How to use Bede in a sentence
Eadberht showed considerable independence in his dealings with the church, and his brother Ecgberht, to whom the well-known letter of Bede is addressed, was from 734 to 766 archbishop of York.
Attached was also a bede or almshouse for twelve poor men.
According to Bede she took the veil in 614, when Oswio was king of Northumbria and Aidan bishop of Lindisfarne, and spent a year in East Anglia, where her sister Hereswith had married ZEthelhere, who was to succeed his brother Anna, the reigning king.
See Bede, Hist.
Bede gives no information about its origin except that its earliest settlers were Angles.Advertisement
This kingdom first appears in Bede's narrative early in the 7th century, when its power was at its height.
Reedwald had been converted to Christianity in Kent, but after his return home he relapsed, according to Bede, owing to the influence of his wife, and there were to be seen in the same building a Christian and a pagan altar.
Bede states that Radwald was the son of Tytili, the son of Wuffa, from whom the East Anglian royal family derived their name Wuffingas.
This month, Bede says, was the same as the mensis paschalis, " when the old festival was observed with the gladness of a new solemnity."
Thus Bede records that in a certain year (which must have been 645, 647, 648 or 651) Queen Eanfleda, who had received her instruction from a Kentish priest of the Roman obedience, was fasting and keeping Palm Sunday, while her husband, Oswy, king of Northumbria, following the rule of the British church, was celebrating the Easter festival.Advertisement
But irrepressibles like John Benton broke through the "non-mission law," and pressed forward through the "Adam Bede" country to Derby (which became the 2nd circuit in 1816); Nottingham, where a great camp-meeting on Whit Sunday 1816 was attended by 12,000 people; Leicestershire, where Loughborough became the 3rd circuit, with extensions into Rutland, Lincolnshire and Norfolk; and ultimately to Hull, which became the 4th circuit, and where a meeting which deserves to be called the First Conference was held in June 1819.
It is with Jarrow that Bede is chiefly associated, though no doubt from the close connexion of the two localities he would often be at Wearmouth.
By this Bede has justly earned the title of the Father of English History.
Bede has the artist's instinct of proportion, the artist's sense for the picturesque and the pathetic. His style too, modelled largely, in the present writer's opinion, on that of Gregory in the Dialogues, is limpid and unaffected.
And though it would be wrong to call Bede a critical historian in the modern sense of the words, he shows a very unusual conscientiousness in collecting his information from the best available sources, and in distinguishing between what he believed to be fact, and what he regarded only as rumour or tradition.Advertisement
Other historical works of Bede are the History of the Abbots (of Wearmouth and Jarrow), and the lives of Cuthbert in verse and prose.
In the case of the latter it cannot honestly be said that Bede has improved on his original.
It is probably the latest of Bede's extant works, as it was written in November 73 4, only six months before his death.
Augustine, Jerome, Ambrose and Gregory; though Bede's reading is very far from being limited to these.
And though Bede makes no pretensions to originality, least of all in his theological works, freely taking what he needed, and (what is very rare in medieval writers) acknowledging what he took, "out of the works of the venerable Fathers," still everything he wrote is informed and impressed with his own special character and temper.Advertisement
Of the collected works of Bede the most convenient edition is that by Dr Giles in twelve volumes (8vo., 1843-1844), which includes translations of the Historical Works.
The Continental folio editions (Basel, 1563; Cologne, 1612 and 1688) contain many works which cannot by any possibility be Bede's.
On the chronology and genuineness of the works commonly ascribed to Bede, see Plummer's ed., i., cxlv-clix.
After his baptism Edwin, according to Bede, began to construct "a large and more noble basilica of stone," but it was partly destroyed during the troubles which followed his death, and was repaired by Archbishop Wilfrid.
Lastly a life by an otherwise unknown Irish writer named Probus occurs in the Basel edition of Bede's works (1563) and was reprinted by Colgan.Advertisement
Bede says that when he returned to Frisia his see was fixed in Ultrajectum (Utrecht).
He was still living when Bede wrote in 731.
This would fix the date of his death in 738; and, as Alcuin tells us he was eighty-one years old when he died, it may be inferred that he was born in 657 - a theory on which all the dates given above are based, though it must be added that they are substantially confirmed by the incidental notices of Bede.
The chief authorities for Willibrord's life are Alcuin's Vita Willibrordi, both in prose and in verse, and Bede's Hist.
