Hence the resemblances belonging to the first category are commonly termed "Batesian mimicry," and those belonging to the second category " Mullerian mimicry," or more properly " Mullerian resemblance."
Over and over again extended knowledge on this point and inferences drawn from other facts have shown the certainty or probability of examples of mimicry being in reality " Mullerian," which were previously accepted without question as " Batesian."
So far as our information at present extends the resemblance between these two insects is a simple case of mimicry in the Batesian sense of the word.
This phenomenon is termed " aggressive mimicry " as opposed to the Batesian and Mullerian phenomena, which are termed " protective mimicry."
A few possible cases of aggressive mimicry are enumerated in the following summary of some of the recorded cases of mimicry in different classes of the animal kingdom; but the phenomenon is of comparatively rare occurrence, and the supposed instances may be susceptible of other interpretations, excluding them altogether from mimicry, or bringing them under the Batesian or Miillerian interpretation of the phenomenon.
It is possible that this resemblance is mimetic in the Batesian sense of the word, and that the Poecilogale, if inoffensive, profits by its likeness to the highly offensive and warningly coloured Ictonyx.
If the view that the sole is protected by the blackness of the pectoral fin resembling the blackness of the dorsal fin of the weever, be correct, these fishes furnish an instance of Batesian mimicry.
It is amongst Arthropods, however - and especially amongst insects - that mimicry, both Batesian and Miillerian, occurs in greatest profusion and perfection.
This may, however, be an instance of Miillerian rather than of Batesian mimicry, the beetle being itself inedible; for Shelford has stated his conviction that the Bornean representatives of the sub-family (Clytinae), to which Clytus arietis belongs, are all highly distasteful and are warningly coloured, as are members of this sub-family from other parts of the world.
The Lepidoptera furnish more instances of mimicry, both Batesian and Mullerian, than any other order of insects.
In the majority of cases both model and mimic belong alike to the Lepidoptera, and it is often uncertain whether both are inedible (Mullerian mimicry) or whether inedibility is the attribute only of the model (Batesian mimicry).
The study of this intricate case is not yet completed and it is at present unknown whether it is an instance of Batesian or Mullerian mimicry.
This is a not uncommon occurrence, and in the case of Batesian mimicry the explanation is probably this.
Pseudaposemasy is Batesian mimicry.
In other words the insects entering into the combination may furnish instances of Batesian and of Mullerian mimicry.
Since many of the insects of the order Hemiptera are distasteful, the mimicry of the bug (Megapetus) is in this case probably Mullerian or synaposematic; the grasshopper (Myrmecophana), on the other hand, is probably edible and the mimicry is Batesian or pseudaposematic. This is a simple case consisting of a small number of component species.
With the exception of the Asilid fly and perhaps some of the Longicorn and Phytophagous beetles, which are probably protected Batesian mimics, all the other species constituting the above-mentioned assemblage are, it is believed, Mullerian or synaposematic mimics.
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