How to use Beds in a sentence
This place is full of beds waiting for celebrity hook-ups.
Lisa was making the beds one morning and Connie was in the bathroom brushing her teeth.
Large beds of mica are found in the east.
There wasn't any bumping and grinding and those beds are noisy.
After the dishes were done and the beds made, she usually wandered around the house or sat in the yard, soaking up sun.Advertisement
The ground beneath them moved suddenly, a low rumble that made the beds shake.
It was light, a curved grey sword made of the same material as the beds and spaceships.
The most widely spread of the sedimentary beds belong to the Miocene period.'
The beds remain in bearing for six or eight months, and then the spent manure is taken to the surface again for garden and field purposes.
It is not true that throughout the whole width of this zone the beds are folded.Advertisement
The opening was filled with ferns which completely covered the beds of limestone and in places hid the streams.
The later beds of the island belong to the Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary systems. At the western foot of the Ida massif calcareous beds with corals, brachiopods (Rhvnchonella inconstans, &c.) have been found, the fossils indicating the horizon of the Kimmeridge clay.
All these are involved in the earth movements to which the mountains of the island owe their formation, but the Miocene beds (with Clypeaster) and later deposits lie almost undisturbed upon the coasts and the low-lying ground.
With the J urassic beds is associated an extensive series of eruptive rocks (gabbro, peridotite, serpentine, diorite, granite, &c.); they are chiefly of Jurassic age, but the eruptions may have continued into the Lower Cretaceous.
The structure is further complicated by a great thrust-plane which has brought the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous beds upon the Upper Cretaceous and Eocene beds.Advertisement
The oyster beds, for which Loch Ryan was once noted, are not cultivated, but the fisheries (white fish and herrings) are still of some consequence.
In the extreme north-east are found the oldest rocks in the state - lower Devonian (the New Scotland beds of New York) and, not so old, an extension of the Lower Carboniferous which underlies the Warrior coalfields of Alabama, and which consists of cherts, limestones, sandstones and shales, with a depth of 800 to 900 ft.
It is marked by grey clays and sands, lignitic fossiliferous clays, beds of lignite or brown coal, sometimes 8 ft.
The Jackson formation south-west of the Lisbon beds, is made up chiefly of grey calcareous clay marls, bluish lignitic clays, green-sand and grey siliceous sands.
Talc also is widely distributed in the state; the most extensive beds are in the south-western counties, Swain and Cherokee.Advertisement
In the south, in Syria, Arabia and the peninsula of India, none but the oldest rocks are folded, and the Upper Palaeozoic, the Mesozoic and the Tertiary beds lie almost horizontally upon them.
There are, it is true, mountain ranges which are formed of folded beds; but in many cases the direction of the chains is different from that of the folds, so that the ranges must owe their elevation to other causes; and the folds, moreover, are of ancient date, for the most part Archaean or Palaeozoic. The configuration of the region is largely due to faulting, trough-like or tray-like depressions being formed, and the intervening strips, which have not been depressed, standing up as mountain ridges.
Over a large part of Siberia and in the north of China, even the Cambrian beds still lie as horizontally as they were first laid down.
Here the folded Archean rocks are overlaid by Cambrian and Ordovician beds, which still lie for the most part flat and undisturbed.
Here again there are no marine beds of Mesozoic or Tertiary age, while plant-bearing deposits belonging to the Angara series are known.Advertisement
There is again a floor of folded Archean rocks overlaid by nearly horizontal strata of Lower Palaeozoic age; but these are followed by marine beds belonging to the Carboniferous period.
From the Upper Carboniferous onward, however, no marine deposits are known; and, as in Siberia, plant-bearing beds are met with.
Marine Tertiary beds occur in Burma; in the Himalayas and in south Tibet there is a nearly complete series of marine deposits from the Carboniferous to the Eocene; in Afghanistan the Mesozoic beds are in part marine and in part fluviatile.
In the southern region of unfolded beds are found the lavas of the " harras " of Arabia, and in India the extensive flows of the Deccan Trap. In the central folded belt lie the great volcanoes, now mostly extinct, of Asia Minor, Armenia, Persia and Baluchistan.
In the northern unfolded region great flows of basic lava lie directly upon the Cambrian and Ordovician beds of Siberia, but are certainly in part of Tertiary age.Advertisement
At Ludlow itself, two such beds are actually known, separated by about 14 ft.
Beds and nodules of chert are abundant in the upper parts of the limestone; at Bakewell it is quarried for use in the Potteries.
A series of black shales with nodular limestones, the Pendleside series, rests upon the Mountain Limestone on the east, south and north-west; much of the upper course of the Derwent has been cut through these soft beds.
Flanking the hills between Ashbourne and Quarndon are red beds of Bunter marl, sandstone and conglomerate; they also appear at Morley, east of the Derwent, and again round the small southern coalfield.
Most of the southern part of the county is occupied by Keuper marls and sandstones, the latter yield good building stone; and at Chellaston the gypsum beds in the former are excavated on a large scale.Advertisement
We may mention also graphiticschists containing dark scaly graphite (often altered forms of carbonaceous shales), and haematite-schists which may represent beds of ironstone.
Owen com municated a detailed description of them to the Philosophical Transactions (1863, pp. 33-47), proving their bird-like nature, and referring them to the genus Archaeopteryx of Hermann von Meyer, hitherto known only by the impression of a single feather from the same geological beds.
It is found also in beds of iron ore, and the haematite mines of the Cleator Moor district in west Cumberland have yielded many extremely fine crystals, specimens of which may be seen in all mineral collections.
Beds of rock gypsum extend over an area of 150 acres or more in Ottawa county.
Geologically, spiders date from the Carboniferous Period, Arthrolycosa and others from the coal beds of Europe and North America being closely allied to the existing genus Liphistius.Advertisement
Remains of spiders from the Baltic amber beds of Oligocene age and from nearly coeval fluviatile or lacustrine deposits of North America belong to forms identical with or closely related to existing genera, thus proving the great antiquity of our present spider fauna.
In the moist bottom-lands along the rivers it is the custom to throw the soil up in high beds with the plough, and then to cultivate them deep. This is the more common method of drainage, but it is expensive, as it has to be renewed every few years.
