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beams

beams Sentence Examples

  • The spear and arrows are identified with the beams of the sun and moon.

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  • On their level tops the beams supporting the platforms were laid and fastened by wooden pins, or inserted in mortices cut in the heads of the piles.

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  • The interior arrangement of wall columns, horizontal beams and cornice bracketing corresponds with that on the outside.

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  • The ceilings have the representation of beams and rafters cut in the rock.

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  • In the former the main supporting member or members may be an arch ring or arched ribs, suspension chains or ropes, or a pair of girders, beams or trusses.

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  • Hence slabs or beams of long span should not be built of plain concrete, though when reinforced with steel it is admirably adapted for these purposes.

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  • In the former the main supporting member or members may be an arch ring or arched ribs, suspension chains or ropes, or a pair of girders, beams or trusses.

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  • Hence slabs or beams of long span should not be built of plain concrete, though when reinforced with steel it is admirably adapted for these purposes.

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  • Trans., 1848, 227), limiting ourselves, however, to the case where the retarded and unretarded beams are contiguous and of equal width.

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  • These architectural decorations are derived from a style of building found by the recent German expedition extant in an ancient church; courses of stone here alternate in the walls (both inside and out) with beams of wood held by circular clamps.

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  • they were heaped up, before the beams supporting the central chamber had rotted, thieves made a practice of driving a mine into the mound straight to where the valuables were deposited, and it is only by the collapse of this mine and the crushing of the robber after he had thrown everything into confusion that the treasures of the Chertomlyk barrow, on the whole the most typical, were preserved to us.

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  • A man-engine consists of two heavy wooden rods (like the rods of a Cornish pumping plant), placed parallel and close to each other in a special shaft compartment, and suspended at the surface from a pair of massive walking beams (or " bobs ").

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  • A third type is made on the "balance" principle, two plough beams with mould-boards being placed at right angles to one another, so that while the right-hand plough is at work the left-hand is elevated above the ground.

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  • into the ground and the whole frameworkconsisting of posts, beams, rafters, door-posts and window-frames was tied together with cords made by twisting the long fibrous stems of climbing plants.

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  • The structures in which steel concrete is used may be analysed as consisting essentially of (I) walls, (2) columns, (3) piles, (4) beams, (5) slabs, (6) arches.

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  • Concrete by itself, though strong in compression, can offer but little resistance to tensile and shearing stresses, and as these stresses always occur in beams the problem arises how best to arrange the steel so as to assist the concrete in bearing them.

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  • A third type is made on the "balance" principle, two plough beams with mould-boards being placed at right angles to one another, so that while the right-hand plough is at work the left-hand is elevated above the ground.

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  • The vehicle stopped, its high beams blinding him.

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  • Selling his Baltimore works, he built, in 1836, in partnership with his brother Thomas, a rolling mill in New York; in 1845 he removed it to Trenton, New Jersey, where iron structural beams were first made in 1854 and the Bessemer process first tried in America in 1856; and at Philippsburg, New Jersey, he built the largest blast furnace in the country at that time.

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  • square, beams 12 in.

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  • A peculiarity of larch wood is the difficulty with which it is ignited, although so resinous; and, coated with a thin layer of plaster, beams and pillars of larch might probably be found to justify Caesar's epithet " igni impenetrabile lignum "; even the small branches are not easily kept alight, and a larch fire in the open needs considerable care.

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  • Selling his Baltimore works, he built, in 1836, in partnership with his brother Thomas, a rolling mill in New York; in 1845 he removed it to Trenton, New Jersey, where iron structural beams were first made in 1854 and the Bessemer process first tried in America in 1856; and at Philippsburg, New Jersey, he built the largest blast furnace in the country at that time.

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  • But it is difficult and expensive to work up into various forms. Concrete has been avoided for making beams, slabs and thin walls, just because its deficiency in tensile strength doomed it to failure in such structures.

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  • In the Matrai system thin wires are used instead of rods, and are securely fastened to rolled steel joists, which form the beams on which the slabs rest; moreover, the wires instead of being stretched tight from side to side of the slab are allowed to sag as much as the thickness of the concrete will allow.

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  • Linkwoyk in GeneralThe pieces which are connected by linkwork, if they rotate or oscillate, are usually called cranks, beams and levers.

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  • The flax is placed in the upper chamber and covered by two sets of rods or beams at right angles to each other.

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  • The flax is placed in the upper chamber and covered by two sets of rods or beams at right angles to each other.

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  • The shot rattled against the stone of the gate and upon the wooden beams and screens, and two wavering clouds of smoke rose over the Square.

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  • The town hall was originally a palace of the counts of Holland, begun in the 12th century, and some old 13th-century beams still remain; but the building was remodelled in the beginning of the 17th century.

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  • There are two distinct ways of making the steel objects actually used in the arts, such as rails, gear wheels, guns, beams, &c., out of the molten steel made by the Bessemer, open hearth, or crucible process, or in an electric furnace.

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  • The music room had raised panel cherry walls and a coffered ceiling with intricately carved beams.

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  • They are devoted sun-worshippers and in the early morning, before it is daylight, they emerge from their burrows and wait in rows till their divinity appears; when they bask joyfully in his beams."

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  • Floor slabs may be regarded as wide and shallow beams, and the remarks made about the stresses in the one apply to the other also; accordingly, the various devices which are used for strengthening beams recur in the slabs.

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  • If pillars made of rolled iron or steel are used, their different parts shall be riveted to each other and the beams and girders resting upon them shall have riveted or bolted connexions to unite them with the pillar.

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  • If cast-iron pillars are used, each successive pillar shall be bolted to the one below it by at least four bolts not less than three-fourths of an inch in diameter, and the beams and girders shall be bolted to the pillars.

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  • At each line of flooror roofbeams, lateral connexion between the ends of the beams and girders shall be made by passing wrought-iron or steel straps across or through the cast-iron column, in such a manner as to rigidly connect the beams and girders with each other on the direction of their length.

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  • These straps shall be made of wrought-iron or steel, and shall be riveted or bolted to the flanges or to the webs of the beams or girders.

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  • The bracing is accomplished by the introduction at the angles of the columns and girders or beams of gusset plates or knee braces, or by diagonal straps or rods properly attached by rivet or pin connexions.

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  • For girders of small spans " I " beams or channels are generally used, but for greater spans girders are built of riveted work.

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  • In girders and beams the maximum fibre stress is usually limited to 16,000 lb.

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  • The same necessity for computing shear and flexure applies to the floor beams. The floors between the girders are constructed of " I" beams, spaced generally about 5 ft.

