Because-of Sentence Examples
I don't want you to give it up because of me.
Is that because of the infection?
They said she'd be sleepy because of the medicine, so I'll try to sleep while she is asleep.
Partly because of the way he worded things, but mostly because he tried to mask his emotions - like Alex.
I trust you because of your actions.Advertisement
I sure hate to think of something awful happening to you because of your curiosity.
He was wasting a day because of her.
Mums was her first choice because of confidentiality issues, but there probably wasn't much romance at her age and after so many years of marriage.
Was it because of an ongoing investigation?
I guess I distrusted all men because of what Dad did.Advertisement
I never told anyone, but I avoided getting involved with any woman because of what happened to Mom.
I wanted a wife and children, but I didn't want to risk losing them because of the ranch.
Don't forget the Burton boy is alive because of us.
The Dawkinses aren't fighting over this place because of its accessibility.
They were also called Bonin Jima (corrupted by foreigners into Bonin) because of their being without (bu) inhabitants (nin).Advertisement
We necessarily think as we do - but only because of our entangling faculties.
These considerations also indicate what a difficult matter it is to find the exact rate of working against the resistances, because of the difficulty of securing conditions which eliminate the effect both of the gradient and of acceleration.
It grew very slowly, partly because of the hostility of the Indians and partly because of the incapacity of the French as colonizers.
After the outbreak of the War of Independence, the Methodists, who then numbered several thousands, fell, unjustly, under suspicion of Loyalism, principally because of their refusal to take the prescribed oath; and many of their ministers, including Rankin, returned to England.
This tract, the remnant of an ancient forest, the more beautiful because of the undulating character of the land, lies west of the road between Slough and Beaconsfield, and 2 m.Advertisement
Wilfrid's is a memorable name in English history, not only because of the large part he played in supplanting the Celtic discipline and in establishing a precedent of appeal to papal authority, but also by reason of his services to architecture and learning.
Maybe it was the emotional high they were feeling because of the babies, but something seemed to have shifted their foundation.
Did Darcie think that she had gone because of Bordeaux?
I'd be lying if I didn't admit we have expenses and we're limited in what we can do because of real life restraints, but we're not in this for a golden purse.
Other members of the defense bar would surely look closely if their clients were apprehended because of unverifiable tips and assail the source, if they could locate it.Advertisement
No on both counts but he's been a person of interest in the past, because of his associates.
I volunteered no more information, nor did he want it, doubly so now that he might be suspected of having ties to us because of the frequent inquiries he made.
I'm doing it because of what you said; think of all the children he could be saving.
He gets stymied at times because of lack of access to certain information sources.
You have to spend the night, because of the head injury.
There isn't a doubt in my mind I'm breathing now because of him.
When she went missing, I was suspected because of other horrible things I'd done to others.
I gave a lot of thought to that question because of all the fingers pointing at me.
While they didn't detail their crimes, both spoke of ruining their lives because of sins of the flesh.
They called me Humper Willie, because of my name...
It's not because of your cookies.
She felt the sense of being centered for the first time in her life and knew it was because of the man before her.
The Other didn't notice him, perhaps because of the strange issues affecting magic.
What if he was the only person on the planet that could ever touch her again because of her wacky visions?
You think I'd sell my soul because of something so stupid?
No one else will die because of me.
And you're alive because of whom?
If Damian died, it was because of her.
Darian knew him because of Sofia.
He hadn't killed her, because of the bonds and a deal she made without knowing how important it was.
She sensed it was because of her.
Just as much, she feared seeing them miserable, because of her brief involvement in the mix.
I'm not asking because of what we had.
She wondered if it was because of the thought of her seducing someone else or because of her triumph at winning his affection, even if he beat her at every other thing.
Selyn's smile was lopsided because of the unresponsive, scarred half of her face.
Simple. Because of Darkyn's bitch, I've got a price on my head from the Dark One.
She couldn't stand the thought of seeing Selyn hurt, as much because of everything the girl had been through as the thought of hurting Darkyn.
Yes. I kept my maiden name because of my business—it's less confusing.
But they couldn't sell because of Mrs. Dawkins's suit.
She couldn't lose him now, because of human weakness!
The whole reason he'd avoided her was because of Wynn's warning – pleasure kills – a reminder that Deidre's tumor was connected to her emotions.
They never once suffered because of what choices she made.
Perhaps it was the knowledge they were safe because of her.
He didn't know if it was because of Darkyn or because of being attacked by death dealers that defected.
And who was she to deprive him because of her beliefs?
The doctor said it was unlikely because of the tests, but doctors had been wrong about tests on him before.
Carmen felt sorry for Lori because of the way Josh had treated her.
She couldn't … couldn't bear the thought of another friend dying because of her!
You think I brought you back because of that …er, relationship.
Only because of what I am.
She thought the man before her old because of his silver until her vision cleared and she saw his face.
His brothers didn't hate him just because of his lineage.
They'd always said he was a danger to the human world because of this.
It's only fair since you're free because of me.
I.ve failed miserably in my role as a foster mom, and he nearly died because of it.
For once, Rhyn knew some sort of stability within himself, no doubt because of his bond to Katie.
I didn.t want to leave you because of the Immortals or any of that.
His whole life was in shambles because of her.
Everything that.s gone wrong has been because of you! he returned.
If he died, it was because of her, and either Death or Hell would claim her.
They're coming to Bird Song, just because of that important merchandise you called junk!
She's Irish and they call her Flag, because of her birthmark.
It'd be kinda nice to just think about fishing and TV and not having to wonder what suit is all over my ass because of some dumb new rule.
As they sat on the sofa, he thought of the girl lying here just hours before, clinging to life because of him.
To throw that away because of an accident of circumstance would be a tragedy.
In his mind's eye, he had pictured her much older – probably because of the way Katie spoke of her.
This year she had been afraid to harvest them because of the dogs.
We're surviving because of our position with the PMF and no other reason.
We intercepted some emergency transmissions but couldn't get everything because of the electromagnetic field.
She still gave him the look that said she thought he was a lesser being because of his status, but she'd refused to sleep until they found her friend.
He hadn't realized Katie was dead because of him.
The riders quickly spread out, but because of the numbers there were always at least several in view.
Jeff never mentioned finding the money, not even after he thought it had been returned—just because of some silly sense of not placing me in harm's way.
Alex would see it as an opportunity to help – simply because of his nature.
But I know I would regret it bitterly if I didn't marry you because of that.
