Belief sentence example

belief
  • I was relieved beyond belief and nearly in tears.
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  • The belief of Socrates is uncertain.
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  • What she's telling me is beyond belief and yet I know this ability exists.
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  • That so clear-headed a man could have credited the lies of Oates and the other perjurers is beyond belief; and the manner in which he excited baseless alarms, and encouraged fanatic cruelty, for nothing but party advantage, is without excuse.
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  • Objections to the belief in immortality have been advanced from the standpoints of materialism, naturalism, pessimism and pantheism.
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  • The loss of the belief casts a dark shadow over the present life.
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  • Dean tried hard to exclude Jennifer Radisson from consideration as a malefactor, although he reluctantly admitted his sole reason to pass on her as a suspect was his belief in her story.
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  • We based that belief on Josh Mulligan's reports to Paul Dawkins.
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  • Dean followed her, happy beyond belief to have her once more share his bed.
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  • Thus the ancient Greek religion was especially disposed to belief in heroes and demigods.
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  • It is their right—but it is my belief that these people will be few.
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  • The belief exercises a potent moral influence.
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  • In the medieval inventories are sometimes found albae, described as red, blue or black; which has led to the belief that albs were sometimes not only made of stuffs other than linen, but were coloured.
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  • Only this time, she'd lost everything: her belief in him, her Guardian.
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  • But it is my belief that many more people will choose the first choice.
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  • The Mexicans also practised a similar purification at the end of every fifty-two years, in the belief that it was time for the world to come to an end.
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  • This last was the belief of the Protestant Reformers, for whom the Bible was in matters of doctrine the ultimate court of appeal.
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  • The observations of Captain Furneaux, however, did not strengthen this belief, and when making his final voyage, the great navigator appears to have definitely concluded that it was part of the mainland of Australia.
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  • There is no good modern book on the fairy belief in general.
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  • The farther I go back in memory, or what is the same thing the farther I go forward in my judgment, the more doubtful becomes my belief in the freedom of my action.
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  • The theory underlying hepatoscopy therefore consists of these two factors: the belief (I) that the liver is the seat of life, or, to put it more succinctly, what was currently regarded as the soul of the animal; and (2) that the liver of the sacrificial animal, by virtue of its acceptance on the part of the god, took on the same character as the soul of the god to whom it was offered.
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  • God is the soul of the world, although the gods of popular belief are (at least by the later Stoics) respectfully if exoterically acknowledged.
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  • Ancient scepticism was frankly opposed to religious belief.
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  • Wallace succeeded in displacing the naïf conception of special creation by belief in the origin of species out of other species through a process of natural law.
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  • (I) It was an offering of the fruits of the earth to the Creator, in the belief that a special blessing would descend upon the offerers, and sometimes also in the belief that God would be propitiated by the offerings.
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  • On questions of fundamental doctrine they held to the belief XI.
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  • They find Scripture warrant for this belief in Matt.
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  • No experience of the failure of his policy could shake his belief in its essential excellence.
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  • The writer's belief in his prophetic office and his obvious conviction of the inviolable sanctity of his message make it impossible to accept Weizsacker's opinion.
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  • As cause of our sensations and ground of our belief in externality, he substituted for an unintelligible material substance an equally unintelligible operation of divine power.
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  • He later called himself a deist, or theist, not discriminating between the terms. To his favourite sister he wrote: " There are some things in your New England doctrine and worship which I do not agree with; but I do not therefore condemn them, or desire to shake your belief or practice of them."
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  • The consecration of material objects and in general their use in religion and cult was consistently avoided by the Manicheans; not because they failed to share the universal belief of earlier ages that spirits can be inducted by means of fitting prayers and incantations into inanimate things, but because the external material world was held to be the creation of an evil demiurge and so incapable of harbouring a pure spirit.
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  • The opinions of scholars, and the fantasies of poets, became an enthusiastic belief in the mind of Columbus.
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  • It was the belief of Columbus and his contemporaries that he had reached the islands described by Marco Polo as forming the eastern extremity of Asia.
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  • Nevertheless, there is a common tendency in them, and in the university of Oxford, towards the belief that, to use the words of the editor, " We are free moral agents in a sense which cannot apply to what is merely natural."
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  • These sudden appearances of vast bodies of lemmings, and their singular habit of persistently pursuing the same onward course of migration, have given rise to various speculations, from the ancient belief of the Norwegian peasants, shared by Olaus Magnus, that they fall down from the clouds, to the hypothesis that they are acting in obedience to an instinct inherited from ancient times, and still seeking the congenial home in the submerged Atlantis, to which their ancestors of the Miocene period were wont to resort when driven from their ordinary dwelling-places by crowding or scarcity of food.
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  • The persistent belief on the part of the narrators in the genuineness of their previsions indicates that in some cases there may be a hallucination of memory, analogous to the well known feeling of "false recognition."
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  • The Turks now believe that a vase of this earth destroys the effect of any poison drunk from it - a belief which the ancients attached rather to the earth from Cape Kolias in Attica.
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  • It owed its name to an old belief that the Danube (Ister, in Greek) discharged some of its water by an arm entering the Adriatic in that region.
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  • Hippocrates, writing about 450 B.C., expresses his belief in the influence of environment in determining disposition, and in the reaction of these upon feature, 4 a view in which he is supported later by Trogus.
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  • The spirit of Vedic worship is pervaded by a devout belief in the efficacy of invocation and sacrificial offering.
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  • Belief in a primitive historical revelation, once universal among Christians, has almost disappeared; but belief in a very early and highly moral theism is stoutly defended, chiefly on Australian evidence, by Andrew Lang (The Making of Religion and later works).
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  • If we understand by theism not simple belief in a divine unity, but such faith in one divine person as will constitute the basis for a popular religion, then - unless we allow a doubtful exception in Zoroastrianism.
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  • Mill complained, 4 " bringing back under the name of belief what they banished as knowledge."
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  • In " Some Reasons for Belief, " the author institutes a rapid destructive criticism of all possible philosophies.
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  • In " Some Causes of Belief," he tries, standing outside the psychological process, to show how beliefs grow up under every kind of influence except that of genuine evidence.
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  • As worked out by Ritschl, this is specially a basis for Christian belief.
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  • When Otto Ritschl interprets values hedonistically - recoiling from Hegel's idealism the whole way to empiricism - he brings again to our minds the doubt whether hedonist ethics can serve as a foundation for any religious belief.
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  • 3 Intuitionalism in its turn may harden out of " natural " dualism into moral dualism; either a literally Manichaean scheme - a good God impeded by an evil personality or principle (Bayle) - or belief in a good God of limited powers (Mill).
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  • The fossil shells, pottery and rude stone implements, found alike at the base and at the surface of these middens, prove that the habits of the islanders have not varied since a remote past, and lead to the belief that the Andamans were settled by their present inhabitants some time during the Pleistocene period, and certainly no later than the Neolithic age.
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  • On the revival of the Western Empire, however, Charlemagne, in the beginning of the 9th century, under the mistaken belief that he was following the authority of Constantine I.
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  • The same belief is shown in the botanical names applied to many plants, e.g.
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  • The astrological belief that plants, animals and minerals are under the influence of the planets is shown in the older names of some of the metals, e.g.
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  • Saturn for lead, Venus for copper, and Mars for iron, and the belief that the colours of flowers ' The Egyptians believed that the medicinal virtues of plants were due to the spirits who dwelt within them.
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  • There was little of originality in Luria's doctrines; the theory of emanations, the double belief in the process of the Divine Essence as it were self-concentrating (Zimzum) and on the other hand as expanding throughout creation; the philosophical " sceptism '° which regards God as unknowable but capable of direct intuition by feeling - these were all common elements of mystical thought.
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  • The belief was taught in the homogeneity of all living things, in the doctrine of original sin, in the transmigration of souls, in the view that the soul is entombed in the body (v13µa ojia), and that it may gradually attain perfection during connexion with a series of bodies.
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  • It confirms the general belief on geological grounds that this was the seat of their development at the close of the Mesozoic era.
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  • The belief in a vast Antarctic continent stretching far into the temperate zone had never been abandoned, and was vehemently asserted by Charles Dalrymple, a disappointed candidate nominated by the Royal Society for the command of the Transit expedition of 1769.
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  • Indeed, the very name Australasia, often applied to this part of the world, would induce the belief that all the countless islands, be they large or small - and some of them are among the largest on the globe - were but a southern prolongation of the mainland of Asia.
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  • The fathers of the first six or seven centuries, so far as they agree, may be fairly taken to represent the main stream of Christian tradition and belief during the period when the apostolic teaching took shape in the great creeds and dogmatic decisions of Christendom.
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  • The belief in the appearance of the mandi readily lent itself to imposture.
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  • The writer nowhere finds consolation in any Christian belief, and Christ is never named in the work.
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  • A pure morality, belief in one God, hopes extending beyond death - these appealed to the age; the Church taught them as philosophically true and divinely revealed.
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  • Unfortunately (perhaps) Butler prefers to argue on admitted principles; holds much of his own moral belief in reserve; tries to reduce everything to a question of probable fact.
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  • Others base the hope on belief in the resurrection of Christ.
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  • (iv.) There is the immense influence of Jesus Christ in history, associated with belief in him as the risen Son of God.
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  • This was a result of the belief, that whoever knew the names of these rulers would after death pass through all the heavens to the supreme God.
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  • There was a belief in the soul, which was supposed to dwell in the left eye.
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  • It appears partly blended with Buddhism, partly overgrown with a belief in Kalas, or evil spirits.