Farther north, however, Jurassic beds are met with, but of very limited extent.
The Pliocene deposits are not very widely spread and are generally of fresh-water origin excepting near the coast, but marine Pliocene beds have been found at el Forklus in the Palmyra desert.
The faulting which formed the depressions is certainly later than the deposition of the Cretaceous beds and probably belongs to the later portion of the Tertiary era.Advertisement
The river beds contain dangerous quicksands.
The upper part of the Maluti range consists of flows of melaphyres and diabases belonging to the volcanic beds.
In the manufacture of fertilizers, the raw material for which is derived from the phosphate beds, Florida's aggregate product in 1900 was valued at $500,239, and in 1905 at $1,590,371, an increase of 217.9% in five years.
They will hold their arms over their heads until the muscles atrophy, will keep their fists clenched till the nails grow through the palms, will lie on beds of nails, cut and stab themselves, drag, week after week, enormous chains loaded with masses of iron, or hang themselves before a fire near enough to scorch.
Among the larger trees are the mountain cedar, reaching to 100 ft.; the gob, which bears edible berries in appearance something like the cherry with the taste of an apple, grows to some 80 ft., and is found fringing the river beds; the hassadan, a kind of euphorbia, attaining a height of about 70 ft.; and the darei, a fig tree.Advertisement
In 1903 a beginning was made in the cultivation of cotton in the dry river beds, where water can always be obtained at a depth of 10 ft.
The northern shore, along the Gulf of Aden, is backed by tablelands separated by the beds of mountain torrents - generally dry.
Vast beds of coal are found extending for hundreds of miles, a short distance below the surface of the plains.
The coal belongs to the Cretaceous beds, and while not so heavy as that of the Coal Measures is of excellent quality.
In the valley of the Bow river, alongside the Canadian Pacific railway, valuable beds of anthracite coal are worked, and the coal is carried by railway as far east as Winnipeg.
Blocks of these minerals lie scattered on the sides and ridges of the mountains and in the beds of the streams; and extensive turf moors occupy many of the mountain slopes and valleys.
The beds lie several (for the most part four to six) hundred feet underground and are of disputed origin.
An important boundary dispute with Mississippi arose over beds lying near the state line.
The state leases the beds at a low annual rental in tracts (limited for each person, firm or corporation to 1000 acres), and draws from them a considerable revenue.
The foundation of the island is formed of metamorphic and igneous rocks, which appear in the Sierra Maestra and are exposed in other parts of the island wherever the comparatively thin covering of later beds has been worn away.
At Esperanza and other places in the Santa Clara province, bituminous plant-bearing beds occur beneath the Tertiary limestones, and at Baracoa a Radiolarian earth occupies a similar position.
A few shallow salt lakes are filled by rain water, but they dry up on the setting in of the hot weather, leaving a thick crust of salt on their beds, which is used for commercial and domestic purposes.
Upper Kimmeridge and Portlandian beds also occur.
Beds of this age, consisting of sandstones and coal, are found on the northern coast of Disco Island and the southern side of the Noursoak Peninsula, the beds in the former locality, " the Kome strata " of Nordenskiold, being the oldest.
Both these series contain numerous plant remains, evergreen oaks, magnolias, aralias, &c., and seams of lignite (coal), which is burnt; but in neither occur the marine beds of the United States.
The underlying Kome beds are not present in the American series.
It is limited to Disco Island, and perhaps to a small part of the Noursoak Peninsula, and the neighbouring country, and consists of numerous thin beds of sandstone, shale and coal - the sideritic shale containing immense quantities of leaves, stems, fruit, &c., as well as some insects, and the coal pieces of retinite.
These beds, as well as the Cretaceous series, from which they are as yet only imperfectly distinguished, are associated with sheets of basalt, which penetrate them in great dikes, and in some places, owing to the wearing away of the softer sedimentary rocks, stand out in long walls running across the beds.
These Miocene strata have not been found farther north on the Greenland shore than the region mentioned; but in Lady Franklin Bay, on the Grinnell Land side of Smith Sound, they again appear, so that the chances are they will be found on the opposite coast, though doubtless the great disintegration Greenland has undergone and is undergoing has destroyed many of the softer beds of fossiliferous rocks.
On the east coast, more particularly in Hochstetter Foreland, the Miocene beds again appear, and we may add that there are traces of them even on the west coast, between Sonntag Bay and Foulke Fjord, at the entrance to Smith Sound.
The rather level surface of the " worn down mountains " of the north of the state and the coastal plain beds of the southern and western parts are now dissected by rivers, which make most of the state a rolling or hilly country, without strong relief.
Underneath the surface are beds of sand, gravel and clays, the last affording material for the manufacture of brick, tiles and pottery.
Air goods, such as cushions, beds, gas bags, and so forth, are made of textile fabrics which have been coated with mixed rubber either by the spreading process above described, or by means of heated rollers, the curing being then effected by steam heat.
Having on the way thither had all the ministers arrested, she seized the regent and her children in their beds, and summoned all the notables, civil and ecclesiastical, to her presence.
Beds of excellent graphite have been found in the Kitoi Alps (Mount Alibert) and in the Turukhansk district in.
The basin thus presents interesting problems. The existence of wide valleys where the small upper waters of the Cherwell, Evenlode and Coln now flow, the occurrence of waterborne deposits in their beds from the northwest of England and from Wales, and the fact that the Thames, like its lower southern tributaries which pierce the North Downs, has been able to maintain a deep valley through the chalk elevation at Goring, are considered to point to the former existence of a much larger river, in the system of which were included the upper waters of the present Severn, Dee and other rivers of the west.
Galena occurs in veins in the Cambrian clay-slate, accompanied by copper and iron pyrites, zinc-blende, quartz, calcspar, iron-spar, &c.; also in beds or nests within sandstones and rudimentary limestones, and in a great many other geological formations.
Bergeron has shown that the gneiss and schist which form so much of the chain consist, in part at least, of metamorphosed Cambrian beds.
The overthrust came from the south-east, and the Palaeozoic beds were crushed and crumpled against the ancient massif of the central plateau.
