We'd all begun to doubt him.
We have begun to take long walks every morning, immediately after breakfast.
Now that his diet had begun, wouldn't you know, Paul Dawkins had sprung for a case.
The sand in the hourglass had begun to fall faster the past two days.
Had it actually been six months ago that things had begun changing so dramatically?
The plan he'd begun to form was finally taking shape.
Natasha, that winter, had for the first time begun to sing seriously, mainly because Denisov so delighted in her singing.
She rubbed it as she.d begun to do whenever she was upset.
You summoning me shows you've begun to accept your place, love.
In the middle of a sober conversation begun by Ilagin about the year's harvest, Nicholas pointed to the red-spotted bitch.
This same summer the pond has begun to fall again.
They had hardly begun to play before the doctor's disheveled head suddenly appeared from behind Mary Hendrikhovna.
At the first sign of real trouble, those who weren't had begun to show their true allegiances.
One minute he'd be drinking in the beauty of the countryside and the next feeling a wave of anxiety, realizing what had begun as a mild suspicion was close to culminating in a face-to-face confrontation with Jeffrey Byrne.
Dawn had not yet begun to spread, but it would not be long.
All that has happened, and now all is changed, she thought as she sat with the letter she had begun before her.
You say I have begun this war!
He'd begun to think their recruitment standards were slipping until Jake mentioned the operation.
Everything looked quiet, until she checked her micro again and saw that the decryption program had begun popping up the messages that had been repressed in the comms system.
He'd begun to like Elise even more since spending time with her.
The rain stopped as quickly as it had begun, and the room became so quiet that it hurt her ears.
The nearest that I came to actual possession was when I bought the Hollowell place, and had begun to sort my seeds, and collected materials with which to make a wheelbarrow to carry it on or off with; but before the owner gave me a deed of it, his wife--every man has such a wife--changed her mind and wished to keep it, and he offered me ten dollars to release him.
After the advance has begun in this manner, orders will be given in accordance with the enemy's movements.
She has begun seeing someone; a young man who does grounds keeping work at the Country Club and is a half dozen years her junior.
"You are an innocent in a battle begun long before your father's passing," he said.
Sand had already begun to trickle into the bottom.
And then he released her as suddenly as he had begun the assault.
"He's begun to go a little lame on the left foreleg," he added.
Unlike the cheerful white walls of the house, the tall wall was the unwelcome shade of dark grey that she'd begun to despise after days in the spaceships surrounded by it.
Dean had hardly begun clearing the walk of the deep snow before Jake Weller drove up.
She rubbed her scarred arm and glanced up at the sky, which had begun to lighten.
The wound had begun to heal from within.
He'd begun to think he'd lost any chance he had at keeping her.
A pulse of warmth dispelled the tunnel vision that had begun to form.
Snow had begun to fall again and clung to the scout.s clothing.
Cynthia took up a pencil and paper again and began listing the different letters but almost as soon as they'd begun, they were interrupted by a soft knock on the door.
These last days I've begun to understand this and come to the dreaded decision of what is to become of me.
Autumn had begun to creep over New England, promising to transform the landscape into the backdrop that Jackson Parrish so loved.
The desire to kiss her gripped him, but he had already begun to fall apart, so instead pulled her in close.
Her face had already begun softening, and the warm sienna reclaimed her eyes.
The dream seemed so short, but the sky had begun to lighten on the horizon. The dream faded as he sat up. Toby stood nearby, his young face solemn.
Last night had brought him no closer to figuring out why she was pushing him away, though he'd begun to realize his body's response to her was endangering his own resolve not to be involved with anyone else ever again.
She looked towards their destination then back at the pillar of magic, which had grown thicker and had begun eating away at the earth around it.
An investigation was begun in March 1559, and as the result of a conviction for heresy the exhumed body of Jorisz was burned, together with his portrait, on the 13th of May 1559.
The breach between the queen's party and Albany's had widened, and the queen's advisers had begun an intrigue with England, to the end that the royal widow and her young son should be removed to Henry's court.
When war was actually begun, Hastings officially recorded his previous resolution to have resigned, in order to repudiate responsibility for measures which he had always opposed.
At the same time a settlement of the land revenue on leases for five years was begun, and the police and military systems of the country were placed upon a new footing.
In 1815 he was commissioned by government to complete the translation of Strabo which had been begun by Laporte-Dutheil, and in March 1816 he was one of those who were admitted to the Academy of Inscriptions by royal ordinance, having previously contributed a Memoire, " On the Metrical System of the Egyptians," which had been crowned.
Evidently our guns had begun to reply.
His kind, honest eyes, with the tears rising in them when she herself had begun to cry as she spoke of her loss, did not leave her memory.
Instead she looked again to Toby, who'd begun to mess with the buttons on his side of the car.
She'd survived another time, but she couldn't count on fate favoring her much longer, not when madness had begun to take its hold of her.
The principal building is the cathedral, a Gothic edifice begun in the 13th century.
The great cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, which was begun before your birth, would not be finished by your death.
It was the only open and cultivated field for a great distance on either side of the road, so they made the most of it; and sometimes the man in the field heard more of travellers' gossip and comment than was meant for his ear: "Beans so late! peas so late!"--for I continued to plant when others had begun to hoe--the ministerial husbandman had not suspected it.
Since Bennigsen, who corresponded with the Emperor and had more influence than anyone else on the staff, had begun to avoid him, Kutuzov was more at ease as to the possibility of himself and his troops being obliged to take part in useless aggressive movements.
The timing was propitious, as black clouds had begun to roll up the valley and gather above them, the advance guard of a summer shower.
She looked up at the glowing clouds, from which snow had begun to fall again.
His planet was dying without either, and many had begun to accept this was the planet's fate.
Just before the books came, Mr. Gilman had begun to remonstrate with Miss Sullivan on the ground that I was working too hard, and in spite of my earnest protestations, he reduced the number of my recitations.
Had Napoleon not ridden out on the evening of the twenty-fourth to the Kolocha, and had he not then ordered an immediate attack on the redoubt but had begun the attack next morning, no one would have doubted that the Shevardino Redoubt was the left flank of our position, and the battle would have taken place where we expected it.
I see that I have begun to understand too much.
The crime had begun and must now be completed.
It reinforced what she had begun to doubt: This was where she belonged.
She had done nothing but cry, complain and faint since this ordeal had begun.
There followed the familiar tossing and turning, telling me the dreams had begun.
Jonny had begun disappearing in the evenings with most of the vamps, and she knew he was out hunting humans.
The case hasn't even begun!
The fireworks had begun.
Cynthia laughed, the first sign of life since the ordeal had begun.
He'd begun to remember his life as the White God, memories that had been trapped in darkness for so long.
Peace negotiations were begun with Charles II.
Even then he had begun to distrust the authority of tradition and his teachers.
His second great work, Meditations on the First Philosophy, which had been begun soon after his settlement in the Netherlands, expounded in more detail the foundations of his system, 1 Ouvres, vi.
She had already determined to create him a noble, and begun to look out an estate in the lately annexed possessions of Sweden on the Pomeranian coast.
A complete French edition of the collected works was begun in the Romance Library (1907 foll.).
Excavations on the site of Ostia were only begun towards the close of the 18th century, and no systematic work was done until 1854, when under Pius IX.
In this third part Aquinas discusses the person, office and work of Christ, and had begun to discuss the sacraments, when death put an end to his labours.
After 445 Athens was hardly in a position to summon such a congress, and would not have sent to envoys out of 20 to northern and central Greece, where she had just lost all her influence; nor is it likely that the building of the Parthenon (begun not later than 447) was entered on before the congress.
Marecchia) begun by Augustus and completed by Tiberius in A.D.
Although the abbey ale was mentioned as early as 1295, the brewing industry is comparatively of recent development, having begun about 1708.
On the other hand the better party among the priests, believing the ritual to be necessary, might undertake to moralize it; of such a movement, begun by Deuteronomy, Ezekiel is the most eminent representative.
Immediately on the‘ formation of the Canadian Pacific railway company branch lines were begun at Winnipeg and there are eight radial lines running from this centre to all parts of the country.
By some it is said to have begun at the Reformation; by some it is traced back to the days of Israel in O Egypt; 2 by most, however, it is regarded as of later Jewish origin, and as having come into existence in its present form simultaneously with the formation of the Christian Church.
South Lowestoft arose on the completion of harbour improvements, begun in 1844, when the outlet of the Waveney, reopened in 1827, was deepened.
To the south-west of the cathedral stands the baptistery, designed by Benedetto Antelami; it was begun in 1196 and not completed till 1281.
He had already begun his work of toleration, for he had recently produced a drama (Die Juden, 1749), the motive of which was to prove that a Jew can be possessed of nobility of character.
Communications.-The development of railways in Argentina, which dates from 1857 when the construction of the Buenos Aires Western was begun, was at first slow and hesitating, but after 1880 it went forward rapidly.
The contract for building the railway was put in the hands of Thomas Brassey; English navvies were largely employed on the work, and a number of English engine-drivers were employed when traffic was begun in 1843.
The result came to be that many small lines were begun by companies that had not the means to complete them, and again the state had to come to the rescue.
