Marriage was based on mutual respect.
She'd altered her own future, based on what he showed her.
The keys were located all over the world, except for four of them, which were based here in the command center.
Marriage should be based on trust, and I'll never trust a man.
It is not based on emotion.
We based the age on when the ownership of the mine changed hands and when it was last worked.
Prices are based on the market value of fresh ingredients each day.
Based on its name, it could be a rowdy cowboy bar or truck stop.
"I made an educated guess, based on what I knew about both of you," Andre replied.
"All that supposition is based on her telling you the truth," Cynthia pointed out.
The story of Lohengrin as we know it is based on two principal motives common enough in folklore: the metamorphosis of human beings into swans, and the curious wife whose question brings disaster.
We compute the maximum amount of food the world can produce by beginning with total acres of land considered arable, but that is based on assumptions about the future of technology and agriculture.
Based on local reviews, here is a list of the top three.
I know that sounds preposterous—but only based on our assumptions that the future will be like the past.
By "the end of ignorance," I mean a world where everyone everywhere will be able to go through life making wise decisions based on near-perfect information.
Gabriel knew they were loyal before he placed hands on their heads based on their body language.
"We made an agreement based on three conditions," he said.
But it is the biggest, best store ever, where you can buy anything from anywhere, based on reviews by other buyers, at a discount, and have it gift wrapped, engraved, altered, drop-shipped, and probably delivered by tomorrow.
And then we come to Greece, the home of Hippocrates, the "Father of Modern Medicine," who left us not just the oath that bears his name but also a corpus of roughly sixty medical texts based on his teaching.
It is based on the idea that what we believe about the future determines what we do in the present.
Andre had another idea, one that might increase the chances of success, based on ancient myths from the time-before-time.
As in the question of astronomy then, so in the question of history now, the whole difference of opinion is based on the recognition or nonrecognition of something absolute, serving as the measure of visible phenomena.
Was her attraction to him based solely on his looks?
As Mr. Anagnos was the head of a great institution, what he said had much more effect than the facts in Miss Sullivan's account on which he based his statements.
But the choice will be ours and will be made based on facts.
Diseases are frequently diagnosed with broad terms based on a set of symptoms.
But a government in which the majority rule in all cases cannot be based on justice, even as far as men understand it.
Based on her medical records, the tumor didn't grow until she hit puberty and didn't interfere with her ability to function before a few years ago, Wynn started.
That's where the newspaper lady is based.
Even so, four of the Horsemen—the ones based here—were missing.
Swan's measurements, which had misled Bent into accepting a chronology based on a supposed orientation of the "temple," had been shown to be inexact.
torquata of India is probably based on cats of this type which have reverted to the wild state.
10 In 1629 he asks Mersenne to take care of himself " till I find out if there is any means of getting a medical theory based on infallible demonstrations, which is what I am now inquiring."
Metaphysics he held to be based on psychology.
Ritschl appears to confine Metaphysic to the category of Causality.) The theory as formulated has such grave ambiguities, that his theology, which, as we have seen, is wholly based on uncompromising religious realism, has actually been charged with individualistic subjectivism.
Then I hope to divide up Germany into categories based on German states - perhaps something along the lines of Category:Prussia, Category:Bavaria, Category:WÃ¼rttemberg, Category:Baden, Category:Hesse-Darmstadt, Category:Saxony, and Category:Small German states, or some such.
Auxiliary sources for the medieval romance-writers were: - the opuscule (4th century) known as Alexandri magni iter ad Paradisum, a fable of Eastern origin directed against ambition; the Itinerarium Alexandri (340), based partly on Julius Valerius and dedicated to Constans, son of the emperor Constantine; the letter of Alexander to Aristotle (Epist.
Another alliterative poem in the northern dialect, of 15th-century origin, is based on the Historia de proeliis, and was edited by Skeat for the E.E.T.S.
It is written in unusually picturesque and vigorous language, and is based on the Roman de toute chevalerie, a French compilation made about 1250 by a certain Eustace or Thomas of Kent.
The bitter invectives against Ammon, Moab, Edom, Philistia, Tyre, Sidon and Egypt, put into Yahweh's mouth, are based wholly on the fact that these peoples are regarded as hostile and hurtful to Israel; Babylonia, though nowise superior to Egypt morally, is favoured and applauded because it is believed to be the instrument for securing ultimately the prosperity of Yahweh's people.
No deductions as to their chronology can be based on the silence regarding them in Moses' song, Exodus xv.
