulf northward for one hundred and fifty miles is the outer belt of the Coastal Plain, also called the "Timber Belt," whose soil is sandy and poor, but responds well to fertilization.
It receives its name from its soil (weathered from the weak underlying limestone), which is black in colour, almost destitute of sand and loam, and rich in limestone and marl formations, especially adapted to the production of cotton; hence the region is also called the "Cotton Belt."
North of the mineral region is the "Cereal Belt," embracing the Tennessee Valley and the counties beyond, whose richest soils are the red clays and dark loams of the river valley; north of which are less fertile soils, produced by siliceous and sandstone formations.
The chief product is cotton, cultivated extensively in the "Black Belt" and less extensively in the other portions of the state.
In recent years there has been a tendency to diversify crops, Indian corn, wheat and oats being raised extensively in the "Cereal Belt."
In the "Timber Belt" the forests of long leaf pine have an estimated stand of 21,192 million ft.; and in 1905 the product of sawed lumber was valued at $13,563,815.
The largest and southernmost, a broad belt extending from the " fall-line " to a line passing through Clarkesville, Habersham county, Cartersville, Bartow county and Buchanan, Haralson county (approximately), is known as the Piedmont Belt or Plateau, being a region of faint relief eroded on highly complicated crystalline rocks.
The Blue Ridge escarpment, a striking topographic feature in Virginia and the Carolinas, extends into Georgia along the north-eastern border of this belt, but is less strongly developed here than elsewhere, dying out entirely towards the south-west.
North of the Piedmont Belt lie the Appalachian Mountains Region and the Great Valley Region, the former to the east, the latter to the west of a dividing line from Cartersville northward.
The former region consists of detached mountain masses of crystalline rocks, not yet eroded down to the level of the Piedmont Belt.
South of the Cotton Belt is the Lime Sink Region, which includes Miller, Baker, Mitchell, Colquitt and Worth counties, the northern portions of Decatur, Grady, Thomas, Brooks and Lowndes, the eastern parts of Dooly and Lee, and the eastern portions of Berrien, Irwin, Wilcox, Dodge, and some parts of Burke, Screven and Bulloch.
Tracks of a belt line transfer company encircle the city, and altogether there are more than 500 m.
The frame is capable of being raised into contact with travelling combs, affixed to an endless belt placed round two metal rollers about 6 ft.
In the middle ages the Teutonic Order established a frontier belt on the side of Lithuania.
All western trade in Canada of the vast provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, must pass through the narrow belt of loo m., lying between the international boundary line and Lake Winnipeg.
Midway in this belt stands Winnipeg.
To these we may add the hat (haet), belt (gyrdel), stockings (hosa), shoes (scoh, gescy, rifeling) and gloves (glof).
Yet throughout the bronze age it is possible to trace a fairly well-defined group of antiquities covering the basin of the Elbe, Mecklenburg, Holstein, Jutland, southern Sweden and the islands of the Belt, and archaeologists have conjectured with much probability that these antiquities represent the early civilization of the Teutonic peoples.
Indeed, by this time it was probably known to most of the Teutonic peoples, for several of the inscriptions found in Jutland and the islands of the Belt can hardly be of later date.
The north-west part of it is a slate belt that has been much dissected by eroding streams, but the south-east part is a gently rolling belt of limestone to which occasionally a steep hill descends from the slate belt.
There is some of the same formation as well as that derived from red shales on the sandstone hills in the south-east province and in many of the middle and western valleys, but often a belt of inferior slate soil adjoins a limestone belt, and many of the ridges are covered with a still more sterile soil derived from white and grey sandstones.
Within the belt lay what is now Toledo, and its great importance as a lake port was even then clearly recognized.
Next comes a belt of fertile plateaus bounded on the east by the Little Khingan, or Dusse-alin, a picturesque well-wooded range, which stretches in a north-easterly direction from Kirin across Manchuria, is pierced by the Amur, and continues on its left bank, separating the Bureya from the Amgun.
The upper plumage generally is dark green, but the mantle and rump are crimson, as are a broad abdominal belt, the flanks and many crescentic markings on the otherwise yellow lower parts.
Superficially, the continuity of the zone is broken at intervals by gaps of greater or less extent; but these are due, in part at least, to the subsidence of portions of the folded belt and their subsequent burial by more recent accumulations.
Throughout the whole extent of the Eastern Alps it is strictly limited to the belt between this fault and the marginal zone of Molasse.
The Mesozoic belt of the Bavarian and Austrian Alps consists mainly of the Trias, Jurassic and Cretaceous beds playing a comparatively subordinate part.