Is it because of Tessa?
Was it because of the operation — because of what they had been through?
Is it because of the operation?
She thought Lori had stayed in Arkansas because of Josh.
I'll love you no less because of what you are.
Alex had endured a lot of embarrassment because of the relationship between his mother and biological father – and now this.
I thought you said Felipa was here because of Gerald.
It is because of his disapproval that Alondra is in this situation now.
Did he suspect she was getting bored, or did he assume she would be interested in them because of her profession?
You're welcome to stay for a while, but don't feel obligated to do so because of me.
Whatever happened, it wasn't because of a gang, and they were smart enough to know the difference between reality and what they saw on TV.
It wasn't just because of her jealousy over the fact he slept with everyone, it was also her insecurity.
In 1916 they were barred from circulation in Canada " because of garbled despatches " concerning the World War.
He maintained close relations with Poland because of the Turkish advance and the Polish contest with the Teutonic Knights.
Pig iron is manufactured cheaply because of the low price of fuel; in 1907 the value of pig iron manufactured in the state was $6,454,000.
It was used by him in his earliest observations of double stars (1779-1783); but, even in his hands, the measurements were comparatively crude, because of the difficulties he had to encounter from the want of a parallactic mounting.
He was commonly compared to Olympian Zeus, partly because of his serene and dignified bearing, partly by reason of the majestic roll of the thundering eloquence, with its bold poetical imagery, with which he held friend and foe spellbound.
Compared with heating by hot water, steam-heating requires less piping, which, further, may be of much smaller diameter to attain a similar result, because of the higher temperature of the heat yielding surface.
The lower course of the Desaguadero is known as the Salado because of the .brackish character of its water.
The results of these first experiments were not encouraging, owing mainly to the poor class of animals, but the exporters persevered, and the business steadily grew in value and importance, until in 1898 the number of live cattle shipped was 359,296, which then decreased to 119,189 in 1901, because of the foot-and-mouth disease.
This law naturally made a deep impression on military Europe, not merely because the period of color service was reducedGermany had taken this step years beforebut because of the almost entire absence of the usual exemptions.
In the Timaeus (41 A) the immortality even of the gods is made dependent on the will of the Supreme Creator; souls are not in their own nature indestructible, but persist because of His goodness.
He became specially notorious because of a curious controversy that arose concerning the amulets which Eybeschiitz was suspected of issuing.
One of the chief names for the priest was baru - literally the "inspector" - which was given to him because of the prominence of his function as an inspector of livers for the purpose of divining the intention of the gods.
The swift, unhesitating charge was more than unusual in the wars of the time, and was possible only because of the peculiar earnestness of the men who fought the English war.
Though querulous because of his non-preferment, De Quincey tells us that "his lordship was a joyous, jovial, and cordial host."
Very little new capital was invested by the telegraph companies about 1865 because of the natural reluctance of the companies to extend the systems under their control so long as a proposal for their acquisition by the state was under consideration.
In February 1831 these provinces rose, raised the red, white and green tricolor (which henceforth took the place of the Carbonarist colors as the Italian flag), and shook off the papal yoke with surprising ease.1 At Parma too there was an outbreak and a demand for the constitution; Marie Louise could not grant it because of her engagements with Austria, and, therefore, abandoned her dominions.
Danby therefore ordered a return from every diocese of the numbers of dissenters, both Romanist and Protestant, in order by a proof of their insignificance to remove the royal scruples.3 In December 1676 he issued a proclamation for the suppression of coffee-houses because of the "defamation of His Majesty's Government" which took place in them, but this was soon withdrawn.
But the campaign of 1685 was a series of disasters, and when he sought help from the Turks at Nagyvarad they seized and sent him in chains to Belgrade, possibly because of his previous negotiations with Leopold, whereupon most of his followers made their peace with the emperor.
The surface-layer of the body in the massive Fungi differs in character according, to its function, which is not constant throughout the class, as in the Algae, because of the very various conditions of life to which different Fungi are exposed.
It would be impracticable to go fully into the varieties of each specific form; but, partly as an example of modern geographical classification, partly because of the exceptional import of ance of mountains amongst the features of the land, one exception may be made.
As a whole, Australia is rich in parrots, of which it has several very peculiar forms, but Picarians in old-fashioned parlance, of all sorts - certain kingfishers excepted - are few in number, and the pigeons are also comparatively scarce, no doubt because of the many arboreal predaceous marsupials.
And yet, notwithstanding all this, and partly because of all this, real and distinct Norman influence has been far more extensive and far more abiding in England than it has been in Sicily.
It forbids a railway which has reduced its rates while in competition with a water route to raise them again when the competition has ceased, unless the Commission permits it to do so because of other changed conditions.
This is mainly due to a great falling off in traffic, because of a general business depression; from 1907 to 1909 the reduction in the accident record is still greater.
Both in England and in America this process of consolidation has been obstructed by all known legislative devices, because of the widespread belief that competition in the field of transportation was necessary if fair prices were to be charged for the service.
Racks of this type usually become impracticable for gradients steeper than 1 in 4, partly because of the excessive weight of the engine required and partly because of the tendency of the cog-wheel to mount the rack.
If a rich woman sits down with them at table, and they see a poor woman, they shall invite her also to eat with them, and not put her to shame because of the rich one."
There are no good ports on the coast because of the bars at the mouths of the rivers.
Moreover, in the state convention called to decide whether Virginia should ratify the Federal Constitution he led the opposition, contending that the proposed Constitution, because of its centralizing character, was dangerous to the liberties of the country.
Christian teachers, especially those who had a leaning towards Gnostic speculations, took an interest in natural history, partly because of certain passages of Scripture that they wanted to explain, and partly on account of the divine revelation in the book of nature, of which also it was man's sacred duty to take proper advantage.
In Israel as in Judah the political disasters not only meant a shifting of population, they also brought into prominence the old popular and non-official religion, the character of which is not to be condemned because of the attitude of lofty prophets in advance of their age.
French Judaism was thus in a sense more human if less humane than the Spanish variety; the latter produced thinkers, statesmen, poets and scientists; the former, men with whom the Talmud was a passion, men of robuster because of more naïve and concentrated piety.
In this house, called by his friends "the goose-pie," because of its octagonal shape, the poet died on the 7th of January 1758.
The rights of these kings were doubtful, not only because of their illegitimate birth, but because it was claimed in Rome that Alexander II.