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  • Sometimes the beams rest upon the girders, and are riveted through the flanges to it; in this case the abutting ends of beams are spliced by scarf plates placed on each side of the webs and secured by rivets.

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  • A similar construction is followed for flat roofs, the grades being generally formed in the girder and beam construction, and a flat ceiling secured by hanging from them, with steel straps, a light tier of ceiling beams. The floor beams are tied laterally by rods in continuous lines placed at or above their neutral axis.

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  • It is usual in both girders and beams to provide not only for the safe support of the greatest possible distributed load, but for the greatest weight, such as that of a safe or other heavy piece of furniture which may be moved over the floor at its weakest points, the centres of the girders and beams. It must always be borne in mind that the formulae for the ultimate strength of the " I " beams only hold good when the upper chord or flange is supported laterally.

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  • The Broad Flange Differdange Beams are claimed by the manufacturers to be stronger and to minimize weight for use as girders; they are made in twenty-one different sizes with flanges from 88 to i 2 in.

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  • The arrangement of the building and floor framings is in a great measure governed by the architectural effect sought and by the arrangement and proper planning of the interior according to the intended uses; the positions of columns, girders and floor beams are usually the result of particular requirements, and unless complicated and expensive framing is to be expected the distance between columns must be kept within the limits of simple girder construction.

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  • The position of the columns having been determined, the girders must next be located; these serve to support the floor beams which transfer the loads direct to the columns, and also to brace the columns during erection.

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  • The spacing, or distance from centre to centre of the floor beams, will depend upon the type of fire-proof flooring employed; it also depends to a considerable extent upon the amount and character of the floor load and the length of span.

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  • The filling between the girders and floor beams consists of segmental arches of brick, segmental or flat arches of porous (sawdust) terra-cotta, or hard-burned hollow terra- - cotta voussoirs, or various patented forms of con crete floors containing ties or supports of steel or iron.

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  • In all cases it is customary to fill on top of the arches with a strong Portland cement concrete to a uniform level, generally the top of the deepest beam; the floor filling is constructed and carried to this level immediately upon the completion of each tier of beams, for the purpose not only of stiffening the frame laterally, and of adding to its stability by the imposition of a static load, but also to afford constantly safe and strong working platforms at regular and convenient intervals for use throughout the entire period of the construction.

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  • In flat forms of masonry floor construction the level of its bottom is placed somewhat below the bottom of the " I " beams and girders, so that when it is plastered a continuous surface of at least an inch of mortar will form a fire-proof protection for the lower flanges of the beams and girders.

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  • They are usually made with two beams, each with its three knife - edges, rigidly tied together or cast in one piece and some distance apart, so that the scale-pans being carried on two knife-edges, each is prevented from tipping over sideways.

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  • To prevent them from tipping over in the direction of the beams a vertical leg is rigidly fastened to the under side of each pan, the lower end of which is loosely secured by a horizontal stay to a pin in the middle of the frame.

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  • For the latter purpose machines are used of which the beams are made stable, or " vibrating," by constructing them with the fulcrum knife-edges above the line joining the end knife-edges.

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  • It is constructed with two similar beams, one above the other, which are coupled together at the ends to form a parallel motion for carrying the pans up - right.

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  • The coupling is effected by firmly clamping the ends of the beams upon the top and bottom respectively of a loop of watch - spring, which is tightly stretched round the casting carrying the pan, as is shown in the end view in fig.

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  • At their middles the beams are similarly clamped upon the top and bottom of a loop of watch-spring which is tightly stretched round a casting which is bolted upon the bed-plate.

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  • When the case which holds the machine is adjusted hori - zontally by means of its foot - screws, and the weights in the pans are equal, the beams remain perfectly horizontal; but with the slightest difference of weight in the pans the beams are tilted, and the elastic resistance of the springs to torsion allows the beams to take up a definite position of equi - librium.

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  • The lower beam carries on a saddle a scale which is raised nearly to the top of the glass case in which the machine is enclosed, and as the beams sway this scale plays past a scratch on the glass, which is so placed that when the zero point on the scale coincides with the scratch the beams are horizontal.

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  • The pair of beams are hung centrally by rods and hooks from knife-edges in the forked end of a strong beam, which is carried at its fulcrum by the top plate of the frame of the machine.

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  • The balance consists of a pair of equal-armed beams rigidly connected together and acting as a single beam.

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  • The elliptical Tabernacle (5870) has a rounded, turtle-shell shaped roof, unsupported by pillars or beams, seats nearly 10,000, and has a large pipe organ (5000 pipes).

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  • The pictures were taken, in both cases, with only one quality of light, the violet ray of calcium, the remaining superfluous beams being eliminated by the agency of a double slit.

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  • In intermediate cases the intensities of the two beams are proportional to the squares of the cosines of the angles that the principal plane of the second rhomb makes with the positions in which they have the greatest intensity.

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  • He studied with attention the still obscure subject of molecular cohesion, and little has been added to what he ascertained on the question of transverse strains and the strength of beams, first brought by him within the scope of mechanical theory.

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  • The vault was never finished, and still shows its rough beams and rafters.

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  • Before his mind had a chance to act, two yellow beams of a headlight broke around the curve of the roadway a half-mile below him and began a slow climb to where he stood.

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  • The vehicle stopped, its high beams blinding him.

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  • The massive halls were chilly, with ugly stone walls and wooden beams far above.

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  • The music room had raised panel cherry walls and a coffered ceiling with intricately carved beams.

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  • Food is served in the Stove Restaurant where the wooden beams and red brick create an olde worlde atmosphere.

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  • Results are compared with previous measurements with monochromatic ion beams from a conventional accelerator.

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  • Oak beams, exposed stone walls and a feature bed head make this cottage very alluring.

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  • apex ceiling with dark beams and trusses.

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  • Accommodation The cottage is typically French with tiled floors and exposed beams.

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  • The exact positions of the atoms within the surface repeat unit (the 'unit mesh ') govern the intensities of the diffracted beams.

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  • The interior retains many of the period features such as exposed beams and timbers.

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  • laser beams A small red laser beam allows the wearer to target the camera upon the area of work.

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  • Numerous fish, including some quite large bib, constantly swam through our flashlight beams throughout the dive.

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  • In the oldest area, to the back of the property, are some original exposed brick walls incorporating beams made of shipâs timbers.

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  • Orchard Farm Cottages 2 comfortable farm cottages converted from a traditional cow byre, retaining the original beams.

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  • The lovely old oak beams, warm carpeting and cheerful fabrics all combine to make your stay truly comfortable and relaxing.