The tendency of the currents in the Channel opposite Brighton is to drive the shingle eastward, and encroachments of the sea were frequent and serious until the erection of a massive sea-wall, begun about 1830, 60 ft.
The latter was begun by Henry of Guise in 1578, in place of an older château burnt by Louis XI.
But at the same time, the Persian dynast Ardashir had already begun his conquests in Persia and Carmania.
Vermont was almost the last of the New England states to develop textile manufactures, though the manufacture of woollen goods was begun in 1824.
The rampart was begun by Gu606r (Godefridus), king of Vestfold, early in the 9th century.
The kasbah was begun in 1516 on the site of an older building, and served as the palace of the deys until the French conquest.
Work on the northern harbour was begun in 1836, on the southern in 1904.
Sofia, a circular edifice of about 760, now modernized, the roof of which is supported by six ancient columns, is a relic of the Lombard period; it has a fine cloister of the 12th century constructed in part of fragments of earlier buildings; while the cathedral with its fine arcaded facade and incomplete square campanile (begun in 1279) dates from the 9th century and was rebuilt in 1114.
basilica with a vaulted portico and a nave and two aisles begun in 1103, a mosaic pavement in the Cosmatesque style, a good ambo resting on columns and decorated with mosaics showing traces of Moorish influence, a Paschal candelabrum, and an organ gallery of similar style.
A universal outburst of veneration followed; indeed his cult had already begun, and after ' With the title of Nicopolis in partibus.
The citadel was begun six years later "ad coercendam Perusinorum audaciam."
They were begun in 1758 and completed in 1807, but have been completely modernized.
It was brought into its present state by the extensive works begun about 1867.
The cable is carefully coiled into the tanks in horizontal flakes, each of which is begun at the outside of the tank and coiled towards the centre.
The manufacture of the cable, begun early in the following year, was finished in June, and before the end of July it was stowed partly in the American ship " Niagara " and partly in decided to begin paying out in mid-ocean, the two vessels, after splicing together the ends of the cable they had on board, sailing away from each other in opposite directions.
Disciples joined him, and when they were twelve in number Francis said: "Let us go to our Mother, the holy Roman Church, and tell the pope what the Lord has begun to do through us, and carry it out with his sanction."
Many articles formerly imported are now made at home, and some Italian manufactures have begun to compete in foreign markets.
The jute industry is concentrated in a few large factories, which from 1887 onwards have more than supplied the home market, and have begun considerably to export.
The privileges confirmed to the Lombard cities by the peace of Constance were extended to Tuscany, where Florence, having War of ruined Fiesole, had begun her career of freedom and clues prosperity.
Here he would willingly have stopped, but he soon realized that he had hardly begun.
The Piedmontese under an tldini had begun the siege on the 5th of November, but it was He ~ not until the 10th of January ~86i, when at the age, o!
Soon after taking office he completed the negotiations begun by the Rudini administration for a new commercial treaty with France (October 1898), whereby Franco-Italian commercial relations were placed upon a normal footing after a breach which had lasted for more than ten years.
The agitation had begun some fifteen years before, and the men had at various times demanded better pay and shorter hours, often with success.
The spirit of indiscipline had begun to reach the lower classes of state employees, especially the school teachers and the postal and telegraph clerks, and at one time it seemed as though the country were about to face a situation similar to that which arose in France in the spring of 1909.
The Pantheon in Paris was the church built in the classical style by Soufflot; it was begun in 1764 and consecrated to the patroness of the city, Sainte Genevieve.
His first original paper (1799) was on the compounds of arsenic and antimony with oxygen and sulphur, and of his other separate investigations one of the most important was that on the compound ethers, begun in 1807.
It is only or germination of the latter that the development of the embryc into the free plant is begun.
When a given initial cell of the cambium has once begun to produce cells of this sort it continues the process, so that a radial plate of parenchyma cells is formed stretching in one plane through the xylem and phloem.
History and Bibliography.The study of plant anatomy was begun in the middle of the seventeenth century as a direct result of the construction of microscopes, with which a clear view of the structure of plant tissues could be obtained.
Nevertheless, epidemics occur, and practical measures are devised to meet the various cases and to check the ravages already begun.
The rows of cells from which the laticiferous vessels are formed can be distinguished in many cases in the young embryo while still in the dry seed (Scott), but the latex vessels in process of formation are more easily seen when germination has begun.
This great work was begun in July 1708, and the completed maps were presented to the emperor in 1718.
The Spaniards under Quadra had begun a survey of north-western America and occupied Nootka Sound, which their government eventually agreed to surrender.
The older portion, the capella in palatio, an octagonal building surmounted by a dome, was designed on the model of San Vitale at Ravenna by Udo of Metz, was begun under Charlemagne's auspices in 796 and consecrated by Pope Leo III.
The proper study of fossil birds may be said to have begun with A.
The Life and Correspondence of Rufus King, begun about 1850 by his son, Charles King, was completed by his grandson, Charles R.
It was begun in 1369, and has double aisles, ambulatory and radiating chapels, and contains some finely carved woodwork.
Migne's texts are not always satisfactory, but since the completion of his great undertaking two important collections have been begun on critical lines - the Vienna edition of the Latin Church writers,' and the Berlin edition of the Greek writers of the ante-Nicene period .8 For English readers there are three series of translations from the fathers, which cover much of the ground; the Oxford Library of the Fathers, the Ante Nicene Christian Library and the Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers.
It is probable, however, that before this time some of the pupils of Squarcione, including Mantegna, had already begun that series of frescoes in the chapel of S.
square, of the "Triumph of Caesar " - which he had probably begun before his leaving for Rome, and which are now in Hampton Court.
Here palm trees, which had begun to appear singly at Deir, grow in large groves, the olive disappears entirely, and we have definitely passed over from the Syrian to the Babylonian, flora and climate.
How early this work was begun is not clear, but it would appear to have been at least largely reconstructed in the time of the great Nebuchadrezzar.
The cathedral, a beautiful church, was consecrated in 1084, but of this early building only foundation walls remain; the present structure of brick was begun in 1215, and enlarged and restored at various later dates.
The real conquest of Uruguay was begun under Philip III.
The name is especially given to the great entrance hall of the Acropolis at Athens, which was begun in 437 B.C. by Pericles, to take the place of an earlier gateway.
A famine had begun to rage.
(6) Church Revival in Bohemia and Moravia, begun in 1869, and sanctioned by the Austrian government (1880).
Operations for removing the obstacles in the channel and for deepening and widening it were begun as long ago as 1838.
- The Russkiy Encyclopedicheskiy Slovar, edited by Brockhaus and Efron, was begun in 1890, with the idea of giving a Russian version of Brockhaus's Conversations Lexikon, but from the very first volumes it became a monumental encyclopaedia, and is, indeed, an inexhaustible source of information on everything Russian.
A general popular description of Russia entitled Rossiya, containing excellent geographical, geological and other descriptions of separate regions, and very well-chosen illustrations, was begun in 1899 under the editorship of V.
Several of his immediate predecessors had come to recognize that Russia, with her antiquated military organization, was unable to cope with her Western neighbours, and had begun to organize, with the help of foreigners, a military force more in accordance with modern requirements; but the progress made in that direction had been slow and unsatisfactory.
Gradually, however, the accommodation improved, and by the middle of the 19th century second-class passengers had begun to enjoy " good glass windows and cushions on the seat," the fares they paid being about 2d.
The first actual work, however, was not begun till 1870, when the construction of an iron structure on a single row of columns was undertaken.
It was not till the 19th of January 1826 that he recorded in the private memoranda begun by him in 1820 his decision "to embrace the gift of the Spanish subject."
Meanwhile his indiscriminate appetite for reading had begun to fix itself more and more decidedly upon history; and the list of historical works devoured by him during this period of chronic ill-health is simply astonishing.
I also continued my correspondence, begun last year, with M.
From France he proceeded to Switzerland, and spent nearly a year at Lausanne, where many old friendships and studies were resumed, and new ones begun.
The fourth volume, partly written in 1782, was completed in June 1784; the preparation of the fifth volume occupied less than two years; while the sixth and last, begun 18th May 1786, was finished in thirteen months.
The survey for the Truckee-Carson system was begun in 1902, with the object of utilizing the waters flowing to waste in western Nevada for the irrigation and reclamation of the adjacent arid regions in Churchill, Lyon and Storey counties.
Haloa, obviously connected with aces (" threshing-floor "), begun at Athens and finished at Eleusis, where there was a threshing-floor of Triptolemus, in the month Poseideon (December).
In Hong-Kong similar measures were carried out, with the result that the hospital admissions for malaria diminished from 1294 in 1901, the year when operations were begun, to 419 in 1905.
I Drainage works begun.
His thermochemical work was begun in 1853, but most of his experiments were performed in the years 1869-82, the whole being published collectively, under the title Thermochemische Untersuchungen, in four volumes.
The chief glory of the place is its splendid cathedral, dedicated to the Virgin; it was begun before 1285, perhaps by Arnolfo di Cambio, on the site of an older church; and from the 13th till the 16th century was enriched by the labours of a whole succession of great Italian painters and sculptors.
With the splendour of the whole, the beauty of the composition is marvellous, and it may rank as the highest achievement of Italian Gothic. It was begun in 1310, but the upper part was not completed till the 16th century.