The public school system, established in 1846, never was universal, because of special legislation for various counties; public education was retarded during the Civil War and the Reconstruction period (when immense sums appropriated for schools were grossly mismanaged), but conditions gradually improved after 1875, especially through the concentration of schools.
He was a Free Soil candidate for Congress (1850), but was defeated; was indicted with Wendell Phillips and Theodore Parker for participation in the attempt to release the fugitive slave, Anthony Burns, in Boston (18J3); was engaged in the effort to make Kansas a free state after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854; and during the Civil War was captain in the 51st Massachusetts Volunteers, and from November 1862 to October 1864, when he was retired because of a wound received in the preceding August, was colonel of the First South Carolina Volunteers, the first regiment recruited from former slaves for the Federal service.
He refused, for a time, to be driven, but because of their continued attacks, together with his ambition to become president, and because Tyler favoured the annexation of Texas while he was opposed to it, he resigned in May 1843.
It was doubtless because of his known sentiments that he was selected to command in America, and was joined in commission with his brother Sir William Howe, the general at the head of the land forces, to make a conciliatory arrangement.
Prince Louis of Battenberg, a most patriotic and capable sailor, unjustly attacked because of his German origin, tendered his resignation as First Sea Lord, and Mr. Churchill put in his place the indefatigable veteran, Lord Fisher.
For our knowledge of their doctrinal system, however, we still depend chiefly upon the sacred books already mentioned, consisting of fragments of very various antiquity derived from an older literature.8 Of these the largest and most important is the Sidra' rabbd (" Great Book"), known also as Ginza - ("Treasure"), consisting of two unequal parts, of which the larger is called yamina (to the right hand) and the smaller s'znala (to the left hand), because of the manner in which they are bound together.
He was denounced as a traitor to his party because of his support of annexation, but he later became the leader of the Whig opposition to the war with Mexico.
Many of the excellencies of L'Herminier's method could not be pointed out without too great a sacrifice of space, because of the details into which.
Apart from its intrinsic merits as a learned and valuable addition to classification, this work is interesting in the history of ornithology because of the wholesale changes of nomenclature it introduced as the result of much diligence and zeal in the application of the strict rule of priority to the names of birds.
He was not jealous of brother friars because of their funds, instruments and materials for copying and their ability as skilled copyists.
It is a town of unusually wide streets and one-storeyed adobe houses, being so laid out and built because of earthquakes.
Among the leading and more distinctive items were printing and publishing ($21,023,855 in 1905); sugar and molasses refining ($ 1 5,74 6, 547 in 1900; figures not published in 1905 because of the industry being in the hands of a single owner); men's clothing (in 1900, $8,609,475, in 1905, $11,246,004); women's clothing (in 1900, $3,258,483, in 1905, $5,705,470); boots and shoes (in 1900, $3,882,655, in 1905, $5,575,927); boot and shoe cut stock (in 1905, $5, 211, 445); malt liquors (in 1900, $7,518,668, in 1905, $6,715,215); confectionery (in 1900, $4,455,184, in 1905, $6,210,023); tobacco products (in 1900, $3,504,603, in 1905, $4,59 2, 698); pianos and organs ($3,670,771 in 1905); other musical instruments and materials (in 1905, $231,780); rubber and elastic goods (in 1900, $3,139,783, in 1905, $2,887,323); steam fittings and heating apparatus (in 1900, $2,876,327, in 1905, $3,354, 020); bottling, furniture, &c. Art tiles and pottery are manufactured in Chelsea.
New Haven is popularly known as the "City of Elms," because of the number of these trees.
May we infer deductively that they have been attained because of the increase of speculative transactions?
Commercial warfare was to be avoided because of the cost.
To the latter belong views of the Antichrist, of the heathen worldpower, of the place, extent, and duration of the earthly kingdom of Christ, &c. These remained in a state of solution; they were modified from day to day, partly because of the changing circumstances of the present by which forecasts of the future were regulated, partly because the indications - real or supposed - of the ancient prophets always admitted of new combinations and constructions.
The student of English constitutional history will observe the success with which Friends have, by the mere force of passive resistance, obtained, from the legislature and the courts, indulgence for all their scruples and a legal recognition of their customs. In American history they occupy an important place because of the very prominent part which they played in the colonization of New Jersey and Pennsylvania.
The Epistle to Egbert, though not historical in form, may be mentioned here, because of the valuable information which it contains as to the state of the Northumbrian Church, on which the disorders and revolutions of the Northumbrian kingdom had told with disastrous effect.
Special commissioners were to have concurrent jurisdiction with the U.S. circuit and district courts and the inferior courts of Territories in enforcing the law; fugitives could not testify in their own behalf; no trial by jury was provided; i The precise amount of organization in the Underground Railroad cannot be definitely ascertained because of the exaggerated use of the figure of railroading in the documents of the "presidents" of the road, Robert Purvis and Levi Coffin, and of its many "conductors," and their discussion of the "packages" and "freight" shipped by them.
Partly because of political and social divisions thus revealed, conspiracies being rife in the decade 1820-1830, and partly as preparation for the defence against Mexico and Colombia, who throughout these same years were threatening the island with invasion, the captains-general, in 1825, received the powers above referred to; which became, as time passed, monstrously in disaccord with the general tendencies of colonial government and with increasing liberties in Spain, but continued to be the spiritual basis of Spanish rule in the island.
The city's water-supply is derived from the Chile river and is considered dangerous to new arrivals because of the quantity of saline and organic matter contained.
He was not allowed to live in Berlin because of his connexion with the disturbances of '48.
In calculations the latter hypothesis is made because of its mathematical simplicity.
His controversial writings have not received due recognition, partly because they were opposed to the drift of his times, partly because of his success in other fields.
Although the capital of Bolivia, Sucre is one of its most isolated towns because of the difficult character of the roads leading to it.
Municipal ownership has been further developed in Cleveland than in any other large city in the United States, chiefly because of the advocacy of Tom Loftin Johnson (born 1854), a street-railway owner, iron manufacturer, an ardent single-taxer, who was elected mayor of the city in 1901, 1903, 1905 and 1907.
The importance of Callao in colonial times, when it was the only open port south of Panama, did not continue under the new political order, because of the unsettled state of public affairs and the loss of its monopoly.
It is mainly because these fisheries are seasonal that the periodicity has been noticed, and because of the economic interests involved the study of the seasonal and longer periodicities has become very important.
In 1861 he was ordained deacon, but he never took priest's orders, possibly because of a stammer which prevented reading aloud.