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  • This different treatment shows the feeling of the poet - the feeling for which he seeks to evoke our inmost sympathy - to oscillate between the belief that an awful crime brings with it its awful punishment (and it is sickening to observe how the argument by which the Friar persuades Annabella to forsake her evil courses mainly appeals to the physical terrors of retribution), and the notion that there is something fatal, something irresistible, and therefore in a sense self-justified, in so dominant a passion.
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  • From this widely accepted belief arose the almost certainly false statement that Peisistratus took part in Solon's successful war against Megara, which necessarily took place before Solon's archonship (probably in 600 B.C.).
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  • The subterranean passage of the Alpheus in the upper part of its course (confirmed by modern explorers), and the freshness of the water of Arethusa in spite of its proximity to the sea, led to the belief that it was the outlet of the river.
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  • The overwhelming numerical superiority of the Sla y s, and the very great differences in ethnical type, belief and mythology between the IndoEuropean and the Ural-Altaic races, may have contributed to the same end.
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  • They originated in 1645, when, according to their belief, God the Father descended in a chariot of fire on Mount Gorodim, in the province of Vladimir, and took up his abode in a peasant named Daniel Philippov, who chose another peasant, named Ivan Suslov, for his son, the Christ.
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  • But in Judaism monotheistic conceptions reigned supreme, and the Satan of Jewish belief as opposed to God stops short of the dualism of Persian religion.
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  • In September 1533 the birth of a daughter, afterwards Queen Elizabeth, instead of the long-hoped-for son, was a heavy disappointment; next year Of this there is no direct proof, but the statement rests upon contemporary belief and chiefly upon the extraordinary terms of the dispensation granted to Henry to marry Anne Boleyn, which included the suspension of all canons relating to impediments created by "affinity rising ex illicito coitu in any degree even in the first."
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  • Cyprian, although inspired by lofty notions of the prerogatives of the church, and inclined to severity of opinion towards heretics, and especially heretical dissentients from the belief in the divine authorship of the episcopal order and the unity of Christendom, was leniently disposed towards those who had temporarily fallen from the faith.
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  • He further expressed the belief that the dark lines D of the solar spectrum coincide with the bright lines of the sodium flame.
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  • Indeed, as one of the acutest and most sympathetic of his critics has remarked, the deep and settled grudge he has betrayed towards every form of Christian belief, in all the writings of his maturity, may be taken as evidence that he had at one time experienced in his own person at least some of the painful workings of a positive faith.
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  • Although, however, he adds that at this point he suspended his religious inquiries, " acquiescing with implicit belief in the tenets and mysteries which are adopted by the general consent of Catholics and Protestants," his readers will probably do him no great injustice if they assume that even then it was rather to the negations than to the affirmations of Protestantism that he most heartily assented.
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  • An old popular belief current in different countries, and derived from common observation, connected mosquitoes with malaria, and from time to time this theory found support in more scientific quarters on general grounds, but it lacked demonstration and attracted little attention.
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  • Elaborate legal enactments codified in Babylonia by the 10th century B.C. find striking parallels in Hebrew, late Jewish (Talmudic), Syrian and Mahommedan law, or in the unwritten usages of all ages; for even where there were neither written laws nor duly instituted lawgivers, there was no lawlessness, since custom and belief were, and still are, almost inflexible.
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  • But many of the laws were quite unsuitable for the circumstances of his age, and the belief that a body of intricate and even contradictory legislation was imposed suddenly upon a people newly emerged from bondage in Egypt raises insurmountable objections, and underestimates the fact that legal usage existed in the earliest stages of society, and therefore in pre-Mosaic times.
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  • The view that the seeds of Yahwism were planted in the young Israelite nation in the days of the " exodus " conflicts with the belief that the worship of Yahweh began in the pre-Mosaic age.
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  • Yahweh of Moses was found, and scattered traces survive of a definite belief in the entrance into Palestine of a movement uncompromisingly devoted to the purer worship of Yahweh.
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  • Only the later antiquaries clung to the belief in their trustworthiness.
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  • The old stories of earlier days encircle places which, though denounced for their corruption, were not regarded as illegitimate, and in the form in which the dim traditions of the past are now preserved they reveal an attempt to purify popular belief and thought.
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  • I 1-24); Caleb's overthrow of the Hebronite giants finds a parallel in David's conflicts before the capture of Jerusalem, and may be associated with the belief that these primitive giants once filled the land (Josh.
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  • Such vicissitudes were the ordinary lot of the Jews for several centuries, and it was their own inner life - the pure life of the home, the idealism of the synagogue, and the belief in ultimate Messianic redemption - that saved them from utter demoralization and despair.
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  • Crete, like several other large islands, enjoys immunity from dangerous serpents - a privilege ascribed by popular belief to the intercession of Titus, the companion of St Paul, who according to tradition was the first bishop of the island, and became in consequence its patron saint.
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  • The judges are chosen without regard to religious belief, and precautions have been taken to render them independent of political parties.
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  • The story of the baetylus, or stone swallowed by Saturn under the belief that it was his son, the Cretan Zeus, seems to cover the same idea and has been derived from the same Semitic word.
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  • Most frequently it appears historically, in relation to some definite system of belief, as a reaction of the spirit against the letter.
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  • Their mysticism represents, therefore, no widening or spiritualizing of their theology; in all matters of belief they remain the docile children of their Church.
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  • Such, at least, was the thought of later writers, who have given effect to the belief in chap. viii.
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  • He saw also that much of the inefficiency of the Assembly arose from the inexperience of the members and their incurable verbosity; so, to establish some system of rules, he got his friend Romilly to draw up a detailed account of the rules and customs of the English House of Commons, which he translated into French, but which the Assembly, puffed up by a belief in its own merits, refused to use.
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  • Turgot was opposed to all labour associations of employers or employed, in accordance with his belief in free competition.
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  • His sensitively honourable nature, which in early life had caused him to shrink from asserting his belief in Thirty-nine articles of faith which he had not examined, was shocked by the enormous abuses which confronted him on commencing the study of the law.
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  • Townshend's belief in the growing of turnips gained him the nickname of " Turnip Townshend."
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  • In our own time they have inspired both the formation of trade combinations and attempts to break them up, hostility to all forms of state interference and a belief in collectivism.
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  • This would matter very little, perhaps, if Englishmen had a firm belief, established by actual experience, in the soundness of their policy, the present security of their position, and the sufficiency of their methods to strengthen or maintain it.
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  • This fact led Cuvier erroneously to the belief that a duct existed leading from the gonad to this papilla.
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  • The British government inclined to the belief that it was destined either for Ireland or for Naples.
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  • The effect of these extraordinary changes, then, was the carrying out of Napoleonic satrapies in the north and centre of Italy in a way utterly inconsistent with the treaty of Luneville; and the weakness with which the courts of London and Vienna looked on at these singular events confirmed Bonaparte in the belief that he could do what he would with neighbouring states.
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  • In his belief that he could ensnare the courts of London and St Petersburg into separate and proportionately disadvantageous treaties, he overreached himself.
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  • Seeing that Godoy, the all-powerful minister at Madrid, had given mortal offence to Napoleon early in the Prussian campaign of 1806 by calling on Spain to arm on behalf of her independence, it passes belief how he could have placed his country at the mercy of Napoleon at the end of the year 1807.
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  • Certainly he needed her support during that campaign; but many good judges have inclined to the belief that the whole-hearted support of Poles and Lithuanians would have been of still greater value, and that the organization of their resources might well have occupied him during the winter of 1812-1813, and would have furnished him with a new and advanced base from which to strike at the heart of Russia in the early summer of 1813.
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  • He invented a religious system founded on the speculative mysticism of the Neoplatonists, and founded a sect, the members of which believed that the new creed would supersede all existing forms of belief.
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  • This conclusion can hardly entail less than a belief that, at any rate, the mass of those who possessed this civilization continued racially the same.
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  • His best known work was Die Betooverde Wereld (1691), or The World Bewitched (1695; one volume of an English translation from a French copy), in which he examined critically the phenomena generally ascribed to spiritual agency, and attacked the belief in sorcery and "possession" by the devil, whose very existence he questioned.
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  • Hence arise various mistaken beliefs, such as the belief in revelation which not only injures the moral As feudalism passed from its age of supremacy into its age of decline, its customs tended to crystallize into fixed forms.
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  • At the same time a class of men arose interested in these forms for their own sake, professional lawyers Bence, but also "poisons, nay destroys, the divinest feeling in man, the sense of truth," and the belief in sacraments such as the Lord's Supper, a piece of religious materialism of which "the necessary consequences are superstition and immorality."
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  • Hume's empiricism, combined with a belief in biological evolution (derived from Herbert Spencer), was the chief feature in English thought during the third quarter of the 10th century.
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  • And there can be little doubt that this belief is justified.
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  • This burlesquing of things universally held sacred, though condemned by serious-minded theologians, conveyed to the child-like popular mind of the middle ages no suggestion of contempt, though when belief in the doctrines and rites of the medieval Church was shaken it became a ready instrument in the hands of those who sought to destroy them.
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  • But these beliefs are far from being confined to the uncivilized; Greek philosophers like Porphyry, no less than the fathers of the Church, held that the world was pervaded with spirits; side by side with the belief in witchcraft, we can trace through the middle ages the survival of primitive animistic views; and in our own day even these beliefs subsist in unsuspected vigour among the peasantry of the more uneducated European countries.
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  • This theory of disease disappeared sooner than did the belief in possession; the energumens (EVEp-yoiwEvoc) of the early Christian church, who were under the care of a special clerical order of exorcists, testify to a belief in possession; but the demon theory of disease receives no recognition; the energumens find their analogues in the converts of missionaries in China, Africa and elsewhere.