The principal folding took place at the close of the Carboniferous period, and was contemporaneous with that of the old Hercynian chain of Belgium, &c. The Permian and later beds lie unconformably upon the denuded folds, and in the space between the Montagne Noire and the Cevennes proper the folded belt is buried beneath the horizontal Jurassic strata of the Causses.
The Secondary and Tertiary beds of the Languedoc were crushed against the central plateau and were frequently overfolded.
These usually dry sandy beds, which on many maps appear rivers of imposing length, for a few hours or days following rare but violent thunderstorms, are deep and turbulent streams. The northern system consists of the Nosob and its tributaries, the Molopo and the Kuruman.
These openings are usually the sandy beds of dried-up or intermittent affluents, such as the Bak, Ham, Houm, Aub (or Great Fish) rivers of Great Namaqualand.
From the Devonian onwards the beds lie flat or dip at low angles.
They constitute, in fact, an incomplete rim around the basin of sedimentary beds which occupies the Amazonian depression.
The crystalline rocks are succeeded by beds which have been referred to the Cambrian and Silurian systems. In the valley of the Trombetas, one of the northern tributaries of the Amazon, fossils have been found which indicate either the top of the Ordovician or the bottom of the Silurian.
Devonian beds cover a much more extensive area.
These bands are often concealed by more recent deposits, but it is clear that in this region the Devonian beds form a basin or synclinal with the Amazon for its axis.
Devonian beds also lie upon the older rocks in the Matto Grosso and other provinces in the interior of Brazil, where they generally form plateaux of nearly horizontal strata.
The fauna shows striking analogies with that of the Bokkeveld beds of South Africa on the one hand and of the Hamilton group of North America on the other.
In the basin of the Lower Amazon the Carboniferous beds lie within the Devonian synclinal and crop out on both sides of the river next to the Devonian bands.
In southern Brazil, on the other hand, in Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, &c., the beds of this period are of terrestrial origin, containing coal seams and remains of plants.
The beds are homotaxial with the Karharbari series of India, and represent either the top of the Carboniferous or the base of the Permian of Europe.
The only Mesozoic system which is represented in Brazil by marine beds is the Cretaceous, and the marine facies, is restricted to the coasts and the basin of the Amazon.
In the province of Sergipe, on the east coast, the beds are approximately on the horizon of the Cenomanian; in the valley of the Amazon they belong to the highest parts of the Cretaceous system, and the fauna shows Tertiary affinities.
In the interior of Brazil, the Palaeozoic beds are directly overlaid by a series of red sandstones, &c., which appear to be of continental origin and of which the age is uncertain.
Tertiary beds cover a considerable area, especially in the Amazonian depression.
Eruptive rocks occur in the Devonian and Carboniferous beds, but there is no evidence of volcanic activity since the Palaeozoic epoch.
Large beds of rock-salt also occur in the neighbourhood, in which shafts have been sunk to a depth of more than 1200 ft.
As a rule denudation, which has acted on a magnificent scale, has removed all but a few hundred feet of the basement beds.
The beds are usually thin false-bedded sandstones with an almost complete absence of shales.
The Red beds and Cave sandstones occur along the eastern flanks of the Drakensberg.
The beds of these rivers, as well as that of the Danube, are continually changing, forming morasses and pools, and rendering the country near their banks marshy, Notwithstanding the work already done, such as canalizing and regulating the rivers, the erection of dams, &c., the problems of preventing inundations, and of reclaiming the marshes, have not yet been satisfactorily solved.
These are composed chiefly of Triassic beds, but Jurassic and Cretaceous beds take some share in their formation.
Eocene nummulitic beds occur, but the deposits are mostly of Miocene age.
Occasionally, the whole country suffers much from drought; but disastrous floods not unfrequently occur, particularly in the spring, when the beds of the rivers are inadequate to contain the increased volume of water caused by the rapid melting of the snows on the Carpathians.
The crocus succeeds in any fairly good garden soil, and is usually planted near the edges of beds or borders in the flower garden, or in broadish patches at intervals along the mixed borders.
The individual beds, seldom more than a few feet in thickness and sometimes only a few inches, are interstratified with an immense thickness of quartzites.
No fossils have been discovered, and except that they represent some portion or portions of rocks of the Pre-Cape formation the age of the upper Witwatersrand beds, as well as that of the lower division, remains an open question.
Near Pretoria duplications of the beds, due to overthrusting, are not uncommon.
The Karroo beds lie almost horizontally, in marked contrast to the highly inclined older rocks.
There are extensive beds of good coal, including thick seams of steam coal near the Rand and other goldfields.
The Cretaceous beds form a band along each side of the Cordillera and along the southern flank of the Caribbean chain, and they spread over the greater part of the provinces of Falcon and Lara.
There is considerable difference of opinion as to the chronology of the succeeding beds, and the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary systems is drawn at various horizons by different observers.
The Cerro de Oro series is the most important group of these beds and takes a considerable share in the formation of the mountain ranges.
One of the oldest of Venezuelan industries, the Margarita pearl fisheries, was prohibited in 1909 for an indefinite time because of the threatened extinction of the oyster beds.
The natives engaged in the fishery used some 400 sailboats of 3 to 15 tons capacity, and the beds were raked in search of pearl oysters.
The hospital of Leiden, though with only twelve beds available for teaching, became the centre of medical influence in Europe.
In the flatter parts of the valley occur large beds of loam and rubble, sometimes in terraces parallel with, but several hundred feet above, the river, proving by their disposition and appearance that the valley has been formed by the action of water.
When the rocks are concealed by detrital material he looks for outcroppings on steep hillsides, on the crests of hills or ridges, in the beds of streams, in landslides, in the roots of overturned trees, and in wells, quarries, roadcuttings and other excavations.
Search should be made in the beds of streams and on the hillsides for " float mineral " or " shoad stones," fragments of rocks and minerals known to be associated with and characteristic of the deposits.
Fragments of coal, or soil stained black with coal, will be found near the outcrop tif coal beds.
In the case of very thick beds and mass deposits the main shaft or tunnel will preferably be located in the foot-wall.
In steeply inclined beds the working-place can be so arranged that the mineral will fall or slide from the place where it is broken down to the main haulage road.