Hamburg probably had its origin in a fortress erected in 808 by Charlemagne, on an elevation between the Elbe and Alster, as a defence against the Sla y s, and called Hammaburg because of the surrounding forest (Hamme).
With the truth or falsehood of these doctrines we are not here concerned; but that the revived vestments are chiefly valued because of their doctrinal significance the clergy who use them would be the last to deny.
They were desired by France because of their geographical position, Konakry, the capital of French Guinea, being built on an islet but 3 m.
As in all uncultivated countries, the forests and prairies of Siberia become almost uninhabitable in summer because of the mosquitoes.
Spangles of mica are much used for decorative purposes of various kinds, and the mineral was formerly known as glacies Mariae (Ger., Frauenglas) because of its use for decorating statues of the Virgin.
He was popularly known as "Prince John" because of his manners and appearance.
The name " Gospel according to the Hebrews " cannot have been original; for if it had been so named because of its general use among the Hebrews, yet the Hebrews themselves would not have used this designation.
From the end of the 2nd century the emperors encouraged Mithraism, because of the support which it afforded to the divine right of monarchs.
Manichaeism, which combined the adoration of Zoroaster and Christ, became the refuge of those supporters of Mithraism who were inclined to compromise, while many found the transition to orthodox Christianity easy because of its very resemblance to their old faith.
South of Cape Frio there are no large rivers along the coast because of the proximity of the Serra do Mar - the coastal plain being very narrow and in places disappearing altogether.
It is not uncommon to find once cultivated fields abandoned because of their ravages and to see large campos completely covered with enormous ant-hills.
The termites, or " white ants," are exceptionally destructive because of their habit of tunnelling through the softer woods of habitations and furniture, while some species of ants, like the sadba, are equally destructive to plantations because of the rapidity with which they strip a tree of its foliage.
The largest of the Amazon forest trees are the massaranduba (Mimusops data), called the cow-tree because of its milky sap, the samadma (Eriodendron samauma) or silk-cotton tree, the pdu d'arco (Tecoma speciosa), pdu d'alho (Catraeva tapia), bacori (Symphonea coccinea), sapucaia (Lecythis ollaria), and castanheira or brazil-nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa).
The assai (Euterpe oleracea) is another highly-prized palm because of a beverage made from its fruit along the lower Amazon.
Other colonies were founded in Bahia, Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro during the same period, but they were unsuccessful, partly because of the competition of slave labour.
And even then, because of the insufficient number of Brazilian vessels it was provided in the regulations that foreign vessels could be enrolled in that trade by using the Brazilian flag and employing a certain proportion of Brazilians on the crew.
Many of the richer deposits have never been developed because of a lack of fuel and limestone.
James, the Lord's brother, who, partly because of his relationship to Christ, stood supreme in the church at Jerusalem, as also Timothy and Titus, who acted as temporary delegates of St Paul at Ephesus and in Crete, are justly considered to have been forerunners of the monarchical episcopate.
It was a favourite idea of his that chemical affinity and capillary attraction would eventually be included under the same law, and it was perhaps because of its recalcitrance to this cherished generalization that the undulatory theory of light was distasteful to him.
The flora of Venezuela covers a wide range because of the vertical climatic zones.
There has been no great development of railway construction in Venezuela, partly on account of political insecurity and partly because of the backward industrial state of the country.
One of the oldest of Venezuelan industries, the Margarita pearl fisheries, was prohibited in 1909 for an indefinite time because of the threatened extinction of the oyster beds.
Agriculture has been developed only to a limited extent in Sonora, because of its aridity, lack of irrigation facilities, lack of railways and roads, and the unsettled state of the country.
Since then, however, he has been almost up to our own times the most popular and widely read of all medical classics, partly for the qualities already indicated, partly because he was one of the few of those classics accessible to readers of Latin, and partly also because of the purity and classical perfection of his language.
Except in a few instances these were long ago superseded by ron-wire ropes, which in turn have p been replaced by steel because of its greater strength.
In 1592 he complained bitterly that Wood had destroyed forty pages of his MS., probably because of the dangerous freedom of Aubrey's pen.
A doubt also still exists in regard to a number of names of the older period because of the uncertainty whether their bearers were Sumerians or Semites.
The young nobleman was, from the first, a prime favourite at the French court, owing, partly to the recollection of his father's devotion to France, but principally because of his own amiable and brilliant qualities.
With the success of Moawiya Damascus became the capital of the caliphate (658) and Arabia became a mere province, though always of importance because of its possession, of the two sacred cities Mecca and Medina.
Not merely because of its central commercial position, but because of its width of view, its political insight, and its constant insistence on the necessity of union, this counter played a leading part in Hanseatic policy.
Great masses, as those of the great planets, would not be attracted with a force proportional to the mass because of the hindrance of the interposed portions.
In 1859 he was the Republican candidate for Speaker of the House, but was obliged, after a contest that lasted two months, to withdraw, largely because of the recommendation he had inadvertently given to an anti-slavery book, The Impending Crisis of the South (1857), by Hinton Rowan Helper (1829-1909).
The inland port of Iquitos, on the Maranon, is also rated as first class, and enjoys special privileges because of its distance from the national.
Although the double standard was in force, gold was practically demonetized by the monetary reform of 1872 because of the failure to fix a legal ratio between the two metals.
The evil rose to alarming proportions during Grant's presidency, partly because of the immense extension of the civil service, partly because of the growing tendency to alliance between spoilsmen and the persons benefited by protective tariffs, and partly because the public attention was still so much absorbed in Southern affairs that little energy was left for curbing rascality in the North.
The Democratic party nominated the one available Democrat who had the smallest chance of beating him - Horatio Seymour, lately governor of New York, an excellent statesman, but at that time hopeless as a candidate because of his attitude during the war.
For about three months following this event he was held as a prisoner on parole within the limits of Charleston; then, because of his influence in deterring others from exchanging their paroles for the privileges of British subjects, he was seized, taken to St Augustine, Florida, and there, because he would not give another parole to those who had violated the former agreement affecting him, he was confined for forty-two weeks in a dungeon.
Rhode Island's water powers have been its only natural resources which have aided in the development of its manufactures, and its transportation facilities have always been inadequate, because of shallow water at Providence and scanty railway communication; but the state's manufacturing enterprises are of great importance.
