Basins Sentence Examples
The harbour had two large basins, now almost choked with sand.
The basins of the Parana and Paraguay are separated by low mountain ranges extending north from the sierras of Paraguay.
Towards the end of the period, however, during the deposition of the Portlandian beds, the sea again retreated, and in the early part of the Cretaceous period was limited (in France) to the catchment basins of the Sane and Rhnein the Paris basin the contemporaneous deposits were chiefly estuarine and were confined to the northern and eastern rim.
The dockyard, chiefly used for naval repairs, covers about 60 acres, and consists of three basins and large docks, the depth of water in the basins ranging down to 26 ft.
These saline basins extend down to the lower terraces of Cordoba, Mendoza and La Pampa.Advertisement
The climate is healthy in the uplands, though subject to violent changes; in the valleys fever is very prevalent, especially in the basins of the Boyana, the lower Drin and the Simen.
The elevated plateaus between these ranges are semiarid and inhospitable, and are covered with extensive saline basins, which become lagoons in the wet season and morasses or dry saltpans in the dry season.
The basin of the Garonne occupies south-western France with the exception of the tracts covered by the secondary basins of the Adour, the Aude, the Hrault, the Orb and other smaller rivers, and the lowlying plain of the Landes, which is watered by numerous coast rivers, notably by the Leyre.
The rivers of the province belong to the basins of the Indian Ocean and the Java Sea respectively, the water-parting being formed by the western and eastern ends respectively of the northern and southern lines of mountain peaks.
The communication between the Atlantic and Arctic basins being cut off, as already described, at a depth of about 300 fathoms, the temperatures in the Norwegian Sea below that level are essentially Arctic, usually below the freezing-point of fresh water, except where the distribution is modified by the surface circulation.Advertisement
Before that time there was no basin or wet-dock, though the river Medway to some extent answered the same purpose, but a portion of the adjoining salt-marshes was then taken in, and three basins have been constructed, communicating with each other by means of large locks, so that ships can pass from the bend of the Medway at Gillingham to that at Upnor.
The Aegean itself is naturally divided by the island-chains and the ridges from which they rise into a series of basins or troughs, the deepest of which is that in the north, extending from the coast of Thessaly to the Gulf of Saros, and demarcated southward by the Northern Sporades, Lemnos, Imbros and the peninsula of Gallipoli.
The furrows are the great ocean basins, and these would still persist even if the land surface were enlarged to the 1400 fathoms contour.
Differences in land forms do not exert great influence on the distribution of living creatures directly, but indirectly such land forms as mountain ranges and internal drainage basins are very potent through their action on soil and climate.
Taking their origin from a series of lacustrine basins scattered over the plateaus and differing slightly in elevation, the Russian rivers describe immense curves before reaching the sea, and flow with a very gentle gradient, while numerous large tributaries collect their waters from over vast areas.Advertisement
A great variety of monographs dealing with separate rivers and basins are available; e.g.
Rivers.The greater part of the surface of France is divided between four principal and several secondary basins.
All these affluents are on the right, and with the exception of the Arige, which descends from the eastern Pyrcnees, rise in the mountaitis of Auvergne and the southern Cvennes, their sources often lying close to those of the rivers of the Loire and Rhone basins.
Towards the close of the Palaeozoic era France had become a part of a great continent; in the north the Coal Measures of the Boulonnais and the Nord were laid down in direct connection with those of Belgium and England, while in the Central Plateau the Coal Measures were deposited in isolated and scattered basins.
The rivers freeze rapidly; towards November 10th all the streams of the White Sea basin are ice-bound, and so remain for an average of 167 days; those of the Baltic, Black Sea and Caspian basins freeze later, but about December the 10th nearly all the rivers of the country are highways for sledges.Advertisement
In the basins of the southern rivers they formed semi-independent military communities.
The Great Basin is not, as its name implies, a topographic cup. Its surface is of varied character, with many independent closed basins draining into lakes or "playas," none of which, however, has outlet to the sea.
Most of the small closed basins, however, contain "playas," or alkali mud flats, that are overflowed when the tributary streams are supplied with storm water.
In the Pleistocene period many large lakes were formed within the Great Basin; especially, by the fusion of small catchment basins, two great confluent bodies of water - Lake Lahontan (in the Nevada basin) and Lake Bonneville (in the Utah basin).
In the upper parts of the valleys a number of lakes occur, occupying hollows and rock basins in the agglomerates and ashes, fed by springs, and feeding many of the streams that drain the mountain slopes.Advertisement
A peculiar feature is presented by the level upland basins which furnish abundant pasturage during the summer months; the more remarkable are the Omalo in the White Mountains (about 4000 ft.) drained by subterranean outlets (KaTa(30Opa), Nida (Eis T7)v "IBav) in Psiloriti (between 5000 and 6000 ft.), and the Lassithi plain (about 3000 ft.), a more extensive area, on which are several villages.
These aguadQS were huge basins, paved and cemented, with underground cisterns, also lined with stone and cement, which may have been used for the protection of water against heat when the principal supply had become exhausted.
On the western frontier a northern extension of the great central chain of Goyaz forms the water-parting between the drainage basins of the Sao Francisco and Tocantins, and is known at different points as the Serra do Paranan, Serra de Sao Domingos and Serra das Divisoes.
The depression westward of the Caspian and Aral basins, and the original connexion of these seas, have also come under the close investigation of Russian scientists, with the result that the theory of an ancient connexion between the Oxus and the Caspian has been displaced by the more recent hypothesis of an extension of the Caspian Sea eastwards into Trans-Caspian territory within the postPleiocene age.
This line of heights separates the basins of the Chorokh and the Rion (Black Sea) from those of the Aras and the Kura (Caspian Sea).
The lakes of Albano and Nemi were probably formed by volcanic explosions at the margin of the great crater; though a view has also been expressed that the basins are the result of subsidence.
Interesting relationships between the Ethiopian and Oriental, the Neotropical and West African, the Patagonian and New Zealand faunas suggest great changes in the distribution of land and water, and throw doubt on the doctrine of the permanence of continental areas and oceanic basins.
It is deeper and more fertile, however, in the basins of the Great Miami and Little Miami rivers, where there is a liberal mixture of decomposed limestone and where extensive areas with a clay subsoil are covered with alluvial deposits.