While it is always desirable to provide large working-places, the size of the working-place is limited by the thickness and Size of strength of the overlying beds forming the roof Working- or hanging wall of the mine.
With weak and thin beds forming the roof the working-places are often not wider than 20 or 3 o ft.
In long-wall and in the work of mining pillars the roof will be supported on one side only, the overhanging beds acting as cantilevers.
The working-place in such case is considerably narrower than in rooms or stopes, and there is also greater difficulty in supporting the roof because the projecting beds tend to break close to the point of support where the strain is greatest.
In the systematic mining of larger deposits, the simplest plan consists in mining large areas by means of numerous working-places under the protection of pillars of mineral left for the purpose, and later mining these pillars systematically, allowing the overlying rock beds to fall and fill the abandoned workings.
In steep pitching beds sufficient excavated material is allowed to remain in the stope for the support of the machines and men, the excess being drawn out from time to time and loaded into cars.
Among the city's manufactories are breweries, iron and brass foundries, stove factories, knitting mills, cotton mills, clothing factories, slaughtering and meat-packing establishments, cigar and cigarette factories, and manufactories of adhesive pastes, court plaster, spring beds, ribbed underwear, aniline dyes, chemicals, gas meters, fire-brick, and glazed paper and cardboard.
Its upheaval above the great sea which submerged all the north-west of the Indian peninsula long after the Himalaya had massed itself as a formidable mountain chain, belongs to a comparatively recent geologic period, and the same thrust upwards of vast masses of cretaceous limestone has disturbed the overlying recent beds of shale and clays with very similar results to those which have left so marked an impress on the Baluch frontier.
Successive flexures or ridges are ranged in more or less parallel lines, and from between the bands of hard, unyielding rock of older formation the soft beds of recent shale have been washed out, to he carried through the enclosing ridges by rifts which break across their axes.
They build up natural aqueducts of limestone, and after flowing for a time on these elevated beds burst their walls and take a new course.
West of this line the rocks are chiefly Tertiary and Quaternary; east of it they are mostly Palaeozoic or gneissic. In the western mountain ranges the beds are thrown into a series of folds which form a gentle curve running from south to north with its convexity facing westward.
The Cretaceous beds have not yet been separated from the overlying Eocene, and the identification of the system rests on the discovery of a single Cenomanian ammonite.
The Eocene beds are marine and contain nummulites.
The Miocene beds are also marine and are characterized by an abundant molluscan fauna.
Flint chips, which appear to have been fashioned by hand, are said to have been found in the Miocene beds, but to prove the existence of man at so early a period would require stronger evidence than has yet been brought forward.
The petroleum of Burma occurs in the Miocene beds, one of the best-known fields being that of Yenangyaung.
Although similar teeth occur in the phosphorite beds of South Carolina, which may have been transported from elsewhere, no undoubted remains of Megatherium are known from North America.
The second element in the composition of the island consists of Mesozoic beds, which occur in a broken band along most of the south-western coast.
Peletan classes all these limestones as Triassic. Triassic beds of the Pacific coastal type occur in a band along the south-western coast.
They are covered by marine Jurassic beds and they in turn by Cretaceous coal-bearing, terrestrial deposits, resembling those of New Zealand.
The nitrate forms beds, varying in thickness from 6 in.
The seed is sown in nursery beds, and the plants set out in the field later.
Hot beds are made when necessary.
Airdrie was a market town in 1695, but owes its prosperity to the great coal and iron beds in its vicinity.
The series is now placed at the top of the Ordovician System, above the Llandeilo beds.
They have been folded and denuded, so as to form the foundation on which rest the later beds of the island.
Upon the denuded edges of the Scotland beds lies the Oceanic series.
The limestones contain Globigerina and other Foraminifera, the siliceous beds are made of Radiolaria, sponge spicules and diatoms, while the red clay closely resembles the red clay of the deepest parts of the oceans.
The Coral Limestone series lies indifferently upon the older beds.
Jukes-Browne and Harrison ascribe the Scotland beds to the Eocene or Oligocene period, the Oceanic series to the Miocene, the Bissex Hill marls to the Pliocene, and the coral limestones partly to the Pliocene and partly to the Pleistocene.
On the old clearings of another village Mr Bates himself, although he did not see a gorilla, saw the fresh tracks of these great apes and the torn stems and discarded fruit rinds of the "mejoms," as well as the broken stalks of the latter, which had been used for beds.
According to native report, the gorillas sleep on these beds, which are of sufficient thickness to raise them a foot or two above the ground, in a sitting posture, with the head inclined forwards on the breast.
In the first case Mr Bates states that the tracks and beds indicated the presence of three or four gorillas, some of which were small.
Mr Bates's account, as being based on actual inspection of the beds, is probably the more trustworthy.
Its mountains are insufficient in elevation and extent to attract their full share of the monsoon rains, which fall so abundantly on the Abyssinian highlands on the other side of the Red Sea; for this reason Arabia has neither lakes nor forests to control the water-supply and prevent its too rapid dissipation, and the rivers are mere torrent beds sweeping down occasionally in heavy floods, but otherwise dry.
Hauran southward forms the main watershed of the peninsula is covered in places by deep beds of lava, which from their hardness have preserved the underlying sandstones from degradation, and now stand up consider ably above the general level.
Kasim and Wushm, where the water in the wadi beds rises nearly to the ground level, numerous fertile oases are found with thriving villages and towns.
Over both sandstone and granite great sheets of lava have been poured, and these, protecting the softer beds beneath from further denudation, now stand up as the high plateaus and hills called harra.
Generally, however, the Cretaceous beds do not appear, and the greater part of southern Arabia seems to be formed of Alveolina and nummulite limestones of Tertiary age.
Throughout the whole of Arabia, so far as is known, the sedimentary beds show no signs of any but the most gentle folding.
In the broad sandy wadi beds the tamarisk (athl) is everywhere found; its wood is used for making domestic implements of all sorts.
West of Gafsa are immense beds of phosphates.
Wells are dug in their beds, and the fertility of the valleys is thus maintained.