Commercial interests have been almost entirely destroyed, partly because of the abolition of the slave trade and partly because of the embargo and the war of 1812, but mainly because the cities of the state are unfavourably situated to be the termini of interstate railway systems. Providence, owing to its superior water-power facilities, has therefore become one of the leading manufacturing centres of New England, whereas Newport is now known only as a fashionable summer resort.
Herder was much attracted by Schelling's early writings, but appears to have disliked Hegelianism because of the atheism it seemed to him to involve.
This is called go-no-me-namako, because of its resemblance to the disposition of chequers in the Japanese game of go.
Japanese bronze is well suited for castings, not only because of its low melting-point, great fluidity and capacity for taking sharp impressions, but also because it has a particularly smooth surface and readily develops a fine patina.
The Nabeshima porcelainso called because of its production at private factories under the special patronage of Nabeshima Naoshige, feudal chief of Hizenwas produced at Okawachiyama.
Dlugosz refused the archbishopric of Prague because of his strong dislike of the land of the Hussites; but seven years later he accepted the archbishopric of Lemberg.
As a preacher, his message was apparently simple; his two great convictions were the fatherhood of God, and that all religious systems which had any stability lasted because of a portion of truth which had to be disentangled from the error differentiating them from.
In Europe there is a similar movement; but it is difficult to make comparisons, because of the differences in the administrative areas.
With true philosophic insight he shows that France failed in the struggle not because of any inferiority in the ability and character of the men to whom the work was entrusted, but chiefly by reason of her despotic and protective regime.
His commentaries are valuable because of his knowledge of Greek and Hebrew, his varied interests, and his comparative freedom from allegory.
He repeatedly failed in business, notably as manager of a malt-house, largely because of his incessant attention to politics; but in the Boston townmeeting he became a conspicuous example of the efficiency of that institution for training in statecraft.
The little novel of Belfagor claims a passing word, if only because of its celebrity.
Complete rotation of the head is obviously impossible because of the interference of the declination axis with the rods, and therefore, in some angles, objects cannot be measured in two positions of the circle.
Of these methods Bessel generally employed the first because of its simplicity, notwithstanding that it involved a resetting of the right ascension and declination of the axis of the tube with each reversal of the segments.
In the region of Galveston, along the northern section of the coast, where southerly or south-easterly winds from the Gulf prevail throughout the year, the climate is warm, moist and equable, but the moisture decreases westward and south-westward, and the equability, partly because of northerly winds during the winter months, decreases in all directions inland.
When, after various journalistic indiscretions, James Franklin in 1722 was forbidden to publish the Courant, it appeared with Benjamin's name as that of the publisher and was received with much favour, chiefly because of the cleverness of his articles signed " Dr Janus," which, like those previously signed " Mistress Silence Dogood," gave promise of " Poor Richard."
But Benjamin's management of the paper, and particularly his free-thinking, displeased the authorities; the relations of the two brothers gradually grew unfriendly, possibly, as Benjamin thought, because of his brother's jealousy of his superior ability; and Benjamin determined to quit his brother's employ and to leave New England.
This pamphlet answered the argument that it would be unsafe to keep Canada because of the added strength that would thus be given to any possible movement for independence in the English colonies, by urging that so long as Canada remained French there could be no safety for the English colonies in North America, nor any permanent peace in Europe.
Franklin's position in France was a difficult one from the start, because of the delicacy of the task of getting French aid at a time when France was unready openly to take sides against Great Britain.
After bold and repeated overtures for an exchange of prisoners - an important matter, both because the American frigates had no place in which to - stow away their prisoners, and because of the maltreatment _ of American captives in such prisons as Dartmoor - exchanges began at the end of March 1779, although there were annoying delays, and immediately after November 1781 there was a long break in the agreement; and the Americans discharged from English prisons were constantly in need of money.
In 1743, from the circumstance that an eclipse not visible in Philadelphia because of a storm had been observed in Boston, where the storm although north-easterly did not occur until an hour after the eclipse, he surmised that storms move against the wind along the Atlantic coast.
He made an excellent clock, which because of a slight improvement introduced by James Ferguson in 1757 was long known as Ferguson's clock.
The Boston public library, exceeded in size in the United States by the library of Congress at Washington - and probably first, because of the large number of duplicates in the library of Congress - and the largest free municipal library in the world; the library of Harvard, extremely well chosen and valuable for research; the collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society (1791); the Boston Athenaeum (1807); the State Library (1826); the New England Historic Genealogical Society (1845); the Congregational Library; the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1780); and the Boston Society of Natural History (1830), all in Boston, leave it easily unrivalled, unless by Washington, as the best research centre of the country.
The same year he was elected sheriff of New York county, then a lucrative post because of the system of fees (later abolished), and in 1917 president of the Board of Aldermen of New York City.
The Aztecs settled there because of the security afforded by its islands and shallow waters - their city, Tenochtitlan, being so completely surrounded by water that a handful of warriors could easily defend its approaches against a greatly superior force.
In former times Mexico was overrun with mendicants (pordioseros), vagrants and criminals (rateros), and the " Portales de las Flores " on the east of the Plaza Mayor was a favourite " hunting-ground " for them because of its proximity to the cathedral; but modern conditions have largely reduced this evil.
In 1834 he opened in Boston a school which became famous because of his original methods; his plan being to develop self-instruction on the basis of self-analysis, with an ever-present desire on his own part to stimulate the child's personality.
Here, partly because of elevation, and partly because of the resistant nature of the Catskill sandstones, dissection has so sculptured the plateau as to carve it into a mountainous mass which is generally known as the Catskill mountains.
The people approved by a vote of nearly three to one, but the court of appeals declared the act unconstitutional because of the referendum.
Chiefly because of these evils the constitution of 1821 required the assent of two-thirds of the members elected to each house of the legislature to pass an act creating a corporation.
The shore is low, bordered in its eastern half with lagoons, and difficult of access on account of the submarine bar of sand which stretches along nearly the whole of the coast, and also because of the heavy surf caused by the great Atlantic billows.
All children between eight and fifteen years of age, and all between fifteen and sixteen years of age who are not regularly employed in some useful or remunerative occupation, must attend the public school all the time it is in session or a private school for the same time unless excused by the city or the county superintendent because of mental or physical disability or because of proficiency in the branches taught in the first eight grades.
He was elected assistant bishop of New York, with the right of succession, in 1811, and was acting diocesan from that date because of the ill-health of Bishop Benjamin Moore, whom he formally succeeded on the latter's death in February 1816.