This improvement was projected to include the damming of the Charles river, and the creation of a great freshwater basin, with drive-ways of reclaimed land along the shores, and other adornments, somewhat after the model of the Alster basins at Hamburg.
The elongated hilly island of Olkhon, and the peninsula of Svyatoi Nos, which forms its continuation on the opposite eastern shore, divide the lake into two basins.
The southern boundary of both basins is a low chain which leaves the Euphrates near the mouth of the Sajur tributary, and runs west towards Mt Amanus, to which it is linked by a sill whereon stood the ancient fortified palace of Samal (Sinjerli; see Hittites).
The harbour, which embraces two tidal basins and six docks aggregating 832 acres, in addition to timber docks of S7 acres, covers altogether 350 acres.
Wagner, to the inexperience of the cartographers who first combined the charts of the separate basins of the Mediterranean so as to produce a chart of the whole.
These pouch harbours are probably " drowned " drainage basins.
There is a gutter round the level space of the stadium, with basins at intervals for the use of spectators or competitors, and a post at every hundred feet of the course, thus dividing it into six portions.
Glacial action determined the direction and character of the rivers, made numerous swamps, and, by scouring out rock basins, damming rivers and leaving morainal hollows, determined the character and formation of the lakes, of which Minnesota has upwards of io,000, a number probably exceeding that of any other state in the Union.
The general characteristics of the lakes in the north differ from those of the south, the former being generally deep, with ragged rocky shores formed by glacial scouring which caused rock basins, the latter being mostly shallow.
The British troops were directed towards Lisbon and Cadiz, in order to secure these harbours, to prevent the subjugation of Andalusia, and to operate up the basins of the Guadiana, Tagus and Douro into Spain.
In anticipation of this event a gigantic system of docks, basins and quays was constructed, at a total cost of some £7,000,000 (of which the imperial treasury contributed 2,000,000), between the confluence of the Alster and the railway bridge (1868-1873), an entire quarter of the town inhabited by some 24,000 people being cleared away to make room for these accessories of a great port.
At the quay point between these two basins there are vast state granaries.
The new Kuhwarderbasin, on the left bank of the river, as well as two other large dock basins (now leased to the Hamburg-American Company), raise the number of basins to twelve in all.
This wide area is naturally subdivided into West Siberia (basins of the Ob and the Irtysh) and East Siberia (the remainder of the region).
Coal occurs in many Jurassic fresh-water;basins, namely, on the outskirts of the Altai, in south Yeniseisk, about Irkutsk, in the Nerchinsk district, at many places in the Maritime province, and on the island of Sakhalin.
But there are several points at which its division from other river basins is only marked by a very low parting.
As the division between the basins of the Loire and the Garonne to the west and those of the Saone and Rhone to the east, the Cevennes send many affluents to those rivers.
From the roadstead, entrance is by a channel into the outer harbour, which communicates with seven floating basins about 115 acres in area and is accessible to the largest vessels.
These chapadas and elevations, which are usually described as mountain ranges, are capped by horizontal strata of sandstone and show the original surface, which has been worn away by the rivers, leaving here and there broad flat-topped ridges between river basins and narrower ranges of hills between river courses.
The second system - the Central or Goyana - consists of two distinct chains of mountains converging toward the north in the elevated chapadao between the Tocantins and Sao Francisco basins.
Add to these the eroded river basins of the Xingu, Tapajos and Guapore on the north and west, the Paraguay on the south-west, and the scores of smaller rivers along the Atlantic coast, and we may have some conception of the agencies that have been at work in breaking down and shaping this great table-land, perhaps the oldest part of the continent.
The most southern of these chapadoes, that of the Parana basin, in which may be included the northern part of the Uruguay and eastern part of the Paraguay basins, includes the greater part of the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catharina, Parana and Sao Paulo, the southwestern corner of Minas Geraes, a part of southern Goyaz, and the south-eastern corner of Matto Grosso.
The Sao Francisco chapadao, which has a general elevation of about 2600 ft., covers the greater part of the states of Minas Geraes and Bahia, and a small part of western Pernambuco, and might also be considered continuous with those of the Parnahyba and Tocantins-Araguaya basins.
It includes the river basins of the Tocantins-Araguaya, Xingu, Tapajos, and the eastern tributaries of the Guapore-Madeira.
The southern margin of this plateau breaks down abruptly toward the south and overlooks the Parana and Paraguay basins from elevations of 2600 to 3000 ft.
There are four separate river basins in the Transvaal.
Its disintegration for analytical purposes can be effected by fusion with caustic alkali in silver basins, with the formation of soluble stannate, or by fusion with sulphur and sodium carbonate, with the formation of a soluble thiostannate.
This salt is also formed by dissolving tin in strong hydrochloric acid and allowing it to crystallize, and is industrially prepared by passing sufficiently hydrated hydrochloric acid gas over granulated tin contained in stoneware bottles and evaporating the concentrated solution produced in tin basins over granulated tin.
Basins made of pure malleable nickel are free from this drawback; they work as well as platinum, and rather better than silver ones do.
It is fused up in iron basins lined with clay, and cast out into the customary form of cakes.
They were the Venetians of the Caspian and the Euxine, the organizers of the transit between the two basins, the universal carriers between East and West; and Itil was the meeting-place of the commerce of Persia, Byzantium, Armenia, Russia and the Bulgarians of the middle Volga.
But for a long period past the freshwater streams (which predominate) have been used for irrigation to such a degree that very little of the precious water is allowed to run to waste into the lake basins; so that these latter receive only a few salt streams, which deposit on their surface the salt they contain and then evaporate.
It then continues northward, separating the basins of the Maranon and Huallaga; and at the northern frontier of Peru it is at length broken through by the Maranon flowing eastward.
The first, from the north, comprises the upper basins Sec ti of the Maranon and the Huallaga, and is 350 m.
Along the centre lies the watershed between the basins of the Main and the Saale, belonging to the systems of the Rhine and Elbe respectively.
The old town stands on an island hemmed in by the canal and the harbour basins, which divide it from the much more extensive manufacturing quarter of St Pierre, enveloping it on the east and south.
There are separate basins for fishing boats and a dock for torpedo-boat flotilla.
The outline of the water surface depends on the outline of the basins in which it is contained.
This greatest of ocean basins contains also the largest and deepest trenches.
The south-western part of the Pacific Ocean has a very rich and diversified submarine relief, abounding in small basins separated by ridges and rises.
