Batrachians sentence example

batrachians
  • The water is expelled from the branchial chambers by one or two tubes opening by one orifice in most Batrachians.
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  • Flower, "Batrachians of the Malay Peninsula and Siam," P.Z.S., 1899, p. 885; H.
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  • Ferguson, "Travancore Batrachians," J.
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  • The batrachians include a very large number of genera and species, especially in the Amazon valley.
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  • 1 The anatomical error in reference to the auricles of Reptiles and Batrachians on the part of Linnaeus is extremely interesting, since it shows to what an extent the most patent facts may escape the observation of even the greatest observers, and what an amount of repeated dissection and unprejudiced attention has been necessary before the structure of the commonest animals has become known.
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  • Batrachians.
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  • The Reptilia include II species of the crocodile, alligator and lizard, including the savage jacare of the Amazon, several species of turtle, 4 species of batrachians, and 29 species of serpents, including the striped rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus), Lachesis mutus, and a rather rare species of Cophias.
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  • Birds and mammals take the first place; the leading collections devote a good deal of attention to reptiles and batrachians; fishes and aquatic invertebrata are most often to be found only when there are special aquaria, whilst non-aquatic invertebrates are seldom to be seen and at most consist of a few moths and butterflies, spiders, scorpions and centipedes, molluscs and crustaceans.
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  • Cold-blooded animals, such as reptiles and batrachians, thrive best in an equable temperature, and, especially in the case of snakes, frequently can be induced to feed only when their temperature has been raised to a certain point.
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  • He has observed that in young specimens of Siren lacertina (the larva is still unknown) the gills are rudimentary and functionless, and that it is only in large adult specimens that they are fully developed in structure and function; he therefore concludes that the sirens are the descendants of a terrestrial type of batrachians, which passed through a metamorphosis like the other members of their class, but that more recently they have adopted a permanently aquatic life, and have resumed their branchiae by reversion.
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  • Among batrachians the parasites have been found, up till now, only in frogs; and among reptiles their occurrence has only been observed in one or two solitary instances (T.
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  • Boulenger, Tailless Batrachians of Europe (Ray Society, 1897).
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  • He succeeded Haiiy as professor of mineralogy in the Museum of Natural History; but he did not confine himself to mineralogy, for it is to him that we owe the division of Reptiles into the four orders of Saurians, Batrachians, Chelonians and Ophidians.
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  • or Axolotl of Mexico were brought to him by Humboldt in the beginning of the 10th century, that these Batrachians were not really related to the Perennibranchiates, such as Siren and Proteus, with which he was well acquainted, but represented the larval form of some air-breathing salamander.
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  • This, it then seemed, solved the often-discussed question of the perennibranchiate nature of these) Batrachians.
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  • Reptiles and batrachians are abundant, but have been little studied.
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  • There are three species of snake, including the viper; three of lizard; and eleven of batrachians.
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  • There are no poisonous snakes in the country, and, in a region so filled with lakes and rivers as the rainy south, only two species of batrachians.
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  • Three coecilians, three batrachians (including a mountain-frequenting frog) and three fresh-water crustaceans are also indigenous, and about twenty-six species of land shells.
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  • They are separated from fishes and batrachians (Pisces and Batrachians) on the one hand, and agree with reptiles, and birds (Reptilia and A y es) on the other, in the possession during intra-uterine life of the membranous vascular structures respectively known as the amnion and the allantois, and likewise in the absence at this or any other period of external gills.
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  • Iceland possesses neither reptiles nor batrachians.
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  • These facts militate strongly against the importance which was once attached to the dentition in the classification of the tailless batrachians.
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  • Many authors who have devoted special attention to questions of nomenclature therefore think Reptilia and Batrachia the correct names of the two great classes into which the Linnaean Amphibia have been divided, and consider that the latter term should be reserved for the use of those who, like that great authority, the late Professor Peters, down to the time of his death in 1883, would persist in regarding reptiles and batrachians as mere sub-classes (1).
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  • However extraordinary it may appear, especially to those who bring the living forms only into focus, that opposition should still be made to Huxley's primary division of the vertebrates other than mammals into Sauropsida (birds and reptiles) and Ichthyopsida (batrachians and fishes), it is certain that recent discoveries in palaeontology have reduced the gap between batrachians and reptiles to such a minimum as to cause the greatest embarrassment in the attempt to draw a satisfactory line of separation between the two; on the other hand the hiatus between fishes and batrachians remains as wide as it was at the time Huxley's article Amphibia (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th ed.) was written.
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  • The chief character which distinguishes the Batrachians from the reptiles, leaving aside the metamorphoses, lies in the arrangement of the bones of the palate, where a large parasphenoid extends forwards as far or nearly as far as the vomers and widely separates the pterygoids.
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  • Some authors have held that the bone on which the occipital condyles have been found most developed in some labyrinthodonts (2) represents a large basi-occipital bearing two knobs for the articulation with the first vertebra, whilst the skull of the batrachians of the present day has lost the basi-occipital, and the condyles are furnished by the exoccipitals.