It was begun by Ugolino Vieri of Siena in 1337, and was made to contain the Holy Corporal from Bolsena, which, according to the legend, became miraculously stained with blood during the celebration of mass to convince a sceptical priest of the truth of the doctrine of transubstantiation.
Close by are two Gothic buildings, the bishop's palace (1264) and the Palazzo dei Papi (begun in 1296), the latter with a huge hall now containing the Museo Civico, with various medieval works of art, and also objects from the Etruscan necropolis of the ancient Volsinii (q.v.).
It was begun by the architect Antonio da San Gallo the younger in 1527 for Clement VII., who fled to Orvieto after the sack of Rome, and was finished by Simone Mosca under Paul III.
- This dispersion of the Jews had begun in the Hellenistic period, but it was after the Barcochebas war that it assumed great dimensions in Europe.
Under Charlemagne, the Jews, who had begun to settle in Gaul in the time of Caesar, were more than tolerated.
At once she became a valuable co-operator with him both in his professional duties and in the astronomical researches to which he had already begun to devote all his spare time.
It is certain that towards the close of this third and concluding Late Minoan period in the island certain mainland types of swords and safety-pins make their appearance, which are symptomatic of the great invasion from that side that was now impending or had already begun.
Already as chairman of the food section of the Council of National Defense he had begun to marshal all the agencies for economizing, especially on those foods which the Allies needed.
In March he entered the Cabinet of President Harding as Secretary of Commerce, stipulating that he be allowed to carry out his European relief work, already begun.
The management of the road under his control, and especially the sale of $5,000,000 of fraudulent stock in 1868-1870, led to litigation begun by English bondholders, and Gould was forced out of the company in March 1872 and compelled to restore securities valued at about $7,500, 0 00.
Agitation for repudiation was begun by Governor A.
The mining of corundum was begun at Corundum Hill in Macon county in 1871, and from 1880 to 1902 the output was considerable, but with the discovery of the Canadian corundum Scale, 1:2,500,000 English Miles 20 30 4 0 So County Seats e County Boundaries Railitlays Canals Swamps deposits the importance of those of North Carolina greatly declined.
Railway building was begun in the state in 1836 with the Raleigh & Gaston line, opened from Raleigh to Gaston in 1844 and extended to Weldon in 1852.
or more by dredging and by the construction of jetties and an immense dam, works which were begun by the state in 1823 but from 1828 were carried on from time to time by the national government.
A movement begun by the Confederate Veterans Association in October 1889 resulted in the establishment in 1890 of a home for disabled veterans at Raleigh; this became a state institution in 1891.
The chief object of interest is the church of Sainte-Anne (once the cathedral), the building of which was begun about the year 1056 on the site of a much older edifice, but not completed until the latter half of the 17th century.
A comparison of the two records, however, is especially important for its illustration of the later tendency to idealize the figure of David, and the historical critic has to bear in mind the possibility that this tendency had begun long before the Chronicler's time, and that it may be found in the relatively older records preserved in Samuel.
His acquaintance with Mirabeau, begun in 1788, ripened during the following year into a friendship, which La 11/Iarck hoped to turn to the advantage of the court.
Gibbons, who had begun to run a steamboat from New Jersey, appealed to the Supreme Court.
The arsenal of Kherson, begun in 1778, the harbour of Sevastopol and the new fleet of fifteen liners and twenty-five smaller vessels, were monuments of his genius.
It was begun before, but published after, the Getica.
But long before that date the Order had begun to find that its true work lay on the eastern frontiers of Germany.
Meanwhile Shamyl had roused the Lesghian tribes farther east and begun his twenty years' struggle for freedom, a struggle which called forth the sympathy and admiration of nearly the whole of Europe.
The Capitol (begun in 1785 and completed in 1792 - the wings were added in 1906) was designed from a model and plans of the Maison Carree, at Nimes, supplied by Thomas Jefferson, while he was minister to France.
The seedtime, begun in October, extends, for wheat and some other white crops, through November and December; and barley continues to be sown until about the middle of February.
In John Houghton's Collections on Husbandry and Trade, a periodical work begun in 1681, there is one of the earliest notices of turnips being eaten by sheep:" Some in Essex have their fallow after turnips, which feed their sheep in winter, by which means the turnips are scooped, and so made capable to hold dews and rain water, which, by corrupting,; _ mbibes the nitre of the air, and when the shell breaks it runs about and fertilizes.
A year or two later field trials were begun in England, with the final result that basic slag has become recognized as a valuable source of phosphorus for growing crops, and is now in constant demand for application to the soil as a fertilizer.
Further experiments relating to certain aspects of the subject were begun in 1898.
In the campaign of 1304, when Edward renewed his attempt on Scotland and reduced Stirling, Bruce supported the English king, who in one of his letters to him says, "If you complete that which you have begun, we shall hold the war ended by your deed and all the land of Scotland gained."
Firdousi had been always strongly attracted by the ancient Pahlavi records, and had begun at an early age to turn them into Persian epic verse.
The attacks on Origen, which had begun in his lifetime, did not cease for centuries, and only subsided during the time of the fierce Arian controversy.
This he had already begun at Auxonne under the inspiring guidance of the baron du Teil.
The great canal was not begun; irrigation works were started but were soon given up. The letters of Kleber and Menou (the successors of Bonaparte) show that the expenditure on public works had been so reckless that the colony was virtually bankrupt at the time of Bonaparte's departure; and William Hamilton, who travelled through Egypt in 1802, found few traces, other than military, of the French occupation.
But even before Trafalgar he had begun to strike at that most vulnerable form of wealth, as the Jacobins had done before him.
Austria meanwhile had begun to arm as a precautionary measure; and Napoleon, shortly after his return from Bayonne to Paris, publicly declared that, if her preparations went on, he would wage against her a war of extermination.
Meanwhile the deliberations respecting the choice of her successor had already begun.
Desmoulins may be said to have begun on the following day that public literary career which lasted till his death.
Desmoulins was powerfully swayed by the influence of more vigorous minds; and for some time before the death of Mirabeau, in April 1791, he had begun to be led by Danton, with whom he remained associated during the rest of his life.
The fort lies within the tract of 252 acres ceded, for coast defence purposes, to the Federal government by the state of Virginia in 1821, the survey for the original fortifications having been made in 1818, and the building begun in 1819.
Prehistoric research had now begun to extend beyond the Greek mainland.
Commerce with Egypt, for example, has increased in a marked degree, and Aegean objects or imitations of them are found to have begun to penetrate into Syria, inland Asia Minor, and the central and western Mediterranean lands, e.g.
Basset in the Patrologia orient., and that of the Ethiopian synaxarium was begun by I.
In the cockroach embryo, before the segmentation of the germ-band has begun, the primitive germ-cells can be recognized at the hinder end of the mesoderm, from whose ordinary cells they can be distinguished by their larger size.
His Histoire naturelle, generale et particuliere, was begun in 1749, and in 1770 he brought out, with the assistance of Guenau de Montbeillard, 3 the first volume of his great Histoire naturelle des oiseaux.
ment, especially as a new edition was called for in 1790, the ornithological portion of which was begun by Bonnaterre, who, however, had only finished three hundred and twenty pages of it when he lost his life in the French Revolution; and the work thus arrested was continued by Vieillot under the slightly changed title of Tableau encyclopedique et methodique des trois regnes de la Nature - the Ornithologie forming volumes four to seven, and not completed till 1823.
The Naturalist's Miscellany or Vivarium Naturale, in English and Latin, of Shaw and Nodder, the former being the author, the latter the draughtsman and engraver, was begun in 1789 and carried on till Shaw's death, forming twenty-four volumes.
In 1814 a sequel, The Zoological Miscellany, was begun by Leach, Nodder continuing to do the plates.
The fulness and accuracy of the text, combined with the neat beauty of its coloured plates, have gone far to promote the study of ornithology in Germany, and while essentially a popular work, since it is suited to the comprehension of all readers, it is throughout written with a simple dignity that commends it to the serious and scientific. Its twelfth and last volume was published in 1844 - by no means too long a period for so arduous and honest a performance, and a supplement was begun in 1847; but, the editor - or author as he may be fairly called - dying in 1857, this continuation was finished in 1860 by the joint efforts of J.
A similar series of works was projected and begun about the same time as that of Le Vaillant by Audebert and Vieillot, though the former, who was by profession a painter and illustrated the work, was already dead more than a year before the appearance of the two volumes, bearing date 2802, and entitled Oiseaux dores ou a reflets metalliques, the effect of the plates in which he sought to heighten by the lavish use of gilding.
Temminck, whose father's aid to Le Vaillant has already been noticed, brought out at Paris a Histoire naturelle des pigeons illustrated by Madame Knip, who had drawn the plates for Desmarest's volume.3 Since we have begun by considering these large illustrated works in which the text is made subservient to the coloured plates, it may be convenient to continue our notice of such others of similar character as it may be expedient to mention here, though thereby we shall be led somewhat far afield.