The Austral-Asiatic or Malay Sea is occupied by a great shelf in the region west of Borneo and north of Java, while in the east there are eight abruptly sunk basins of widely different size.
As so defined the hemipelagic deposits are those which occur in general on the slope from the continental shelves to the ocean depths and also in the deep basins of enclosed and fringing seas.
Max Weber states that blue mud occurs in the deep basins of the eastern part of the Malay Sea.
The floors of the Caribbean, Cayman and Mexican Basins in the Central American Sea are covered with a white calcareous ooze, which is clearly distinguished from the eupelagic pteropod and globigerina oozes by the presence of abundant large mineral particles and the remains of land plants.
It is a remarkable geographical fact that on the rises and in the basins of moderate depth of the open ocean the organic oozes preponderate, but in the abysmal depressions below 2500 or 3000 fathoms, whether these lie in the middle or near the edges of the great ocean spaces, there is found only the red clay, with a minimum of calcium carbonate, though sometimes with a considerable admixture of the siliceous remains of radiolarians.
Jacobsen on some occasions found water in the surface layers of the Baltic supersaturated with oxygen, which he ascribed to the action of the chlorophyll in vegetable plankton; in other cases when examining the nearly stagnant water from deep basins he found a deficiency of oxygen due no doubt to the withdrawal of oxygen from solution, by the respiration of the animals and by the oxidation of the deposits on the bottom.
The respiration of marine animals in the depths of deep basins in which there is no circulation adds to the carbonic acid at the expense of the dissolved oxygen.
The former consists of three main basins cut out of the rock, and has an area of 55 acres.
The areas containing productive coal measures are usually known as coalfields or basins, within which coal occurs in more or less regular beds, also called seams or veins, which can often be followed over a considerable length of country without change of character, although, like all stratified rocks, their continuity may be interrupted by faults or dislocations, also known as slips, hitches, heaves or troubles.
The Rio Grande and its principal tributary, the Pecos, drain narrow basins in the S.W.; these two rivers and the Canadian river rise in the Rocky Mountains in Colorado and New Mexico, but all the other rivers by which the state is drained rise within its borders.
This tract consists of a succession of stony ridges of trap rock, enclosing valleys or basins of fertile soil, to which cultivation is for the most part confined, except where the shallow soil on the tops of the hills has been turned to account.
The continuation of this line of old rocks is occupied by the basins of the Wanganui river and Taupo.
Like the Lewis and Clark range, its crest is broken by numerous U-shaped wind-gaps and its west slope is cut by glacial troughs containing long narrow lake basins.
The morainic belts and other obstructions in the drift plains hem in the waters in the intervening basins and create what are called " glacial lakes," var y ing in diameter from a few yards to several miles.
E.S.E., and separated by high intermont valleys, which are choked with disintegrated material and divided into a chequered pattern of self-contained, shallow lacustrine basins.
The great valley between the two is cut up into a series of self-contained basins, each serving as the gathering ground of the brooks that run down off the adjacent mountains.
But though the great morphological features of this latitudinal valley forcibly recall the latitudinal valleys of Tibet, the climatic differences give rise to differences between the basins corresponding to the differences between the mountain-ranges themselves.
For while the self-contained basins of Tibet generally possess a salt lake in the middle, into which brooks and streams of greater or less magnitude gather, often from very considerable distances, these self-contained basins of the Astintagh are very small in area, and it is extremely seldom that their central parts receive any water at all, only in fact after copious rain.
This provides for taking water from the Ohio river at a point on the Kentucky side opposite the village of California, Ohio, and several miles above the discharge of the city sewers; for the carrying of the water by a gravity tunnel under the river to the Ohio side, the water being thence elevated by four great pumping engines, each having a daily capacity of 30,000,000 gallons, to settling basins, being then passed through filters of the American or mechanical type, and flowing thence by a gravity tunnel more than 4 m.
The ridge forming the water-parting between the basins of the Cauca and Patia rivers crosses between the Central and Western Cordilleras at this point and culminates a few miles to the south.
Thus the first campaign of the western armies, completed by the victory of the gunboat flotilla at Memphis (June 6), cleared the Mississippi as far down as Vicksburg, and compelled the Confederates to evacuate the Cumberland and a large portion of the Tennessee basins.
The water, which is at boiling point, falls into natural basins of a creamy white colour, formed by the deposit of carbonate of lime.
To the Pliocene period the marine deposits of the Sahel of Algiers and of the Sahel Jijelli must be attributed; also the lacustrine marls and limestone of the basin of Constantine, and the ancient alluviums of the basins and depressions which bear no relation to the existing valleys.
The surface circulation of the Pacific is, on the whole, less active than that of the Atlantic. The centres of the rotational movement are marked by " Sargasso Seas " in the north and south basins, but they are of small extent compared with the Sargasso Sea of the North Atlantic. From the known peculiarities of the distribution of temperature, it is probable that definite circulation of water is in the Pacific confined to levels very near the surface, except in the region of the Kuro Siwo, and possibly also in parts of the Peruvian Current.
Among invertebrates Barrande's doctrine of centres of origin was applied by Hyatt to the genesis of the Arietidae (1889); after studying thousands of individuals from the principal deposits of Europe he decided that the cradles of the various branches of this family were the basins of the CSte d'Or and southern Germany.
The remains of transverse and other ranges are to be seen in the isolated ridges and peaks which rise above the level of the table-land, in some cases forming well-defined basins; otherwise the surface is singularly uniform in character and level.
Southward the slope is broken into small basins and terraces by transverse ranges, and is comparatively abrupt.
Not less remarkable was the palace of Tezcuco, surrounded with its groves and pleasure-gardens; and, though now hardly anything remains of the buildings above ground, the neighbouring hill of Tezcotzinco still has its stone steps and terraces; and the immense embankment carrying the aqueduct-channel of hewn stone which supplied water to basins cut in the solid rock still remains to prove that the chroniclers' descriptions, if highly coloured, were at any rate genuine.
Between their basins are the Vechte and other small rivers flowing into the Zuider Zee.
It is a covenant similar to that of Exodus xxiv., when after the peace-offering of oxen, Moses took the blood in basins and sprinkled half of it on the altar and on twelve pillars erected after the twelve tribes, and the other half on the people, to whom he had first read out the writing of the covenant and said, " Behold the blood of the covenant which the Lord hath made with you concerning all these words."