Bede gives a glowing picture of his missionary zeal at Melrose, but in 664 he was transferred to act as prior at Lindisfarne.Advertisement
Bede records that the church of St Paul was built by lEthelbert, and from that time to this a cathedral dedicated to St Paul has stood upon the hill looking down on Ludgate.
According to Bede, Wini, being expelled from his bishopric of Wessex in 635, took refuge with Wulfhere, king of the Mercians, of whom he purchased the see of London.
Except for the statement in Bede that the French artisans, sent by Benedict Biscop, taught their craft to the English, there is at present no evidence of glass having been made in England between the Roman period and the 13th century.
The settlers of Kent are described by Bede as Jutes, and there are traces in Kentish custom of differences from the other.
The last book (xvii.) treats of theology or (as we should now say) mythology, and winds up with an account of the Holy Scriptures and of the Fathers, from Ignatius and Dionysius the Areopagite to Jerome and Gregory the Great, and even of later writers from 'Isidore and Bede, through Alcuin, Lanfranc and Anselm, down to Bernard of Clairvaux and the brethren of St Victor.Advertisement
St Herbert's Isle receives its name from having been the abode of a holy man of that name mentioned by Bede as contemporary with St Cuthbert of Fame Island in the 7th century.
The method of Ticonius was dominant in the Church down to the middle ages, amongst his followers being such notable churchmen as Augustine, Primasius, Cassiodorus, Bede, Anselm.
This side of Benedictine life is most typically represented by the Venerable Bede, the gentle and learned scholar of the early middle ages.
Among the authors whose works were found specially serviceable in this way may be mentioned the Venerable Bede, who is credited with no fewer than 140 homilies in the Basel and Cologne editions.
Thus we find Alfred the Great translating the homilies of Bede; and in a similar manner arose iElfric's Anglo-Saxon Homilies and the German Homiliarium of Ottfried of Weissenburg.Advertisement
Of its origin and early history we have no record except the bare statement of Bede that its settlers were of the Old Saxon race.
Bede does not mention this kingdom in his narrative until 604, the year of the consecration of Mellitus to the see of London.
According to Bede, Ã†thelberht's supremacy in 597 stretched over all the English kingdoms as far as the Humber.
These narratives are supplemented by the brief but most valuable notices given by the Venerable Bede.
Local histories containing more or less ecclesiastical material were written in the 6th and following centuries by Jordanes (History of the Goths), Gregory of Tours (History of the Franks), Isidore of Seville (History of the Goths, Vandals and Suevi), Bede (Ecclesiastical History of England), Paulus Diaconus (History of the Lombards), and others.Advertisement
It was as little original as that of Bede; for on the continent, too, scholars were content to think what those of old had thought before them.
Priscian was quoted by several writers in Britain of the 8th century - Aldhelm, Bede, Alcuin - and was abridged or largely used in the next century by Hrabanus Maurus of Fulda and Servatus Lupus of Ferrieres.
While Aldhelm is known as "the father of AngloLatin verse," Latin prose was the literary medium used by Bede in his celebrated Ecclesiastical History of England (731).
Nine years after the death of Bede (735), Boniface, "the apostle of Germany," sanctioned the founding of Fulda (744), which soon rivalled St Gallen as a school of learning.
In England the 9th century closes with Alfred, who, with the aid of the Welsh monk, Asser, produced a series of free translations from Latin texts, including Boethius and Orosius and Bede, and the Cura Pastoralis of Gregory the Great.Advertisement
On the other hand, it is by no means impossible that the distinction drawn by Bede was based solely on the names Essex (East Seaxan), East Anglia, &c. We need not doubt that the Angli and the Saxons were different nations originally; but from the evidence at our disposal it seems likely that they had practically coalesced in very early times, perhaps even before the invasion.
About The Year 73 O The Venerable Bede Had Already Perceived The Anticipation Of The Equinoxes, And Remarked That These Phenomena Then Took Place About Three Days Earlier Than At The Time Of The Council Of Nicaea.
Saxon architecture owes nearly everything to his initiative, and Bede was one of his pupils.
Bede states that the invaders belonged to three different nations, Kent and southern Hampshire being occupied by Jutes, while Essex, Sussex and Wessex were founded by the Saxons, and the remaining kingdoms by the Angli.
The terms used for the two classes by Bede are milites (ministri) and comites, for which the Anglo-Saxon version has Pegnas and gesi 5as respectively.
In Bede's time, if not before, London was resorted to by many merchants both by land and by sea.
Since the art of glass-working was unknown, according to Bede, until nearly the end of the 7th century, it is probable that these were all of continental or Roman-British origin.