It was a continental formation, such as is now being formed within the desert belt of the globe.
The Mesozoic belt of the southern border of the chain extends from Lago Maggiore eastwards.
On the west the belt is narrow, but towards the east it gradually widens, and north of Lago di Garda its northern boundary is suddenly deflected to the north and the zone spreads out so as to include the whole of the Dolomite mountains of Tirol.
The zone of the Molasse is little changed, but the Flysch is partly folded in the Mesozoic belt and no longer forms an absolutely independent band.
But it is divided longitudinally by a well-marked belt of stratified deposits, known as the zone of the Briangonnais, composed chiefly of Carboniferous, Triassic and Jurassic beds.
In the ice-free belt, between the northern ice-sheet and the vastly extendedglaciers of the Alps, the two floras must have found a common refuge and congenial conditions of existence; and this view is confirmed by direct palaeontological evidence.
In some places the south-western gales are so severe that a belt of trees is useful as a break wind and shelter.
Here, too, the prevailing rainfall is brought by the north-west monsoon, but in this belt its prevalence is not so pronounced, Padang getting 94 in.
The defence of the country is based on the historic principle of concentrating the people and their resources in the heart of the country, covered by a wide belt of inundations.
The region of the Pomptine Marshes occupies almost the whole tract between the sandy belt on the sea-shore and the Volscian mountains, extending from the southern foot of the Alban Hills below Velletri to the sea near Terracina.
Paraguay proper, or the country between the Paraguay and the Parana, is traversed from north to south by a broad irregular belt of highlands, which are known as the Cordillera Ambaya, Cordillera Urucury, &c., but partake rather of the character of plateaus, and form a continuation and outwork of the great interior plateau of Brazil.
Where the line of elevated land runs east and west, as in Asia, the desert belt tends to be displaced into higher latitudes, and where the line runs north and south, as in Africa, America and Australia, the desert zone is cut through on the windward side of the elevation and the arid conditions intensified on the lee side.
Between the Lot and the Aveyron is a belt of causses or monotonous limestone table-lands, broken here and there by profound and beautiful gorges - a type of scenery characteristic of Aveyron.
Along the northern border of the folded belt lies the coal basin of the Ruhr in Westphalia, which is the continuation of the Belgian coal-field, and bears much the same relation to the Rhenish Devonian area that the coal basin of Liege bears to the Ardennes.
The clay belt is in latitudes south of Winnipeg, with a good summer climate but cold winters.
The Eocene and Oligocene form a broad belt along the northern coast, very much more continuous than the Mesozoic band, and from this belt a branch extends southwards to Sciacca.
Cretaceous rocks occur around the basalt platform of the Cameroon mountain and generally along the coastal belt.
From the edge of the coast belt to near the confluence of the Benue and Niger they are overlain by unfossiliferous sandstones, lying undisturbed and possibly of the age of the sandstones of the Congo basin.
There is evidence of the increasing desiccation of the whole country north of the forest belt.
The average width of the .cultivated land is about I0 m., of which the greater part lies on the left (western) bank of the river; and outside this is a belt, varying from a few hundred yards to 3 or 4 m., of stony and sandy ground, reaching up to the foot of the limestone cliffs, which rise in places to as much as 1000 ft.
Except a narrow belt on the north along the Mediterranean shore, Egypt lies in an almost rainless area, where the temperature is high by day and sinks quickly at night in consequence of the rapid radiation under the cloudless sky.
Nyborg on the east is the port for the steam-ferry to Korsor in Zealand; Svendborg picturesquely overlooks the southern archipelago; Faaborg on the south-west lies on a fjord of the same name; Assens, on the west, a port for the crossing of the Little Belt into Schleswig, still shows traces of the fortifications which were stormed by John of Ranzau in 1 535; Middelfart is a seaside resort near the narrowest reach of the Little Belt; Bogense is a small port on the north coast.
The strait crossed by the Nyborg-Korsor ferry is the Great Belt which divides the Fiinen from the Zealand group, and is continued south by the LangeIands Belt, which washes the straight eastern shore of that island, and north by the Samso Belt, named from an island 15 m.
A fringe of ice generally lines the greater part of the Danish coasts on the eastern side for some time during the winter, and both the Sound and the Great Belt are at times impassable on account of ice.
Above this belt the firs gradually disappear and are succeeded by the shortleaved Pinus montezumae, or Mexican " ocote " - one of the largest species of pine in the republic. These continue to the upper tree-line, accompanied by red and purple Pentstemon and light blue lupins in the open spaces, some ferns, and occasional masses of alpine flowers.