Geology.'--The Eastern Cordillera., which, however, is but little known, appears to consist, as in Bolivia, chiefly of Palaeozoic rocks; the western ranges of the Andes are formed of Mesozoic beds, together with recent volcanic lavas and ashes; and the lower hills near the coast are composed of granite, syenite and other crystalline rocks, sometimes accompanied by limestones and sandstones, which are probably of Lower Cretaceous age, and often covered by marine Tertiary deposits.
The guano beds are found on the barren islands of the Guano.
The alluvial deposits are found both in the beds of the small streams and in the soil of the small plains or pampas.
Long ditches with stone-paved sluices for washing this mineral-bearing material have long been used by the Indians, who also construct stone bars across the beds of the streams to make riffles and hold the deposited grains of gold.
In,the vicinity of some of the deposits of argentiferous galena are large coal beds, but timber is scarce on the table-lands.
Coal has been found in extensive beds near Piura, Salaverry, Chimbote, Huarmey and Pisco on the coast, and at Goillarisquisga, Huarochiri and other places in the interior.
Between the Halys and the Iris the mountain rim is comparatively low and broken, but east of the Iris it is a continuous lofty ridge (called by the ancients Paryadres and Scydises), whose rugged northern slopes are furrowed by torrent beds, down which a host of small streams (among them the Thermodon, famed in Amazon story) tumble to the sea.
Mesozoic rocks are represented by slates containing Ammoniles and Monotis, evidently of Triassic age, rocks containing Ammonites Bucklandi of Liassic age, a series of beds rich in plants of Jurassic age, and beds of Cretaceous age containing Trigonia and many other fossils.
The oldest beds which have yielded fossils in any abundance belong to the Carboniferous System.
The Jurassic and Cretaceous beds are also in part marine and in part terrestrial.
South and west of the Fossa Magna the beds are thrown into folds which run approximately parallel to the general direction of the coast, and two zones may be recognizedan outer, consisting of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic beds, and an inner, consisting of Archaean and Palaeozoic rocks, with granitic intrusions.
Geologically they are known to date back to the Oligocene period, and wings believed to be referable to them have been found in Liassic and Jurassic beds.
The gold occurs in conglomerate beds, locally known as "banket."
There are several series of parallel beds, interstratified with quartzite and schist, the most important being the "main reef" series.
The rivers having, by the silt of ages, gradually raised their beds, now run along high levels.
In the outer portion of the zone the Permian and Mesozoic beds are crushed and folded against the core of ancient rocks; in the inner portion of the zone they rest upon the old foundation with but little subsequent disturbance.
In the eastern Carpathians also, the Permian and Mesozoic beds are not much folded except near the outer margin of the zone.
Their relations to the surrounding beds are still obscure.
They may be " rootless " masses brought upon the top of the later beds by thrustplanes.
Or, finally, they may have been islands rising above the waters, in which were deposited the later beds which now surround them.
The chief industry is the cultivation of oysters in four large beds in the Mare Piccolo; besides oysters, Taranto carries on a large trade in cozze, a species of large black mussel, which is packed in barrels with a special sauce.
The Maltese Islands consist largely of Tertiary Limestone, with somewhat variable beds of Crystalline Sandstone, Greensand and Marl or Blue Clay.
The beds are not folded.
North of the Great Fault and at Comino the level of the beds is about 400 ft.
Porphyra laciniata, the edible laver; Codium tomentosum, a coarse species; Padina pavonia, common in shallow water; Ulva latissima; Haliseris polypodioides; Sargassum bacciferum; the well-known gulf weed, probably transported from the Atlantic; Zostera marina, forming dense beds in muddy bays; the roots are cast up by storms and are valuable to dress the fields.
Various considerations throw doubt on Mr Moore's theory, especially the almost entire absence of marine fossiliferous beds in the whole of equatorial Africa at a distance from the sea, of any remains of Jurassic faunas which might link the Tanganyika forms with those of undoubted Jurassic age in neighbouring regions.
The evidence upon which these opinions were based had been gathered by such anthropologists as Schmerling, Boucher de Perthes and others, and it had to do chiefly with the finding of implements of human construction associated with the remains of extinct animals in the beds of caves, and with the recovery of similar antiquities from alluvial deposits the great age of which was demonstrated by their depth.
Fragments of wings from the Lias and Oolitic beds have been referred to ants and bees, but the true nature of these remains is doubtful.
From that time the history of Bona is one of industrial development, greatly stimulated since 1883 by the discovery of the phosphate beds at Tebessa.
Usually it occurs in compact beds of alternating bright and dark bands in which impressions of leaves, woody fibre and other vegetable remains are commonly found.
These are also called the Upper Limestone Shale, a similar group being found in places below the limestone, and called the Lower Limestone Shale, or, in the north of England, the Tuedian group. Going northward the beds of limestone diminish in thickness, with a proportional increase in the intercalated sandstones and shales, until in Scotland they are entirely subordinate to a mass of coal-bearing strata, which forms the most productive members of the Scotch coalfields.
The Coal Measures, forming the third great member of the Carboniferous series, consist of alternations of shales and sandstones, with beds of coal and nodular ironstones, which together make up a thickness of many thousands of feet - from 12,000 to 14,000 ft.
The areas containing productive coal measures are usually known as coalfields or basins, within which coal occurs in more or less regular beds, also called seams or veins, which can often be followed over a considerable length of country without change of character, although, like all stratified rocks, their continuity may be interrupted by faults or dislocations, also known as slips, hitches, heaves or troubles.
These very thick seams are, however, rarely constant in character for any great distance, being found commonly to degenerate into carbonaceous shales, or to split up into thinner beds by the intercalation of shale bands or partings.
The actual coal measure strata, consisting mainly of shales and clays, are generally impervious to water, but when strata of a permeable character are sunk through, such as the magnesian limestone of the north of England, the Permian sandstones of the central counties, or the chalk and greensand in the north of France and Westphalia, special methods are required in order to pass the water-bearing beds, and to protect the shaft and workings from the influx of water subsequently.
The main level or gate road is driven in the benches coal, or lower part of the seam, while a smaller drift for ventilation, called an air heading, is carried above it in one of the upper beds called the slipper coal.
This is sometimes obviated by holing in the beds below the coal, or in any portion of a seam of inferior quality that may not be worth working.