Portable altars have been used on occasion since the time of Bede.
In 634 he defeated and slew the British king Ceadwalla at a place called by Bede Denisesburn, near Hefenfelth, which has been identified with St Oswald's Cocklaw, near Chollerford, Northumberland.
Bede declares that Oswald ruled over "all the peoples and provinces of Britain, which includes four languages, those of the Britons, Picts, Scots and Angles."
See Bede, Historia Ecclesiastica, 'ed.'
Among later writers much valuable information is given by Ammianus Marcellinus, Jordanes, Procopius, Gregory of Tours, Bede, Paulus Diaconus, Widukind, Thietmar, Adam of Bremen and Saxo Grammaticus, as well as by the early laws and charters.
Paulus used the document called the Origo gentis Langobardorum, the Liber ponticfialis, the lost history of Secundus of Trent, and the lost annals of Benevento; he made a free use of Bede, Gregory of Tours and Isidore of Seville.
Early in the 8th we find Bede in possession of an excellent MS. of the whole work.
It was not till 1168 that the gigantic four-headed image of Swantevit was destroyed at Arcona, the capital of the island of Riigen, and this Mona of Slavonic superstition was included in the advancing circle of Christian 5 Church, Gifts of Civilization, p. 330.6 Bede, H.E.
Each of the "four living creatures" of Ezekiel and the Apocalypse has been attributed to each of the four evangelists in turn; Augustine and Bede think that Mark is designated by the "man"; Theophylact and others think that he is designated by the eagle; Anastasius Sinaita makes his symbol the ox; but medieval art acquiesced in the opinion of Jerome that he was indicated by the lion.
To this period, moreover, Bede's incident of the English slave-boys (if indeed it be accepted as historical) ought to be assigned.
In the Chronicle the title is given to Ecgbert, king of the English, "the eighth king that was Bretwalda," and retrospectively to seven kings who ruled over one or other of the English kingdoms. The seven names are copied from Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica, and it is interesting to note that the last king named, Oswiu of Northumbria, lived 150 years before Ecgbert.
At his death in 560 he was succeeded by Ceawlin, who is mentioned by Bede as the second of the English kings to hold an imperium in Britain.
Suspicion likewise attaches to the name Cerdic, which seems to be Welsh, while we learn from Bede that the Isle of Wight, together with part at least of the Hampshire coast, was colonized by Jutes, who apparently had a kingdom distinct from that of Wessex.
According to Bede, however, the kingdom was in a state of disunion from the death of Cenwalh to the accession of Ceadwalla in 685, who greatly increased its prestige and conquered the Isle of Wight, the inhabitants of which he treated with great barbarity.
See Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, edited by Earle and Plummer (Oxford, 1892-1899); Bede, Hist.
He wrote Brevis Annotatio, a short history of the church of Hexham from 674 to 1138, for which he borrowed from Bede, Eddius and Simeon of Durham.
This narrative, as written out by Adamnan, was presented to Aldfrith the Wise, last of the great Northumbrian kings, at York about 701, and came to the knowledge of Bede, who inserted a brief summary of the same in his Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, and also drew up a separate and longer digest which obtained great popularity throughout the middle ages as a standard guide-book (the so-called Libellus de locis sanctis) to the Holy Places of Syria.
Among the latter the chronological epitome appended to Bede's Ecclesiastical History may be specially mentioned.
The main points of difference are that in D, E (1) a series of northern annals have been incorporated; (2) the Bede entries are taken, not from the brief epitome, but from the main body of the Eccl.
Within the walls of this monastery the Venerable Bede spent his life from childhood; and his body was at first buried within the church, whither, until it was removed under Edward the Confessor to Durham, it attracted many pilgrims. The town is wholly industrial, devoted to ship-building, chemical works, paper mills and the neighbouring collieries.
The next two works taken in hand were historical, the Universal History of Orosius and Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People.
In the Orosius, by omissions and additions, Alfred so remodels his original as to produce an almost new work; in the Bede the author's text is closely adhered to, no additions being made, though most of the documents and some other less interesting matters are omitted.
Of late years doubts have been raised as to Alfred's authorship of the Bede translation.
The name - which Bede (730) wrote Mailros and Simeon of Durham (1130) Melros - is derived from the Celtic maol ros, " bare moor," and the town figures in Sir Walter Scott's Abbot and Monastery as "Kennaquhair."
If Bede is right in saying that Ninian was trained in Rome, then the early Christianity of Scotland was Roman.