Situated in the heart of the "Cotton Belt," Macon has a large and lucrative trade; it is one of the most important inland cotton markets of the United States, its annual receipts averaging about 250,000 bales.
On the other hand, Pelvetia canaliculata, which marks the upper belt, is exposed for longer periods, and during neap tides may not be reached by the water for many days.
In the western folded belt the strike of the folds is N.W.-S.E., or N.N.W.-S.S.E.
The Paps of Jura, for instance, rise out of a long belt of quartzite which stretches through the islands of Islay, Jura and Scarba.
The general trend of this long belt of islands is north-north-east.
In that belt they consist mostly of greywacke, grit, shale and other sedimentary rocks, but in the southwest of Ayrshire they include some thick lenticular bands of limestone.
The Lower, with its abundant intercalated lavas and tuffs, extends continuously as a broad belt along the northern margin of the Central Plain, reappears in detached tracts along the southern border, is found again on the south side of the Uplands in Berwickshire and the Cheviot Hills, occupies a tract of Lorne (Oban and the vicinity) in Argyllshire, and on the north side of the Highlands underlies most of the low ground on both sides of the Moray Firth, stretches across Caithness and through nearly the whole of the Orkney Islands, and is prolonged into Shetland.
The pilgrims made their journey in grey cowls fastened by a broad belt.
A wide belt of blown sand (or Chul), sprinkled with sa.aul jungle, separates the swamps on the south side of the river from the cultivated plains of Afghan Turkestan; but in places, notably for Cultiva= about 12 Tn.
On the belt of land between the two bays, at the junction between the northern and southern half of the island, stood the ancient town.
The southern point touches the Coastal Plain Belt at its northward extension called the "Mississippi Embayment."
Numerous " shows " of petroleum exist along a broad belt running N.W.
Geologically, its northern half is composed of Torridonian sandstone, with basalt at points between the West coast and the centre, of gabbro in the south-east, with a belt of gneissose rocks on its east seaboard and of quartz-porphyry in the south-west.
A belt line railway connects the several systems. Superior shares with Duluth one of the finest natural inland harbours in the world.
A strand of wampum, consisting of purple and white shell-beads or a belt woven with figures formed by beads of different colours, operated on the principle of associating a particular fact with a particular string or figure, thus giving a serial arrangement to the facts as well as fidelity to the memory.
From the south-east the chain of islands forming insular Denmark extends towards Sweden, the strait between Jutland and Fiinen having the name of the Little Belt.
High mountains slope down to the southern shores, with a belt of fertile pastures, with shrubs and trees and little streams, here and there with rocks and ravines.
The fact that the southern extremity of South America is the only land extending into this belt gives it special physical importance in relation to tides and currents, and its position with reference to the Antarctic Ocean and continent makes it convenient to regard it as a separate ocean from which the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans may be said to radiate.
The southern shore is bordered nearly its entire length by a belt of drifted sand, forming the Nuget plain.
There is no reason to believe that any transfer of air takes place across the Himalayas in a southerly direction, unless indeed in those most elevated regions of the atmosphere which lie beyond the range of observation; but a nocturnal flow of cooled air, from the southern slopes, is felt as a strong wind where the rivers debouch on the plains, more especially in the early morning hours; and this probably contributes in some degree to lower the mean temperature of that belt of the plains which fringes the mountain zone.
Rainfall rapidly diminishes to the north-west from that belt.
The base of the Himalayas is occupied by a narrow belt forming an extreme north-western extension of the Malayan type described below.
This intermediate mountain belt is covered with luxuriant vegetation.
A large number of rivers make their way westward to the sea; they rise, mostly, in the mountain belt, and are unimportant, the only two of any size being the Kwanza and the Kunene, separately noticed.
This is the galactic plane, well known from the fact that it is marked in the sky by the broad irregular belt of milky light called the Galaxy or Milky Way.
On these the belt of greatest density can be easily traced, and it follows very closely the course of the Milky Way; but, whereas the latter is a belt having rather sharply defined boundaries, the star-density decreases gradually and continuously from the galactic equator to the galactic poles.
With the exception of a belt of government forest along the northern frontier, the rest of the province consists of a fertile and densely peopled plain.
They are succeeded by a broad submontane belt, the tarai, which is rendered moist by the mountain torrents, and is covered by forest from end to end.
He is said to have worn an iron belt as penance for his share in his father's death; and by his frequent visits to shrines, and his benefactions to religious foundations, he won a reputation for piety.