In Ancodon (Hyopotamus) the cusps on the molars are taller, so that the dentition is more decidedly selenodont; the distribution of this genus includes not only Europe, Asia and North Africa, but also Egypt where it occurs in Upper Eocene beds in company with the European genus Rhagatherium, which is nearer Anthracotherium.
The coal here is anthracite, as is also that, at Tai-gan-shan, where are found beds of greater value than any in the neighbourhood of Peking.
The beds lie in the southern half of the state, extending under about two-fifths of its surface.
In Ankole and Koki rocks consisting of granular quartzite, schistose sandstone, red and brown sandstone, and shales with cleaved killas rest on the Archean platform and possibly represent the Lower Witwatersrand beds of the Transvaal.
The Port Moresby beds are Cainozoic. They are highly inclined, and occupy a large range of country along the south coast, and include the Macgillivray Range, to the north-east of Beagle Bay.
It appears to consist in the main of a continuation of an axis of old schists and slates, with granite intrusions, and flanked by coastal plains with Cretaceous or Jurassic, and Miocene beds, with Pleistocene sands and reefs and volcanic rocks.
Other local industries of some importance include smelting, and manufactures of beds, furniture, railway carriages, matches, paper, sweets and woollen and cotton goods.
Although a few of the Pleistocene ground-sloths, such as Nothropus and Nothrotherium (= Coelodon), were of comparatively small size, in the Santa Cruz beds of Patagonia few of the representatives of the family much exceeded a modern sloth in size.
In each province they had found the best springs, beds of clay, paint, soapstone, flinty rock, friable stone for sculpture and hard, tenacious stone for tools, and used ashes for salt.
Beckles in the Wealden cliffs near Hastings; and an accurate knowledge of the skeleton was only obtained when many complete specimens were disinterred by the Belgian government from the Wealden beds at Bernissart, near Mons, during the years 1877-1880.
In Waterside hamlet, adjoining the town, are flour-mills, duck farms, and some of the extensive watercress beds for which the Chess is noted, as it is also for its trout-fishing.
Beds of coal and of red earth are found in some places.
The phosphate beds contain Eocene fossils derived from the underlying strata and many fragments of Pleistocene vertebrata such as mastodon, elephant, stag, horse, pig, &c. The phosphate occurs as lumps varying greatly in size, scattered through a sand or clay; they often contain phosphatized Eocene fossils (Mollusca, &c.).
In the Lahn district of Nassau (Germany) there are phosphate beds in Devonian rocks.
Bands of black nodules, highly phosphatic, are found at the top of the Bala limestone in North Wales; beds of concretions occur in the Jurassic series; and important deposits are known in the Cretaceous strata, especially in the Lower Greensand and at the base of the Gault.
No Cambrian rocks have as yet been discovered, but the Ordovician system is represented by the Aorere beds in the north-western part of the South Island.
The Silurian system is represented by the Baton river beds to the west of the Aorere beds, occurring in the basin of the Motueka river, which flows into Tasman Bay.
The Carboniferous system includes either the whole or a large part of the Maitai beds.
The Maitai beds include a thick mass of slates and sandstones, which form the bulk of the Southern Alps, whence branches extend southeastward to the coast.
The beds take their name from the Maitai river near Nelson; they are largely developed in the mountains of the Tararua-Ruahine-Raukumara chain, on the eastern side of the North Island; they occur in the Kaikoura Mountains, and an outlier forms Mount Torlesse, near the eastern edge of the Southern Alps, west of Christchurch.
The Maitai beds have generally been considered to be Carboniferous from the presence of species of Productus found in the Permo-Carboniferous of New South Wales.
New Zealand includes representatives of all the three Mesozoic systems. The Hokanui group comprises the Triassic Wairoa .and Otapira beds, and the Jurassic Mataura beds.
The Mataura beds are largely of estuarine formation; they contain oil shales and gas springs.
The Cretaceous system includes the Waipara series, a belt of chalky limestones with some phosphate beds at Clarendon in eastern Otago.
The Cainozoic system is represented by Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene beds.
In southern Otago the Oligocene beds are brown coals and lignites with oil shales, which, at Orepuki, contain 47% of oil and gas, with 8% of water.
The Miocene Pareora beds occur to the height of 3000 or 4000 ft.
Marine beds of the Pliocene are best developed in the Wanganui basin.
The Columbia plateau consists of horizontal beds of lava having a total thickness of several thousand feet, and its surface has a general elevation of tow to 2000 ft.
In numerous depressions, some of which may have been the beds of lakes formed by beaver dams, the soil is deep and largely of vegetable formation.
The river beds are generally 4 0 to 80 ft.
The Beaufort series occupies a portion of the area formerly regarded as being composed of the Stormberg beds.
In the region east of the Crazy Mountains, in Sweetgrass county, are marine beds of upper Cretaceous.
Among the wooden objects recovered from the relic beds were tubs, plates, ladles and spoons, a flail for threshing corn, a last for stretching shoes of hide, celt handles, clubs, long-bows of yew, floats and implements of fishing and a dug-out canoe 12 ft.
The terremare (so named from the marly soil of which they are composed) appear as mounds, sometimes of very considerable extent, which when dug into disclose the remains and relic beds of the ancient settlements.
The contents of the relic beds indicate that they belong for the most part to the age of bronze, although in some cases they may be referred to the latter part of the Stone age.
Sometimes in silty river beds they are sunk ioo ft.
The northern part of the county lies on the southern rim of the London basin; here the beds are dipping northwards.
The Lower Tertiaries are represented by three different formations known as the Thanet beds, the Woolwich and Reading beds, and the Oldhaven and Blackheath beds.
The Thanet beds resting on chalk form a narrow outcrop rising into cliffs at Pegwell Bay and Reculver, and consist (1) of a constant base bed of clayey greenish sand, seldom more than 5 ft.
The middle series of the Lower Tertiaries, known as the Woolwich and Reading beds, rests either on the Thanet beds or on chalk, and consists chiefly of irregular alternations of clay and sand of very various colours, the former often containing estuarine and oyster shells and the latter flint pebbles.
The highest and most local series of the Lower Tertiaries is the Oldhaven and Blackheath beds lying between the London Clay and the Woolwich beds.