The Cordilleran system on the western side of the continent is lofty, broad and complicated, with heavy forests near the north-west coast, but elsewhere with trees only on the higher ranges below the Alpine region, and with treeless or desert intermont valleys, plateaus and basins, very arid in the south-west.
The cuesta begins where its determining limcstone begins, in west-central New York; there it separates the lowlands that contain the basins of lakes Ontario and Erie; thence it curves to the north-west through the province of Ontario to the belt of islands that divide1 Georgian Bay from Lake Huron; then westward throtigh the land-arm between lakes Superior and Michigan, and south-westward into the narrow points that divide Green Bay from Lake Michigan, and at last westward to fade away again with the thinning out of the limestone; it is hardly traceable across the Mississippi river.
The occurrence of the lake basins in the lowland belts on either side of the Niagara cuesta is an abnormal feature, not to be explained by ordinary erosion, which can produce only valleys.
The basins have been variously ascribed to glacial erosion, to obstruction of normal outlet valleys by barriers of glacial drift, and to crustal warping in connection with or independent of the presence of the glacial sheet.
The great ice sheets formed terminal moraines around their border at various halting stages; but the morainic belts are of small relief in comparison to the great area of the ice; they rise gently from the till plains to a height of 50, 100 or more feet; they may be one, two or three miles wide; and their hilly surface, dotted over with boulders, contains many small lakes in basins or hollows, instead of streams in valleys.
The drift deposits thereabouts are so heavy that the present divides between the drainage basins of Hudson Bay, Lake Superior and the Gulf of Mexico evidently stand in no very definite relation to the preglacial divides.
Many small lakes in the lowland appear to owe their basins to the solution of the limestones.
The mountains rapidly grow wider and higher northward, by taking on new complications of structure and by including large basins between the axes of uplift, tintil in northern Colorado and Utah a complex of ranges has a breadth of 300 m., and in Colorado alone there are 40 summits over 14,000 ft.
In this central region, however, it is only by way of exception that the cirques were so far enlarged by retrogressive glacial erosion as to sharpen the preglacial dome-like summits into acute peaks; and in no case did glacial action here extend down to the plains at the eastern base of the mountains; but the widened, trough-like glaciated valleys frequently descend to the level of the elevated intermont basins, where moraines were deployed forward on the basin floor.
The intermont basins which so strongly characterize the Rocky Mountain system are areas which have been less uplifted than the enclosing ranges, and have therefore usually become the depositories of waste from the surrounding mountains.
Some of the most important basins may be mentioned.
South Park, directly west of Pikes Peak, is one of the highest basins (nearly 10,000 ft.), and gains its name from the scattered, park-like growth of large pine trees; it is drained chiefly by the South Platte river (Missouri-Mississippi system), through a deep gorge in the dissected mass of the plateau-like Front Range.
Several smaller basins occur in Montana, all somewhat dissected and drained through narrow gorges and canyons by members of the Missouri system.
One of the southwestern basins, with its floor below sea-level, has a plain of salt in its centre.
A few of the basins are occupied by lakes without outlet, of which Great Salt Lake, in north-west Utah, is the largest.
Several smaller lakes occur in the basins of western Nevada, next east of the Sierra Nevada.
The sites of deposition varied as the period progressed, for the warping and faulting of the surface, the igneous extrusions, and the deposition of sediments obliterated old basins and brought new ones into existence.
The uneven carving down of the older mountain systems, especially that of the Archean protaxis, and the disorderly scattering of glacial material provide most of the lake basins so characteristic of Canada.
As these lakes are great reservoirs and settling basins, the rivers which empty them are unusually steady in level and contain beautifully clear water.
In the Rocky Mountains proper no eruptive rocks have broken through, so that no ore deposits of importance are known from them, but in the Cretaceous synclines which they enclose valuable coal basins exist.
Another improvement is the extension of the sea-wall southward from the ferry-slips (Praga 15 de Novembro) to the Ponta do Calabougo (war arsenal), providing protected basins for the arsenal and enclosing small reclaimed areas.
After the conquest of the Kazan Empire by Russia, part of them migrated north-eastwards to the basins of the Kama and Byelaya, and thus the Meshchers divided into two branches.
In order to obtain the acid, a series of basins is constructed over the vents, and so arranged as to permit of the passage of water through them by gravitation.
Before the end of the century Bohemia also and Lower Austria, together with the whole of the basins of the Drave and the Save, had become Slavonic countries.
On the other hand the political consolidation of the various continental Teutonic peoples (apart from the Danes) in the 8th century led to the gradual recovery of eastern Germany together with Lower Austria and the greater part of Styria and Carinthia, though Bohemia, Moravia and the basins of the Vistula and the Warthe have always remained mainly Slavonic. In the British Isles the Teutonic element, in spite of temporary checks, eventually became dominant everywhere.
These entertainments took place in the amphitheatre, which was flooded with water, or in specially constructed basins (also called naumachiae).
The eight principal basins or docks already existing in 1908 were (I) the Little or Bonaparte dock; (2) the Great dock, also constructed in Napoleon's time; (3) the Kattendijk, built in 1860 and enlarged in 1881; (4) the Wood dock; (5) the Campine dock, used especially for minerals; (6) the Asia dock, which is in direct communication with the Meuse by a canal as well as with the Scheldt; (7) the Lefebvre dock; and (8) the America dock, which was only opened in 1905.
A third harbour has been built, the area of the three basins amounting to 21 acres.
The introduction of steel concrete (also known as ferroconcrete, armoured concrete, or reinforced concrete) is generally attributed to Joseph Monier, a French gardener, who about the year 1868 was anxious to build some concrete water basins.
The water which trickles over the rims of the pools and basins on the upper terraces is a transparent blue, while the formation itself contains a network of fibrous algae which gives it a wonderful variety of colours.
There are hotels at the Mammoth Hot Springs, at the principal geyser basins and at Yellowstone Lake.
From the St Gotthard to the Maloja the watershed between the basins of the Rhine and Po runs in an easterly direction as a whole, though making two great dips towards the south, first to near the Vogelberg (10,565 ft.) and again to near the Pizzo Gallegione (10,201 ft.), so that it presents a broken and irregular appearance.
On the south side of the river are numerous large docks and wharves, while the city proper on the north side consists of a labyrinth of basins and canals with tree-bordered quays.