On his left wing the attacks of the Guard and 2nd divisions (action of Yang-tzu-ling) on the Russian front and flank failed, the frontal attack because of the resolute defence, the flank attack from sheer fatigue of the troops.
For ten years after the Black Hills were thrown open little gold was mined because of the lack of railway facilities.
Its valley, down to Merseburg, is picturesque, and even romantic, because of the many castles which crown the enclosing heights.
All plant life has a remarkably large proportion of subterranean growth, because of the necessity of getting moisture from the earth and not from the air; hence roots and tubers are unusually well developed.
Partly because of its Puritanic genesis and partly because of its independent manufacturing interests, Newark has kept, in spite of its nearness to New York City, a distinct character of its own.
The administration was corrupt, largely because of the vast powers given to officials, who were invariably underpaid; and the financial methods of the company precipitated its ruin, large dividends being paid out of borrowed money.
The Boca Grande was filled with stone after the city had been captured three times, because of the ease with which an enemy's ships could pass through it at any time, and the narrow and more easily defended Boca Chica, 7 m.
In this rapid glance at some of the chief priesthoods of antiquity we have hitherto passed over the pure Semites, whose priesthoods call for closer examination because of the profound influence which one of them - that of the Jews - has exercised on Christianity, and so on the whole history of the modern world.
The import duties were correspondingly raised, partly by way of off-set to the internal taxes, partly as a means of getting additional revenue, and finally in some degree because of a disposition to protect domestic industries.
The measure, however, was less incisive than its chief sponsors had planned, because of the narrow majority commanded by the Democrats in the Senate.
Lutheranism, moreover, was at first regarded with grave suspicion by the intensely patriotic Polish gentry, because of its German origin.
No decision, however, could be come to as to the successor of the childless king, partly because of the multiplicity of candidates, partly because of Austrian intrigue, and this, the most momentous question of all, was still unsettled when Sigismund II.
Under these circumstances, and also because of their numerical weakness and the rigour of the weather, the Germans advanced but slowly.
Partly because of its long and successful existence, and partly because of the extensive possessions of Great Britain throughout the world, the Zoological Society of London has been able to exhibit for the first time in captivity a greater number of species of wild animals than probably the total of those shown by all other collections.
The animals exhibited are selected chiefly because of their popular interest, but the arrangements for housing are specially ingenious and successful, those for monkeys and snakes being notable.
In 1791 a revival began at Bala; and this, strange to say, a few months after the Bala Association had been ruffled by the proceedings which led to the expulsion of Peter Williams from the Connexion, in order to prevent him from selling John Canne's Bible among the Methodists, because of some Sabellian marginal notes.
The attempts of a powerful faction among the Federalists to secure the election of Burr failed, partly because of the opposition of Alexander Hamilton and partly, it would seem, because Burr himself would make no efforts to obtain votes in his own favour.
The state laws for the protection of fish and shell-fish were long carelessly enforced because of the fishermen's strong feeling against them, but this sentiment has slowly, changed and enforcement has become more vigorous.
In 1808, as governor of the Hanse towns, he was to have directed the expedition against Sweden, via the Danish islands, but the plan came to nought because of the want of transports and the defection of the Spanish contingent.
Even in the case of the two more important epistles, i Peter and James, we have to add the qualification " if genuine," but rather perhaps because of the persistence with which they are challenged than because of inherent defect of attestation.
Another defect in the evidence of coins is that, when one variety of the unit of weight was once fixed on for the coinage, there was (barring the depreciation) no departure from it, because of the need of a fixed value, and hence coins do not show the range and character of the real variations of units as do buildings, or vases, or the actual commercial weights.
Palaeontology both borrows from and sheds light upon geology and other branches of the physical history of the earth, each of which, such as palaeogeography or palaeometeorology, is the more fascinating because of the large element of the unknown, the need for constructive imagination, the appeal to other branches of biological and physical investigation for supplementary evidence, and the necessity of constant comparison with the present aspects of nature.
Such restorations are possible because of the intimate fitness of animals and plants to their environment, and because such fitness has distinguished certain forms of life from the Cambrian to the present time; the species have altogether changed, but the laws governing the life of certain kinds of organisms have remained exactly the same for the whole period of time assigned to the duration of life; in fact, we read the conditions of the past in a mirror of adaptation, often sadly tarnished and incomplete owing to breaks in the palaeontological record, but constantly becoming more polished by discoveries which increase the understanding of life and its all-pervading relations to the non-life.
We shall pass over here the labours of Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873) and Sir Roderick Murchison (1792-1871) in the Palaeozoic of England, which because of their close relation to stratigraphy more properly concern geology; but must mention the grand contributions of Joachim Barrande (1799-1883), published in his Systeme silurien du centre de la Boheme, the first volume of which appeared in 1852.
The absolute agreement in the results independently obtained by these various investigators, the interpretation of individual development as the guide to phyletic development, the demonstration of continuous genetic series, each mutation falling into its proper place and all showing a definite direction, constitute contributions to biological philosophy of the first importance, which have been little known or appreciated by zoologists because of their publication in monographs of very special character.
It is true that a great variety of evidence is afforded by the composition of the rocks, that glaciers have left their traces in glacial scratchings and transported boulders, also that proofs of arid or semiarid conditions are found in the reddish colour of rocks in certain portions of the Palaeozoic, Trias and Eocene; but fossils afford the most precise and conclusive evidence as to the past history of climate, because of the fact that adaptations to temperature have remained constant for millions of years.
It should be remembered that palaeontology is the most unfavourable field of all for observation and demonstration of sudden saltations or mutations of character, because of the limited materials available for comparison and the rarity of genetic series.
Such sudden appearances may be demonstrated possibly in zoology and embryology but never can be demonstrated by palaeontology, because of the incompleteness of the geological record.
It is celebrated because of the difficulties overcome on the precipitous eastern slopes of the Sierra Madre, the beauties of the mountain scenery through which it passes, and the rapid transition from the hot, humid coastal plain to the cool, arid plateau, 7924 ft.
In the south they are larger and better nourished, owing to the permanent character of the pasturage, but are less vigorous because of the heat and insect plagues.
It is exceptionally nutritious, but it disappears altogether in the dry season because of its short roots.
Some attention is given to the breeding of goats because of the local demand for their skins, but the industry is apparently stationary.
The use of cheques is very limited because of the stamp tax.
The changes introduced by the Genevan translators were, as a rule, a great improvement, and the version received a ready welcome and immediate popularity, not only on account of its intrinsic merits, but because of its handy size, usually that of a small quarto, and of its being printed, like Whittingham's New Testament, in a readable Roman type instead of black letter.