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  • A Norse belief found in Iceland is that the fylgia, a genius in animal form, attends human beings; and these animal guardians may sometimes be seen fighting; in the same way the Siberian shamans send their animal familiars to do battle instead of deciding their quarrels in person.
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  • As a natural result of this belief we find the view that the operations of nature are conducted by a multitude of more or less obedient subordinate deities; thus, in Portuguese West Africa the Kimbunda believe in Suku-Vakange, but hold that he has committed the government of the universe to innumerable kilulu good and bad; the latter kind are held to be far more numerous, but Suku-Vakange is said to keep them in order by occasionally smiting them with his thunderbolts; were it not for this, man's lot would be insupportable.
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  • Sometimes the gods of an older religion degenerate into the demons of the belief which supersedes it.
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  • Enough is known of him to justify the belief that he had some of the qualities of a soldier and a statesman.
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  • The uneasiness caused by the excessive dependence of Great Britain upon the United States for cotton, coupled with the Recent belief that shortages of supply are more frequent than R they ought to be, and the fear that diminishing returns attempts to open may operate in America, occasioned the formation in England of the British Cotton Growing Association on.
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  • But what he emphasizes is on the one hand the close connexion between the conception of miracles and the belief in divine providence, and on the other the compatibility between miracles and the order of nature.
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  • What both Ritschl and Schleiermacher insist on is that the belief in miracles is inseparable from the belief in God, and in God as immanent in nature, not only directing and controlling its existent forces, but also as initiating new stages consistent with the old in its progressive development.
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  • For the Christian Church the miracles of Jesus are of primary importance; and the evidence - external and internal - in their favour may be said to be sufficient to justify belief.
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  • They are said to have had a firm belief in the immortality of the soul and in metempsychosis, a fact which led several ancient writers to conclude that they had been influenced by the teaching of the Greek philosopher Pythagoras.
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  • He made clear his belief that the question was closely connected with the problems of the Pacific and Far East, and invitations were also sent accordingly to China and to the smaller European powers with Far-Eastern interests - Holland, Belgium and Portugal.
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  • He sailed back to Otranto in order to recover his health, but the new pope, Gregory IX., launched in hot anger the bolt of excommunication, in the belief that Frederick was malingering once more.
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  • Berengar's belief was not shaken by their arguments and exhortations, and hearing that Lanfranc, the most celebrated theologian of that age, strongly approved the doctrine of Paschasius and condemned that of " Scotus " (really Ratramnus), he wrote to him a letter expressing his surprise and urging him to reconsider the question.
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  • He now saw, however, that the spirit of the age was against him, and hopelessly given over to the belief of what he had combated as a delusion.
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  • A noteworthy survival of an old belief is found in vi.
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  • The Malays are indolent, pleasure-loving, improvident beyond belief, fond of bright clothing, of comfort, of ease, and they dislike toil exceedingly.
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  • Philosophical sanction and explanation of this belief was then found by bringing it into relation with the theory of the prima materia, which was identical in all bodies but received its actual form by the adjunction of qualities expressed by the Aristotelian elements - earth, air, fire and water.
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  • Increasing attention was paid to the investigation of the properties of substances and of their effects on the human body, and chemistry profited by the fact that it passed into the hands of men who possessed the highest scientific culture of the time, Still, belief in the possibility of transmutation long remained orthodox, even among the most distinguished men of science.
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  • The particular line of development would vary in different places, but the change from an association of the Baal with earthly objects to heavenly is characteristic of a higher type of belief and appears to be relatively later.
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  • In his Biblia Illustrata (4 vols.), written from the point of view of a very strict belief in inspiration, his object is to refute the statements made by Hugo Grotius in his Commentaries.
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  • At this time there existed a belief, held at a later date by Berzelius, Gmelin and many others, that the formation of organic compounds was conditioned by a so-called vital force; and the difficulty of artificially realizing this action explained the supposed impossibility of synthesizing organic compounds.
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  • But the belief died hard; the synthesis of urea remained isolated for many years; and many explanations were attempted by the vitalists (as, for instance, that urea was halfway between the inorganic and organic kingdoms, or that the carbon, from which it was obtained, retained the essentials of this hypothetical vital force), but only to succumb at a later date to the indubitable fact that the same laws of chemical combination prevail in both the animate and inanimate kingdoms, and that the artificial or laboratory synthesis of any substance, either inorganic or organic, is but a question of time, once its constitution is determined.'.
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  • How millennarianism nevertheless found its way, with the help of apocalyptic mysticism and Anabaptist influences into the churches of the Reformation, chiefly among the Reformed sects, but afterwards also in the Lutheran Church, how it became incorporated with Pietism, how in more recent times an exceedingly mild type of "academic" chiliasm has been developed from a belief in the verbal inspiration of the Bible, how finally new sects are still springing up here and there with apocalyptic and chiliastic expectations - these are matters which cannot be fully entered upon here.
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  • While in Egypt he became more and more imbued with superstition, consulting astrologers and allowing himself to be flattered into a belief that he possessed a divine power which could work miracles.
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  • Nevertheless, before the rise of the Quakers, these views were nowhere found in conjunction as held by any one set of people; still less were they regarded as the outcome of any one central belief or principle.
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  • They believe that an experience of more than 250 years gives ample warrant for the belief that Christ did not command them as a perpetual outward ordinance; on the contrary, they hold that it was alien to His method to lay down minute, outward rules for all time, but that He enunciated principles which His Church should, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, apply to the varying needs of the day.
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  • His belief was that the Church would not suffer by the publication of documents.
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  • As a statesman he was able, resolute, and in his general policy patriotic. As an ecclesiastic he maintained the privileges of the hierarchy and the dominant system of belief conscientiously, but always with harshness and sometimes with cruelty.
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  • But, whatever may have been his date, he was their teacher and instructor in the Magian religion, modified their former religious customs, and introduced a variegated and composite belief."
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  • The daevas, unmasked and attacked by Zoroaster as the true enemies of mankind, are still, in the Gathas, without doubt the perfectly definite gods of old popular belief - the idols of the people.
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  • Other powers of light, such as Mitra the god of day (Iranian Mithra), survived unforgotten in popular belief till the later system incorporated them in the angelic body.
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  • The Gathas know nothing of a new belief which afterwards arose in the Fravashi, or guardian angels of the faithful.
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  • The existence, a few miles beyond the Nepalese frontier, of an inscribed pillar had been known for some years when, in 1895, the discovery of another inscribed pillar at Nigliva, near by, led to the belief that this other, hitherto neglected, one must also be an Asoka pillar, and very probably the one mentioned by Hsuan Tsang.
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  • Starting with the firmest belief in the old traditional view, his own researches by degrees opened his eyes to the truth, now universally recognized, that the catacombs were exclusively the work of the Christians, and were constructed for the interment of the dead.
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  • With the establishment of the belief in ethical immortality this phase of scepticism vanished from the Jewish world, not, however, without leaving behind it works of enduring value.
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  • Janissaries and the suppression of the quasi-indepen dent power of the derebeys had removed the worst disturbing elements; the government had been centralized; a series of enactments had endeavoured to secure economy in the administration, to curb the abuses of official power, and ensure the impartiality of justice; and the sultan had even expressed his personal belief in the principle of the equality of all, Mussulman and non-Mussulman, before the law.
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  • The belief in the rejuvenation of Turkey seemed to be justified; and when, on the 27th of March 1854, Great Britain and France declared war on Russia, the action of the governments was supported by an overwhelming public opinion.
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  • This belief in positions was the cardinal principle of Prussian strategy in those days.
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  • Before the invasion was taken in hand as a serious policy, there had been at least a profession of a belief that the flotilla could push across the Channel during a calm.
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  • An important influence in Roman literature and belief, which had its origin in Sicily, first appeared in this poem - the recognition of the mythical connexion of Aeneas and his Trojans with the foundation of Rome.
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  • 9 There is a common belief that during quite recent times the west and southwest coast, within the Danish possessions, has been sinking.
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  • It was long a common belief that the fauna and flora of Greenland were essentially European, a circumstance which would make it probable that Greenland has been separated by sea from America during a longer period of time than from Europe.
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  • Some interesting manoeuvres now took place, Wellington moving parallel and close to Marmont, but more to the north, making for the fords of Aldea Lengua and Santa Marta on the Tormes nearer to Salamanca, and being under the belief that the Spaniards held the castle and ford at Alba on that river.
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  • The progress of the "higher criticism," and the gradual surrender of attempts to square scientific facts with a literal interpretation of the Bible, are indicated in the shorter account given in the eighth edition, which concludes as follows: - "the insuperable difficulties connected with the belief that all the existing species of animals were provided for in the ark, are obviated by adopting the suggestion of Bishop Stillingfleet, approved by Matthew Poole, Pye Smith, le Clerc, Rossenmiiller and others, that the deluge did not extend beyond the region of the earth then inhabited, and that only the animals of that region were preserved in the ark."
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  • The fuller titles of the ark originate in the belief that it contained the "covenant" (berith) or "testimony" (`eduth), the technical terms for the Decalogue; primarily, however, it would seem to have been called "the ark of Yahweh" (or "Elohim"), or simply "the ark."
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  • The foundation of the capital would pave the way for the belief that the national god had taken a permanent dwelling-place in the royal seat.
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  • This drop in the electromotive force has led to the belief that the cell is not reversible.