The country mainly belongs to the basins of the Danube and the Main; by far the greater portion being drained by the former river, which, entering from Swabia as a navigable stream, traverses the entire breadth of the kingdom, with a winding course of 200 m., and receives in its passage the Iller, the Lech, the Isar and the Inn from the south, and the Naab, the Altmuhl and the WBrnitz from the north.
In spite of the bulk of the evidence being in favour of geniality of climate, it is necessary to observe that certain deposits have been recognized as glacial; in the culm of the Frankenwald, in the coal basins of central France, and in central England, certain conglomeratic beds have been assigned, somewhat doubtfully, to this origin.
Both basins have an average depth of between 33 and 35 ft.
Their basins, especially in the west, interpenetrate one another in the most intricate way, the whole bearing unmistakable evidences of having been in recent geological, and partly in historical times the bottom of extensive lakes, whose alluvial deposits now yield heavy crops.
For many centuries, however, the Poles have been driven back from the mouths of their rivers by the German race, maintaining only the middle parts of their basins.
The Saone (q.v.), which has received (left) the Doubs, is the real continuation of the Rhone, both from a geographical and a commercial point of view, and it is by means of canals branching off from the course of the Saone that the Rhone communicates with the basins of the Loire, the Seine, the Rhine and the Moselle.
This is the most direct route to northern India, but it involves the passage of some rough country, across the great watershed between the basins of the Helmund and the Indus.
The minerals found in the department include the coal of the basins of Aubin and Rodez as well as iron, zinc and lead.
Turning to the left bank, there is the same high-level canal from the upper system irrigating the basins K, P and L, as well as the large basin E in such years as it cannot be irrigated from the main canal.
The mean annual temperature of south-western Germany, or the Rhine and Danube basins, is about 52 to 54 F., that of central Germany 48 to 50, and that of the northern plain 46 to 48.
The bronze civilization of the Aegean seems to have had direct influence along the basins of the Danube and Elbe, while the culture of the western parts of central Germany was transmitted through Italy and France.
The island occupies that part of the Mediterranean in which the shallowing of the waters divides that sea into two basins, and in which there are numerous indications of frequent changes in a recent geological period.
The city is supplied with water drawn from the Missouri river above the mouth of the Kansas or Kaw (which is used as a sewer by Kansas City, Kan.); the main pumping station and settling basins being at Quindaro, several miles up the river in Kansas; whence the water is carried beneath the Kansas, through a tunnel, to a high-pressure distributing station in the west bottoms. The waterworks (direct pressure system) were acquired by the city in 1895.
In places where perennial irrigation is impossible, the land is divided by rectangular dikes into basins.
The water is let in about the middle of August and the basins are begun to be emptied about the 1st of October.
In the basins only one crop can be grown in the year.
The prepared land is partitioned off into large basins (adernes or muants) and others (called in France aires, ceuillets or tables salantes) which get smaller and more shallow in proportion as they are intended to receive the water as it becomes more and more concentrated, just sufficient fall being allowed from one set of basins to the other to cause the water to flow slowly through them.
Deposits of rock-salt have evidently been formed by the evaporation of salt water, probably in areas of inland drainage or enclosed basins, like the Dead Sea and the Great Salt Lake of Utah, or perhaps in some cases in an arm of the sea partially cut off, like the Kara Bughaz, which forms a natural salt-pan on the east side of the Caspian.
It runs from the mouth of Loch Ryan in a sinuous north-easterly direction, keeping near the northern limit of the region till it reaches the basin of the Nith, where it quits the Uplands altogether, descends into the lowlands of Ayrshire, and, after circling round the headwaters of the Nith, strikes south-eastwards across half the breadth of the Uplands, then sweeps north and eastwards between the basins of the Clyde, Tweed and Annan, and then through the moors that surround.
Any such basins belonging to the time of the folding of the crystalline schists would have been filled up and effaced long ago.
Throughout these separate basins the prevailing rock is a red sandstone, varied in the narrow valleys with intercalated masses of breccia.
These are known as the Quito, Ambato and Cuenca basins.
The three great basins, which are broken and subdivided by mountainous spurs and ridges, descend gradually toward the south, the Quito plain having an average elevation of 9500 ft.
The geographical divisions of the country are created by the basins of its chief rivers, the Kabul, the Helmund, the Hari Rud and the Oxus.
The bed of the river adjoining the temple is divided off by the Brahmans into three basins, where the pilgrims bathe.
In the broad river basins the inundations deposit annually a fresh top-dressing of silt, thus superseding the necessity of manures.
In the east the tableland falls away to the basins of the Congo and Zambezi, to the south it merges into a barren sandy desert.
Up to the end of the 19th century the hold of Portugal over the interior of the province was slight, though its influence extended to the Congo and Zambezi basins.
The principal rivers enter and are lost in one or other of two salt plains or basins, that of Asali in the north and that of Aussa in the south.
The rivers that drain the Atlantic slope of the Appalachians are comparatively short; those that drain the Pacific slope include only two, the Columbia and the Colorado, which rise far inland, near the easternmost members of the Cordilleran system, and flow through plateaus and intermont basins to the ocean.
They are connected by a transverse gallery, thus forming four square basins.
These included a tidal basin and, opening out of it, a deep dock and two locks, in themselves serving as large docks, which lead to three basins and four docks.
Altogether the dockyard comprises 15 dry docks, 60 acres of enclosed basins, 18,400 ft.
To the north of the mountains lie the basins of the Wei-ho and of several other tributaries to the Hwang-ho.
In the flood area of the upper Kapuas, of which mention has already been made, there occurs Lake Luar, and there are several lake expanses of a similar character in the basins of the Barito and Kutei rivers.
The accumulated waters which pour down into the depression are gathered into the two basins of Lake Managua and Lake Nicaragua.
Both basins have a maximum depth of some 260 ft.
The existence of ancient lacustrine beaches, upheaved between the two basins by volcanic agencies or left dry by some enlargement of the San Juan outfall, and a consequent subsidence of the water-level, seems to indicate that the lakes were formerly united.
Streams and true springs are absent, but there are hundreds of basins, varying from i to 50 ft.
In some of the smaller basins it sometimes happens that, when the excess of carbonate acid escapes rapidly, there is formed, besides the crystal bed below, a film above, shot like a sheet of ice across the surface.
The prevailing type of soil on the higher lands is a sandy loam, underlaid with clay or clay loam, which stores water and is the typical soil of the basins.