The changes in the Greek text of the Authorized Version when compared with the textus receptus are numerous, but the contrast between the English versions of 1611 and 1881 are all the more striking because of the difference in the method of translation which was adopted.
In 1534 Lord Thomas Fitzgerald, better known as Silken Thomas (so called because of a fantastic fringe worn in the helmet of his followers), a young man of rash courage and good abilities, son of the Lord Deputy Kildare, believing his father, who was imprisoned in the Tower of London, to have been beheaded, organized a rebellion against the English Government, and marched with his followers from the mansion of the earls of Kildare in Thomas Court, through Dame's Gate to St Mary's Abbey, where, in the council chamber, he proclaimed himself a rebel.
In the last part of the, 9th century its decline was rapid, not only because of the increasing scarcity of whales, but because of the introduction of the mineral oils, and by the end of the century whaling had ceased to be of any economic importance.
Mary Beatrice of Este was chosen partly on the ground of her known religious zeal, but also because of her beauty.
But when the Agape on one side and paganism on the other receded into a dim past, owing to the enhanced sacrosanctity of the Eucharist and because of the severe edicts of the emperor Theodosius and his successors, the psychological background fell away, and the Eucharist was left isolated and hanging in the air.
In jumping an ordinary hedge or ditch at moderate speed, there is of course a moment of time during which the horse is on his hind legs, and in theory the rider should then lean forward, but, in practice, this position is so momentary, and the lash out of the hind legs in the spring is so powerful, that it is best not to lean forward at all, because of the difficulty, if not impossibility, of getting back in time for the reverse movement, when the rider should be preparing to render the horse some assistance with the bridle as his feet touch the ground.
For the most part the rivers follow open valleys along belts of weak strata; but they frequently pass through sharp-cut notches in the na1row ridges of the stratified beltthe Delaware water-gap is one of the deepest of these notches; and in the harder rocks of the crystalline belt they have eroded steep-walled gorges, of which the finest is that of the Hudson, because of the greater height and breadth of the crystalline highlands there than at points where the other rivers cross it.
In New England also a wellestablished drainage undoubtedly prevailed in preglacial times; but partly in consequence of the irregular scouring of the rock floor, and even more because of the very irregular deposition of unstratified and stratified drift in the valleys, the drainage is now in great disorder.
The small triangular section of the coastal plain in New Jersey north of Delaware Bay deserves separate treatment because of the development there of a pectiliar topographic feature, which throws light on the occurrence of the islands off the New England coast, described in the next paragraph.
The ordinary triangular form of deltas, due to the smoothing of the delta front by sea action, is here wanting, because of the weakness of sea action in comparison with the strength of the current in each of the four distributaries or passes into which the river divides near its mouth.
Travel across the bad lands is very fatiguing because of the many small ascents and descents; and it is from this that their name, mauvaises terres pour traverser, was given by the early French voyageurs.
Mt Taylor in western New Mexico is of similar age, but here dissection seems to have advanced farther, probably because of the weaker nature of the underlying rocks, with the result of removing the smaller cones and exposing many lava conduits or pipes in the form of volcanic necks or buttes.
In some places this is because the regions where they occur have net been carefully studied since the subdivision into Archeozoic and Proterozoic was made, and in others because of the inherent difficulty of separation, as where the Proterozoic rocks are highly metamorphosed.
A large part of the Great Plains to the east of the Rockies was taken up as farms in the decade 1880 1890; abandoned afterwards, because of its aridity, to stock grazing; and reconverted from ranches into farms when a system of dry farming had proved its tillage practicable.
The statistics of communicants or members are defective, and because of the different organization in this respect of different bcdies, notably of the Protestants and Roman Catholics, comparisons are more or less misleading.
The town dates from colonial times, and has always been considered a place of military importance because of its nearness to the Uruguay frontier, only 25 m.
Thus in connexion with the subject a genus of workers became possible who may be styled " ur-computers or circle-squarers " - a name which, if it connotes anything uncomplimentary, does so because of the almost entirely fruitless character of their labours.
North of the Saskatchewan river groves or " bluffs " of trees begin, and somewhat farther north the plains are generally wooded, because of the slightly more humid climate.
The climate of the Cordilleran region presents even more variety than that of the other provinces because of the ranges of mountains which run parallel to the Pacific. Along the coast itself the climate is insular, with little frost in winter and mild heat in summer, and with a very heavy rainfall amounting to ioo in.
The Jesuits have attracted chief attention, not merely on account of their superior zeal and numbers, but also because of the tragic fate of some of their missionaries in Canada.
He had fallen into disfavour because of his unwillingness to join in the intrigues of the princess Turkan Khatun, who wished to secure the succession to the throne for her infant son Mahmud at the expense of the elder sons of Malik Shah.
Much inferior in elevation to Snowdon or Cader Idris, Plinlimmon is certainly the most dangerous of the Welsh hills because of its quaking bogs.
Special interest attaches to this trace of their earlier origin, because of the famous cult of Diana Nemorensis, whose temple in the forest close by Aricia, beside the laces Nemorensis, was served by "the priest who slew the slayer, and shall himself be slain"; that is to say, the priest, who was called rex Nemorensis, held office only so long as he could defend himself from any stronger rival.
The name was adopted because of the fancied resemblance of the peace party to the venomous copperhead snake, and, though applied as a term of opprobrium, it was willingly assumed by those upon whom it was bestowed.
Church refused to ordain her because of her sex, and the refusal was upheld by the General Conference at Cincinnati in 1880.
Nominated chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States in 1795, he presided during the August term, but the Senate refused to confirm the nomination, apparently because of his opposition to the Jay Treaty.
Thus the downfall of the monarchy and of the ancient cults have been nearly fatal to some of the more beautiful birds; feather ornaments, formerly worn only by nobles, came to be a common decoration; and many species (for example the Hawaiian gallinule, Gallinula sandwicensis, which, because of its crimson frontal plate and bill, was said by the natives to have played the part of Prometheus, burning its head with fire stolen from the gods and bestowed on mortals) have been nearly destroyed by the mongoose, or have been driven from their lowland homes to the mountains, such being the fate of the mamo, mentioned above, and of the Sandwich Island goose (Bernicla sandwicensis), which is here a remarkable example of adaptation, as its present habitat is quite arid.