A Monograph of the Odontophorinae or Partridges of America (1850); The Birds of Asia, in seven volumes, the last completed by Mr Sharpe (1850-1883); The Birds of Great Britain, in five volumes (1863-1873); and The Birds of New Guinea, begun in 1875, and, after the author's death in 1881, undertaken by Mr Sharpe, make up the wonderful tale consisting of more than forty folio volumes, and containing more than three thousand coloured plates.
begun about 1855, with a brief text by D.
The Galerie des oiseaux, a rival work, with plates by Oudart,' seems to have been begun immediately after the former.
and eighty-two plates, whereof seventy represent birds, appeared between 1820 and 1821, and in 1829 a second series of the same was begun by him, which, extending to another three volumes, contained forty-eight more plates of birds out of one hundred and thirty-six, and was completed in 1833.
A work of somewhat similar character, but one in which the letterpress is of greater value, is the Centurie zoologique of Lesson, a single volume that, though bearing the date 1830 on its title-page, is believed to have been begun in 1829, 1 and was certainly not finished until 1831.
were not here made of the Conspectus generum avium, begun in 1850 by the naturalist last named, with the help of Schlegel, and unfortunately interrupted by its author's death six years later.s The systematic publications of George Robert Gray, so long in charge of the ornithological collection of the G.
" Erebus " and " Terror," begun in 1864, but left unfinished from the following year until completed by Mr Sharpe in 1876.
Meanwhile in England Dr Bree had in 1858 begun the publication of The Birds of Europe not observed in the British Isles (4 vols.
Of Yarrell's work in three volumes, a second edition was published in 1845, a third in 1856, and a fourth, begun in 1871, and almost wholly rewritten.
own country, there were few to notice seriously what is certainly one of the most remarkable works ever published on the science, much less to pursue the investigations that had been so laboriously begun.
These terms were explained in his great work L' Organisation du regne animal, oiseaux, begun in 1855, to mean exactly the same as those applied by Merrem to his two primary divisions.
It was also within the scope of his plan to have continued on a more extended scale the researches on ossification begun by L'Herminier, and thus M.
Fiirbringer supposes that birds must have begun with toothed forms of small or moderate size, with long tails and four lizard-like feet and bodies clothed with a primitive kind of down.
The palace as we now see it was begun about 1300 by Doge Pietro Gradenigo, who soon after the closing of the great council gave its permanent form to the Venetian constitution.
St Mark's suffered on two occasions: first during the restoration of the north facade in 1843, and again during that of the south facade,, begun in 1865 and finished in 1878.
Turning to the other problem, that of internal fusion and consolidation, we find that in 466, fourteen years after the fall of Aquileia, the population of the twelve lagoon townships met at Grado for the election of one tribune from each island for the better government of the separate communities, and above all to put an end to rivalries which had already begun to play a disintegrating part.
Coal was discovered here as early as 1770, and the mining of it was begun not later than 1828, but no accurate account of the output was kept until 1872, in which year it was 5,315,294 short tons; this was increased to 18,988,150 short tons in 1900, and to 26,270,639 short tons in 1908 - in 1907 it was 32,142,419 short tons.
There is some iron ore in the eastern and south-eastern parts of the state, and the mining of it was begun early in the 19th century; but the output decreased from 254,294 long tons in 1889 to only 26,585 long tons (all carbonate) in 1908.
Before the completion of the Miami & Erie Canal to Toledo, the building of railways was begun in this region, and in 1836 a railway was completed from that city to Adrian, Michigan.
As the building of steam railways lessened, the building of suburban and interurban electric railways was begun, and systems of these railways have been rapidly extended until all the more populous districts are connected by them.
This company in 1750 sent Christopher Gist down the Ohio river to explore the country as far as the mouth of the Scioto river; and four years later the erection of a fort was begun in its interest at the forks of the Ohio.
A small company of Connecticut people under Moses Cleaveland founded Cleveland in 17 9 6 and Youngstown was begun a few years later, but that portion of the state made very slow progress until after the opening of the Ohio & Erie Canal in 1832.
The two great orders, Franciscans and Dominicans, were in the vigour of youth, and had already begun to take the lead in theological discussion.
A noteworthy feature of the metropolitan public water service was begun in 1896 in the Wachusett lake reservoir at Clinton, on the Nashua river.
The metropolitan system, which extends around the city on a radius of 10 to 12 m., was begun in 1893.
Amongst its buildings are the Gothic five-naved church of St Barbara, begun in 1368, the Gothic church of St Jacob (14th centur y) and the Late Gothic Trinity church (end of 15th century).
He had in the meantime, however, begun his great work, to which these several efforts were only preparatory studies.
Before it was completed he had already begun the researches on which was based the second of his masterpieces, his Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Reformation (Berlin, 1839-47), a necessary pendant to his book on the popes, and the most popular of his works in his own country.
Testing is begun when the temperature reaches 66° by slowly drawing the slide open and reclosing it, the speed being regulated by the swing of a pendulum supplied with the instrument.
- The Crusades may be regarded partly as the decumanus fluctus in the surge of religious revival, which had begun in western Europe during the loth, and had mounted high during the 11th century; partly as a chapter, and a most important chapter, in the history of the interaction of East and West.
As early as 970 the recovery of the territories lost to Mahommedanism in the East had been begun by emperors like Nicephoras Phocas and John Zimisces: they had pushed their conquests, if only for a time, as far as Antioch and Edessa, and the temporary occupation of Jerusalem is attributed to the East Roman arms. At the opposite end of the Mediterranean, in Spain, the Omayyad caliphate was verging to its fall: the long Spanish crusade against the Moor had begun; and in 1018 Roger de Toeni was already leading Normans into Catalonia to the aid of the native Spaniard.
The Arabs had begun the conquest of Sicily from the East Roman empire in 827, and they had attacked the mainland of Italy as early as 840.
In 1100, indeed, it might appear that a new Crusade from the West, which the capture of Antioch in 1098 had begun, and the conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 had finally set in motion, was destined to achieve great things for the nascent kingdom.
Thus was begun the Second Crusade, 1 under auspices still more favourable than those which attended the beginning of the First, seeing that kings now took the place of knights, while the new crusaders would no longer be penetrating into the wilds, but would find a friendly basis of operations ready to their hands in Frankish Syria.
The siege of Acre, as arduous and heroic in many of its episodes as the siege of Troy, had been begun in the summer of 1189 by Guy de Lusignan, who, captured by Saladin at the battle of Hattin, and released on parole, had at once broken his word and returned to the attack.
Thousands must have joined the Third Crusade in order to escape paying either their taxes or the interest on their debts; and the atmosphere of the gold-digger's camp (or of the cave of Adullam) must have begun more than ever to characterize the crusading armies.
It was indeed time; the privations of the besiegers during the previous winter had been terrible; and the position of affairs had only been made worse by the dissensions between Guy de Lusignan and Conrad of Montferrat, who had begun to claim the crown in return for his services, and had, on the death of Sibylla, the wife of Guy, reinforced his claim by a marriage with her younger sister, Isabella.
Some results were, however, achieved by a body of German crusaders which had sailed in advance of Henry; by its influence Amalric of Cyprus succeeded Henry of Champagne, who died in 1197, as king of Jerusalem, and a vassal of the emperor thus became ruler in the Holy Land; while the Teutonic order, which had begun as a hospital during the siege of Acre (1190-1191), now received its organization.
Thus was begun the First Crusade against heresy.
Damietta was taken without a blow, and the march for Cairo was begun, as it had been begun by the legate Pelagius in 1221.
That, too, had begun with a shepherd boy: the leader of the Pastoureaux, like the leader of the children, promised to lead his followers dry-shod through the seas; and tradition even said that this leader, "the master of Hungary," as he was called, was the Stephen of the Children's Crusade.
Again in 1252 St Louis (who had already begun to negotiate with the Mongols in the winter of 1248-1249) sent the friar William of Rubruquis to the court of the great khan; but again nothing came of the mission save an increase of geographical knowledge.
against Charles of Anjou, who in 1270 had actively begun preparations for the attack on Constantinople.
Thus was a papal Crusade begun, backed by an alliance with Constantinople, and thus were the plans of Charles of Anjou temporarily thwarted.
As early as 1308 the Ottoman Turks had begun to settle in Europe; by 1350 they had organized their terrible army of janissaries.
A wide missionary activity had begun in the 13th century - an activity which was the product of the Crusades and the contact with the Moslem which they brought, but which yet helped to check the Crusades, substituting as it did peaceful and spiritual conquests of souls for the violence and materialism of even a Holy War.
The Eastern mission had been begun by St Francis, who had visited and attempted to convert the sultan of Egypt during the Fifth Crusade (1220); within a hundred years the little seed had grown into a great tree.
The production of sugar, begun by the early Spanish settlers, declined, but that of syrup increased.
In the Black Country, Darlaston circuit was formed in 1820, and John Wedgewood's Cheshire Mission, begun in 1819, led to work in Liverpool on the one hand and in Salop on the other.
Work begun in Australia and New Zealand prospered, and the former country finally contributed over 1 i,000 members to the formation of the United Methodist Church of Australia, New Zealand with its 2600 members preferring to remain connected with the home country.
In January 1870 the first piece of real foreign missionary work was begun at Fernando Po, followed in December of the same year by the mission at Aliwal North on the Orange River in South Africa.