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  • cauldronthe hearth hangs an iron caldron on a long chain, suspended from beams near the apex of the roof.

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  • ceiled roof showing exposed tie beams supported on corbels and short braces.

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  • The historic, listed building dates back to 1423, and inside boasts original beams and sloping floors, oozing charm.

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  • Her dress is badly crumpled but her smile triumphant, beams between her blushing cheeks.

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  • The beams are then decked in 12mm (15mm on 900mm deep bays) high density chipboard panels.

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  • The beams in this area have clear-cut Roman numerals indicating that the timber was cut off site and then re-assembled by local carpenters.

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  • Large sitting room with exposed beams and fireplace with log burner, downstairs cloaks, 2 staircases.

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  • collidelision describes a set of colliding beams & their energies.

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  • cooing of the pigeons gathered in the ceiling beams is drowned by the roar of the press.

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  • Kitchen with 8 hob gas range cooker set in C18th stone fireplace, original beams.

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  • cupboard with shelving, exposed beams & stone wall.

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  • dado rail, window to rear, exposed beams to ceiling.

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  • These beams are not statically determinate using the static equilibrium laws.

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  • Two highly directional antennas broadcast beams a few degrees wide.

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  • Minimalism and white space is set against deep red and black drapery; venerable beams are cheek by jowl with steel and glass.

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  • Sitting Room 2 sofas, 2 easy chairs, antique chests, welsh dresser, high beams, French doors to private road area.

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  • Great black beams, like polished ebony, support the ceiling.

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  • The brackets carrying the bearings are iron, substantial and somewhat elaborate, and are bolted to beams.

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  • The readout gaps are milled obliquely into silicon beams used focused ion beam etching.

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  • exposed beams and oak floors, and makes an ideal base for a group of friends or extended family.

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  • exposed timber beams, supporting a viewing gallery above.

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  • fireplace with stone lintel, large open fire with wood burning stove, beams, desk, sofa and easy chairs.

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  • Exposed feature timber roof trusses and beams. black wrought iron style ceiling light fitment.

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  • Extensively refurbished in recent years, it still retains its ancient flagstones and beams, inglenook fireplace and many interesting photographs.

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  • flagstones on the floor and beams in the bedroom.

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  • A modern butler sink and matching vitreous enamel drainer, exposed 'A ' frame and hip beams and a slate flagstone floor.

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  • The cottage has been imaginatively restored with exposed beams, washed timbers and polished floorboards.

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  • Two exposed stone walls, old pine furniture, high ceiling with exposed beams.

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  • A bow window looks out onto the garden and stream and there are beams galore.

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  • This generates high brightness beams of energetic gamma rays, protons, neutrons, and heavy ions.

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  • Whether music is written with tails or beams is partly a matter of style but can also indicate note grouping during performance.

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  • More refined surface hardening can be achieved with lasers or electron beams.

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  • haze machine which puts a fine mist in the air which shows up the beams from the lights.

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  • The MEGALIFT system was moved along its tracking until the slings could be attached to the lifting beams by means of lever hoists.

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  • Its exposed beams and tranquil surroundings make it a perfect escape from the everyday office hustle and bustle.

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  • impregnated foundation beams for support, of which will also resist rot.

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  • Inside beams, inglenook, trusses and braces visible.

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  • Natural wood, old beams, granite inglenook fireplace all lend themselves to making you feel very much by the sea.

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  • I asked the janitor, and he said the house was not very well built and that the beams and wainscoting were shrinking.

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  • You will see that the timber beams have now been replaced by steel joists.

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  • Exposed beams and old kitchenware and items of interest are displayed, emphasizing the history of the cottage.

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  • laser beams A small red laser beam allows the wearer to target the camera upon the area of work.

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  • All the attractive bedrooms have some exposed beams and the windows feature heavy wood lintels.

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  • lonely moors with the only guiding light being the dancing moon beams.

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  • Composition and manufacture manufacture Manufactured using steel columns supporting steel main beams.

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  • microprocessor controlled posts, 1.8 meters high, connected by infrared beams.

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  • Character features include exposed stone mullions, exposed beams, stripped wooden paneled doors and exposed stone walls.

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  • nestlen>Nestling within 0.75 acres the House benefits from many fine original features and a wealth of exposed beams.

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  • oaken beams, and the uneven floors sagged into sharp curves.

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  • When you must face Drake at the end, instead of shooting him with the beams, avoid his rockets and do an overcharge.

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  • So details such as stable paviors, latch doors, exposed beams and wood floors are much in evidence.

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  • Other people cunningly conceal screens behind beams or curtain pelmets, so that to all intents and purposes they become totally invisible.

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  • Three scanning electron beams hit the phosphor screen at slightly different angles to excite different phosphors to produce red, green and blue dots.

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  • I discovered and documented locations for apparent underground transmitters of polarized magnetic photon beams out into space.

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  • pig iron into the balance beams.

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  • pine furniture, high ceiling with exposed beams.

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  • By Any Other Name Responding to a distress call from an Earth-like planet, a landing party from the Enterprise beams down to investigate.

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  • The seats are fixed with steel angles to precast concrete planks supported on steel beams to form a rake.

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  • Pulsars The animation, created by Michael Kramer, shows the beams of light emitted from the magnetic poles of a spinning neutron star.

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  • The techniques used to produce beams of low energy positrons can also be adapted to create beams of low energy muons.

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  • using potentiometers the strength of the beams can be adjusted, altering the balance of the color in the picture.

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  • From these beams sloping struts carry the lower purlins.

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  • The two transverse frames are apparently pairs of base crucks with tie beams supporting a crown post and collar purlin roof.

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  • reddened sky with their beams, which swept back and forth in wide arcs.

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  • When it came to installing new lighting, Montague and his team were highly restricted, unable to attach anything to the beams.

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  • Our run is against the house and has a sloping roof, made of wooden beams with polycarbonate roofing layed on top.

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  • Building material - Traditionally oak was the main building timber in Europe including posts or beams, boards or roof shingles.

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  • The researchers expect to have twice the current data by December when a planned shutdown of the beams will occur.

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  • Typical examples of monolithic cast in-situ RC bond beams with RC slabs are shown below on Figure 13.

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  • sleepless eyes squeezing tight miss clouds bathed in silvery light beams.

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  • To fill slots in Timber Resin Splice repair beams.

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  • beams, spreaders and frames should have their safe working load clearly marked, with additional markings on individual lifting points.

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  • The Admiral orders the carrier to light up for landing and ships forward are ordered to fire star shell and send up searchlight beams.