The seashore and the river banks are lined with mangroves, but the most important tree of the coast belt is the oilpalm.
It extends but a few miles inland, but within this belt is virtually a prolongation of the rainy season and has a marked effect on vegetation.
The humid transition belt is the habitat of California's magnificent forests.
In this belt and the following one of firs the big tree also grows.
A small southern belt in San Mateo, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties is not being commercially exploited.
In Humboldt county, in the redwood belt near Eureka, are probably the most modern and remarkable lumber mills of the world.
The Lower Old Red Sandstone strata are separated from the foregoing series by a fault and form a curving belt extending from Corloch on the east coast south by Brodick Castle to Dougrie on the west shore.
The lower division appears on the Newfoundland and Labrador coasts, and is traceable thence, in a great belt southwest of those points, through Maine and the Hudson-Champlain valley into Alabama, a distance of some 2000 m.; and the rocks are brought up again on the western uplift, in Nevada, Idaho, Utah, western Montana and British Columbia.
Passing westward across the "fall-line," the next province is the Piedmont, a part of the extensive Piedmont Belt reaching from Pennsylvania to Alabama.
The Coastal Plain of Virginia is covered with pine forests which merge westward with the hard woods of the Piedmont Belt, where oaks formerly prevailed, but where a second growth of pine now constitutes part of the forest.
Many of these species spread into the Piedmont Belt.
Virginia was by far the most important state in 1908 in the production of soapstone, nearly the whole product being taken from a long narrow belt running north-east from Nelson county into Albemarle county; more than 90% of the output was sawed into slabs for laundry and laboratory appliances.
A belt tends to move towards that part of a pulley whose radius is greatest; pulleys for belts, therefore, are slightly swelled in the middle, in order that the belt may remain on the pulley, unless forcibly shifted.
A belt when in motion is shifted off a pulley, or from one pulley on to another of equal size alongside of it, by pressing against that part of the belt which is moving towards the pulley.
The length L of an endless belt connecting a pair of pulleys whose effective radii are r,, r,, with parallel axes whose distance apart is c, is given by the following formulae, in each of which the first term, containing the radical, expresses the length of the straight parts of the belt, and the remainder of the formula the length of the curved parts.
When the a,ces of a pair of pulleys are not parallel, the pulleys should be so placed that the part of the belt which is approaching each pulley shall be in the plane of the pulley.
The speed-cones are either continuous cones or conoids, as A, B, whose velocity ratio can be varied gradually while they are in motion by shifting the belt, or sets of pulleys whose radii vary by steps, as C, D, in which case the velocity ratio can be changed by shifting the belt from one pair of pulleys to another.
Friction of Cords and Belts.A flexible band, such as a cord, rope, belt or strap, may be used either to exert an effort or a resistance upon a pulley round which it wraps.
F = T1 Ti = T1 (I ef9) Ta(ef 1)j When a belt connecting a pair of pulleys has the tensions of its two sides originally equal, the pulleys being at rest, and when the pulleys are next set in motion, so that one of them drives the other by means of the belt, it is found that the advancing side of the belt is exactly as much tightened as the returning side is slackened, so that the mean tension remains unchanged.
I have cast away gold and silver, and have ceased to carry even copper in my belt, being content with my daily bread, nor caring for the morrow, nor anxious how my belly shall be filled or my body clothed; and do you ask me if I accept the gospel ?
Cyprus lies in the continuation of the folded belt of the Anti-taurus.
The inventor was killed by being caught in the driving belt of one of his own presses.
Between 1867 and 1871 he carried out the negotiations with the Rajput chiefs for opening road and railway communications through the great belt of mountain and jungle which formerly cut India in two.
The middle belt is gently undulating; viewed from rare eminences the landscape over the boundless forests resembles a dark green sea, through which the great rivers flow straight between steep, flat-topped banks, with long quiet reaches broken by occasional rapids.
The few lakes they form in this belt are rather mere widenings in their courses; but the tributary streams drain numerous small lakes and peat-mosses.
In the extreme north this belt is almost flat, a few low hills standing isolated and conspicuous; and the rivers have serpentine courses, while steep banks are absent.
The middle belt merges into the coastal belt, covered by geologically recent marine deposits, reaching an extreme height of 700 to 800 ft., and extending inland some 60 to 80 m.
The orographical division of the central lowlands bears comparison in formation with the coastal belt of marine deposits to the north.
Gentle forest-clad undulations, many small lakes and peat-mosses, are characteristic of the region; which, in fact, closely resembles the middle belt of the northern highland region.