In 1899 another South African mission was started, ultimately locating itself at Mashukulumbwe, and a few years later work was begun in Southern Nigeria.
Gauden stated that he had begun the book in 1647 and was entirely responsible for it.
They assembled together with glad faces and in white garments, and the proceedings were begun with prayers, in which they stood and stretched their eyes and hands to heaven.
Drew had begun to meditate a greater attempt before he wrote his Remarks on Paine; and, encouraged by the antiquary John Whitaker, he published his Essay on the Immateriality and Immortality of the Soul in 1802.
In 1814 he completed a history of Cornwall begun by F.
But the staunch Federalists of the senate, who had begun to draw the party lines rather sharply, found the presence of the young Genevan highly distasteful.
Dolet, &c. For a time her influence with her brother, to whom she was entirely devoted, and whom she visited when he was imprisoned in Spain, was effectual, but latterly political rather than religious considerations made him discourage Lutheranism, and a fierce persecution was begun against both Protestants and freethinkers, a persecution which drove Des Periers to suicide and brought Dolet to the stake.
The systematic study of Athenian topography was begun in the 17th century by French residents at Athens, the consuls Giraud and Chataignier and the Capuchin monks.
In 1896 excavations with the object of exploring the whole northern and eastern slopes of the Acropolis were begun by Kavvadias.
The great advantages which the Peiraic promontory with its three natural harbours offered for purposes of defence and commerce were first recognized by Themistocles, in whose archonship (493 B.C.) the fortifications of the Peiraeus were begun.
Fragments of Doric columns and foundations were discovered, probably intended for the temple begun by Peisistratus, the orientation of which differed slightly from that of the later structure.
After this catastrophe the benefactors of Athens were for the most part Romans; the influence of Greek literature and art had begun to affect the conquering race.
In 1533 the fortaleza, now the governor's palace, was begun at San Juan, and in1539-1584Morro Castle was erected at the entrance of the harbour.
64) seem to have begun near Lake Avernus; indeed, according to one theory, the Grotta della Pace would be a portion of this canal.
A bombardment of the Atlanta fortifications was then begun, but it had no material result.
The mosque of el Azhar, "the splendid," was begun about A.D.
The 18th century witnessed striking developments in pneumatic chemistry, or the chemistry of gases, which had been begun by van Helmont, Mayow, Hales and Boyle.
Kopp, begun in 1842, on the molecular volumes, the volume occupied by one gramme molecular weight of a substance, of liquids measured at their boiling-point under atmospheric pressure, brought to light a series of additive relations which, in the case of carbon compounds, render it possible to predict, in some measure, the cornposition of the substance.
The medieval studies which Wagner had begun for his work at the libretto of Tannhauser bore rich fruit in his next opera Lohengrin, in which he also developed his principles on a larger scale and with a riper technique than hitherto.
The music was begun in the following year, and completed at Palermo on the 13th of January 1882.
But the history of mid-19thcentury music is unintelligible until we face the fact that, when the anti-Wagnerian storm was already at its height, Wagner was still fighting for the recognition of music which was most definite just where it realized with ultra-Meyerbeerian brilliance all that Wagner had already begun to detest.
Wagner's choice of subjects had from the outset shown an imagination far above that of any earlier librettist; yet he had begun with stories which could attract ordinary minds, as he dismally realized when the libretto of Der fliegende Hollander so pleased the Parisian wire-pullers that it was promptly set to music by one of their friends.
Das Rheingold, prologue in 4 scenes to Der Ring des Nibelungen; ein Buhnenfestspiel (poem written last of the series, which was begun in 1848 and finished in 1851-1852; music, 1853 - 1854).
Paul III., who had begun his pontificate with the intention of purifying the curia, was unaware of the grave danger in which Fisher lay; and in the hope of reconciling the king with the bishop, created him (loth of May 1535) cardinal priest of St Vitalis.
The great excavation of the Osireion at Abydos, begun for the Society (then the Egypt Exploration Fund) by Prof. Edouard Naville, 4 ' but suspended owing to the war, it has not been possible to resume at present, owing to the commitments of the Amarna site and the heavy expense of such work as that at the Osireion, which cannot vet be contemplated.
60 An interesting discovery of the late period in Upper Egypt, that of images and other temple objects of precious metals, was also made at Dendera by the diggers for natron (sebakh) and recovered by the Service des Antiquites for the Cairo Museum.61 Outside Egypt proper the work of editing and publishing all the Egyptian inscriptions of Sinai has been begun by Dr. Gardiner and Mr. Peet.62 A worthy completion of the record is the wonderful exhibition of all the finest examples of Egyptian art in Britain outside the British and Ashmolean Museums, held by the Burlington Fine Arts' Club in London in the summer of 1921.63
The work, begun by his predecessors, of consolidating the kingdom internally and making its army a fighting-machine of high power was com pleted by the genius of Philip II.
The trial of Babeuf and the others, begun at Vendome on the 10th of February 1797, lasted two months.
The primary triangulation was only completed in 1858, but in the meantime, in 1791, the detail survey had begun.
The surveys for this map were begun in 1905.
By the middle of the 19th century topographical maps of the various German states had been completed, and in several instances surveys of a more exact nature had been completed or begun, when in 1878 the governments of Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria and Wurttemberg agreed to supersede local maps by publishing a map of the empire (Reichskarte) in 674 sheets on a scale of i:roo,000.
A trigonometrical survey of British India was begun in 1800 and the country can now boast of a survey which in most respects is equal to those of most European states.
An Indian Atlas, on a scale of 1: 255,660, includes also Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula, but although begun so long ago as 1827 many of its sheets are unpublished.
In Victoria the so-called geodetic survey was begun in 1858; the maps are published on a scale of 1:126,730.
In January 13 54 the constable was assassinated by order of Charles, and preparations for war were begun.
Much money was spent on public works and the restoration and beautifying of Rome - a new forum, the splendid temple of Peace, the public baths and the vast Colosseum being begun under Vespasian.
In 1868 this developed into the Friends' Foreign Mission Association, which now undertakes Missionary work in India (begun 1866), Madagascar (1867), Syria (1869), China (1886),(1886), Ceylon (1896).
Thus in1899-1900the total value of trade was £751,90o, the French railway being then but just begun; in 1902-1903, the railway being completed during the year, the value of trade was but D.87,900.
In October 1903 a new forward movement was begun, the mullah being still in the eastern Nogal, while he had also seized the Italian seaport of Illig, north of Obbia.
In 1897 the building of a railway from Jibuti towards Harrar was begun.
Meanwhile in addition to many legal works of high standing, he had begun the publication of that long series of histories and historical romances which has made his name a household word in Germany.
It seems to have begun in really voluntary agreements; but for these the unscrupulous greed of the traders soon substituted methods of fraud and violence.
The work begun by him was continued by Colonel C. G.
The company in Savannah met every Wednesday evening "in order to a free conversation, begun and ended with singing and prayer.
Their construction was begun in 1906.
The work was begun under the direction of Professor H.
Before he had begun to learn Greek, Marsilio entered upon the task of studying and elucidating Plato.
366-384, the catacombs had begun to be regarded with special devotion, and had become the resort of large bands of pilgrims, for whose guidance catalogues of the chief burial-places and the holy men buried in them were drawn up. Some of these lists are still extant.'
Felix and Adauctus, discovered by Boldetti and afterwards choked up with ruins, was cleared again: the crypt, begun by Damasus and enlarged by Siricius, contains frescoes of the 6th-7th centuries.
The rebuilding of the choir, begun about the same period, was not completed till about 1400.
tower was begun in 1432 during the treasurership of John de Bermingham, and the N.W.
In 1900 an important survey of the Hauran and neighbouring regions was made under American auspices, directed by Dr Enno Littmann; the publication of the great harvest of results was begun in 1906.
It is said to have been founded by the emperor Otto the Great, but the present building was begun in the 13th century and was completed about 1450.
In 1907 active preliminary work was begun on the Louisiana section of a great interstate inland waterway projected by the national government between the Mississippi and Rio Grande rivers, almost parallel to the Gulf Coast and running through the rice and truck-farm districts from the Teche to the Mermenton river (92 m.).
The remarkable sanitary work begun during the American occupation and continued by the republic of Cuba, has shown that the ravages of this and other diseases can be greatly diminished.
During the second American occupation work was begun on a network of good rural highways.
A revolution in education was begun the first year of the United States military occupation and continued under the Republic.
He died believing 1728) was given greatly improved facilities, especially of material equipment, by the American military government, and seems to have begun an ambitious progress.
At least as early as 1523 the African slave trade was begun.
So early also began dissatisfaction with the economic regulations of the colonial system, even grave resistance to their enforcement; and illicit trade with privateers and foreign colonies had begun long before, and in the 17th and 18th centuries was the basis of the island's wealth.
It was early in 1862, when the struggle of Bismarck with the Prussian liberals was already begun.
A large and remunerative export trade in salt to India is now established, whereas formerly not one grain found its way there; the first steps in this direction were taken in 1892 when works were begun to place the great rock-salt salines of Salif, on the coast of the Red Sea, on a commercial footing.