Ella is the first king of the invading race whom Bede describes as exercising supremacy over his fellows, and we may probably regard him as an historical person, though little weight can be attached to the dates given by the Chronicle.
According to Bede, dEthelwald, king of Sussex, had been previously baptized in Mercia at the suggestion of Wulfhere, who presented him with the Isle of Wight and the district about the Meon.
According to Bede, Sussex was subject to Ine for a number of years.
The caution of Gelasius was not long preserved; Gregory of Tours, for example, asserts that the saint's relics actually existed in the French village of Le Maine, where many miracles were wrought by means of them; and Bede, while still explaining that the Gesta Georgii are reckoned apocryphal, commits himself to the statement that the martyr was beheaded under Dacian, king of Persia, whose wife Alexandra, however, adhered to the Christian faith.
The Liber, which was used by Bede for his Historia Ecclesiastica, was first printed at Mainz in 1602.
See Bede, Historia eccles.
Whether the numerous pestilences recorded in the 7th century were the plague cannot now be said; but it is possible the pestilences in England chronicled by Bede in the years 664, 672, 679 and 683 may have been of this disease, especially as in 690 pestis inguinaria is again recorded in Rome.
The Bede House, a somewhat similar structure by the same founder, completes a striking group of buildings.
Whitby (Streanaeshalch c. 657-857; Prestebi c. 857-1080; Witeby, &c. c. 857 onwards) is first mentioned by Bede, who states that a religious house was established here about A.D.
See Bede, Historia ecclesiastic¢, ii.
Bede, writing three centuries after Ninian, ascribes the name Ad Candidam Casam to the fact that the church of Ninian was built of stone.
We are told by Bede that St Ninian dedicated his church to St Martin of Tours, who died between 397 and 400, but Ailred of Rievaulx is our only authority for the statement that St Martin supplied him with masons.
Bede records that Ninian preached among the Picts within the Mounth, which indicates that he was acquainted with the Pictish language.
A letter of Bede to the archbishop Ecgbert of York may be interpreted to apply to this kind of tenure.
Bede states that the Angli before they came to Britain dwelt in a land called Angulus, and similar evidence is given by the Historia Brittonum.
King Alfred and the chronicler ZEthelweard identified this place with the district which is now called Angel in the province of Schleswig (Slesvig), though it may then have been of greater extent, and this identification agrees very well with the indications given by Bede.
Later he made for himself a collection of the histories of foreign countries, from reading which he conceived an ambition to produce a popular account of English history, modelled on the great work of Bede.
But from the 7th century to the 17th - from Isidore of Seville and the English Bede for a thousand years, - mankind was to look back along the line of Jewish priests and kings to the Creation.
This tradition - which is given only as such by Malmesbury himself - is not confirmed, and there is no mention of it in either Gildas or Bede.
Quasi jocando, he cited Bede to prove that Dionysius the Areopagite had been bishop of Corinth, while they relied upon the statement of the abbot Hilduin that he had been bishop of Athens.
When this historical heresy led to the inevitable persecution, Abelard wrote a letter to the abbot Adam in which he preferred to the authority of Bede that of Eusebius' Historia Ecclesiastica and St Jerome, according to whom Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, was distinct from Dionysius the Areopagite, bishop of Athens and founder of the abbey, though, in deference to Bede, he suggested that the Areopagite might also have been bishop of Corinth.
Leeds (Loidis, Ledes) is mentioned by Bede as the district where the Northumbrian kings had a royal vill in 627, and where Oswy, king of Northumbria, defeated Penda, king of the Mercians, in 665.
See Bede, Eccl.
The first six books, excepting the third, which is almost entirely taken from Bede, are given in Monumenta historica Britannica, vol.
A book, De miraculis, composed of extracts from Bede, was appended along with these three epistles to the later recensions of the Historia.
It is the seat of St Bede College (Roman Catholic, opened in 1891), conducted by Benedictine fathers.
According to Bede, Edwin was favourably disposed towards Christianity owing to a vision he had seen at the court of Roedwald, and in 626 he allowed Eanfled, his daughter by rEthelberg, to be baptized.
Bede notices the peaceful state of Britain at this time, and relates that Edwin was preceded on his progresses by a kind of standard like that borne before the Roman emperors.
Bede tells us that Edwin had subdued the islands of Anglesey and Man, and the Annales Cambriae record that he besieged Cadwallon (perhaps in 632) in the island of Glannauc (Puffin Island).