This is succeeded by an outcrop of the Lower Greensand - including the Folkestone, Sandgate and Hythe beds with the thin Atherfield Clay at the base - which extends across the country from west to east with a breadth of from 2 to 7 m., and rises into the picturesque elevations of the Ragstone hills.
The remains of Iguanodon occur in the Hythe beds.
Along the borders of Sussex there is a narrow strip of country consisting of picturesque sandy hills, formed by the Hastings beds, whose highest elevation is nearly 400 ft.
Valley gravels .border the Thames, and Pleistocene mammalia have been found in fissures in the Hythe beds at Ightham, where ancient stone implements are common.
Ironstone is found in the Wadhurst Clay, a subdivision of the Hastings beds, clays and calcareous ironstone in the Ashdown sand, but the industry has long been discontinued.
The history of the Kentish oyster fisheries goes back to the time of the Roman occupation, when the fame of the oyster beds off Rutupiae (Richborough) extended even to Rome.
The principal beds are near Whitstable, Faversham, Milton, Queenborough and Rochester, some being worked by ancient companies or gilds of fishermen.
Regular training on the same plan as in general hospitals is provided in London at the fever hospitals of the Metropolitan Asylums Board (12 in number, with from 360 to 760 beds each), and at a considerable number of provincial institutions.
The total area of the coal beds is estimated at 35,000 sq.
Near Luang Prabang, just beyond the border, in French territory, limestones with Productus and Schwagerina, like the Productus limestone of the Indian Salt Range, have been found; also red clays and grauwacke with plants similar to those of the Raniganj beds; and violet clays with Dicynodon, supposed to be the equivalents of the Panche series of India.
All these beds strike from north-east to south-west and must enter the northern part of Siam.
The greater part of the Ardennes is occupied by a large area of Devonian beds, through which rise the Cambrian masses of Rocroi and Stavelot, and a few others of smaller size.
Upon the folded slates and schists which constitute these inliers the Devonian rests with marked unconformity; but north of the ridge of Condroz Ordovician and Silurian beds make their appearance.
Near Dinant carboniferous beds are infolded among the Devonian.
Along the northern margin lies the intensely folded belt which constitutes the coalfield of Namur, and, beneath the overlying Mesozoic beds, is continued to the Boulonnais, Dover and beyond.
The southern boundary of this belt is formed by a great thrust-plane, the faille du midi, along which the Devonian beds of the south have been thrust over the carboniferous beds of the coalfield.
The margin of rhododendron beds, where there are sheltered recesses amongst the plants, suits many of the more delicate species well, partial shade Lily of the Valley (Convallaria majalis).
Among the Kamchadales " the skin of the bear," says a traveller, forms their beds and their coverlets, bonnets for their heads, gloves for their hands and collars for their dogs.
Below it, Triassic beds are exposed from Lisburn to Island Magee, giving sections of red sands and marls.
Above these, marine Rhaetic beds appear at intervals, notably near Lame, where they are succeeded by Lower Lias shales and limestones.
The volcanic fissures that allowed of the upwelling of basalt are represented by numerous dykes, many cutting the earlier lava-flows as well as all the beds below them.
The coal of some of the beds is bituminous, and of others anthracite.
The best effects are produced in formal beds by planting the same variety in each, to secure the plants being of the same height and in flower simultaneously.
They are then lifted and treated like offsets, being sown thinly in beds out of doors.
There is an older series, ranging from the Devonian to the Cretaceous, which is folded and faulted and forms all the higher hills, and there is a newer series of Tertiary age, which lies nearly horizontal and rests unconformably upon the older beds.
The higher part of the Cretaceous is absent, and it appears to have been during this period that the principal folding of the older beds took place.
The Eocene beds are nummulitic. There is a lacustrine group which has usually been placed in the Lower Eocene, but the discovery of Anthracotherium magnum in the interbedded lignites proves it to be Oligocene, in part at least.
Pliocene beds also occur.
When they are near the surface, and their dip corresponds with the slope of the ground, they are in the most favourable position, and are worked in terraces or galleries formed along the strike of the beds and having a height of about 50 ft.
The galleries are generally carried on in sections of to yds., worked across the beds, and may rise to any height or be sunk below the surrounding level by excavations.
When the rock is much removed from the surface, or inconveniently situated for open workings, it is quarried in underground chambers reached by levels driven through the intervening mass and across or along the beds.
It has also been observed as a product of contact-metamorphism in carbonaceous clay-slates near their contact with granite, and where igneous rocks have been intruded into beds of coal; in these cases the mineral has clearly been derived from organic matter.
The supply on natural beds has been diminishing, but the planting of private beds promises a large increase.
Carboniferous and Permian strata are possibly represented by some black and grey micaceous shales with beds of coal in the Jurjura.
Rhaetic beds (Infra Lias), consisting of dolomites and siliceous limestones, have been recognized at Saida.
The highest beds, consisting of quartzites, shales, marls and sandstones with the remains of fucoids, are found in the Jurjura and Shellata.
At the close of the Lower Miocene period (beds with Ostrea crassissima) great modifications in the relief and limits of the Algerian formations took place.
Immense phosphate beds were discovered near Tebessa in 1891.
Phosphate beds are also worked near Setif, Guelma and Ain Beida.
Most of the carbonate which now occurs in commerce is made from the chloride of the Stassfurt beds by an adaptation of the "Leblanc process" for the conversion of common salt into soda ash (see Alkali Manufacture).
Excellent beds of coal are found in different places, especially about Kulja, but the fairly rich copper ores and silver ores have ceased to be worked.
Matthew, and are shown to contain fluviatile or channel beds with water and river-living forms, and neighbouring flood-plain sediments containing remains of plains-living forms. Thus we may complete the former physiographic picture of a vast flood plain east of the Rocky Mountains, traversed by slowly meandering streams.
The earliest fossiliferous beds which have been proved to exist in Mexico belong to the Carboniferous system.
The Mesozoic beds are of greater importance.
The Jurassic beds are marls, sandstones and limestones, which contain marine fossils.
