At the Carnegie works Mr Monell gets the two dephosphorizing conditions, low temperature and basicity of slag, early in the process, by pouring his molten but relatively cool cast iron upon a layer of pre-heated lime and iron oxide on the bottom of the open-hearth furnace.
Von Liebig in establishing the doctrine of the characterization and basicity of acids.
Moreover, while methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine increase in basicity corresponding to the introduction of successive methyl groups, phenylamine or aniline, diphenylamine, and triphenylamine are in decreasing order of basicity, the salts of diphenylamine being decomposed by water.
But this basicity implies that for each part of the silica or silicic acid which inevitably results from the oxidation of the silicon of the pig iron, the cinder shall contain some three parts of iron oxide, itself a valuable and expensive substance.
Aniline, C 6 H 5 NH 2, monomethyl aniline, C 6 H 5 NH CH 3, and dimethyl aniline, C 6 H 5 N(CH 3) 2, are in increasing order of basicity.
The basicity of an organic acid, as above defined, is determined by the number of carboxyl groups present.