Though negotiations for peace were at once begun, it was not till three years after Ahmed's accession that the peace of Sitvatorok, concluded on the 11th of November 1606, at last put an end to the war in Europe.
In his reign the Cossacks were driven from Azov and the expedition against Crete was begun, the immediate cause being the plunder of a Turkish vessel by Maltese corsairs who took their capture to Crete.
The troops had got much mixed up, but as the French did not immediately press the pursuit home, order was soon re-established and a combined retreat was begun towards the mouth of the Elbe and Lubeck.
Kutusov had been very slow in exploiting his success of the 24th and indeed had begun the pursuit in a false direction; but about the 2nd of November, headquarters of the French being at Vyazma, the Cossacks became so threatening that the emperor ordered the army to march (as in Egypt) in hollow square.
These disasters compelled the retreat of the whole Silesian army, and Napoleon, leaving Mortier and Marmont to deal with them, hurried back to Troyes with his main body to strike the flank of Schwarzenberg's army, which had meanwhile begun its leisurely advance, and again at Mormant on the 17th of February, Montereau the 38th and Mery the he inflicted such heavy punishment upon his adversaries that they fell back precipitately to Bar-sur-Aube.
All these views have, however, been cast in the shade by more recent investigations based on minute literary analysis of the Pentateuch, begun by Graf, continued by Kuenen, and culminating in the work of Wellhausen and Robertson Smith.
The family service, termed Hagada shel Pesach, includes a description of the Exodus with a running commentary, and is begun by the youngest son of the house asking the father the reason for the difference in Passover customs.
Cleveland's growth was, however, very slow until the opening of the Ohio canal as far as Akron in 1827; about the same time the improvement of the harbour was begun, and by 1832 the canal was opened to the Ohio river.
Salem is the seat of Willamette University (Methodist Episcopal, 1844), an outgrowth of the mission work of the Methodist Episcopal church begun in 1834 about 10 m.
Early in that year was begun The Wrong Box, a farcical romance in which Mr Lloyd Osbourne participated; Stevenson also began a romance about the Indian Mutiny, which he abandoned.
Although the iron ranges in the north-east had been explored about 1860 and were known to contain a great wealth of ore, it was not until 1884 that mining was actually begun on the Vermilion Range.
On the latter tract a military post was established by Lieut.-Colonel Henry Leavenworth (1783-1834) in 1819, and in the following year the construction was begun of a fort at first named Fort St Anthony but renamed Fort Snelling in 1824 (two years after its completion) in honour of its builder and commander Colonel Josiah Snelling (1782-1829).
During the same half-decade railway construction, which had begun with the opening of the railway between St Paul and Minneapolis in 1862, reached a total of more than woo m.
The Thracians of the region from Olympus to the Pangaean district, usually regarded as rude tribes, had from a very early time worked the gold and silver of that region, had begun to strike coins almost as early as the Greeks, and displayed on them much artistic skill and originality of types.
On the whole, oceanographical research was being taken up most actively in Europe, but much important work was also begun in America, for instance the fine hydrographical research in the Pacific by the Scripps Institute of the university of California.
Themistocles was the first to urge the Athenians to take advantage of these harbours, instead of using the sandy bay of Phaleron; and the fortification of the Peiraeus was begun in 493 B.C. Later on it was connected with Athens by the Long Walls in 460 B.C. The town of Peiraeus was laid out by the architect Hippodamus of Miletus, probably in the time of Pericles.
Napoleon, with the Russian War in prospect, had early in the year withdrawn 30,000 men from Spain; and Wellington had begun to carry on what he termed a war of "magazines."
Soult and Marmont having begun to move to relieve the garrison, the assault was delivered on the night of the 7th of April, and Siege of though the assailants failed at the breaches, the Badajoz, carnage at which was terrible, a very daring escalade March 17 to of one of the bastions and of the castle succeeded, Apr117, 1812.
On the 1st of September 1812, the French armies having begun once more to collect together, Wellington marched against the of the Army of the North, now under General Clause], and Siege Castle of laid siege to the castle of Burgos (Sept.
It is found that divergence has begun before the concentration has become great enough to enable freezing points to be measured with any ordinary apparatus.
The central part of the building, begun by Ptolemy III.
After falling into various hands, it was ceded to Savoy by the peace of Utrecht in 1713, and its citadel was begun in 1728.
India have, however, begun to furnish a better quality of Ceara rubber, which is often prepared in biscuit form.
The building of the railway was begun at several points at once in 1892; it had, indeed, been started a year before that in the Usuri section.
Although the Arctic Ocean had been reached as early as the first half of the 17th century, the exploration of its coasts by a series of expeditions under Ovtsyn, Minin, Pronchishev, Lasinius and Laptev - whose labours constitute a brilliant page in the annals of geographical discovery - was begun only in the 18th century (1735-1739).
The scientific exploration of Siberia, begun in the period 1733 to 5742 by Messerschmidt, Gmelin, and De Lisle de la Croyere, was followed up by Muller, Fischer and Georgi.
Christ, the firstborn among many brethren, had a natural birth at Bethlehem and also a spiritual birth begun at his baptism and consummated at his resurrection.
The necessary works were begun in 1807 under the supervision of Hans Conrad Escher of Zurich (1767-1823).
By this time the eyes have disappeared, the four bundles of chaetae have dropped off, and the lophophore has begun to appear as an outgrowth of the dorsal mantle lobe.
Begun in 1377, and carried on at intervals till the 16th century, the building was long left unfinished; but in 1844 the work of restoration and completion was begun, being completed in 1890.
The Mineral Industry, begun in 1892, annually records the progress made in lead smelting.
At Dundee he extricated his army from the greatest peril, and actually called his men off from the sack that had begun - a feat beyond the power of any other general in Europe.
Michael Faraday's researches were begun in 1831 and continued for more than twenty years.
Like Mark it seems to have had no history of the birth of Christ, and to have begun with the baptism.
Petronio, the patron saint of Bologna, which was begun in 1390; only the nave and aisles as far as the transepts were, however, completed, but even this is a fine fragment, in the Gothic style, measuring 384 ft.
Francesco, perhaps the finest medieval building in Bologna, begun in 1246 and finished in 1260; it has a fine brick campanile of the end of the 14th century.
Sir David completed in 1606 the palace which the earl of Gowrie had begun.
Within the park is situated the Government House, a noble building begun by Lord Minto, and enlarged into its present state by the marquess of Hastings.
Dumas, for whom he had begun to lecture in 1853.
The settlement of the place, the oldest in the county, was begun in 1847; it was laid out as a town in 1851, incorporated as a village in 1857, chartered as a city in 1865, and for a short time in 1853 was the county-seat.
Towards the close of the 2nd century the cult had begun to spread rapidly through the army, the mercantile class, slaves and actual propagandists, all of which classes were largely composed of Asiatics.
The cathedral is a late Gothic structure begun in 1397 by Charles III.
The substitution of electricity for animal traction was begun in Sao Salvador in 1906.
The Brazilian deputies on arriving in Lisbon expressed dissatisfaction with the Cortes for having begun the framing of the constitution before their arrival, for Brazil could not be treated as a secondary part of the monarchy.
Begun about 1880, this propaganda took deep root in the educated classes, creating a desire for change and culminating in the military conspiracy of November 1889, by which monarchy was replaced by a republican form of government.
But the whole of this latter structure was destroyed by fire in 1650 while in occupation by the soldiers of Cromwell; and the more modern parts were begun during the Protectorate, and completed in the reign of Charles II.
Parliament House, begun in 1632 and completed in 1640, in which the later assemblies of the Scottish estates took place until the dissolution of the parliament by the Act of Union of 1707, has since been set apart as the meeting-place of the supreme courts of law.
The General Register House for Scotland, begun in 1 774 from designs by Robert Adam, stands at the east end of Princes Street.
side of the piazza is the Palazzo Pretorio, or della Podesta, begun in 1349 and now the municipal palace.
Galgano (infra), built in black and white marble, was begun in the early years of the 13th century, but interrupted by the plague of 1248 and wars at home and abroad, and in 1317 its walls were extended to the baptistery of San Giovanni; a further enlargement was begun in 1339 but never carried out, and a few ruined walls and arches alone remain to show the magnificence of the uncompleted design, which would have produced one of the largest churches in the-world.
It is inlaid with designs in colour and black and white, representing Biblical and legendary subjects, and is supposed to have been begun by Duccio della Buoninsegna.
The communal palace in the Piazza del Campo was begun in 1288 and finished in 1309.
The light and elegant tower (Torre del Mangla) soaring from one side of the palace was begun in 1338 and finished after 1348, and the chapel standing at its foot, raised at the expense of the Opera del Duomo as a public thank-offering after the plague of 1348, begun in 1352 and completed in 1376.
The territories of the state were enlarged; a friendly alliance was maintained with Florence; trade flourished; in 1321 the university was founded, or rather revived, by the introduction of Bolognese scholars; the principal buildings now adorning the town were begun; and the charitable institutions, which are the pride of modern Siena, increased and prospered.
From this renewal dates the formation of the new order or monte dei riformatori, the title henceforth bestowed on all citizens, of both the less and the greater people, who had reformed the government and begun to participate in it in 1368.
cap. 12) a subdeacon must have begun his twenty-second, a deacon his twenty-third, a priest his twenty-fifth year.