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  • Both have spacious first floor open plan living areas with exposed beams, natural stonework and log burning stoves.

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  • We will have supporting beams some time early next week.

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  • thorax airbags, dual roll-over protection hoops and side impact door beams.

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  • The Entrance Hall features a tiled floor, natural stone piers and exposed timber beams, supporting a viewing gallery above.

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  • The exposed roof trusses use beams from the old bell frame replaced in 1999.

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  • Abstract Within inverted optical tweezers we measure both the lateral and axial trapping efficiency obtained with Gaussian and high-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams.

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  • vacillated on many questions, and if you were to look into your own eyes you would see beams enough there.

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  • vanity basin set in unit, heavily beamed ceilings, open beams to the side.

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  • vaulted ceiling with stripped beams.

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  • vaulted ceiling with exposed beams.

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  • The family room with a wealth of original beams consists of two ' zones ' plus a luxury en-suite whirlpool bathroom.

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  • The primary structure is a glulam frame consisting of over 1,000 cubic meters of renewable European whitewood formed into paired columns and beams.

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  • SPANDRIL, or Spandrel (formerly splaundrel, a word of unknown origin), in architecture, the space between any arch or curved brace and the level label, beams, &c., over the same.

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  • With Edward Cooper (son of Peter Cooper, whom Hewitt greatly assisted in organizing Cooper Union, and whose daughter he married) he went into the manufacture of iron girders and beams under the firm name of Cooper, Hewitt & Co.

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  • Bridges Adams, the intention being by " fishing " the joints to convert the rails into continuous beams. In the original design two chairs were placed, one under each rail, a few inches apart, as in fig.

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  • was carried on beams and could be raised in the middle, as we see it in Carpaccio's picture of "The Miracle of the Cross."

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  • On this surface of pile heads was laid a platform of two layers of squared oak beams; and on this again the foundations proper were built.

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  • Of his work some traces still remain in the richly sculptured bands built in at intervals along the 14th-century façade on the Rio, and part of the handsome larch-wood beams which formed the loggia of the piazzetta façade, still visible on the inner wall of the present loggia.

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  • In this case the central court is roofed over, and has an octagon lantern in the centre; the recesses are covered with horizontal ceilings carried on great beams, the whole being elaborately carved, coloured and gilded; the tomb is covered with the later type of dome, built in stone, and elaborately carved outside with delicate conventional patterns in relief.

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  • The ceilings have the representation of beams and rafters cut in the rock.

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  • Several of the bazaars are vaulted over with brickwork, but the greater number are merely covered with flat beams which support roofs of dried leaves or branches of trees and grass.

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  • Trans., 1848, 227), limiting ourselves, however, to the case where the retarded and unretarded beams are contiguous and of equal width.

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  • It is evident that the effect at the focal point is the obliteration of the first and other spectra of odd order, so that as regards the spectrum of the first order we may consider that the two beams interfere.

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  • These architectural decorations are derived from a style of building found by the recent German expedition extant in an ancient church; courses of stone here alternate in the walls (both inside and out) with beams of wood held by circular clamps.

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  • they were heaped up, before the beams supporting the central chamber had rotted, thieves made a practice of driving a mine into the mound straight to where the valuables were deposited, and it is only by the collapse of this mine and the crushing of the robber after he had thrown everything into confusion that the treasures of the Chertomlyk barrow, on the whole the most typical, were preserved to us.

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  • They are devoted sun-worshippers and in the early morning, before it is daylight, they emerge from their burrows and wait in rows till their divinity appears; when they bask joyfully in his beams."

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  • A man-engine consists of two heavy wooden rods (like the rods of a Cornish pumping plant), placed parallel and close to each other in a special shaft compartment, and suspended at the surface from a pair of massive walking beams (or " bobs ").

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  • into the ground and the whole frameworkconsisting of posts, beams, rafters, door-posts and window-frames was tied together with cords made by twisting the long fibrous stems of climbing plants.

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  • The interior arrangement of wall columns, horizontal beams and cornice bracketing corresponds with that on the outside.

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  • Some remains of the town walls still exist, and also two ancient bridges, both belonging to the Via Clodia, and many tombs hewn in the rock - small chambers imitating the architectural forms of houses, with beams and rafters represented in relief.

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  • The guides or conductors in the pit may be constructed of wood, in which case rectangular fir beams, about 3 by 4 in., are used, attached at intervals of a few feet to buntons or cross-beams built into the lining of the pit.

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  • This is an upright frame, usually made in wrought iron or steel strutted by diagonal thrust beams against the engine-house wall or other solid abutments, the height to the bearings of the guide pulleys being from 80 to 1 00 ft.

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  • 19), which has been modified in various ways, consists in its original form of two symmetrically shaped timber beams clamped to the engine-shaft.

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  • A weight is moved along the arm of one of the beams until it just keeps the brake steady midway between the stops which must be provided to hold it when the weight fails to do so.

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  • Sparse scrub timber, of little value except for posts, poles and rough beams and for fuel, occupies the region westward to approximately the longitude of the Pease river.

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  • The town hall was originally a palace of the counts of Holland, begun in the 12th century, and some old 13th-century beams still remain; but the building was remodelled in the beginning of the 17th century.

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  • On their level tops the beams supporting the platforms were laid and fastened by wooden pins, or inserted in mortices cut in the heads of the piles.

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  • Barton, " On the economic distribution of material in the sides of wrought iron beams " (Proc. Inst.

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  • Again, we may split a narrow beam of light by partial reflexion from a transparent plate, and recombine the constituent beams after they have traversed different circuits of nearly equivalent lengths, so as to obtain interference fringes.

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  • Moreover, this is precisely the condition for the absence of interference between the component of a split beam; because, the time of passage being to the first order fds/V f(udx+vdy+wdz)V2, the second term will then be independent of the path (43 being a single valued function) and therefore the same for the paths of both the interfering beams. If therefore the aether can be put into motion, we conclude (with Stokes) that such motion, in free space, must be of strictly irrotational type.

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  • square, beams 12 in.

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  • A peculiarity of larch wood is the difficulty with which it is ignited, although so resinous; and, coated with a thin layer of plaster, beams and pillars of larch might probably be found to justify Caesar's epithet " igni impenetrabile lignum "; even the small branches are not easily kept alight, and a larch fire in the open needs considerable care.

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  • But it is difficult and expensive to work up into various forms. Concrete has been avoided for making beams, slabs and thin walls, just because its deficiency in tensile strength doomed it to failure in such structures.