At the accession of William Rufus the domain of Gwynedd had been reduced to Anglesea and the Snowdonian district, and that of South Wales, or Deheubarth, to the lands contained in the basins of the rivers Towy and Teifi, known as Ystrad Tywi and Ceredigion.
The inner harbour, or old port, contains two basins, one of 10 acres and another of 60 acres, formed by the construction of a pier eastward from Fort de la Moune, with two cross piers.
Of the three great river basins of Ionia and Lydia, those of the Hermus, Cayster and Maeander, it commanded the second, and had already access by easy passes to the other two.
Some of the marble basins, seats, &c., remain, and, with the fragments of wall above mentioned, are the only relics of the classic time.
The point of this desert inlet receives the drainage of two local basins, the Bolan and the Nari.
The level to which the Himalayan glaciers extend is greatly dependent on local conditions, principally the extent and elevation of the snow basins which feed them, and the slope and position of the mountain on which they are formed.
The Lower Carboniferous, which belongs to the " Culm " facies so widely spread in central Europe, occupies a wide area in southern Portugal; but the Upper Carboniferous is very restricted in extent, and occurs in small basins like those of the Central Plateau of France, resting unconformably upon the rocks below.
The deposits in these basins consist largely of coarse sandstones and conglomerates, amongst which lie seams of coal.
This is one of the most elevated lacustrine basins in the world, and though it once drained eastward, now has no surface outlet.
Once the capital of West Friesland and a prosperous town, many of its streets and quays are now deserted, though the docks and basins constructed at the end of the 16th and beginning of the 17th centuries could still afford excellent accommodation for many ships.
It is dominated by high mountains, gashed by superb canyons of rivers, scarred with dry gullies and washes, the beds of intermittent streams, varied with great shallow basins, sunken deserts, dreary levels, bold buttes, picturesque mesas, forests and rare verdant bits of valley.
Pueblo ruins are plentiful in the basins of the Gila and Colorado rivers and their tributaries.
There are two river systems, one belonging to the Amazon and the other to the La Plata basins.
Basins were dredged to give depths of 15 and 2 4 ft.
The imperial docks (five in all) and ship-building yards are on the east side facing the town, between Gaarden and Ellerbeck, and comprise basins capable of containing the largest war-ships afloat.
It has two basins, with the necessary accompaniment of cranes, storehouses, &c., and the deepening of the Oder from Stettin to the Haff to 24 ft.
Below the town the river divides into several branches, among islands and sandbanks, receiving before it enters the sea the Bolderaa river, and expanding towards the east into wider lacustrine basins.
In 1909 a Board appointed to consider the several possible sites within this district reported in favour of Canberra, on the Molonglo river, near Queanbeyan, as the site for the new city, and the basins of the Molonglo, Queanbeyan and Cotter rivers were indicated as suitable to form the federal territory.
The Fens, the flat open levels in the lower basins of the Witham, Welland, Nene and Great Ouse, only kept from their former marshy conditions by an extensive system of artificial drainage, and the similar levels round the head of the Humber estuary, differ completely in appearance from the higher and firmer parts of the plain.
In these hollows the Tertiary rocks were protected from erosion, and remain to form the London and the Hampshire Basins respectively, while on the anticlinal axis the whole of the Tertiary and the upper Cretaceous strata have been dissected away, and a complex and beautiful configuration has been impressed on the district of the Weald.
This is closely followed on the south-east by the Chalk country, occupying the whole of the rest of England except where the Tertiary Basins of London and Hampshire cover it, where the depression of the Fenland carries it out of sight, and where the lower rocks of the Weald break through it.
The glacier or ice sheet overran all Maine, irregularly scouring out the bed rock to produce rock basins, damming up many river valleys with glacial deposits and completely disarranging the drainage lines.
When the ice melted, the rock basins and the dammed-up valleys filled with water to produce lakes.
Good spruce, which is by far the most valuable timber in the state and is used most largely for the manufacture of paper and pulp, stands in large quantities in the St John, Penobscot, Androscoggin and Kennebec basins.
The first cotton mill was built at Brunswick on the Androscoggin about 1809, and from 1830 the development of cotton manufacturing was rapid; woollen mills followed, and late in the 19th century were erected some of the largest paper and pulp mills in the country, which are run by water power from the rivers, and use the spruce and poplar timber in the river basins.
Freshfield,' " consists of a number of short parallel or curved horseshoe ridges, crowned with rocky peaks and enclosing basins filled by the neves of great glaciers..
Southwards too, immediately under the snows, we find ` crystalline schists,' smooth grassy heights, separated by shallow trenches, which form the lesser undulations of the three basins, the drei Langenhochthdler Imeritiens of Dr Radde.
These basins or ` longitudinal folds ' are enclosed on the south by the long high ridge of dark slates, which extends parallel to the crystalline [main] chain from the neighbourhood of Sukhum-Kale to the Krestovaya Gora [pass of Darial.] Behind this slate crest spreads a confused multitude of hills, Jurassic and Cretaceous in their formation..
It has been found in the Manyanga country, the Manyema country on the upper Congo, in the Urua country, in the basins of the Kasai and the Lualaba, and in Katanga.
The remaining western portion of the state is lower, belongs in the Great Basin province, and is characterized by north-south mountain ranges separated by desert basins.
The lower plateaus and many of the basin ranges, as well as the basins themselves, are deserts.
Extremely cold weather may occur on the lofty plateaus and mountain ranges, while the intervening valleys and basins have a milder climate.
Soil.-The alluvium of the desert basins furnishes much good soil, which produces abundant crops where irrigated.
Alkali soils are also common in the basins, but when water is available they can often be washed out and made productive.
On the west of the West dock is the timber dock, and east of the East dock is another series of islands joined together so as to form basins and quays, one of which is the State Marine dock (1790-1795) with the arsenal and admiralty offices.
Over the surface of the gneissic rocks are scattered numerous basins of Gondwana beds.
A small part of the northern Colombia, on the lower courses of the Atrato and Magdalena, extending across the country from the Eastern to the Western Cordilleras with a varying width of 100 to 150 m., not including the lower river basins which penetrate much farther inland, also consists of low, alluvial plains, partly covered with swamps and intricate watercourses, densely overgrown with vegetation, but in places admirably adapted to different kinds of tropical agriculture.
The Pacific coast rivers are numerous, and discharge a very large volume of water into the ocean in proportion to the area of their drainage basins, because of the heavy rainfall on the western slopes of the Coast range.