His Continuatio chronicarum, begun not earlier than 1325, starts from the year 1303, and was carried up to 1347, the year of his death.
Christianity had already begun to percolate Hungary.
The great work may be said to have begun in iooi, when Pope Silvester II.
The tendency towards a representative system of government had begun, but the almost uninterrupted anarchy which marked the last thirty years of the Arpad rule was no favourable time for constitutional development.
The movement may be said to have begun about 1601, when the great Jesuit preacher and controversialist, Peter Pazmany, first devoted himself to the task of reconverting his countrymen.
The so-called Provisorium had begun.
To him it was Revival left to perfect that work of restoration begun by Baroti t th and amplified by Revai.
The Nagy-Szotdr (Great Dictionary), begun by Czuczor and Fogarasi in 1845, was not issued till 1862-1874.
There is no clear evidence as to when the building was begun, some placing it among the temples projected by Pericles, others assigning it to the time after the peace of Nicias in 421 B.C. The work was interrupted by the stress of the Peloponnesian War, but in 409 B.C. a commission was appointed to make a report on the state of the building and to undertake its completion, which was carried out in the following year.
The town was almost completely destroyed by the British in 1779, but its rebuilding was begun in the next year.
In 1870 a complete edition of the works of Retz was begun by M.
46), and the commercial activity of the nation has begun to develop beyond the seas (cvii.
In 1890 the construction of the Transvaal section of the railway to connect Pretoria with Delagoa Bay was begun, the line from Lourenco Marques having been completed to Komati Poort in December 1887.
By the 1st of February Lord Roberts had matured his plans and begun to prepare for their execution.
But the blockhouses had already begun to serve the purpose for which they were designed.
His education, begun under a private tutor, was continued (1712) at Trinity Hall, Cambridge; here he remained little more than a year and seems to have read hard, and to have acquired a considerable knowledge of ancient and modern languages.
Scarcely had the Palatinate begun to recover when it was attacked by Louis XIV.
In one of the extant fragments he speaks of himself as having begun his wanderings sixty-seven years before, when he was twenty-five years of age, so that he was not less than ninety-two when he died.
The finest building is the cathedral, in the Lombard Romanesque style, begun in 1107 and consecrated in 1190.
It was at his advice that the summer and autumn of 415 were frittered away, and the siege not begun till the spring of 414.
The work of the last has some independent merit; but all are interesting as showing a fusion of Greek and Arabian medicine, the latter having begun to exercise even in the 11th century a reflex influence on the schools of Byzantium.
1844) and others to reveal the minute anatomy of the nervous centres; while the discrimination of tissues and morbid products by stains, as in the silver and osmic acid methods, and in those known by the names of Carl Weigert or Marchi, had scarcely begun.
The work of blasting out the rocks which at that spot projected in the bed of the river, begun in 1830, was continued down to the year 1887, so that now there are two navigable channels of sufficient depth for all vessels which ply up and down that part of the stream.
In organic chemistry, his study of the ketones and aldehydes, begun in 1857, provided him with the subject of his other doctoral thesis.
With these gains Voltaire seems to have begun his long series of successful financial speculations.
However, he succeeded in finishing and printing the Siècle de Louis XI V., while the Dictionnaire philosophique is said to have been devised and begun at Potsdam.
Close to this museum is the Victoria and Albert Museum (formerly South Kensington Museum, 1857) for which an extension of buildings, from a fine design by Sir Aston Webb, was begun in 1899 and completed in ten years.
The White Tower, the famous keep of the Tower of London, was begun by Gundulph, bishop of Rochester, c. 1078.
In 1083 the old cathedral of St Paul's was begun on the site of the church which ZEthelbert is said to have founded in 610.
In 1176 the rebuilding of London Bridge with stone was begun by descrip- Peter of Colechurch.
schoolhouse were begun in 1611, and in the same year Sutton died.
Having graduated and begun to give lectures at Jena in 1605, he in 1606 accepted the invitation of John Casimir, duke of Coburg, to the superintendency of Heldburg and mastership of the gymnasium; soon afterwards he became general superintendent of the duchy, in which capacity he was engaged in the practical work of ecclesiastical organization until 1616, when he became theological professor at Jena, where the remainder of his life was spent.
The last divisions to arrive, the 53rd and 54th, were to be employed wherever should seem best after the offensive had begun.
But the routes to be followed were difficult to find in the dark, the ascent was rapid, the ground was much broken, and the enemy opposed a stubborn resistance to the advance, with the result that this was greatly retarded, and that at daybreak the most forward of the columns was not much more than halfway up. The Ottoman staff had, moreover, on the first alarm begun to hurry reinforcements on the Sari Bair from the rear, while the Allied troops were so much exhausted by their nocturnal experiences that all attempts to win the upper ridge failed on the 7th.
He may, also, have had in view the fact that he has prefixed a narrative of the birth and infancy of Jesus and of John and so begun the history at what he considered to be its true point of departure; to this he plainly alludes when he says that he has "traced the course of all things accurately from the first."
But while there is in Luke's Gospel this strain of asceticism -as to many in modern times it will appear to be-the prevailing spirit is gentle and tender, and there is in it a note of spiritual gladness, which is begun by the song and the messages of angels and the hymns and rejoicing of holy men and women, accompanying the birth of the Christ (chaps.
Gibson and begun in 1883; St Peter's Episcopal Church (French Gothic), of Hudson River bluestone; Emmanuel Baptist Church, of white granite; the Madison Avenue Reformed Church; and St Joseph's (Roman Catholic), of bluestone and Caen stone with marble trimmings.
Work was begun in 1895, and the yield of gold in that year was 274 oz., which increased to 893 oz.
in length, and of the Mon canal, begun in 1904, 53 m.
Their object was to pursue the inquiry begun by Fraunhofer as to the effect of chemical composition on the distribution of dispersion.
The examination of small test-pieces of the glass withdrawn from the crucible by means of an iron rod having shown that the molten mass is free from bubbles, the stirring process may be begun, the object of this manipulation being to render the glass as homogeneous as possible and to secure the absence of veins or striae in the product.
The stirring process is begun when the glass is perfectly fluid at a temperature little short of the highest attained in its fusion, but as the stirring proceeds the glass is allowed to cool gradually and thus becomes more and more viscous until finally the stirring cylinder can scarcely be moved.
in length from Kabalo, on the Lualaba, along the Lukuga valley to Albertville on Lake Tanganyika was begun in 1911 and completed in 1915.
727 B.C., he died, but his successor Ulula, who took the name of Shalmaneser IV., continued the policy he had begun.
Owing perhaps to Assyrian aggression, this power seems to have begun to suffer decay about 1000 B.C. and thereafter to have shrunk inwards, leaving the coasts open.
important, founded in 1298 on the plans of Arnolfo di Cambio, completed by Brunelleschi, and consecrated in 1436; the façade, however, was not finished until the 19th century - it was begun in 1875 on the designs of de Fabris and unveiled in 1888.
Close by the Duomo is the no less famous Campanile built by Giotto, begun in 1332, and adorned with exquisite bas-reliefs.
All attempts to come to terms with the pope were unsuccessful, and by October the siege had begun.
Maclver's researches in northern Nubia, begun in 1907, will be found under Sudan: Anglo-Egyptian.
In order to avoid the dangerous part of the river near the town a channel was cut in 1734, the repairing and deepening of which, begun in 1868, was completed in 1873.
It was begun in 1549, but not finished till 1614, long after his death.
The famous Teatro Olimpico was begun by him, but only finished after his death; it is a remarkable attempt to construct a theatre in the ancient style, and the stage, with the representation of streets ascending at the back, is curious.
This, together with the weakness due to military reforms but recently begun, drove him to rely on foreign aid; which, in the actual conditions of Europe, meant the aid of Russia.
T., begun in 1829, he did not live to complete; the latter part of the third volume is edited by E.
Even before the Reformation, however, signs of decay had already begun to appear, and these multiplied in the 16th and 17th centuries.
The old palace begun by Man Sing in 1600 ranks second only to Gwalior.
The cultivation was begun in the island in 1883 by planters seeking new lands free from the heavy taxation to which they were subjected in Sumatra.
The other institution, relating to land, was that known to the Roman law as the precarium, a name derived from one of its essential features through all its history, the prayer of the suppliant by which the relationship was begun.
Feudalism could not be established, however, until the great of the land had adopted them for themselves, and had begun to enter the clientage of others and to hold lands by the precarium tenure.
It had indeed begun to break down under the strain of frequent and distant campaigns, but it was long before it was changed as the recognized rule of medieval service.
This process had probably already begun in a small way in the growth of institutions which belong to the economic side of feudalism, the organization of agriculture on the great estates.
The castle was begun, in or about 1109, by Cadwgan ab Bleddyn ab Cynfyn (Cynvyn), and finished by Gwenwynwyn; in 1196 it was besieged, undermined and taken by Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury.
He introduced a rational system of taxation, based upon a survey of landed possessions, which his father had begun, and tried in every way to increase the welfare and the revenues of his empire.
The war with the Romans, which had begun in 571, had not yet come to an end.