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  • The structures in which steel concrete is used may be analysed as consisting essentially of (I) walls, (2) columns, (3) piles, (4) beams, (5) slabs, (6) arches.

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  • But it is in the design of steel concrete beams that the greatest ingenuity has been shown, and almost every patentee of a "system" has some new device for arranging the steel reinforcement to the best advantage.

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  • Concrete by itself, though strong in compression, can offer but little resistance to tensile and shearing stresses, and as these stresses always occur in beams the problem arises how best to arrange the steel so as to assist the concrete in bearing them.

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  • Floor slabs may be regarded as wide and shallow beams, and the remarks made about the stresses in the one apply to the other also; accordingly, the various devices which are used for strengthening beams recur in the slabs.

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  • In the Matrai system thin wires are used instead of rods, and are securely fastened to rolled steel joists, which form the beams on which the slabs rest; moreover, the wires instead of being stretched tight from side to side of the slab are allowed to sag as much as the thickness of the concrete will allow.

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  • At 11:56 the "Vindictive" emerged out of the smoke into the full glare of their beams. The mole could be seen 300 yd.

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  • There are two distinct ways of making the steel objects actually used in the arts, such as rails, gear wheels, guns, beams, &c., out of the molten steel made by the Bessemer, open hearth, or crucible process, or in an electric furnace.

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  • But in addition to the greater cost of steel founding as compared with rolling there are two facts which limit the use of steel castings: (1) they are not so good as rolled products, because the kneading which the metal undergoes in rolling improves its quality, and closes up its cavities; and (2) it would be extremely difficult and in most cases impracticable to cast the metal directly into any of the forms in which the great bulk of the steel of commerce is needed, such as rails, plates, beams, angles, rods, bars, and wire, because the metal would become so cool as to solidify before running far in such thin sections, and because even the short pieces which could thus be made would pucker or warp on account of their aeolotachic contraction.

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  • The double polar axis is composed of hollow metal beams of triangular section.

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  • An oblong metallic box fitted with pivots, whose bearings are attached to the triangular beams, forms the tube for two parallel telescopes; these are separated throughout their length by a metallic diaphragm.

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  • A structure is composed, of pieces,such as the stones of a building in masonry, the beams of a timber frame-work, the bars, plates and bolts of an iron bridge.

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  • Linkwoyk in GeneralThe pieces which are connected by linkwork, if they rotate or oscillate, are usually called cranks, beams and levers.

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  • The spear and arrows are identified with the beams of the sun and moon.

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  • If pillars made of rolled iron or steel are used, their different parts shall be riveted to each other and the beams and girders resting upon them shall have riveted or bolted connexions to unite them with the pillar.

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  • If cast-iron pillars are used, each successive pillar shall be bolted to the one below it by at least four bolts not less than three-fourths of an inch in diameter, and the beams and girders shall be bolted to the pillars.

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  • At each line of flooror roofbeams, lateral connexion between the ends of the beams and girders shall be made by passing wrought-iron or steel straps across or through the cast-iron column, in such a manner as to rigidly connect the beams and girders with each other on the direction of their length.

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  • These straps shall be made of wrought-iron or steel, and shall be riveted or bolted to the flanges or to the webs of the beams or girders.

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  • " If buildings are made fire-proof entirely, and have skeleton construction so designed that their enclosing walls do not carry the weight of the floors or roof, then their walls shall be not less than twelve inches in thickness; and provided, also, that such walls shall be thoroughly anchored to the iron skeleton, and provided, also, that, whether the weight of such walls rests upon beams or pillars, such beams or pillars must be made strong enough in each storey to carry the weight of wall resting upon them without reliance upon the walls below them.

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  • The bracing is accomplished by the introduction at the angles of the columns and girders or beams of gusset plates or knee braces, or by diagonal straps or rods properly attached by rivet or pin connexions.

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  • For girders of small spans " I " beams or channels are generally used, but for greater spans girders are built of riveted work.

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  • In girders and beams the maximum fibre stress is usually limited to 16,000 lb.

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  • The same necessity for computing shear and flexure applies to the floor beams. The floors between the girders are constructed of " I" beams, spaced generally about 5 ft.

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  • Sometimes the beams rest upon the girders, and are riveted through the flanges to it; in this case the abutting ends of beams are spliced by scarf plates placed on each side of the webs and secured by rivets.

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  • A similar construction is followed for flat roofs, the grades being generally formed in the girder and beam construction, and a flat ceiling secured by hanging from them, with steel straps, a light tier of ceiling beams. The floor beams are tied laterally by rods in continuous lines placed at or above their neutral axis.

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  • It is usual in both girders and beams to provide not only for the safe support of the greatest possible distributed load, but for the greatest weight, such as that of a safe or other heavy piece of furniture which may be moved over the floor at its weakest points, the centres of the girders and beams. It must always be borne in mind that the formulae for the ultimate strength of the " I " beams only hold good when the upper chord or flange is supported laterally.

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  • The Broad Flange Differdange Beams are claimed by the manufacturers to be stronger and to minimize weight for use as girders; they are made in twenty-one different sizes with flanges from 88 to i 2 in.

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  • The arrangement of the building and floor framings is in a great measure governed by the architectural effect sought and by the arrangement and proper planning of the interior according to the intended uses; the positions of columns, girders and floor beams are usually the result of particular requirements, and unless complicated and expensive framing is to be expected the distance between columns must be kept within the limits of simple girder construction.

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  • The position of the columns having been determined, the girders must next be located; these serve to support the floor beams which transfer the loads direct to the columns, and also to brace the columns during erection.

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  • The spacing, or distance from centre to centre of the floor beams, will depend upon the type of fire-proof flooring employed; it also depends to a considerable extent upon the amount and character of the floor load and the length of span.

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  • The filling between the girders and floor beams consists of segmental arches of brick, segmental or flat arches of porous (sawdust) terra-cotta, or hard-burned hollow terra- - cotta voussoirs, or various patented forms of con crete floors containing ties or supports of steel or iron.

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  • In all cases it is customary to fill on top of the arches with a strong Portland cement concrete to a uniform level, generally the top of the deepest beam; the floor filling is constructed and carried to this level immediately upon the completion of each tier of beams, for the purpose not only of stiffening the frame laterally, and of adding to its stability by the imposition of a static load, but also to afford constantly safe and strong working platforms at regular and convenient intervals for use throughout the entire period of the construction.

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  • In flat forms of masonry floor construction the level of its bottom is placed somewhat below the bottom of the " I " beams and girders, so that when it is plastered a continuous surface of at least an inch of mortar will form a fire-proof protection for the lower flanges of the beams and girders.