The four intendencias are called Goajira, Meta, Alto Caqueta and Putumayo, and their aggregate area is estimated to be considerably more than half of the republic. The first covers the Goajira peninsula, which formerly belonged to the department of Magdalena, and the other three roughly correspond to the drainage basins of the three great rivers of the eastern plains whose names they bear.
There are, however, numerous natural basins which, filled after heavy rain, rapidly dry up, leaving an incrustation of salt on the ground, whence their name of salt pans.
At the lower lips or at the most permeable parts of these basins or channels such rainfall as does not flow over the surface, or is not evaporated or absorbed by vegetation, and does not, while still below ground reach the level of the sea, issues as springs, and is the cause of the continued flow of rivers and streams during prolonged droughts.
Lake Erie is very shallow, and may be divided into three basins, the western extending to Point Pelee and including all the islands, containing about 1200 sq.
For example, in many coal regions the deposits have been conserved in some districts in the synclines or "basins," while they have been removed by denudation from the uplifted anticlines in others.
To the west of the Casiquiare there is a much shorter and more facile connexion between the Orinoco and Amazon basins, called the isthmus of Pimichin, which is reached by ascending the Terni branch of the Atabapo affluent of the Orinoco.
In the great basins and hollows from Rugen to the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland the upper layers of water, from 30 to 70 metres (16 to 38 fathoms) in thickness, have almost the same salinity throughout.
The inflow to the deep basins is intermittent, probably with a long period of flux and reflux.
While the Sea of Aral remained in connexion with the Caspian, the desiccation of the Lake Balkash basin, and its break-up into smaller separate basins, were already going on.
In the 17th century a powerful Kalmuck confederation arose in Dzungaria, and extended its sway over the Ili and Issyk-kul basins, having its capital on the Ili.
The use of the old cisterns within the walls has been almost entirely abandoned, and the water is led to basins in vaulted chambers (Taxim), from which it is distributed by underground conduits to the fountains situated in the different quarters of the city.
The harbour consists of three artificial basins, opening into La Concha Bay, and situated in the midst of the old town; it is chiefly frequented by coasting and fishing vessels, and cannot accommodate large ships.
The groups of lakes which lie north-west from Langjokull occupy basins formed between ridges of glacial gravel; and in Vatn, lake.
The country immediately south of the Terskei Ala-tau consists " of broad, shallow basins running east and west in en echelon pattern, and lying at 10,000 ft.
Between them and bordering them run from five to seven ridges as broad as the basins and rising by gentle slopes to 13,000-16,000 ft.
The ridges rise by long, gentle slopes to flat summits, where often for many miles the sky-line is an almost straight crest, from which the rounded slopes of pure white snowfields descend towards the basins.
On the more level areas of the Piedmont Plateau the granitic soil is a grey mixture of sand and clay, but on the hillsides of the river basins it is a heavy clay of reddish colour, the sand having been washed down to form the soils of the Coastal Plain.
The harbour, enclosed by piers and divided into two basins, lies on the south side of the castle peninsula.
The best marked of the basins so formed (the Congo basin) occupies a circular area bisected by the equator, once probably the site of an inland sea.
Lastly, between the basins of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans there is an area of inland drainage along the centre of the East African plateau, directed chiefly into the lakes in the great rift-valley.
Krause (north from the Gold Coast, 1886-1887) and the French Captain Binger (Senegal to Ivory Coast, 1887-1889) first defined its southern limits by revealing the unexpected northward extension of the basins of the Guinea coast streams, especially the Volta and Komoe, a fact which explained the absence of important tributaries within the Niger bend.
On the southern half of the table-land a shorter series of sierras, consisting of the Montes de Toledo in the east (highest elevation Tejadillas, 4567 ft.) and the sierras of San Pedro, Montanchez and Guadalupe in the west (highest elevation Cabeza del Moro, 5100 ft.), separates the basins of the Tagus and Guadiana.
These sheets of fresh-water covered the centre of the country,including the basins of the Ebro,Jflcar, Guadalaviar, Guadalquivir arid Tagus.
West of the Irrawaddy there is a regular series of ranges, enclosing the basins of the Kaukkwe, Mosit, Indaw and other streams, down which much timber is floated.
At its greatest elevation it is comparatively level, and contains many extensive freshwater basins, such as Lake Augusta, Lake St Clair, Lake Sorell, Lake Echo, Lake Crescent, Arthur's Lake and the Great Lake.
They are situated in a swamp near the coast village of Chieri, and comprise two basins, with alternate layers of water and bitumen, the lower sheet of water apparently communicating with the sea.
The accurate correlation in time of the various scattered plantbearing deposits is a matter of considerable difficulty, for plantremains are preserved principally in lacustrine strata laid down in separate basins of small extent.
This difficulty will disappear as the strata become better known; but at present each of the silted-up lakes has to be studied separately, for we cannot expect so close a correspondence in their faunas and floras as is found in the more crowded and smaller basins in central Europe.
The coral reefs fringing the coast are here broken by a straight channel with deep water giving access to the harbour, which consists of a series of natural channels and basins.
You will find more blood, wash basins and fresh attire inside. I will collect you on the hour for an audience with the master.
He left BGS in 2000 to form HM Research Associates in order to continue provenance research in sedimentary basins around the world.
In many new home developments I've seen storm water catch basins already installed in backyards.
Chatham Dock occupies one of three basins of the former naval dockyard.
Figure 9 shows the ` inverted drainage basins ' of the surface.
Examination of the key architectural elements provides an improved understanding of shallow marine facies and facies architecture within these basins.
This includes basins, sinks, baths, sanitary fittings and space and water heating fixtures.
Old Faithful is one of the most spectacular geysers in the seven major geyser basins.
The relentlessly modern design sees the dual wash basins sunk into black granite.
Before the priests there are basins of burning incense tended by the Tots.
These three basins are isolated from the North Falkland Basin, and have a completely different infill.
A series of shallow basins connected to the sea by shallow, sometimes intertidal, sills.
Our beautiful granite stone lanterns, stone water basins, stone statues and bridges are carved from solid top quality granite.
Marks have vanished in basins and lavatory pans and glasses dry without water marks.
All along the inner city section their were once short arms leading both north and south into small wharves and basins.