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  • When Charles visited Scotland to give his formal assent to the abolition of Episcopacy, Montrose communicated to him his belief that Hamilton was a traitor.
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  • "A ma.n may be a heretic in the truth," says Milton in his Areopagitica (1644), "if he believes things only because his pastor says so, or the Assembly so determines, without knowing other reason, though his belief be true, yet the very truth he holds becomes his heresy.
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  • The longing to arrive at the one explanation of all things, which had inspired the older philosophers, became less earnest; the belief, indeed, that any such explanation was attainable began to fail.
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  • Already Wycliffe had declared that " whatever book is in the Old Testament besides these twentyfive (Hebrew) shall be set among the apocrypha, that is, without authority or belief."
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  • The Moot Hill was known also as the Hill of Belief from the fact that here the Pictish king promulgated the edict regulating the Christian church.
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  • His religious doctrine is Pantheistic; and, rejecting the belief in a future life as commonly conceived, he substitutes for it a theory of metempsychosis.
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  • The circumstances of his appointment and the erroneous belief that he was receiving a pension of f 4 000 per annum for his few days' court work brought Campbell much unmerited obloquy.'
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  • Very different is the medieval theory, which arose from the gradual acceptance of the belief that the Jewish was the prototype of the Christian priest.
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  • For Roman Catholics the decision necessarily carries great weight, and it may perhaps have its influence on Anglicans of the school which approximates most closely to Roman belief.
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  • We may grant the pope's contention that the Edwardine church had no belief in priests who offered in sacrifice the body and blood of Christ or in bishops capable of ordaining such priests.
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  • His ancestors had been members of the community of the Bohemian Brethren, and had secretly maintained their Protestant belief throughout the period of religious persecution, eventually giving their adherence to the Augsburg confession as approximate to their original faith.
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  • Kdrnyei, Imre and others incline to the belief that it was Bela I.
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  • A clear conscience, not less than a sense of his own superiority to others at the court of Louis XIII., made the cardinal haughtily assert his ascendancy, and the king shared his belief in both.
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  • People, however, persisted in the belief that the queen had used the countess as an instrument to satisfy her hatred of the cardinal de Rohan.
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  • Hippolytus tells us that in his time most Christians said " the Psalms of David," and believed the whole book to be his; but this title and belief are both of Jewish origin, for in 2 Macc. ii.
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  • It was the belief of Professor Robertson Smith that the second (Elohistic) collection of psalms originated in a time of persecution earlier than the time of Antiochus Epiphanes which he referred to the reign of Artaxerxes III.
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  • Thus Sir Bartle Frere wrote at the time: " All accounts from Pretoria represent that the great body of the Boer population is still under the belief that the Zulus are more than a match for us, that our difficulties are more than we can surmount, and that the present is the favourable opportunity for demanding their independence."
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  • It was a deep-seated belief that those who took part in religious functions were liable to communicate this " holiness " to others (compare the complex ideas associated with the Polynesian taboo).
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  • The following extract from the trust-deed of the building dedicated to it will show the religious belief and the purposes of its founder.
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  • The use of these remedies was not, however, necessarily connected with a belief in his system, which seems to have spread little beyond his own country.
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  • The movement led rather to the formation of schools or systems of thought, which under various names lasted on into the 18th century, while the belief in the utility or necessity of schools and systems lasted much longer.
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  • The parentage of the girl, whose name was Pamela (?1776-1831), is uncertain; but although there is some evidence to support the story of Madame de Geniis that Pamela was born in Newfoundland of parents called Seymour or Sims, the common belief that she was the daughter of Madame de Geniis herself by Philippe (Egalite), duke of Orleans, was probably well founded.
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  • A study of the changes going on in the rif tvalley in which the lakes lie leads, however, to the belief that the Albert Edward and Albert Nyanzas are drying up, a process which the nature of the drainage areas is helping to bring about.
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  • In the fourth book he discusses the Epicurean doctrine of the images, which are cast from all bodies, and which act either on the senses or immediately on the mind, in dreams or waking visions, as affording the explanation of the belief in the continued existence of the spirits of the departed.
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  • In Montpellier, where he lived from 1303 to 1306, he was much distressed by the prevalence of Aristotelian rationalism, which, through the medium of the works of Maimonides, threatened the authority of the Old Testament, obedience to the law, and the belief in miracles and revelation.
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  • Another argument in support of this belief, upon which much reliance has been placed, is found in the descriptions of diseases, and the words common in Greek medical writers, contained in these two works.
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  • Sikhism mainly differs from Christianity in that it inculcates the transmigration of the soul, and adopts a belief in predestination, which is universal in the East.
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  • For the promulgation of these views, which were confessedly at variance with the doctrines of the standards of the national church of Scotland, he was summoned (1726) before his presbytery, where in the course of the investigations which followed he affirmed still more explicitly his belief that "every national church established by the laws of earthly kingdoms is antichristian in its constitution and persecuting in its spirit," and further declared opinions upon the subject of church government which amounted to a repudiation of Presbyterianism and an acceptance of the puritan type of Independency.
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  • On the other hand the reality of the visions is to some extent guaranteed by the writer's intense earnestness and by his manifest belief in the divine origin of his message.
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  • The natural concomitant in conduct of such a belief is an uncompromising asceticism.
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  • Hence to harmonize such difficulties with belief in God's righteousness, it had to take account of the role of such empires in the counsels of God, the rise; duration and downfall of each in turn, till finally the lordship of the world passed into the hands of Israel, or the final judgment arrived.
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  • There was a general belief in a supreme being, called Acoran, in Grand Canary, Achihuran in Teneriffe, Eraoranhan in Hierro, and Abora in Palma.
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  • A belief in an evil spirit was general.
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  • This belief made them subject to swindling schemes perpetrated by certain bureau agents and others who promised to secure lands for them.
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  • From 1858 to 1863 he was in the lower house of Congress, where he was noted for his strong opposition to the principles and policies of the growing Republican party, his belief that the South had been grievously wronged by the North, his leadership of the Peace Democrats or Copperheads, who were opposed to the prosecution of the war, and his bitter attacks upon the Lincoln administration, which, he said, was destroying the Constitution and would end by destroying civil liberty in the North.
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  • The remedy for the paradox is to recognize that the foundation for our belief in the existence of objects is the force which they exercise upon us and the resistance which they offer to our will.
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  • Of special interest is the fact that Walafrid, in his exposition of the Mass, shows no trace of any belief in the doctrine of transubstantiation as taught by his famous contemporary Radbertus (q.v.); according to him, Christ gave to his disciples the sacraments of his Body and Blood in the substance of bread and wine, and taught them to celebrate them as a memorial of his Passion.
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  • The Confutatio Alcorani, printed at Seville in 1500, at Venice in 1607, adds hardly anything to the sections of the Itinerary devoted to Moslem belief, &c. Ricold's Libellus contra Nationes Orientales and Contra errores Judaeorum have never been printed.
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  • This pre-historic worship and belief, for a time obscured, were subsequently revived.
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  • This belief was supported by the Delphic oracle, which was largely instrumental in promoting hero-worship and keeping alive its due observance.
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  • His high appreciation of Christianity, which contrasts with the contemptuous estimate of the contemporary rationalists, rested on a firm belief in its essential humanity, to which fact, and not to conscious deception, he attributes its success.
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  • This traditional conservatism survived in the statement, which, while it caused vehement discussion when the book appeared, was yet not so much characteristic of the man as of the school in which he had been trained, that " in no intelligible sense can any one who denies the supernatural origin of the religion of Christ be termed a Christian," which term, he explained, was used not as " a name of praise," but simply as " a designation of belief."
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  • In the second of the above books his idea of religion is somewhat of an anachronism; as he himself confessed, he " used the word in the sense which it invariably bore half a century ago," as denoting " belief in an ever-living God, a divine mind and will ruling the universe and holding moral relations with mankind."
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  • Geology.It is a popular belief that the islands of Japan consist for the most part of volcanic rocks.
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  • Japanese connoisseurs indicate the end of the 17th century as the golden period of the art, and so deeply rooted is this belief that whenever a date has to be assigned to any specimen of exceptionally fine quality, it is unhesitatingly referred to the time of Joken-in (Tsunayoshi).
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  • Spencer tries to express in a sweeping general formula the belief in progress which pervaded his age, and to erect it into the supreme law of the universe as a whole.
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  • At first he seems to have meant by the word only the belief that progress is real, and that the existing order of nature is the result of a gradual process and not of a "special creation."
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  • Spencer welcomed the Darwinian theory, and enriched it with the phrase" survival of the fittest "; but he did not give up the (Lamarckian) belief in the hereditary transmission of the modifications of organisms by the exercise of function.
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  • Belief in the evil eye or shadow is universal, and spirit-raisers, soothsayers and rain-doctors are in repute.
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  • His reputation as a rake and gambler was so well established at the very beginning of his career that when he was dismissed from office in 1774 there was a general belief among the vulgar that he had been detected in actual theft.
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  • In Geneva under Calvin, while the Consistoire, or ecclesiastical court, could inflict only spiritual penalties, yet the medieval idea of the duty of the state to co-operate with the church to maintain the religious purity of the community in matters of belief as well as of conduct so far survived that the civil authority was sure to punish those whom the ecclesiastical had censured.
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  • While the Franciscans rejected the belief in witchcraft, the Dominicans were most zealous in persecuting witches.
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  • Not till 1736 were the statutes against witchcraft repealed; an act which the Associate Presbytery at Edinburgh in 1743 declared to be" contrary to the express law of God, for which a holy God may be provoked in a way of righteous judgment."The recognition and condemnation of errors in religious belief is by no means confined to the Christian Church.