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  • They are usually made with two beams, each with its three knife - edges, rigidly tied together or cast in one piece and some distance apart, so that the scale-pans being carried on two knife-edges, each is prevented from tipping over sideways.

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  • To prevent them from tipping over in the direction of the beams a vertical leg is rigidly fastened to the under side of each pan, the lower end of which is loosely secured by a horizontal stay to a pin in the middle of the frame.

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  • For the latter purpose machines are used of which the beams are made stable, or " vibrating," by constructing them with the fulcrum knife-edges above the line joining the end knife-edges.

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  • It is constructed with two similar beams, one above the other, which are coupled together at the ends to form a parallel motion for carrying the pans up - right.

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  • The coupling is effected by firmly clamping the ends of the beams upon the top and bottom respectively of a loop of watch - spring, which is tightly stretched round the casting carrying the pan, as is shown in the end view in fig.

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  • At their middles the beams are similarly clamped upon the top and bottom of a loop of watch-spring which is tightly stretched round a casting which is bolted upon the bed-plate.

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  • When the case which holds the machine is adjusted hori - zontally by means of its foot - screws, and the weights in the pans are equal, the beams remain perfectly horizontal; but with the slightest difference of weight in the pans the beams are tilted, and the elastic resistance of the springs to torsion allows the beams to take up a definite position of equi - librium.

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  • The lower beam carries on a saddle a scale which is raised nearly to the top of the glass case in which the machine is enclosed, and as the beams sway this scale plays past a scratch on the glass, which is so placed that when the zero point on the scale coincides with the scratch the beams are horizontal.

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  • The pair of beams are hung centrally by rods and hooks from knife-edges in the forked end of a strong beam, which is carried at its fulcrum by the top plate of the frame of the machine.

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  • The balance consists of a pair of equal-armed beams rigidly connected together and acting as a single beam.

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  • The elliptical Tabernacle (5870) has a rounded, turtle-shell shaped roof, unsupported by pillars or beams, seats nearly 10,000, and has a large pipe organ (5000 pipes).

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  • The pictures were taken, in both cases, with only one quality of light, the violet ray of calcium, the remaining superfluous beams being eliminated by the agency of a double slit.

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  • In intermediate cases the intensities of the two beams are proportional to the squares of the cosines of the angles that the principal plane of the second rhomb makes with the positions in which they have the greatest intensity.

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  • He studied with attention the still obscure subject of molecular cohesion, and little has been added to what he ascertained on the question of transverse strains and the strength of beams, first brought by him within the scope of mechanical theory.

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  • The vault was never finished, and still shows its rough beams and rafters.

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  • Inside chamfered ceiling beams and single and double purlins of roofs visible.

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  • From these beams sloping struts carry the lower purlins.

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  • The two transverse frames are apparently pairs of base crucks with tie beams supporting a crown post and collar purlin roof.

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  • Searchlights made effective patterns as they stabbed the reddened sky with their beams, which swept back and forth in wide arcs.

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  • When it came to installing new lighting, Montague and his team were highly restricted, unable to attach anything to the beams.

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  • Building material - Traditionally oak was the main building timber in Europe including posts or beams, boards or roof shingles.

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  • The researchers expect to have twice the current data by December when a planned shutdown of the beams will occur.

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  • Typical examples of monolithic cast in-situ RC bond beams with RC slabs are shown below on Figure 13.

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  • Weary sleepless eyes squeezing tight miss clouds bathed in silvery light beams.

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  • To fill slots in Timber Resin Splice repair beams.

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  • Beams, spreaders and frames should have their safe working load clearly marked, with additional markings on individual lifting points.

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  • The Admiral orders the carrier to light up for landing and ships forward are ordered to fire star shell and send up searchlight beams.

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  • Both have spacious first floor open plan living areas with exposed beams, natural stonework and log burning stoves.

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  • There are plenty of exposed beams within the property to substantiate this conclusion.

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  • We will have supporting beams some time early next week.

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  • A current EPSRC-funded project is studying the use of electron and proton beams for the processing of thermosetting polymers and composites.

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  • There are driver and passenger front and side thorax airbags, dual roll-over protection hoops and side impact door beams.

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  • There is a well equipped kitchen/dining room with original beams and quarry tile flooring.

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  • During this work ancient beams were exposed and a time capsule put in place.

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  • The exposed roof trusses use beams from the old bell frame replaced in 1999.

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  • Abstract Within inverted optical tweezers we measure both the lateral and axial trapping efficiency obtained with Gaussian and high-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams.

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  • Crafted in Britain exclusively for The Cotswold Company, hewn from huge beams of ' green ' or unseasoned timber.

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  • The KPD has vacillated on many questions, and if you were to look into your own eyes you would see beams enough there.

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  • Double glazed Georgian bar window to side, vanity basin set in unit, heavily beamed ceilings, open beams to the side.

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  • The lounge has a vaulted ceiling with stripped beams.

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  • MASTER BEDROOM (S&N) (16'4 x 11'5 plus dormers) Vaulted ceiling with exposed beams.

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  • The family room with a wealth of original beams consists of two ' zones ' plus a luxury en-suite whirlpool bathroom.

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  • The primary structure is a glulam frame consisting of over 1,000 cubic meters of renewable European whitewood formed into paired columns and beams.

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  • Butt joints, gussets and structural beams and members are all made from the same wood for consistency and those are usually connected with epoxy.

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  • To receive and send data, you need a satellite dish at home that beams the information up and accepts the data from the satellite.

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  • Wooden pallets, old floor boards, ceiling beams and other wooden items are perfect for use as structural support.

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  • The look is characterized by architectural details, such as rough-hewn beams, stone fireplaces, wide-plank floors and vaulted ceilings.

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  • Large dark wood beams, either true support beams or decorative beams are popular in Tuscan style kitchens.

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  • Wooden Beams - Large oak ceiling beams are a popular design element in Tuscan style.

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  • These can be real structural beams or the more manageable decorative beams made of fiber glass, but which appear the same as authentic oak beams.

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  • Dark wooden beams are standard features of a traditional Tuscan ceiling.

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  • Get rid of your bed with a canopy or beams going across the mattress part between the posts.

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  • Exposed beams are a perfect Italian kitchen feature - if you don't want a huge remodeling project on your hands, try decorative faux beams.

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  • Rough hewn wooden beams in the ceiling, plaster walls and stone, clay or brick flooring are common architectural features of a French country style home.

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  • Think of big beautiful harvest tables and wooden beams running across the ceiling.