Railway construction has begun in Arabia, and in 1908 the Hejaz line, intended to connect Damascus with Mecca, had reached Medina, Soo m.
The siege was begun in March 692, and in October the city was taken and `Abdallah slain.
His attacks on the pilgrim caravans, begun in 1783 and constantly repeated, startled the Mahommedan world,' and compelled the attention of the sultan, as the nominal protector of the faithful.
die Kunde des Morgenlandes, begun in 1837; and he frequently contributed on various subjects to the Getting.
Francesco, begun in the 12th century in the Lombard Romanesque style, was continued in the 13th in the Gothic style.
The city hall was begun in 1733.
Watertown was one of the earliest of the Massachusetts Bay settlements, having been begun early in 1630 by a group of settlers led by Sir Richard Saltonstall and the Rev. George Phillips.
The principal church, Notre Dame du Lac, begun in the 12th and enlarged in the 15th centuries, is still unfinished.
tions of the cathedral were laid in 1063, and its consecration took place in 1118; the baptistery was begun in 1152, and the campanile (the famous leaning tower) in 1174.
In 1884 a thorough reform of the government and administration of the country was begun under the direction of a succession of eminent French residents-general.
The first Chinese coolies were introduced in 1849 to supply labourers on the sugar estates, which had begun to feel the effects of the suppression of the African slave traffic. At first the coolies were treated with cruelty.
An ephemeris and guide to Peru was begun by the learned geographer Dr Cosme Bueno, and continued by Dr Unanue, who brought out his guides at Lima from 1 793 to 1798.
Under the administration (1868-1872) of President Jose Balta the construction of two transandean and several coastal zone railways was begun, but their completion became impossible for want of funds.
Its harbour, one of the best on the west coast of South America, has been greatly improved by the port works begun under the administration of President Balta.
The first national coinage was begun in 1822, and the decimal system was adopted in 1863.
A further extension of the naval dockyard was begun in 1902, and a new commercial pier was opened in 1900.
Finally, the third layer, known as "the Peak," and reached by a cable tramway, is dotted over with private houses and bungalows, the summer health resort of those who can afford them; here a new residence for the governor was begun in 1900.
Scale, i:170,000 The attack of the allies was begun by the first three columns, which moved down from their bivouacs behind the Pratzen plateau before dawn on the 2nd, towards Telnitz and Sokolnitz.
His education, begun in Zurich and Berlin, was completed at the university of Leipzig, where he graduated in 1876.
The Palazzo della Ragione, with its great hall on the upper floor, is reputed to have the largest roof unsupported by columns in Europe; the hall is nearly rectangular, its length 2672 ft., its breadth 89 ft., and its height 78 ft.; the walls are covered with symbolical paintings in fresco; the building stands upon arches, and the upper storey is surrounded by an open loggia, not unlike that which surrounds the basilica of Vicenza; the Palazzo was begun in 1172 and finished in 1219; in 1306 Fra Giovanni, an Augustinian friar, covered the whole with one roof; originally there were three roofs, spanning the three chambers into which the hall was at first divided; the internal partition walls remained till the fire of 1420, when the Venetian architects who undertook the restoration removed them, throwing all three compartments into one and forming the present great hall.
In the Piazza dei Signori is the beautiful loggia called the Gran Guardia, begun in 1493 and finished in 1526, and close by is the Palazzo del Capitanio, the residence of the Venetian governors, with its great door, the work of Falconetto of Verona, 1532.
When Ezzelino met his death, in 1259, Padua enjoyed a brief period of rest and prosperity: the university flourished; the basilica of the saint was begun; the Paduans became masters of Vicenza.
It seems to have been begun in Nicomedia about 304 and finished in Gaul before 311.
Here a tower was begun on the lines of the Eiffel Tower in Paris, and projected to exceed it in height, reaching 1200 ft., but only a short stage was completed.
The extant writings of Paulinus consist of some fifty Epistolae, addressed to Sulpicius Severus, Delphinus, Augustine, Jerome and others; thirty-two Carmina in a great variety of metre, including a series of hexameter "natales," begun about 393 and continued annually in honour of the festival of St Felix, metrical epistles to Ausonius and Gestidius, and paraphrases of three psalms; and a Passio S.
Mercury mines have begun to be worked; other minerals are known to exist.
Convinced of being divinely inspired, he had begun to see visions, and discovered in the Apocalypse symbols of the heavenly vengeance about to overtake this sin-laden people.
It was at the end of the 7th century and among the Anglo-Saxons that the compiling of these Annals was first begun.
Soon after the close of the War of Independence a settlement was begun, most of the newcomers being Palatine Germans from the lower Mohawk.
Jonah in the words: "He completed what `Hayyuj had begun."
Romolo is an early and simple example of the Tuscan Romanesque style; it is a small basilica, begun in 1028 and restored in 1256.
The mining of iron ore was begun about 1767 in the vicinity of the present Cranston, and much of the metal was used in the making of cannon during the War of Independence, but the supply was soon exhausted.
The manufacture of silverware was begun in Providence soon after the close of the War of Independence.
Even before he went to Konigsberg he had begun to compose verses, and at the age of twenty he took up the pen as a chief occupation.
It was begun in 1261, but not completed till 1422, and is specially remarkable for its very beautiful and complete scheme of coloured decoration, much of which is contemporary with the building.
The early palaces of Verona, before its conquest by Venice, were of noble and simple design, mostly built of fine red brick, with an inner court, surrounded on the ground floor by open arches like a cloister, as, for example, the Palazzo della Ragione, an assize court, begun in the r 2th century.
The tower was begun in 1415, but remained unfinished.
The Leonhardskirche (restored in 1882) was begun in 1219, it is said on the site of the palace of Charlemagne.
In their adaptation of modern processes of illustration the Japanese are entirely abreast of Western nations, the chrornolithographs and other reproductions in the Kokka, a periodical record of Japanese works of art (begun in 1889), in the superb albums of the Shimbi S/join, and in the publications of Ogawa being of quite a high order of merit.
For many years after Tamikichis processes had begun to be practised, the only decoration employed was blue under the glaze.
In 1892 work was begun on the Chicago Drainage Canal, whose controlling works are here and whose plant, developing 40,000 h.p. from the 40 ft.
Construction was begun in 1906 and the official opening by the King took place on July 22 1912.
The cathedral, which was completely wrecked, was begun in 1098 and finished by Roger II.
The rest of the edifice was in the baroque style; the high altar (containing the supposed letter of the Virgin Mary to the people of Messina), richly decorated with marbles, lapis lazuli, &c., was begun in 1628 and completed in 1726.
The Mirror (1823-1849), a two-penny illustrated magazine, begun by John Limbird,' and the Mechanics Magazine (1823) were steps in a better h direction.
The political agitation of 1831 led to a further popular demand, and a supply of cheap and healthy serials for the reading multitude commenced with Chambers's Journal (1832), the Penny Magazine (1832-1845) of Charles Knight, and the Saturday Magazine (1832-1844), begun by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
P. Indexes;, Cotgreave's Contents Subject Index to General and Periodical Literature (1900); Cumulative Index to a Selected list of Periodicals, begun in the Cleveland Public Library in 1896 and 1897 by W.
It had a considerable effect, and prepared the way for the reforms begun by Burke and continued by Pitt.
In 1835 the new town was built, and the present fortifications begun.
His name first appears in the Ladies' Diary (a poetical and mathematical almanac which was begun in 1704, and lasted till 1871) in 1764; ten years later he was appointed editor of the almanac, a post which he retained till 1817.
Previously he had begun a small periodical, Miscellanea Mathematica, which extended only to thirteen numbers; subsequently he published in five volumes The Diarian Miscellany, which contained large extracts from the Diary.
The earthmaking process may, among the less advanced races, be begun by a bird, or some other animal (whence the term " theriomorphism "), for the high idea of a god is impossible, till man has fully realized his own humanity.
The work, begun by them, was carried on by younger contemporaries and successors; by Statius Caecilius (c.220-168), an Insubrian Gaul, in comedy; in tragedy by M.
of Macedon had begun his career of conquest, and had shattered an embryonic alliance between the league and certain princes of Thrace (Cetriporis), Paeonia (Lyppeius) and Illyria (Grabus).
The third regiment of the New York line under Colonel Peter Gansevoort occupied the fort in April 1777 and completed the repairs begun in 1776; on the 3rd of August in the same year (one month before the official announcement by Congress of the design of the flag) the first flag of the United States, made according to the enactment of the 14th of June and used in battle, was raised here: it was made from various pieces of cloth.
By the 6th century it was evidently virtually independent again; its Christianization had begun with the immigration of Monothelite sectaries, flying from persecution in the Antioch district and Orontes valley.
He was far however from neglecting the science and art of war, for thus early he had begun to make his name as a theorist as well as a mathematician.
India likewise has been added to the list, its active production having begun at about the same time as that of South Africa.
That chief literary expression of Pharisaism, the Mishnah, was the outcome of the work begun at Jamnia.
Matritensis 10041 (begun in the year A.D 94 8), the words are omitted under the heading council of Constantinople but inserted under the heading council of Toledo, in the former MS., above the line and in a later hand, which shows conclusively how the interpolation crept in.
in 1131, and the cathedral was begun in the same year.
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