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  • They retained the belief that the germs of all things slept for ages within the dark flood, personified as Min or NU.
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  • No one can doubt his real belief in religion in spite of many moral failings or weaknesses.
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  • But in proportion as an earlier date has become more probable for Homer, the hypothesis of Ionic origin has become less tenable, and the belief better founded (I) that the poems represent accurately a welldefined phase of culture in prehistoric Greece, and (2) that this " Homeric " or " Achaean " phase was closed by some such general catastrophe as is presumed by the legends.
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  • The fraternity of White Penitents buried the body with great ceremony, and performed a solemn service for the deceased as a martyr; the Franciscans followed their example; and these formalities led to the popular belief in the guilt of the unhappy family.
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  • But this very fact of its ever-extending influence, coupled with an absence of dogmatism in belief, which made it at all times ready and even anxious to adopt foreign customs and ideas, gave its religion a constantly shifting and broadening character, so that it is difficult to determine the original essentials.
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  • Their belief might be described as a polydemonism rather than a polytheism, or more correctly, to avoid altogether the intrusion of foreign notions, as a "multinuminism."
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  • The disasters of the early part of the second Punic War revealed an unparalleled religious nervousness: portents and prodigies were announced from all quarters, it was felt that the divine anger was on the state, yet there was no belief in the efficacy of the old methods for restoring the pax deum.
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  • There, in Phrygia, the cry for a strict Christian life was reinforced by the belief in a new and final outpouring of the Spirit - a coincidence which has been observed elsewhere in Church history - as, for instance, among the early Quakers and in the Irvingite movement.
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  • These lakes are called by the people " eyes of the sea," through their belief that they are in subterranean communication with the sea.
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  • We are only concerned with the fact of experience that the human soul yearns to express its belief.
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  • Belief in the fact of the Incarnation of the eternal Word, as it is stated in the words of Ignatius quoted above, or in any of the later creeds, stands or falls with belief in the Holy Ghost as the guide alike of their convictions and destinies, no mere impersonal influence, but a living voice.
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  • In an age when the foundations of the system on which society had rested for centuries were seriously shaken, such subjects as the right of the magistrate to interfere with the belief of the individual, and the limits of his authority over conscience, naturally assumed a prominence hitherto unknown.'
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  • The belief in a God, all-wise, all-just and all-merciful, governing the world providentially for the best, pervades all his works, his correspondence and his life.
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  • This was the belief of the pagans, and the Christians for centuries shared it with them.
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  • Every belief of mankind is in the last analysis amenable to reason, and finds its origin in evidence that can appeal to the arbitrament of common sense.
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  • The philological analysis of Wolf and his successors had raised doubts as to the very existence of Homer, and at one time the main current of scholarly opinion had set strongly in the direction of the belief that the Iliad and the Odyssey were in reality but latter-day collections of divers recitals that had been handed down by word of mouth from one generation to another of bards through ages of illiteracy.
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  • It had come to be a current belief that the Iliad was first committed to writing in the age of Peisistratus.
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  • More than once, in letters to his friend Vettori, no less than in the pages of the Principe, Machiavelli afterwards expressed his belief that Cesare Borgia's behaviour in the conquest of provinces, the cementing of a new state out of scattered elements, and the dealing with false friends or doubtful allies, was worthy of all commendation and of scrupulous imitation.
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  • The "service of God and his majesty" was the formula which expressed the belief of the sovereign and his subjects.
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  • 16-17, which point to the belief that Rome would be destroyed by Nero and the Parthian kings.
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  • Furthermore, this belief that prophecy had ceased led the religious personalities of the later time to authenticate their message by means of antedated prophecy.
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  • His own belief in Mahomet and his doctrines was so thorough as to procure for him the title El Siddik (the faithful), and his success in gaining converts was correspondingly great.
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  • The latter view prevailed and was as a rule held by the Arab geographers of the middle ages, so that until the discovery of America and of the Pacific Ocean the belief was general that the land surface was greater than the water surface, or that at least the two were equal, as Mercator and Varenius held.
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  • Thus it was that a great South Land appeared on the maps, the belief in the prodigious extension of which certainly received a severe shock by Abel Tasman's voyage of circumnavigation, but was only overthrown after Cook's great voyages had proved that any southern land which existed could not extend appreciably beyond the polar circle.
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  • Hamilton (Discussions, p. 197) allows greater sagacity to Collier than to Berkeley, on the ground that he did not vainly attempt to enlist men's natural belief against the hypothetical realism of the philosophers.
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  • A critical investigation of the conditions under which religious belief was possible was still wanting.
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  • Religion itself is the belief in this moral law as divine, and such belief is a practical postulate, necessary in order to add force to the law.
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  • Their religion is the worship of spirits, ancestral and otherwise, accompanied by a vague and undefined belief in a Supreme Being, generally regarded as indifferent to the doings of the people.
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  • The origin of this belief is not known.
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  • Be this as it may, the North American mammals described as Moropus and Morotherium, in the belief that they were ground-sloths, are really referable to the ungulate group Ancylopoda.
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  • The belief that the eastern extremity of Asia had been reached died slowly, and the great object of exploration in America continued for some years to be the discovery of a passage through to the Spice Islands, in order to compete with the Portuguese, who had reached them by the Cape route.
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  • To the oldtime belief that languages multiplied by splitting and colonizing, must be added the theory that languages were formerly more numerous, and that those of the Americans were formed by combining.
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  • Out of this practical knowledge, coupled with the belief in personeity, grew a folk-lore so vast that if it were written down the world would not contain the books.
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  • In order to obtain an intelligent grasp of the religion of tribes in their several culture provinces, it must be understood: (i) That the form of belief called animism by Tylor (more correctly speaking, personeity), was universal; everything was somebody, alive, sentient, thoughtful, wilful.
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  • The religious concep tions of the fishing tribes on the Pacific coast between Mount St Elias and the Columbia river are worked out by Boas; the transformation from the hunting to the agricultural mode of life was accompanied by changes in belief and worship quite as radical.
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  • The figure ten may be taken from the commandments, 2 as in Gregory Nazianzen's later, and more incidental, decalogue of belief.
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  • Faith was not belief in authoritative teachings; it was trust in the promises of God and in Jesus was apt to seem intangible, and the influence of the learned tradition was strong - for a time, indeed, doctrine was more cultivated among Protestants than in the Church of Rome.
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  • When Addis and Arnold's Catholic Dictionary denounces the conception of central dogmas, what they desire to exclude as uncatholic is the belief that dogmas lying upon the circumference may be questioned or perhaps denied.'
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  • Over against these sweeping assumptions and deductions, the Roman Catholic Church had to build up its own statement of the basis of belief.
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  • While Protestants, he thinks, have undermined it by a deeper conception of faith,' Roman Catholics have come to attach more value to obedience and " implicit belief " than to knowledge; and even the Eastern Church lives to-day by the cultus more than by the vision of supernatural truth.
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  • This belief may be called what Loofs has called Harnack's definition of dogma - individuell berechtigt, and perhaps nur individual.
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  • Outwardly they are Mussulmans of the Shiah branch, but most of them show little veneration for either Prophet or Koran, and the religion of some of them seems to be a mixture of Ali-Illahism involving a belief in successive incarnations combined with mysterious, ancient, heathen rites.
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  • He was quite as clear as Luther in repudiating the medieval doctrine of transubstantiation, but he declined to accept Luther's teaching that Christ's words of institution required the belief that the real flesh and blood of Christ co-exist in and with the natural elements.
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  • His grandfather, Lewis Morris (1671-1746), inherited this in his political views, he distrusted the democratic tendencies of the Whigs, but a firm belief in the justice of the American cause led him to join their ranks.
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  • Ideas or notions are never true, but only probable; nevertheless, there are degrees of probability, and hence degrees of belief, leading to action.
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  • How far back in prehistoric times this system has been practised it is impossible to say, but in China it is said to have existed 3000 years before Christ,' and in Greek literature it is treated even in the most ancient writings as well-known belief.
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  • From references which can be gathered from patristic writings it is abundantly evident that the belief in the mystical meaning of marks on the "organ of organs" was a part of the popular philosophy of their times.
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  • Since the middle of the 19th century, in spite of the enactments of laws in Britain and elsewhere against the practice, there has been a recrudescence of belief in palmistry, and a new literature has grown up differing little in essence from the older.
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  • He was one of those explorers who had been attracted by the belief in a rich southern land, and this island, the South France of his first discovery, was afterwards called by him Desolation Land in his disappointment.
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  • But as early as 1865, Arminians were welcomed to Congregational fellowship. In the last few decades, with the spread in the community of innovations in doctrinal and critical opinions, a wider diversity of belief has come to prevail, so that " Evangelical," in the popular sense of the term, rather than " Calvinistic," is the epithet more suit able to American Congregational preachers and churches.
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  • The crop is often allowed to lie loose for a day or two, owing to the belief that sunshine and dews or even showers mellow it and improve its colour.
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  • But various of the changes proposed touched exceedingly delicate matters, going to the deepest foundations of Turkish belief and prejudice: so much so that some of the desired reforms could not be openly advocated as yet.
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  • While the scriptural statements imply a belief in the existence of spiritual beings intermediate between God, and men, it is probable that many of the details may be regarded merely as symbolic imagery.
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  • A sentence in his first address to the electors strikes the dominant note of his public career: "I therefore need scarcely state my firm belief that the prosperity of Canada depends upon its permanent connexion with the mother country, and that I shall resist to the utmost any attempt (from whatever quarter it may come) which may tend to weaken that union."