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  • Bold rich colors, exposed dark beams, cross lattice on the walls, and high-pitched ceilings mark Tudor architectural features.

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  • If your ceiling and budget allow, exposed rough darkly-stained beams will give your room an authentic flair.

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  • The beams should be a dark stain to contrast sharply with a white or buff colored ceiling and walls.

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  • These include exposed wooden beams and arched windows and doorways.

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  • Rough-hewed ceiling beams stained a dark color will lend authenticity to your design.

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  • To achieve a traditional French country look, you will need to start with the basics, such as pale plaster walls, Earth tone colors and natural textures, like rough wooden beams in the ceiling and stone, clay or brick flooring.

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  • An 8x lighted makeup mirror combines both the efficiency of a high magnification with the necessary light beams to ensure flawless makeup application.

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  • If you are shooting indoors, look for open beams, furniture or other accessories to produce interesting effects.

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  • Here it will be convenient to adhere to the old classification, which places Pears under Pyrus, Apples under Malus, Beams under Aria, and Mountain Ashes and Service Trees under Sorbus.

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  • The sleek, floating appearance of fixtures makes them a perfect choice because they are easily configured to meet lighting challenges such as high cathedral or vaulted ceilings and can work around added obstructions like beams and soffits.

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  • Post and Beam systems have randomly placed posts and beams that run both vertically and horizontally.

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  • Attic stair covers can be customized to include side panels that will cover spaces between beams, or can be left simply as a box style cover over your stairs.

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  • While the decking is composite wood, the beams and joists underneath are still real wood and are subject to the usual conditions.

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  • Irradiated food is exposed to radiation, either through gamma rays, x-rays or electron beams, in an effort to kill microorganisms that can cause it to rot.

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  • Oakley tactical sunglasses are incredibly impact resistant and some can even protect your eyes from laser beams.

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  • They're designed to help you handle everything from flying sand and dust to laser beams.

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  • Firehawk: This unique flying coaster gives riders the unusual experience of diving among the steel beams and girders while soaring on their stomachs through five inversions.

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  • There is more to roller coaster design than envisioning a great new ride and putting together a few beams and a train.

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  • Several stronger injury reports haunted the ride, including an incident in July 2006 when one of the coaster's support beams cracked because of the weight of the train, causing a severe jolt that injured 27 riders.

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  • A side-scrolling shooter, you emit beams of joy to Care Bears and Star Buddies to make their days brighter.

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  • Kicks and punches are controlled with the A button, while beams and the like are fired off with B.

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  • Some have variable beams that include a strobe to signal help in an emergency.

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  • Echocardiogram-A record of the internal structures of the heart obtained from beams of ultrasonic waves directed through the wall of the chest.

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  • Echocardiogram-A record of the internal structures of the heart obtained from beams of ultrasonic waves directed through the wall of the chest.

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  • Echocardiogram-A record of the internal structures of the heart obtained from beams of ultrasonic waves directed through the wall of the chest.

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  • Echocardiogram-A record of the internal structures of the heart obtained from beams of ultrasonic waves directed through the wall of the chest.

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  • During a CT scan, the patient table is moved through the center hole as x-ray beams pass through the patient's body.

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  • Echocardiogram-A record of the internal structures of the heart obtained from beams of ultrasonic waves directed through the wall of the chest.

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  • Use paint or fabric to soften ceiling beams or place a pair of flutes suspending with red ribbon or cord with the open ends tilted upward.

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  • The best solution is to remove the beams since they create cutting effects to those underneath them and can cause illnesses.

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  • Don't position your bed underneath beams.

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  • Overhead beams - These can create disharmony in your marriage as well as disease since they symbolically slice through the body.

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  • They deliver beams at pinpoint accuracy that targets only the hair follicles.

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  • Hence, it is also a good idea to invest in either a quality strapless or bandeau bra, or at least a set of Low Beams.

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  • Within moments of getting back on the road, another car pulled up behind the woman following closely as the driver flashed his high beams and honked furiously.

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  • The frightened young woman began to drive faster, growing more terrified with each flash of those high beams.

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  • A typical parcourse may consist of outdoor balance beams, pull-up bars, sit-up stations and push-up stations.

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  • A hush is falling over the crowd and the stadium lights are collecting into beams of illumination on the field and a thick fog of tension is building.

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  • The crystals in the shoulder pads give him the power to shoot gravity beams.

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  • With radiation therapy, the individual is subjected to radiation beams, which help to kill cancerous cells and make tumors smaller.

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  • History is exemplified in this restaurant's architecture with its brick interior, wooden beams and leather furniture.

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  • Bridges Adams, the intention being by " fishing " the joints to convert the rails into continuous beams. In the original design two chairs were placed, one under each rail, a few inches apart, as in fig.

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  • was carried on beams and could be raised in the middle, as we see it in Carpaccio's picture of "The Miracle of the Cross."

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  • In this case the central court is roofed over, and has an octagon lantern in the centre; the recesses are covered with horizontal ceilings carried on great beams, the whole being elaborately carved, coloured and gilded; the tomb is covered with the later type of dome, built in stone, and elaborately carved outside with delicate conventional patterns in relief.

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    1
  • Above these ties are the cornice brackets and beams, corresponding in general design to the cornice of the walls, and the intermediate space is filled with open carvings of dragons or other characteristic designs.

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  • Some remains of the town walls still exist, and also two ancient bridges, both belonging to the Via Clodia, and many tombs hewn in the rock - small chambers imitating the architectural forms of houses, with beams and rafters represented in relief.

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    1
  • The guides or conductors in the pit may be constructed of wood, in which case rectangular fir beams, about 3 by 4 in., are used, attached at intervals of a few feet to buntons or cross-beams built into the lining of the pit.

    0
    1
  • A weight is moved along the arm of one of the beams until it just keeps the brake steady midway between the stops which must be provided to hold it when the weight fails to do so.

    0
    1
  • Again, we may split a narrow beam of light by partial reflexion from a transparent plate, and recombine the constituent beams after they have traversed different circuits of nearly equivalent lengths, so as to obtain interference fringes.

    0
    1
  • Moreover, this is precisely the condition for the absence of interference between the component of a split beam; because, the time of passage being to the first order fds/V f(udx+vdy+wdz)V2, the second term will then be independent of the path (43 being a single valued function) and therefore the same for the paths of both the interfering beams. If therefore the aether can be put into motion, we conclude (with Stokes) that such motion, in free space, must be of strictly irrotational type.