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  • The fact remains, however, that some if not all of the stegocephalous batrachians have an ossified basi-occipital.
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  • Seeley (5) to place the latter with the reptiles instead of with the batrachians, and H.
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  • Gadow, in his most recent classification (6), places some of them among the reptiles, others being left with the batrachians; whilst H.
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  • Credner, basing his views on the discovery by him of various annectent forms between the Stegocephalia and the Rhynchocephalian reptiles, has proposed a class, Eotetrapoda, to include these forms, ancestors of the batrachians proper on the one hand, of the reptiles proper on the other.
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  • Yet, that the Stegocephalia, notwithstanding their great affinity to the reptiles, ought to be included in the batrachians as commonly understood, seems sufficiently obvious from the mere fact of their passing through a branchiate condition, i.e.
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  • The outcome of our present knowledge points to the Stegocephalia, probably themselves derived from the Crossopterygian fishes (8), having yielded on the one hand the true batrachians (retrogressive series), with which they are to a certain extent connected through the Caudata and the Apoda, on the other hand the reptiles (progressive series), through the Rhynchocephalians and the Anomodonts, the latter being believed, on very suggestive evidence, to lead to the mammals (9).
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  • In the first subdivision of the batrachians into two families by C. Dumeril in 1806 (Zool.
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  • The Latin form being the only one entitled to recognition in zoological nomenclature, it follows that the last-mentioned names should be adopted for the three orders into which recent batrachians are divided.
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  • - Tailed, lacertiform or serpentiform batrachians, with the temporal region of the skull roofed over by postorbital, squamosal, and supratemporal plates similar to the same bones in Crossopterygian fishes, and likewise with paired dermal bones (occipitals and post-temporals) behind the parietals and supratemporals.
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  • Lohest (12) as evidence of these batrachians in the Devonian.
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  • f, P, This is particularly evident in the case of the Stegocephalians; and recent batrachians, tailed and tailless, show the mode of articulation of the vertebrae,whether amphicoelous, opisthocoelous or procoelous, to be of but secondary systematic importance in dealing with these lowly vertebrates.
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  • Branchiosauria, nearest to the true batrachians; with persistent non-constricted notochord, surrounded by barrel-shaped, bony cylinders formed by the neural arch above and a pair of intercentra below, both these elements taking an equal share in the formation of a transverse process on each side for the support of the rib.
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  • Degraded, worm-like batrachians of still obscure affinities, inhabiting tropical Africa, south-eastern Asia and tropical America.
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  • Sarasin (17), whose great work on the development of Ichthyophis is one of the most important recent contributions to our knowledge of the batrachians, Amphiuma is a sort of neotenic Caecilian, a larval form become sexually mature while retaining the branchial respiration.
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  • Credner to be identical in structure with those of Stegocephalians, the Caecilian skull presents features which are not shared by any of the tailed batrachians.
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  • - Tailed batrachians, with the frontals distinct from the parietals and the palatines from the maxillary.
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  • Some of the forms breathe by gills throughout their existence, and were formerly regarded as establishing a passage from the fishes to the air-breathing batrachians.
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  • The Discoglossidae are noteworthy for the presence of short ribs to some of the vertebrae, and in some other points also they approach the tailed batrachians; they may be safely regarded as, on the whole, the most generalized of known Ecaudata.
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  • Thus New Caledonia, which has a rich and quite special lizard-fauna, has no batrachians of its own, although the Australian Hyla aurea has been introduced with success.
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  • Apart from a few unsatisfactory remains from the Eocene of Wyoming, fossil tailless batrachians are otherwise only known from the Oligocene, Miocene and Pliocene of Europe and India.
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  • This mode of formation of both the arch and the greater part or whole of the so-called centrum from the same cartilage explains why there is never a neuro-central suture in these batrachians.
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  • It is in fact doubtful whether the so-called sternum of batrachians, in most cases a mere plate of cartilage, has been correctly identified as such.
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  • The skull, in the Apoda, is remarkably solid and compact, and it possesses a postorbital or postfrontal bone (marked 1 in the figure) which does not exist in any of the other living batrachians.
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  • In the lower jaw of most of the Ecaudata the symphysial cartilages ossify separately from the dentary bones, forming the so-called mento-meckelian bones; but these symphysial bones, so distinct in the frog, are less so in the Hylidae and Bufonidae, almost indistinguishable in the Pelobatidae and Discoglossidae, whilst in the Aglossa they do not exist any more than in the other orders of batrachians.
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  • The pectoral girdle of the living types of batrachians is distinguishable into a scapular, a coracoidal, and a praecoracoidal region.
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  • In these batrachians the pectoral arch falls into two distinct types - the arciferous, in which the precoracoid (+clavicle) and coracoid are widely separated from each other distally and connected by an arched cartilage (the epicoracoid), the right usually overlapping the left; and the firmi- sternal, in which both precoracoid and coracoid nearly abut on the median line, and are only narrowly separated by the more or less fused epicoracoids.