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  • This system spread widely, and the early Christians especially appealed to it as a confirmation of their belief that ancient mythology was merely an aggregate of fables of human invention.
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  • Nearly 33% of the population, 127,637 persons, were returned officially at the census of 1904 as of " no religion," under which head are classed the natives who retain their primitive forms of belief, for which see Kaffirs, Bechuanas, &c.
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  • The mass of Boers in the Free State, deluded by a belief in Great Britain's weakness, paid no heed to his remonstrances.
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  • Underlying the new policy adopted by the Free State was the belief held, if not by President Steyn himself, at least by his followers, that the two republics combined would be more than a match for the power of Great Britain should hostilities occur.
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  • It was very commonly believed at the time that this nomination for the vice-presidency was participated in and heartily approved of by the machine politicians or "bosses" of the State of New York in their belief that it would result in his elimination from active political life.
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  • He was so often accused by political purists for associating politically with men of discredited reputation that his own picturesque statement of his conversion to a belief that in legislative or administrative politics one must work with all sorts and conditions of men is illuminating.
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  • He had a well wrought-out belief in centralized authority in government and a passionate hatred of political and commercial corruption.
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  • In numerous speeches and addresses he expressed his belief in a strong colonial government, but a government administered for the benefit of the people under its control and not for the profit of the people at home.
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  • On the belief in the Fall, see Tennant, The Sources of the Doctrine of the Fall and Original Sin (1903).
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  • The immediate cause of war - the murder of the heir to the throne - had profoundly impressed all the Austrian peoples, and the belief that efforts were being made from without to destroy the old empire produced among them a strong reaction in favour of its preservation.
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  • Just as in Protestant countries there has often been an amalgamation of evangelical belief with national feeling, to the great gain of both, Catholics demand that Catholicism shall enter into the sphere of their national interests, and that the activities of the Catholic Church should rest on a national basis.
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  • Belief in the strength of its walls and of the castle that occupied the centre bridge, thus effectually command ing navigation by the river, engendered arrogance and overconfidence, and the people of Dinant thought they could defy the full power of Burgundy.
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  • While the title "Fathers" was given from at least the beginning of the 4th century to church writers of former days, as being the parents of Christian belief and thought for later times, the expression "Apostolic Fathers" dates only from the latter part of the 1 7th century.
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  • 2 Finally, for this was an important year 1 Apart from the fact that there were probably no children at all, the whole bearing of the belief of Rousseau that they were sent by him to the Enfants trouves has been falsified by hostile writers.
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  • The volatile oils have for centuries been regarded as of value in disorders of the reproductive organs, and the reputation of myrrh in this connexion is simply a survival of this ancient but ill-founded belief.
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  • At present the belief in an objective atonement is still widely held; whether in the form of penal theories - the old forensic view that the death of Christ atones by paying the penalty of man's sin - or in the form of governmental theories; that the Passion fulfilled a necessity of divine government by expressing and vindicating God's righteousness.
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  • Formerly it was the general belief that the herring inhabits the open ocean close to the Arctic Circle, and that it migrates at certain seasons towards the northern coasts of Europe and America.
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  • Belief in the power of the nakshatras evidently inspired the invocations of them in the Atharva-Veda.
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  • For he had a profound belief in his divine right and the sanctity of his person.
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  • In this belief he differed from his pupil, Roger Cotes, and from most of the great mathematical astronomers of the 18th century, who worked out in detail the task sketched by the genius of Newton.
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  • This single principle of energy has transformed physical science by making possible the construction of a network of ramifying connexions between its various departments; it thus stimulates the belief that these constitute a single whole, and encourages the search for the complete scheme of interconnexion of which the principle of energy and the links which it suggests form only a single feature.
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  • In 1532 William Farel, a Protestant preacher from Dauphine, who had converted Vaud, &c., to the new belief, first came to Geneva and settled there in 1533.
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  • They were thus enabled to retain the belief in his Messiahship which his death had threatened to destroy permanently.
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  • Other fundamental principles of Paul's failed of comprehension and acceptance, but the belief finally prevailed that the observance of Jewish law and custom was unnecessary, and that in the Christian Church there is no distinction between the circumcised and the uncircumcised.
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  • The belief that the Church was a supernatural institution found expression in the Jewish notion of the presence and power of the Holy Spirit.
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  • It was believed among the Jews that the Messianic age would be the age of the Spirit in a marked degree, and this belief passed over into the Christian Church and controlled its thought and life for some generations.
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  • A result of this belief was to give their lives a peculiarly enthusiastic or inspirational character.
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  • Worship. - The primitive belief in the immediate presence of the Spirit affected the religious services of the Church.
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  • In the East, Augustine's, predestinationism had little influence, but East and West were one in their belief that human nature had been corrupted by the fall, and that salvation therefore is possible only to one who has received divine grace through the sacraments.
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  • The belief in the unity of the entire Church had existed from the beginning.
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  • In the long strife over dogma the old belief of the Greeks in the value of knowledge had made itself felt, and this faith was not extinct in the Eastern Church.
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  • The doctrinal decisions of the ancient Church remained the indestructible canon of belief, and what the theologians of the ancient Church had taught was reverenced as beyond improvement.
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  • Difference in religious belief, confession or language, constitute no obstacle to any citizen in regard to entry into the public services or offices, to the attainment to any promotion or dignity, or to the exercise of any trade or calling.
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  • In all his ideas he was dominated by an intense belief in the future and influence of the Englishspeaking people, in their democratic government and alliance for the purpose of peace and the abolition of war, and in the progress of education on unsectarian lines.
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  • It is not a real relation in objects, but rather a mental habit of belief engendered by frequent repetititon or custom.
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  • Belief, however, just because it rests, as has been said, on custom and the influence of the imagination, survives such demonstrations.
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  • The home of the vast majority of parrot-forms is unquestionably within the tropics, but the popular belief that parrots are tropical birds only is a great mistake.
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  • The foundation of belief was the Bible, not any one branch of the Catholic church arrogating to itself infallibility, and when dispute.
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  • Laud's complete neglect of the national sentiment, in his belief that the exercise of mere power was sufficient to suppress it, is a principal proof of his total lack of true statesmanship. The hostility to "innovations in religion," it is generally allowed, was a far stronger incentive to the rebellion against the arbitrary power of the crown, than even the violation of constitutional liberties; and to Laud, therefore, more than to Strafford, to Buckingham, or even perhaps to Charles himself, is especially due the responsibility for the catastrophe.
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  • Medieval writers, for whom the tale was preserved by the Arabian geographers, believed it true, and were fortified in their belief by numerous traditions of islands in the western sea, which offered various points of resemblance to Atlantis.
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  • The fundamental peculiarity of the movement lies in the fact that it is a criticism of what is supreme in Israel - its religion, and that it has rendered possible a true appreciation of this by showing that, like all living and life-giving systems of thought, belief and practice, the religion of Israel was subject to development.
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  • And this belief was the fundamental principle that determined the marking off of the writings of the first, or apostolic, age from the rest.
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  • But the Creed was but the condensed essence of the New Testament scriptures, and behind it there lay an appeal to these scriptures, which was especially necessary where (as in the case of the Valentinian Gnostics) the dissident bodies professed to accept the common belief of Christians.
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  • Reimarus' posthumous attack on Christianity, a work which showed that the mere study of the New Testament is not enough to compel belief in an unwilling reader.
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  • According to Strauss the fulfilments of prophecy in the New Testament arise from the Christians' belief that the Christian Messiah must have fulfilled the predictions of the prophets, and the miracles of Jesus in the New Testament either originate in the same way or are purely mythical embodiments of Christian doctrines.
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  • With this exception, however, all ancient writers, whether they enumerated two or three or four Passovers in the Gospel history, believed that the enumeration was exhaustive; and their belief appears correctly to represent the mind of the author of the Fourth Gospel, seeing that his various notes of time were probably in intentional contrast to the looser synoptic accounts.
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  • The belief in the short and direct westward passage from Europe to the East Indies was thus shaken, but it was still held that some passage was to be found, and in1519-1521Fernao de Magalhaes (Magellan) made the famous voyage in which he discovered the strait which bears his name.
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  • Near the town was the famous fountain of Sauros, inclosed by fruit-bearing poplars; and not far from this was another spring, overhung by an evergreen plane tree which in popular belief marked the scene of the amours of Zeus and Europa.
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  • The word therefore as we use it is meant to convey an idea which belongs to Hebrew and not to Hellenic belief.
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  • Its aim is to instruct, and it differs from a creed or confession in not being in the first instance an act of worship or a public profession of belief.
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  • It was early perceived by Huxley, Cope and many others that Cuvier's broad belief in a universal progression was erroneous, and there developed the distinction between " persistent primitive types " (Huxley) and " progressive types."
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  • It was characterized by a main belief, tending towards monotheism, in the Light-deity Ahuramazda and his satellites, who appeared in contrast with him as powers of the nature of angels.
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  • The great power exercised by the Roman Catholic church during the colonial period enabled it not only to mould the spiritual belief of the whole people, but also to control their education, tax their industries, and shape the political policies governing their daily life.
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  • Among the accounts of the Mexican religion are some passages referring to the belief in a supreme deity.
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  • In some parts of Indo-China the belief is that the soul of the elephant may injure people after death; it is therefore feted by a whole village.
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  • To this day there are numerous traces in popular belief, especially in Germany, of respect for the snake, which seems to be a survival of ancestor worship, such as still exists among the Zulus and other savage tribes; the "house-snake," as it is called, cares for the cows and the children, and its appearance is an omen of death, and the life of a pair of house-snakes is often held to be bound up with that of the master and mistress themselves.