This board, which is composed of five members appointed by the supreme court for a term of two years, also assesses the taxes on the railways, and on telegraph and telephone lines; for railways the average rate of taxation is assessed on the estimated actual value of the road beds, rolling stock and equipment, and for the telegraph and telephone lines this rate is assessed on the estimated actual value of the poles, wires, instruments, apparatus, office furniture and fixtures.
The mineral has occasionally been observed as a recent formation replacing organic matter, such as wood; and it is sometimes found in beds of coal.
It is evident, however, from the extent of the beds of these streams and of others now permanently dry, and from remains of ancient forests, that at a former period the country must have been abundantly watered.
To the west the valley of the Liffey affords pleasant scenery, with the well-known grounds called the "Strawberry Beds" on the north bank.
The Westphalian plain is broken by extensive outcrops of the underlying cretaceous beds, and is not very fertile, except in the Hellweg, a zone between the Haarstrang and the Lippe.
To the latter belong the Greenshank and Redshank, as well as the Common Sandpiper, the " Summer-Snipe " above-mentioned, a bird hardly exceeding a skylark in size, and of very general distribution throughout the British Islands, but chiefly frequenting clear streams, especially those with a gravelly or rocky bottom, and mast generally breeding on the beds of sand or shingle on their banks.
The lower part of the Keweenawan system consists of a great succession of lava flows, of prodigious thickness.- This portion of the system is overlain by thick beds of sedimentary rock, mostly conglomerate and sandstone, derived from the igneous rocks beneath.
The greatness of the thickness, as it has been measured, is also due in part to the oblique position in which the beds of sediment were originally deposited.
The succession of beds in New York has become a sort of standard with which the system in other parts of the United States has been compared.
There is in some places an unconformity between the Richmond beds (or their equivalent) and underlying formations, and this unconformity, together with certain palaeontological considerations, has raised the question whether the uppermost part of the system, as outlined above, should not be classed as Silurian (Upper Silurian).
One member of the middle division of the system (Clinton beds) contains much iron ore, especially in the Appalachian Mountain region.
The Devonian system yields much oil and gas in western Pennsylvania, south-western New York, West Virginia and Ontario; and some of the Devonian beds in Tennessee yield phosphates of commercial value.
In many places in the west they rest on what appear to be Ordovician beds, but without unconformity.
The larger part of the system in this part of the country is not of marine origin; yet the sea had access to parts of the interior more than once, as shown by the marine fossils in some of the beds.
Productive coal beds are found in five principal fields.
In this part of the country the Permian beds are largely red sandstone, often saliferous and gypsiferous.
They are distinguished with difficulty from the succeeding Triassic, for the beds have very few fossils.
Perhaps the most remarkable feature of the palaeontology of the system is its paucity of fossils, especially in those parts of the system, such as the Red Beds, which are of terrestrial origin.
Salt and gypsum deposits, and other features of the Permian beds, together with the fewness of fossils, indicate that the climate of the Permian was notably arid in many regions.
So far as the system is differentiated, it is a part of the Red Beds of that region.
The tendency of recent years has been to refer more and more of these beds to the Permian.
The character of some of the conglomerate of the Newark series of the east, and the widespread redness of the beds, so far as it is original, also point to aridity.
Jurassic SystemThis system is not known with certainty in the eastern half of the United States, though there are some beds on the mid-Atlantic coast, along the inland border of the coastal plain, which have been thought by some, on the basis of their reptilian fossils, to be Jurassic. The lower and middle parts of the system are but doubtfully represented in the western interior.
If present, they form a part of the Red Beds of that region.
On the Pacific coast marine Jurassic beds reach in from the Pacific to about the same distance as the Triassic system.
In the coastal plain the Comanchean beds are generally not cemented, but consist of gravel, sand and clay, occupying the nearly horizontal position in which they were originally deposited.
In the western interior there is difference of opinion as to whether certain beds rich in reptilian remains (the Morrison, Atlantosaurus, Como, &c.) should be regarded as Jurassic or Comanchean.
In the United States, marine Shastan beds are restricted to the area west of the Sierras, but they here have great thickness.
The distribution of the beds of marine origin shows that the sea crept upon the eastern and southern borders of the continent auring the period, covered the western plains, and formed a great mediterranean sea between the eastern and western lands of the continent, connecting the Gulf of Mexico on the south and the Arctic Ocean on the north.
The Eocene beds are unconformable, generally, upon the Cretaceous, and unconformable beneath the Miocene.
In \Vashington the Eocene is represented by the Puget series of brackish water beds, with an estimated thickness exceeding that of the marine formations of Oregon.
Workable coal beds are distributed through 3000 ft.
The Fort Union stage, when the deposition was widespread about the eastern base of the northern part of the Rocky Mountains, and at some points in Colorado (Telluride formation) and New Mexico (Puerco beds), where volcanic ejecta entered largely into the formation.
This wide range is open to doubt as to the correlation of some of the beds involved.
Marine Pliocene beds are reported to have an altitude of as much as 5000 ft.
The position of these beds is significant of the amount of change which has taken place in the west since the Pliocene period.
The Quaternary beds of lakes Bonneville and Lahontan have been faulted in a small way since they were deposited, and the old shore lines of these lakes have been deformed to the extent of hundreds of feet.
The following sections from selected parts of the country give some idea of the succession of beds in various type regions.
Saluda beds 20* ft.
State Quarry beds 20 40
Geologically the anthracite and bituminous coals mainly belong to the same formation, the Carboniferous, and this is especially true of the better qualities; though it is stated by the United States Geological Survey that the geQlogic age of the coal beds ranges from Carboniferous in the Appalachian and Mississippi Valley provinces to Miocene (Tertiary) on the Pacific coast, and that the quality of the coal varies only to a very uncertain degree with the geologic age.
Finally, of true lignite beds, or of lignite mix d with sub-bituminous qualities, the states of North Dakota, Montana, Texas and South Dakota are credited with deposits of 500,000; 279,500; 23,000; and 10,000 millions of tons respectively.
Round it the Palaeozoic sands and clays, largely derived from its own waste, were deposited as nearly horizontal beds, in many places still almost undisturbed.
The outer ranges in Alberta have usually the form of tilted blocks with a steep cliff towards the north-east and a gentler slope, corresponding to the dip of the beds, towards the south-west.