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  • The former type is exemplified by the toads and the lower Ecaudata, whilst the latter is characteristic of the true frogs (Ranidae), although when quite young these batrachians present a condition similar to that which persists throughout life in their lower relatives.
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  • The pelvic arch of some of the Stegocephalia contained a well ossified pubic element, whilst in all other batrachians only the ilium, or the ilium and the ischium are ossified.
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  • - In all recent batrachians, the skin is naked, or if small scales are present, as in many of the Apoda, they are concealed in the skin.
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  • The integument of tailed and tailless batrachians is remarkable for the great abundance of follicular glands, of which there may be two kinds, each having a special secretion, which is always more or less acrid and irritating, and affords a means of defence against the attacks of many carnivorous animals.
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  • published on the poisonous secretion of batrachians (34), which is utilized by the Indians of South America for poisoning their arrows.
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  • In addition to diffuse pigment (mostly in the epidermis), the skin contains granular pigment stored up r' in cells, the chromatophores, restricted to the cutis, which are highly mobile and send out r2 branches which, by contraction and expansion, may rapidly alter the coloration, most batrachians being in this respect quite comparable to the famous chameleons.
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  • But in the Labyrinthodonta, grooves are more or less marked along the teeth and give rise to folds of the wall which, extending inwards and ramifying, produce the complicated structure, exhibited by transverse sections, whence these batrachians derive their name; a somewhat similar complexity of structure is known in some holoptychian (dendrodont) Crossopterygian fishes.
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  • The batrachians they are confined to the vomers pericardium and palatines or to the vomers alone (37).
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  • (lightly shaded) As regards the alimentary organs, it will extends as far suffice to state, in this very brief sketch, that as the bifurcaall batrachians being carnivorous in their tion of the perfect condition, the intestine is never very synangium.
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  • In most male batrachians the testes are drained by transverse canals which open into a longitudinal duct, which also receives the canals of the kidneys, so that this common duct conveys both sperma and urine.
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  • - Batrachians may be divided into four categories under this head: - (t) no amplexation; (2) amplexation without internal fecundation; (3) amplexation with internal fecundation; (4) copulation proper.
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  • In all the tailless batrachians (with the exception of a single known viviparous toad),the male clings to the female round the breast, at the arm-pits, or round the waist, and awaits, often for hours or days, the deposition of the ova, which are immediately fecundated by several seminal emissions.
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  • Some of these batrachians are viviparous.
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  • A few batrachians retain the ova within the oviducts until the young have undergone part or the whole of the metamorphosis.
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  • Development and Metamorphosis.-In a great number of batrachians, including most of the European species, the egg is small and the food-yolk is in insufficient quantity to form an external appendage of the embryo.
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  • With the exception of a number of forms in which the whole development takes place within the egg or in the body of the mother, batrachians undergo metamorphoses, the young passing through a free-swimming, gill-breathing period of considerable duration, during which their appearance, structure, and often their regime, are essentially different from those of the mature form.
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  • Many cases are known in which the young batrachian enters the world in the perfect condition, as in the black salamander of the Alps (Salamandra atra), the cave salamander (Spelerpes fuscus), the caecilian Typhlonectes, and a number of frogs, such as Pipa, Rhinoderma, Hylodes, some Nototrema, Rana opisthodon, &c. A fairly complete bibliographical index to these cases and the most remarkable instances of parental care in tailless batrachians will be found in the interesting articles by Lilian V.
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  • It may be said that, on the whole, the distribution of the batrachians agrees to some extent with that of fresh-water fishes, except for the much less marked affinity between South America and Africa, although even among the former we have the striking example of the distribution of the very natural group of the aglossal batrachians, represented by Pipa in South America and by Xenopus and Hymenochirus in Africa.
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  • Caudata and Batrachia Apoda in the Collection of the British Museum (London, 1882, 8vo), and "A Synopsis of the Genera and Species of Apodal Batrachians," P.Z.S., 18 95, p. 401.
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  • Loennberg, "Notes on Tailed Batrachians without Lungs," Zool.
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  • Boulenger, "On Hymenochirus, a New Type of Aglossal Batrachians," Ann.
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  • Boulenger, "Reptiles and Batrachians of the Solomon Islands," Trans.
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  • Boulenger, "The Poisonous Secretion of Batrachians," Nat.
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  • Boulenger, Tailless Batrachians of Europe (1897), p. 75.
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  • Boulenger, "A Synopsis of the Tadpoles of the European Batrachians," P.Z.S., 1891, p. 593; F.
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  • Alytes obstetricans is of special interest as the first known example of paternal solicitude in Batrachians, and although many no less wonderful cases of nursing instinct have since been revealed to us, it remains the only one among European forms.
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  • The forms of batrachians with which we are acquainted show the vertebral column to have been evolved in the course of time from a notochordal condition with segmented centra similar to that of early bony ganoid fishes (e.g.
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  • All living batrachians, and some of the Stegocephalia, have transverse processes on the vertebrae that succeed the atlas (fig.
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  • The heart is situated quite forward, in the gular or pectoral region, even in those tailed batrachians which have a serpentiform body, whilst in the Apoda (fig.
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