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  • But hallucinatory figures, both in dreams and waking life, are not necessarily those of the living; from the reappearance of dead friends or enemies primitive man was inevitably led to the belief that there existed an incorporeal part of man which survived the dissolution of the body.
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  • If the phenomena of dreams were, as suggested above, of great importance for the development of animism, the belief, which must originally have been a doctrine of human psychology, cannot have failed to expand speedily into a general philosophy of nature.
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  • Side by side with the doctrine of separable souls with which we have so far been concerned, exists the belief in a great host of unattached spirits; these are not immanent souls which have become detached from their abodes, but have every appearance of independent spirits.
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  • Thus, animism is in some directions little developed, so far as we can see, among the Australian aborigines; but from those who know them best we learn that they believe in innumerable spirits and bush bogies, which wander, especially at night, and can be held at bay by means of fire; with this belief may be compared the ascription in European folk belief of prophylactic properties to iron.
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  • As an example of this stage in one of its aspects may be taken the European belief in the corn spirit, which is, however, the object of magical rather than religious rites; Dr Frazer has thus defined the character of the animistic pantheon, "they are restricted in their operations to definite departments of nature; their names are general, not proper; their attributes are generic rather than individual; in other words, there is an indefinite number of spirits of each class, and the individuals of a class are much alike; they have no definitely marked individuality; no accepted traditions are current as to their origin, life and character."
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  • With the rise of a belief in departmental gods comes the age of polytheism; the belief in elemental spirits may still persist, but they fall into the background and receive no cult.
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  • The more general view that polytheistic and other gods are the elemental and other spirits of the later stages of animistic creeds, is equally inapplicable to Australia, where the belief seems to be neither animistic nor even animatistic in character.
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  • At the same time, with the rise of ideas as to a future life and spiritual beings, this field of mythology is immensely widened, though it cannot be said that a rich mythology is necessarily genetically associated with or combined with belief in many spiritual beings.
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  • An entirely different class of ideas, also termed animistic, is the belief in the world soul, held by Plato, Schelling and others.
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  • The foundation of the Doukhobors' teaching consists in the belief that the Spirit of God is present in the soul of man, and directs him by its word within him.
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  • But the wealth to which they attained in the Caucasus weakened for a time their moral fervour, and little by little they began to depart somewhat from the requirements of their belief.
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  • His reputation does not seem justified; his works, as Plutarch says (De audiendis poetis, 16), have nothing poetical about them except the metre, and the style is bombastic and obscure; but they contain some interesting information as to ancient belief on the subjects treated.
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  • His refusal to subscribe unconditionally to the rigid formula of belief adopted by the theologians of Tubingen permanently closed against him the gates of his alma mater.
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  • The success of that war inspired him with a belief that the independence of Spanish America would increase its prosperity.
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  • Such a rite presupposes a belief in a real change of the elements; and water must have been used.
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  • It is not in literature, however ancient, that we must look for the early forms of the fairy belief.
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  • One of the most interesting facts about fairies is the wide distribution and long persistence of the belief in them.
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  • The fairy changeling belief also exists in some districts of Argyll, and a fairy boy dwelt long in a small farm-house in Glencoe, now unoccupied.
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  • Though the fairy belief is universally human, the nearest analogy to the shape which it takes in Scotland and Ireland - the "pixies" of south-western England - is to be found in Jan or Jinnis of the Arabs, Moors and people of Palestine.
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  • In the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-5 the greatest incentive to deeds of patriotic valour was for Japanese soldiers the belief that the spirits of their ancestors were watching them; and in China it is not the man himself that is ennobled for his philanthropic virtues or learning, but his ancestor.
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  • This is the reason for the belief that the bay which extended into the United States had its connection with the sea north of the United States.
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  • His mind gradually turned from belief in the efficacy of violent measures to the acceptance of constitutional methods; and in his last book, King Stork and King Log, he spoke with approval of the efforts of politicians on the Liberal side to effect, by argument and peaceful agitation, a change in the attitude of the Russian government towards various reforms. Stepniak constantly wrote and lectured, both in Great Britain and the United States, in support of his views, and his energy, added to the interest of his personality, won him many friends.
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  • We have seen how anxious Aristotle was to be considered one of the Platonists, how reluctant he was to depart from Plato's hypothesis of forms, and how, in denying the separability, he retained the Platonic belief in the reality and even in the unity of the universal.
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  • Moreover, the successors of Plato in the Academy, Speusippus and Xenocrates, showed the same belief in the essentiality of virtue.
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  • Other countries however still appear to cling to the belief that it is wisest to fix a maximum rate of legal interest.
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  • He was held to this belief in the substantiality of bodies by his Christianity, by the influence of Aristotle, of scholasticism and of Cartesianism, as well as by his own mechanics.
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  • Instead of the old belief that God made the world for man, philosophers began to fall into the pleasing dream, I am everything, and everything is I - and even I am God.
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  • Shall we resign our traditional belief that the greater part of the world is mere body, but that its general adaptability to conscious organisms proves its creation and government by God, and take to the new hypothesis, which, by a transfer of design from God to Nature, supposes that everything physical is alive, and conducts its life by psychical impulses of its own?
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  • In his first philosophical treatise, Philosophie als Denken der Welt gemdss dem Princip des kleinsten Kraftmaasses, Prolegomena zu einer Kritik der reinen Erfahrung (1876), he based his views on the principle of least action, contending that, as in Nature the force which produces a change is the least that can be, so in mind belief tends in the easiest direction.
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  • He forgets apparently that faith is a belief in things beyond ideas and ideals, which is impossible in his psychology of judgment and logic of inference.
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  • The System then ends with the necessity of an " ideal " of God as world-will, but provides no ground for the necessity of any belief whatever in the being of God, or indeed in any being at all beyond our own unitary experience.
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  • He describes his belief in an unknowable absolute as " carrying a step farther the doctrine put into shape by Hamilton and Mansel."
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  • He develops this belief in an absolute in connexion with his own theory of evolution into something different both from the idealism of Hume and the realism of Hamilton, and rather falling under the head of materialism.
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  • About the same time Benjamin Jowett had been studying the philosophy of Hegel; but, being a man endowed with much love of truth but with little belief in first principles, he was too wise to take for a principle Hegel's assumption that different things are the same.
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  • From Reid he adopted the belief in an external world beyond sensation, from Biran the explanation of personality by will, from Schelling the identification of all reason in what he called " impersonal reason," which he supposed to be identical in God and man, to be subjective and objective, psychological and ontological.
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  • Finally, as touch perceives reciprocal pressure within, and tactile inference infers it without, touch is the primary evidence of the senses which is the foundation and logical ground of our belief in Nature as a system of pressing bodies.
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  • Balfour, however, having from unproved assumptions denied the evidence of the senses, and the rational power of using them to infer things beyond oneself, has to look out for other, and non-rational, foundations of belief.
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  • Moreover, when the belief pr inference is uncertain, need even in the shape of desire is not in itself a foundation of belief in the thing desired: to need a dinner is not to believe in getting it; and, as Aristotle said, " there is a wish for impossibilities."
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  • It is fair, however, to add that Balfour has a further foundation for the belief in Nature, the survival of the fittest, by which those only would survive who possessed and could transmit the belief.
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  • Inference from sense is the one condition of all belief in anything beyond oneself, whether it be Nature, or Authority, or God; and it is the one condition of all needs, which are not mere feelings, but desires of things.
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  • It is probable also that the belief in the spirit world and in a future life was of a somewhat similar kind to what we find in Scandinavian religion.
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  • Mr Balfour's other publications, not yet mentioned, include Essays and Addresses (1893) and The Foundations of Belief, being Notes introductory to the Study of Theology (1895).
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  • Arms and ornaments are frequently met with, sometimes also horses and human remains which may be those of slaves, the belief being that the dead would have all that was buried with him at his service in the life beyond.
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  • Mention, however, must be made here of the fylgiur and hamingiur of Northern belief.
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  • In connexion with this attribution of superhuman powers, we may mention also the widespread belief that certain persons had the faculty of " changing shape," and especially of assuming the forms of animals.
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  • These beings are doubtless due in part to poetic imagination, but underlying this there may be a substratum of primitive religious belief.
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  • Mention has been made above of the belief that the dead retained a conscious existence in or near the place where they were buried, and that they were able to confer blessings upon their friends.
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  • Beside this belief, however, we find another which seems hardly to be compatible with it, viz., that the souls of the dead passed to the realm of Hel, who in Northern mythology is represented as the daughter of Loki.
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  • This last belief seems to have been connected at one time with the practice of cremation.
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  • Thus, in the third, fourth and fifth general sessions it was enacted, with characteristic precipitation, that an ecumenical council could not be dissolved or set aside by the pope, without its consent: the corollary to which was, that the present council, notwithstanding the flight of John XXIII., continued to exist in the full possession of its powers, and that, in matters pertaining to belief and the eradication of schism, all men - even the pope - were bound to obey the general council, whose authority extended over all Christians, including the pope himself.
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  • The very form of the bull, which merely sums up the various items of information that had reached the pope, is enough to prove that the decree was not intended to bind anyone to belief in such things.
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  • The fact that he had for so long been absent from Rome afforded ground for the belief that he was not inclined to identify himself with any of the parties at the Vatican court.
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  • But since he shared the above-mentioned belief of his master, nothing remained for him but to see in the Logos a second essence, created by God before the world, which came down to earth and took upon itself a human body.