Lake Cayor on the right side of the lower Senegal and Lake Panieful (Guier) on the left constitute reserve basins, receiving the surplus waters of the river during flood and restoring them in the dry season.
When the attempt was made to mark this boundary the commissioners were unable to agree on a line across the Puna de Atacama in the north, where parallel ranges enclosing a high arid plateau without any clearly defined drainage to the Atlantic or Pacific, gave an opportunity for conflicting claims. In the south the broken character of the Cordillera, pierced in places by large rivers flowing into the Pacific and having their upper drainage basins on the eastern side of the line of highest crests, gave rise to unforeseen and very difficult questions.
The " tetrahedral theory " brought forward by Lowthian Green,' that the form of the earth is a spheroid based on a regular tetrahedron, is more serviceable, because it accounts for three very interesting facts of the terrestrial plan - (1) the antipodal position of continents and ocean basins; (2) the tri angular outline of the continents; and (3) the excess of sea in the southern hemisphere.
Thus the Volga, the Dnieper and the Don attain respectively lengths of 2325, 1410 and 1325 m., and their basins run to 563,300, 202,140 and 166,000 sq.
If we examine the hydrographic basins of the three divisions of Asia thus indicated we find that the northern division, including the drainage falling into the Arctic Sea,the Aralo- Hydro- Caspian depression, or the Mediterranean, embraces an graphs area of about 6,394,500 sq.
To the north-east of the Dinaric Alps extends a region of mountain, moor and forest, with deeply sunk alluvial basins, which finally expand into the lowlands of the Posavina, or Vale of the Save, forming the southernmost fringe of the Hungarian Alfold.
Commercially pure tin is used for making such apparatus as evaporating basins, infusion pots, stills, &c. It is also employed for making two varieties of tin-foil - one for the silvering of mirrors (see Mirror), the other for wrapping up chocolate, toilet soap, tobacco, &c. The mirror foil must contain some copper to prevent it from being too readily amalgamated by the mercury.
The valley, known by the general name of Kakir, meaning a " hard, dry, sterile expanse of clay," is chequered with shallow selfcontained basins of the usual type and has remarkably gentle slopes ' The Northern Mountains are the Pe-shan in the desert of Gobi (see Gobi).
Almost all of the United States east of the 98th meridian is naturally a forest region, and forests cover the greater part of the Rocky Mountains, the Cascades, the Sierra Nevadas and the Coast Range, but throughout the belt of plains, basins and deserts west of the Rocky Mountains and on the Great Plains east of the Rocky Mountains there are few trees except along the watercourses, and the prevailing type of vegetation ranges from bunch grass to sage brush and cactuses according to the degree of aridity and the temperature.
More than half, including the largest and finest, are in the upper and the lower Geyser basins, near the head of the Madison, here known as the Firehole, river.
The line decided upon, and accepted by Colombia, starts from the north shore of Calabozo Bay on the west side of the Gulf of Maracaibo, and runs west and south-west to and along the water-parting (Sierra de Perija) between the drainage basins of the Magdalena and Lake Maracaibo as far as the source in lat.
Included are a map of the lake and associated rift basins; a multichannel seismic reflection line; and sediment core analyzes.
In this huge region is where the sedimentary oil basins are to be found.
Spoon into basins and bake for 20 mins until risen and springy to touch.
Subcritical behavior gives rise to small basins of attraction and thus limits the control performance.
Line a 1 liter (2 pint) pudding basin or 4 individual basins with suet paste.
Hand washing basins should be provided close to where food is being handled or prepared.
All of Soga 's designer washstands with glass basins also come complete with a mounting kit and pop up waste.
There are opportunities for wildcat exploration in both genuine frontier areas such as the Atlantic Margin and in the more mature North Sea basins.
Standing by a row of hand basins was a little wizened old lady.
Basins come in a variety of colors and shapes.
Villarsia Ovata - Quite distinct from V. reniformis, has the same beautifully-fringed flowers, and is most welcome for fountain basins.
Another factor in choosing the type of sink to install is the number of basins you want.
Traditionally, there are only one or two basins, but more and more people are choosing a newer option of having a third, usually much smaller, basin.
Not only have the average number of basins changed, but also the sizes and shapes available.
The greater part of the state belongs to the western extension of the Brazilian plateau, across which, between the 14th and 16th parallels, runs the water-shed which separates the drainage basins of the Amazon and La Plata.
The department of Meurthe-et-Moselle (basins of Nancy and Longwy-Briey) furnished 84% of the total output during the quinquennial period 1901-1905, may be reckoned as one of the principal iron-producing regions of the world.
The mountains both in Victoria and New South Wales were snow-capped, and glaciers flowed down their flanks and laid down Carboniferous glacial deposits, which are still preserved in basins that flank the mountain ranges, such as the famous conglomerates of Bacchus Marsh, Heathcote and the Loddon valley in Victoria, and cf Branxton and other localities in New South Wales.
They are also preserved in basins on the western plateau, as shown by brown coal deposits passed through in the Lake Phillipson bore.
The chief streams are the Werra, which traverses the south and east of the duchy, and various tributaries of the Main and the Saale, so that Saxe-Meiningen belongs to the basins of the three great rivers Weser, Rhine and Elbe.
These basins of internal drainage are calculated to amount to 22% of the land surface.
The filtering works include 6 lime saturators, 2 mixing or softening tanks, 6 settling basins, 10 mechanical filters and 2 clear-water reservoirs.
Prominent among them, and dwelling in the division occupied by the Celts, were the Helvetii, the Sequani and the Aedui, in the basins of the Rhodanus and its tributary the Arar (Saone), who, he says, were reckoned the three most powerful nations in all Gaul; the Arverni in the mountains of Cebenna; the Senones and Carnutes in the basin of the Liger; the Veneti and other Armorican tribes between the mouths of the Liger and Sequana.
Oberhessen is hilly; though of no great elevation it extends over the water-parting between the basins of the Rhine and the Weser, and in the Vogelsberg it has as its culminating point the Taufstein (2533 ft.).
South of this the country between the frontier of Tuscany and the Tiber is in great part of volcanic origin, forming hills with distinct crater-shaped basins, in several instances occupied by small lakes (the Lake of Bolsena, Lake of Vico and Lake of Bracciano).
In the north it is occupied by the watershed which separates the basins of the Dvina and the Dnieper, an undulating tract 650 to goo ft.
The servants were bringing in jugs and basins, hot water for shaving, and their well- brushed clothes.