The 7th century was the darkest of all the dark ages, and England is particularly fortunate in possessing the Ecclcsiastica historia of Bede, which, though its author was primarily interested in things religious, yet contains a copious chronicle of things secular.
It is but necessary to mention Bede and Alcuin.
The remarkable outburst of literary culture in Northumbria during the 7th and 8th centuries produced a real historian in Bede; Bede, however, knows little or nothing of English history between 450 and 596, and he is valuable only for the 7th and early part of the 8th centuries.
William of Malmesbury, Eadmer and Ordericus Vitalis attain a higher historical standard than had yet been reached in England by any one, with the possible exception of Bede.
Bede, Autob., " about 12 Protestant ladies of gentle birth and considerable means " founded a shortlived convent, with Sancroft, then Dean of St Paul's, for director.
Alcuin transmitted to the ignorant Franks the knowledge of Latin culture which had existed in England since the time of Bede.
Bede, speaking of a church built by Finan at Lindisfarne, says, " nevertheless, after the manner of the Scots, he made it not of stone but of hewn oak and covered it with reeds."
Bede states that Wihtred and Swefheard were both kings in Kent in 692, and this statement would appear to imply a period of East Saxon influence '(see Kent), while there is also evidence of an attack by Wessex.
In the latter case the national name is said to have survived until Bede's own time, in the New Forest indeed apparently very much later.
With regard to the origin of the Jutes, Bede only says that Angulus (Angel) lay between the territories of the Saxons and the Iutae - a statement which points to their identity with the Iuti or Jyder of later times, i.e.
Bede gives a beautiful character of Chad.
According to Bede, the whole of Britain as far north as the Humber was included within the sphere of his authority.
The first recorded instance of the Stdnde co-operating with the rulers occurred in 1170; but it was not till 1280 that the margrave solemnly bound himself not to raise a bede or special voluntary contribution without the consent of the estates.
The nobles and prelates generally preferred to raise their share of the revenue by the old method of a bede, or contribution, thus weakening the remaining bond between them and the burghers.
The first phase of Building 1 may have looked similar to the reconstructed timber building at Bede's World displayed here.
Vaughan came to know him at St Bede's and had invited him to become sub-editor of The Tablet in 1895.
The next king was Ceolwulf, to whom Bede dedicated his Historia Ecclesiastica in 731.
See Bede, Historia Ecclesiastica, ii., iii., iv., v., edited by C. Plummer (Oxford, 1896); Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, edited by Earle and Plummer (Oxford, 1899).
There existed, no doubt, special maps of European countries, but the only documents of that description are two maps of Great Britain, the one of the 12th century, the other by Matthew of Paris, the famous historiographer of the monastery of St Albans (1236-1259).1 Celestial globes were known in the time of Bede; they formed part of the educational apparatus of the monastic schools.
In the passage cited above, "monastic discipline, the daily charge of singing in the church, learning, teaching, writing," in other words devotion and study make up the even tenor of Bede's tranquil life.
After his elevation he wrote an abridgment for his monks of IEthelwold's De consuetudine monachorum, 5 adapted to their rudimentary ideas of monastic life; a letter to Wulfgeat of Ylmandun 6; an introduction to the study of the Old and New Testaments (about io08, edited by William L'Isle in 1623); a Latin life of his master i z Ethelwold 7; a pastoral letter for Wulfstan, archbishop of York and bishop of Worcester, in Latin and English; and an English version of Bede's De Temporibus.8 The Colloquium, 9 a Latin dialogue designed to serve his scholars as a manual of Latin conversation, may date from his life at Cernel.
Bede, writing in the 8th century, speaks of Wiltaburg, id est oppidum Wiltorum, lingua autem Gallica Trajectum vocatur.
According to Bede, Ãƒâ€ thelberht's supremacy in 597 stretched over all the English kingdoms as far as the Humber.
Theodore, Wilfrid, Benedict Biscop, Bede, Boniface, Ecgbert, Alcuin, revived the fire of learning, which was almost extinct, and by their aid enlightenment was carried to the Continent, to decadent Gaul and barbarian Germany.
He was, according to Bceda (see Bede), a herdsman, who received a divine call to poetry by means of a dream.
The first phase of Building 1 may have looked similar to the reconstructed timber building at Bede 's World displayed here.
Vaughan came to know him at St Bede 's and had invited him to become sub-editor of The Tablet in 1895.
The first king of Deira of whom we know was Ella, or Aelle, who, according to Bede, was still reigning when Augustine arrived in 597.