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  • In the western half of the empire Arianism found no foothold, and even the despotic will of Constantius, sole emperor after 351, succeeded only for the moment in subduing the bishops exiled for the sake of their belief.
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  • I believe that the truth of that future cannot be brought to his knowledge by any exertion of his mental powers, however exalted they may be; that it is made known to him by other teaching than his own, and is received through simple belief of the testimony given.
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  • It would be improper here to enter upon this subject further than to claim an absolute distinction between religious and ordinary belief.
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  • In 1777 Spangenberg was commissioned to draw up an idea fidei fratrum, or compendium of the Christian faith of the United Brethren, which became the accepted declaration of the Moravian belief.
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  • This may or may not imply the belief that Nahrin is a plural.
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  • Her irreligion was shared by multitudes of contemporaries who had never been called upon to renounce one form of Christianity and profess belief in another in order to gain a crown.
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  • It has naturally been said that she organized the mutiny from the first, and some plausibility is conferred on this belief by the fact that the guards were manipulated by the four Orlov brothers.
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  • In support of this belief there is more or less scientifically ascertained evidence.
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  • Conversely, there is, however, conclusive evidence that in some instances and in respect of certain qualities the opposite belief is true.
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  • To deal with the former belief first, we have the remarkable case cited by Charles Darwin on the authority of Professor I.
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  • 19), but the belief in its existence and in the punishment of wrong-doing was salutary (ii.
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  • The inhabitants of Nias, an island to the west of Sumatra, have the strange belief that to everyone before birth is given the choice of a long and heavy or short and light soul (a parallel belief may be found in early Greek philosophy), and his choice determines the length of life.
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  • But more widespread perhaps than any belief, from its simplicity doubtless, is the idea that the body's shadow or reflexion is the soul.
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  • It expresses the savage belief that there departs from the dying in the final expiration a something tangible, capable of separate existence - the soul.
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  • Such examples might be multiplied unendingly, but enough has been said to show that the attitude of civilized man towards the sphinx-riddle of his end has been in part dictated and is even still influenced by the savage belief that to die is unnatural.
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  • When a person dies in a house information of the death and the particulars required to be registered must be given within five days of the death to the registrar to the best of the person's knowledge and belief by one of the following persons: - (I) The nearest relative of the deceased present at the death, or in attendance during the last illness of the deceased.
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  • The old fable of this bird inserting its beak into a reed or plunging it into the ground, and so causing the booming sound with which its name will be always associated, is also exploded, and nowadays indeed so few people in Britain have ever heard its loud and awful voice, which seems to be uttered only in the breeding-season, and is therefore unknown in a country where it no longer breeds, that incredulity as to its booming at all has in some quarters succeeded the old belief in this as in other reputed peculiarites of the species.
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  • Since belief in the adequacy of the two theories, above outlined, to account for the facts they profess to explain, depends ultimately upon the testimony that can be brought forward of the usefulness of warning characters, of the deception of mimicry and of the capacity for learning by experience possessed by enemies, it is necessary to give some of the evidence that has been accumulated on these points.
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  • It was the common belief in the apostolic age that the second advent of Christ was near, and would give the divine completion to the world's history.
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  • The reasons for the belief in a life after death are discussed in the article Immortality.
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  • The starting-point of the development was the common belief that the dead continued to exist in an unsubstantial mode of life, but cut off from fellowship with God and man; but faith left this far behind.
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  • This belief in individual immortality is expressed poetically and obscurely: it is later than the eschatology of the people.
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  • Epiphanius, following Methodius, insisted on the most perfect identity between the resurrection body and the material body; and this belief, enforced in the West by Jerome, soon established itself as alone orthodox.
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  • As regards the saints, different degrees of blessedness were recognized; they were supposed to wait in Hades for the return of Christ, but gradually the belief gained ground, especially in regard to the martyrs, that their souls at once entered Paradise.
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  • Otherwise his scepticism is subordinate to orthodox belief, the fundamental dogmas of the church seeming to him intuitively evident.
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  • His plea for the teaching of the science of fortification in universities, and the existence of such lectures in Leiden, have led to the impression that he himself filled this chair; but the belief is erroneous, as Stevinus, though living at Leiden, never had direct relations with its university.
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  • As the kingdom had not come, it was assumed that there must be persons living who had been present at the crucifixion; the same reasoning is at the root of the Anglo-Israel belief.
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  • The argument on which he chiefly relies is that the Bible cannot be considered necessary to a belief in Christianity, since Christianity was a living and conquering power before the New Testament in its present form was recognized by the church.
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  • Contrary, too, to popular belief, he has found a fibrous structure more common in pyrite than in marcasite.
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  • The height of the furnace is rarely as great as roo ft., and in the belief of many metallurgists it should not be much more than 80 ft.
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  • The date of the final settlement was in all probability delayed by the activity of Nelson, and his belief that a British fleet was the best negotiator in Europe.
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  • It was natural that olive and willow should have been chosen for the Palm Sunday ceremony, for they are the earliest trees to bud in the spring; their consecration, however, may be explained by the intention to Christianize a pagan belief, and it is easy to see how their mystic virtues came in this way to be ascribed to the palm also.
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  • His disappointment at its reception was great; and though he never entirely relinquished his metaphysical speculations, though all that is of value in his later writings depends on the acute analysis of human nature to which he was from the first attracted, one cannot but regret that his high powers were henceforth withdrawn for the most part from the consideration, of the foundations of belief, and expended on its practical applications.
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  • So far as analysis of knowledge is concerned they are in harmony, and Hume's sceptical conclusions regarding belief in matters of fact are the foundations on which Butler's defence of religion rests.
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  • Deists, though raising doubts regarding the historic narratives of the Christian faith, had never disputed the general fact that belief in one God was natural and primitive.
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  • Hume endeavours to show that polytheism was the earliest as well as the most natural form of religious belief, and that theism or deism is ' See Burton, ii.
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  • But this is explicitly the idea of the said thing as having had or as about to have existence, - in other words, belief in the existence of some matter of fact.
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  • What, for a conscious experience so constituted as Hume will admit, is the precise significance of such belief in real existence ?
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  • But when an idea is so roused up by a present impression, and when this idea, being a consequence of memory, has in itself a certain vivacity or liveliness, we regard it with a peculiar indefinable feeling, and in this feeling consists the immense difference between mere imagination and belief.
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  • Deferring his criticism of the significance of self and object, Hume yet makes use of both to aid his explanation of the belief attaching to reality.
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  • Quast, Der Begrif%des Belief bei David Hume (1903).
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  • Baxter was possessed by an unconquerable belief in the power of persuasive argument.
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  • He was at once a man of fixed belief and large appreciation, so that his dogmatism and his liberality sometimes came into collision.
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  • The belief in its immortality, he says, is the most universal of beliefs, but the most feebly supported by reason.
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  • This is one rule of wisdom with regard to religion; and another equally important is to avoid superstition, which he boldly defines as the belief that God is like a hard judge who, eager to find fault, narrowly examines our slightest act, that He is revengeful and hard to appease, and that therefore He must be flattered and importuned, and won over by pain and sacrifice.
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  • It is the abasing of man, the exalting of God, - the belief that what He sends is all good, and that all the bad is from ourselves.
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  • Upon this all the judges fell on their knees, seeking pardon for the form of their letter; but Coke ventured to declare his continued belief in the loyalty of its substance, and when asked if he would in the future delay a case at the king's order, the only reply he would vouchsafe was that he would do what became him as a judge.
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  • They renounced their allegiance to King James and were greatly disappointed when their standards found no place in the religious settlement of 1689, continuing to hold the belief that the covenants should be made obligatory upon the entire nation.
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  • Popular belief ascribes the foundation of the old city to Alexander the Great.
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  • There is no evidence of any such belief in Africa or elsewhere among primitive peoples.
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  • The suhman can, it is believed, communicate a part of his powers to various objects in which he does not dwell; these are also termed suhman by the natives and may have given rise to the belief that the practices commonly termed fetishism are not animistic. These charms are many in number; offerings of food and drink are made, i.e.
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  • It is a common error to suppose that the whole of African religion is embraced in the practices connected with these tutelary deities; so far from this being the case, belief in higher gods, not necessarily accompanied with worship or propitiation, is common in many parts of Africa, and there is no reason to suppose that it had been derived in every case, perhaps not in any case, from Christian or Mahommedan missionaries.
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  • For the general belief that he should return for the restoration of Israel cf.
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  • The name of the larger group of monuments close by, called the Countless Stones, is due to the popular belief, which occurs elsewhere, that they are not to be counted.
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  • Many people still Cherish the antiquated belief that black and green teas are grown upon different varieties of the tea-plant, which is quite a mistake, the difference being merely one of preparation.
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  • He has been represented as a determined apologist of intellectual orthodoxy animated by an almost fanatical "hatred of reason," and possessed with a purpose to overthrow the appeal to reason; as a sceptic and pessimist of a far deeper dye than Montaigne, anxious chiefly to show how any positive decision on matters beyond the range of experience is impossible; as a nervous believer clinging to conclusions which his clearer and better sense showed to be indefensible; as an almost ferocious ascetic and paradoxer affecting the credo quia impossibile in intellectual matters and the odi quia amabile in matters moral and sensuous; as a wanderer in the regions of doubt and belief, alternately bringing a vast though vague power of thought and an unequalled power of expression to the expression of ideas incompatible and irreconcilable.
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  • From the point of view that belief and knowledge, based on experience or reasoning, are separate domains with an unexplored sea between and round them, Pascal is perfectly comprehensible, and he need not be taken as a deserter from one region to the other.
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