The island belt is widest (some 45 m.) off the city of Stockholm, the approach to which from the sea is famous for its beauty.
At Charles X.'s death, five years later, we find Sweden, herself bled to exhaustion point, surrounded by a broad belt of desolated territory and regarded with ineradicable hatred by every adjacent state.
Along the coast lies a belt of granite and schist overlaid unconformably by Cretaceous and Tertiary deposits; inland the mountains are formed chiefly of folded Mesozoic beds, together with volcanic rocks of later date.
The distinctive mark of the courtier, military, and upper servant class is the belt, generally of black varnished leather with a brass clasp; princes and courtiers often replace this clasp by a huge round ornament of cut stones.
A stag dragged him from his horse by fixing its antlers in his belt.
In the south-east bordering Liberia is a belt of densely forested hilly country extending 50 m.
Between the Takht Mountain and the Siwaliks, the intervening belt of ridge and furrow has been greatly denuded by transverse drainage - a system of drainage which we now know to have existed before the formation of the hills, and to have continued to cut through them as they gradually rose above the plain level.
Great masses of syenite and diorite were intruded during the Tertiary period, and within the curve of the folded belt a line of recent volcanic cones stretches from western Baluchistan into eastern Persia.
These two dialects are separated by the belt of Brahui and Sindhi speakers who occupy the Sarawan and Jalawan hills, and Las Bela.
From the absence of any well-marked unconformity it is evident that in the northern part of the Himalayan belt, at least in the Spiti area, there can have been no post-Archaean folding of any magnitude until after the deposition of the Nummulitic beds, and that the folding was completed before the later Tertiaries of Hundes were laid down.
The earthquake did serious damage throughout the coast region of California from Humboldt county to the southern end of Fresno county, a belt about 50 m.
Its animal life is in the main distinguished in species only from that of the Upper Sonoran belt, including among birds, the desert sparrow, desert thrasher, mocking-bird, hooded oriole; and among mammals small nocturnal species of kangaroo rats, pocket mice, mice and bats.
The Arid-Tropical zone is represented by a narrow belt along the lower Colorado river, with a short arm extending into the valley of the Gila.
In the Lower Sonoran belt, soapweed, acacias (Palo Verde or Parkinsonia torreyana), agaves, yuccas and dasylirions, the creosote bush and mesquite tree, candle wood, and about seventy-five species of cactuses - among them omnipresent opuntiae and great columnar " Chayas " - make up a striking vegetation, which in its colours of dull grey and olive harmonizes well with the rigidity and forbidding barrenness of the plains.
From the Mongolian plateau the ascent is on the whole gentle, but from the plains of Siberia it is much steeper, despite the fact that the range is masked by a broad belt of subsidiary ranges of an Alpine character, e.g.
In 1870 Berlin was practically bounded on the south by the Landwehr Canal, but it has since extended far beyond, and the Tempelhofer Feld, where military reviews are held, then practically in the country, is now surrounded by a dense belt of houses.
The east slope descends quite rapidly to a low flat belt from 5 to 40 m.
All the principal fruits are grown in largest quantities in what is commonly known as the fruit belt in the south-west, particularly in Berrien, the corner county.
The revolving band forms the cathode, and at one end makes a rubbing contact with a travelling belt placed at an angle so that the crystals of silver detached thereby from the cathode are conveyed by it from the solution and deposited outside.
The Oriental Borneo and Bali are respectively divided from Celebes and Lombok by a narrow belt of sea known as "Wallace's Line," on the opposite sides of which the indigenous mammalia are as widely divergent as in any two parts of the world.
Along the west coast extends the "Marshland," a belt of rich alluvial soil formed by the deposits of the North Sea, and varying in breadth from 5 to 15 m.
The folded Appalachian belt crosses the N.W.
South-east of the Kittatinny Valley, and parallel with it, lies the second topographic belt, the Highlands.
It consists of an upland plateau now dissected by streams into a series of hills and ridges, and corresponds to the Piedmont Belt farther to the S.W.
The third belt, called the Triassic Lowland, occupies about one-fifth of the surface of the state.
The' four topographic belts of the state correspond very closely to the outcrops of its geological formations; the rocks of the Appalachian belt being of Palaeozoic age; the formation of the Highlands, Archaean; that of the Triassic Lowland, Triassic; that of the irregular hills of the Coastal Plain, Cretaceous and Tertiary.
North of the morainic belt the effect of the glaciation is seen in the irregular courses of the streams, the numerous lakes and freshwater marshes and the falls and rapids along those streams displaced by the glaciers from their former courses.