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    1
  • chap. 21) of Leonard Digges 1 (originally published by his son Thomas in 1571, and again in 1591): - "Marvellous are the conclusions that may be performed by glasses concave and convex, of circular and parabolic forms, using for multiplication of beams sometime the aid of glasses transparent, which, by fraction, should unite or dissipate the images or figures presented by the reflection of other."

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    1
  • The double polar axis is composed of hollow metal beams of triangular section.

    0
    1
  • An oblong metallic box fitted with pivots, whose bearings are attached to the triangular beams, forms the tube for two parallel telescopes; these are separated throughout their length by a metallic diaphragm.

    0
    1
  • As the tank fills, the water enters the upper chamber and carries with it the flax and the beams, the latter being prevented from rising too high.

    0
    1
  • In such metal framework the beams and girders shall be riveted to each other at their respective junction points.

    0
    1
  • " If buildings are made fire-proof entirely, and have skeleton construction so designed that their enclosing walls do not carry the weight of the floors or roof, then their walls shall be not less than twelve inches in thickness; and provided, also, that such walls shall be thoroughly anchored to the iron skeleton, and provided, also, that, whether the weight of such walls rests upon beams or pillars, such beams or pillars must be made strong enough in each storey to carry the weight of wall resting upon them without reliance upon the walls below them.

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    1
  • Above these ties are the cornice brackets and beams, corresponding in general design to the cornice of the walls, and the intermediate space is filled with open carvings of dragons or other characteristic designs.

    0
    1
  • chap. 21) of Leonard Digges 1 (originally published by his son Thomas in 1571, and again in 1591): - "Marvellous are the conclusions that may be performed by glasses concave and convex, of circular and parabolic forms, using for multiplication of beams sometime the aid of glasses transparent, which, by fraction, should unite or dissipate the images or figures presented by the reflection of other."

    0
    1
  • As the tank fills, the water enters the upper chamber and carries with it the flax and the beams, the latter being prevented from rising too high.

    0
    1
  • In such metal framework the beams and girders shall be riveted to each other at their respective junction points.

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    1
  • The massive halls were chilly, with ugly stone walls and wooden beams far above.

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  • With Edward Cooper (son of Peter Cooper, whom Hewitt greatly assisted in organizing Cooper Union, and whose daughter he married) he went into the manufacture of iron girders and beams under the firm name of Cooper, Hewitt & Co.

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  • Of his work some traces still remain in the richly sculptured bands built in at intervals along the 14th-century façade on the Rio, and part of the handsome larch-wood beams which formed the loggia of the piazzetta façade, still visible on the inner wall of the present loggia.

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  • 19), which has been modified in various ways, consists in its original form of two symmetrically shaped timber beams clamped to the engine-shaft.

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    2
  • Sparse scrub timber, of little value except for posts, poles and rough beams and for fuel, occupies the region westward to approximately the longitude of the Pease river.

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    2
  • In some cases the whole construction was further steadied and strengthened by cross beams, notched into the piles below the supports of the platform.

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  • But it is in the design of steel concrete beams that the greatest ingenuity has been shown, and almost every patentee of a "system" has some new device for arranging the steel reinforcement to the best advantage.

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  • Among the other causes of the increase of the per capita consumption of iron are the displacement of wood by iron for ships and bridge-building; the great extension of the use of iron beams, columns and other pieces in constructing buildings of various kinds; the growth of steam and electric railways; and the introduction of iron fencing.

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  • In some cases the whole construction was further steadied and strengthened by cross beams, notched into the piles below the supports of the platform.

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  • Among the other causes of the increase of the per capita consumption of iron are the displacement of wood by iron for ships and bridge-building; the great extension of the use of iron beams, columns and other pieces in constructing buildings of various kinds; the growth of steam and electric railways; and the introduction of iron fencing.

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  • Soldiers were continually rushing backwards and forwards near it, and he saw two of them and a man in a frieze coat dragging burning beams into another yard across the street, while others carried bundles of hay.

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  • "Clear that away!" said the officer, pointing to the beams and the corpses, and the French soldiers, after dispatching the wounded, threw the corpses over the parapet.

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  • They took him to the upper end of the field, where there were some sheds built of charred planks, beams, and battens, and led him into one of them.

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  • The floor beams, floor and railing are of timber.

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  • At 11:56 the "Vindictive" emerged out of the smoke into the full glare of their beams. The mole could be seen 300 yd.

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  • The floor beams, floor and railing are of timber.

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  • The bees circle round a queenless hive in the hot beams of the midday sun as gaily as around the living hives; from a distance it smells of honey like the others, and bees fly in and out in the same way.

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  • In 1893 the construction was completed in Budapest of an underground railway with a thin, flat roof, consisting of steel beams set close together, with small longitudinal jack arches between them, the street pavement .

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  • This is an upright frame, usually made in wrought iron or steel strutted by diagonal thrust beams against the engine-house wall or other solid abutments, the height to the bearings of the guide pulleys being from 80 to 1 00 ft.

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  • - The main supporting members are two or more horizontal beams, girders or trusses.

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  • Barton, " On the economic distribution of material in the sides of wrought iron beams " (Proc. Inst.

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  • But in addition to the greater cost of steel founding as compared with rolling there are two facts which limit the use of steel castings: (1) they are not so good as rolled products, because the kneading which the metal undergoes in rolling improves its quality, and closes up its cavities; and (2) it would be extremely difficult and in most cases impracticable to cast the metal directly into any of the forms in which the great bulk of the steel of commerce is needed, such as rails, plates, beams, angles, rods, bars, and wire, because the metal would become so cool as to solidify before running far in such thin sections, and because even the short pieces which could thus be made would pucker or warp on account of their aeolotachic contraction.

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  • A structure is composed, of pieces,such as the stones of a building in masonry, the beams of a timber frame-work, the bars, plates and bolts of an iron bridge.

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  • In 1893 the construction was completed in Budapest of an underground railway with a thin, flat roof, consisting of steel beams set close together, with small longitudinal jack arches between them, the street pavement .

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  • - The main supporting members are two or more horizontal beams, girders or trusses.

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  • SPANDRIL, or Spandrel (formerly splaundrel, a word of unknown origin), in architecture, the space between any arch or curved brace and the level label, beams, &c., over the same.

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  • Several of the bazaars are vaulted over with brickwork, but the greater number are merely covered with flat beams which support roofs of dried leaves or branches of trees and grass.

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  • It is evident that the effect at the focal point is the obliteration of the first and other spectra of odd order, so that as regards the spectrum of the first order we may consider that the two beams interfere.

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  • On this surface of pile heads was laid a platform of two layers of squared oak beams; and on this again the foundations proper were built.

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