In spite of moral and material progress - indeed largely because of changes in their food, clothing, dwellings and of other " advantages " of civilization - the race is probably dying out.
At Florence the pope came into closer contact with the humanists, and to this circumstance is due the gradual dominance which they attained in the Roman Curia - a dominance which, both in itself, and even more because of the frankly pagan leanings of many in that party, was bound to awaken serious misgivings.
It is one of the least important of the Argentine provinces because of its aridity and lack of available resources.
Work was stopped, in 1840, before the system was completed because of the intense popular discontent arising from the burden of debt which had been assumed and because the success of competing railways was then fully assured.
His successors, Patrick Gordon and George Thomas, under the proprietorship of John, Thomas and Richard Penn, continued Keith's popular policy of issuing a plentiful paper currency; but with Thomas the assembly renewed its old struggle, refusing to grant him a salary or supplies because of his efforts to force the colony into supporting the Spanish War.
She gave birth in 730 to Khri srong lde tsan, in the Buddhist annals the most illustrious monarch of his country, because of the strenuous efforts he made in favour of that religion during his reign of fortysix years (743-789).
On the 19th of August 1704 he succeeded, at last, in bringing about a treaty of alliance between Russia and the Polish republic to strengthen the hands of Augustus, but he failed to bring Prussia also into the antiSwedish league because of Frederick I.'s fear of Charles and jealousy of Peter.
The amount required to combine chemically with the cement is about 16% by weight, but in practice much more than this is used, because of loss by evaporation, and the difficulty of ensuring that the water shall be uniformly distributed.
In England it is customary to allow the patentee of one or other system to furnish his own designs, but this is as much because he has gained the experience needed for success as because of any special virtue in this or that system.
Soon afterward the garrison killed Pierria (probably because of the severity of his discipline), and put to sea in an insufficiently equipped vessel, from which, after much suffering, they were rescued by an English ship, and taken to England.
This action was opposed by the church of New York City, and partly through this difference and partly because of quarrels over the denominational control of King's College (now Columbia), five members of the Coetus seceded, and as the president of the Coetus was one of them they took the records with them; they were called the Conferentie; they organized independently in 1764 and carried on a bitter warfare with the Coetus (now more properly called the American Classis), which in 1766 (and again in 1770) obtained a charter for Queen's (now Rutgers) College at New Brunswick.
The advantages lie with the oxide because of its easier preparation.
Raynolds, of the United States Corps of Topographical Engineers, with full knowledge of Bridger's accounts, was ordered to explore the region in 1859, and yet, chiefly because of the persistent incredulity with which the accounts of the phenomena were received, the region remained practically unknown until 1870.
The Jews of Frankfort celebrate their special Purim on the 10th of Adar because of their deliverance from persecution by Fettmilch in 1616.
He felt that he was justified in taking this step because of the Ban which Philip had published on the 15th of March 1581, in which Orange had been proclaimed a traitor and miscreant, and a reward offered to any one who would take his life.
The moment seemed to be favourable for the assertion of provincial sovereignty because of the youth and inexperience of the new prince of Orange.
Indeed, its carbon-content is made small quite as much because of the violence of the shocks from these wheels as because of any actual distortion to be expected, since, within limits, as the 1 0 20 24 2 32 30 4.0 4.3 4.
Yet this very fact that it is unalterably hard has limited its use, because of the great difficulty of cutting it to shape, which has in general to be done with emery wheels instead of the usual iron-cutting tools.
Tungsten steel, which usually contains from 5 to Io% of tungsten and from 1 to 2% of carbon, is used for magnets, because of its great retentivit.y.
On the other hand, the cost of iron ore is likely to rise much faster than that of the potential aluminium ores, clay and its derivatives, because of the vast extent and richness of the deposits of this latter class.
Hence the addition to the cost of finished steel objects which is due to our being forced to use progressively poorer and poorer ores is likely to be much less than the addition due to the progressive rise in the cost of coal and in the cost of labour, because of the ever-rising scale of living.
Great Britain and Germany, besides mining a great deal of ore, still have to import much from Spain, Sweden and in the case of Germany from Luxemburg, although, because of the customs arrangement between these last two countries, this importation is not usually reported.
In spite of its containing only about 36% of iron, this deposit is of very great value because of its great size, and of the consequent small cost of mining.
They are shown in lump form because of the difficulty of presenting to the eye their powdered state.
Besides a great saving of labour, only partly offset by the cost of repairs, these machines have the great merit of making the management independent of a very troublesome set of labourers, the hand pig-breakers, who were not only absolutely indispensable for every cast and every day, because the pig iron must be removed promptly to make way for the next succeeding cast of iron, but very difficult to replace because of the great physical endurance which their work requires.
It should also be nearly free from sulphur, because of the great difficulty of removing this element in the puddling process.
The " refinery process " of fitting pig iron for the puddling process by removing the silicon without the carbon, is sometimes used because of this difficulty in making a pig iron initially low in both sulphur and silicon.
The delay which this test causes is so unwelcome that in all other countries the blower continues the blow until decarburization is nearly complete, because of the very great accuracy with which he can then read the indications of the flame, an accuracy which leaves little to be desired.
It is in large part because of this shallowness, which contrasts so strongly with the height and roominess of the Bessemer converter, that the process lasts hours where the Bessemer process lasts minutes, though there is the further difference that in the open-hearth process the transfer of heat from flame to charge through the intervening layer of slag is necessarily slow, whereas in the Bessemer process the heat, generated as it is in and by the metallic bath itself, raises the temperature very rapidly.
This in turn is in part because of the greater care which can be used in making these small lots, but probably in chief part because the crucible process excludes the atmospheric nitrogen, which injures the metal, and because it gives a good opportunity for the suspended slag and iron oxide to rise to the surface.
Above the diagram are given the names of the different classes of cast iron to which different stages in the change from graphite to cementite correspond, and above these the names of kinds of steel or cast iron to which at the corresponding stages the constitution of the matrix corresponds, while below the diagram are given the properties of the cast iron as a whole corresponding to these stages, and still lower the purposes for which these stages fit the cast iron, first because of its strength and shock-resisting power, and second because of its hardness.
At this instant the outer layers, because of their contact with the cold mould, are cooling much faster than the inner ones, and hence tend to contract faster.
Because the outer and inner layers are integrally united, this excess of contraction of the inner layers makes them draw outward towards and against the outer layers, and because of their thus drawing outward the molten lake within no longer suffices to fill completely the central space, so that its upper surface begins to sink.