In addition to the encyclical letter, nineteen resolutions were put forth, and the reports of twelve special committees are appended upon which they are based, the subjects being intemperance, purity, divorce, polygamy, observance of Sunday, socialism, care of emigrants, mutual relations of dioceses of the Anglican Communion, home reunion, Scandinavian Church, Old Catholics, &c., Eastern Churches, standards of doctrine and worship. Perhaps the most important of these is the famous "Lambeth Quadrilateral," which laid down a fourfold basis for home reunion - the Holy Scriptures, the Apostles' and Nicene creeds, the two sacraments ordained by Christ himself and the historic episcopate.
It was based on a short confession drafted by Calvin in 1557, and may still be regarded, though once or twice revised, as the confession of the French Protestant Church.
In 1904 official estimates, based on immigration and emigration returns and upon registered births and deaths, both of which are admittedly defective, showed a population increased to 5,410,028, and a small diminution in the rate of annual increase from 1895 to 1904 as compared with 18.69-1895.
Central Government.The principles upon which the French constitution is based are representative government (by two chambers), manhood suffrage, responsibility of ministers and irresponsibility of the head of the state.
Organization.The general organization of the French army at home is based on the system of permanent army corps, the headquarters of which are as follows: I.
Past elevations of land, however (and doubtless equally great subsidences) have taken place in South America since the Eocene, and the conclusion that extensive areas of land have subsided in the Indian Ocean has long been based on a somewhat similar distribution of giant tortoises in the Mascarene region.
The resulting compound, nickel carbonyl, which was described to the Chemical Society in 1890, is both formed and decomposed within a very moderate range of temperature, and on this fact he based a successful process for the extraction of nickel from its ores.
14 and 16 is based upon the view of Sir R.
12), based primarily, it would seem, upon the command in Ex.
The tribal organization of the Australians was based on that of the family.
Eventually the difficulty was overcome by the device of an educational test based on the provisions of an act in operation in Natal.
But in July 1908 a Surplus Revenue Act was passed which was based on a different interpretation of the constitution.
The act was strongly opposed by the government of Queensland, and the question was raised as to whether it was based on a true interpretation of the constitution.
He supported the claims of Bohemia to a full autonomy; he strongly attacked both the February constitution and the Ausgleich with Hungary; what he desired was a common parliament for the whole empire based on a settlement with each one of the territories.
It is divided into three books, the first containing his proofs of the divine existence, and the remaining two the theological and philosophical arguments for immortality based on that postulate.
C. Ross in the " Erebus " and " Terror " (1839-1843), and the bathymetrical maps published were largely the result of deductions based on one sounding taken -by Ross in 68° 34' S.
Rheims. For three years the strife continued, and was probably based on the opposition between the Averroists, Siger and Pierre Dubois, and the more orthodox schoolmen.
Schulze and Nosselt published a new edition (6 vols., Halle, 1769-74) based on that of their predecessors; a glossary was afterwards added by Bauer.
3, 14 (based on Varro), the historical character of which is doubted by Leo (Plautinische Forschungen, p. 60, sqq.).
The plays of Plautus are all based on Greek originals.'
- The editio princeps, based mainly on a transcript of D, was printed at Venice, 1472: the first scientific text, based on B, C and D, was that of Camerarius, completed 1552, in whose steps followed Lambinus (with a commentary which is still useful), 1576; Taubmann, 1605-1621; Pareus (a meritorious edition), 1619 and 1623; Guyet, edited by Marolles, 1658; Gronovius (the "Vulgate"), 1664-1684; then, after the lapse of more than a century, came the editions of Bothe, 1809-1811; Naudet, 1830; and Weise, 1837-1848.
Of English plays, the interlude called Jack Juggler (between 1547 and 1553) was based on the Amphitruo, and the lost play called the Historie of Error (acted in 1577) was probably based on the Menae-chmi; Nicholas Udall's Ralph Royster Doyster, the first English comedy (acted before 1551, first printed 1566), is founded on the Miles gloriosus; Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors (about 1591) is an adaptation of the Menaechmi; and his Falstaff may be regarded as an idealized reproduction or development of the braggart soldier of Plautus and Terence - a type of character which reappears in other forms not only in English literature (e.g.
It was given about the end of the 18th century as based on some experiments, but with a footnote stating that little reliance could be placed on it.
Before that time it was based exclusively on the use of the harpsichord either as a means of supporting the other instruments or as also contributing principal parts to the combination.
The general principle on which the instruments for working long submarine cables are based is that of making the moving parts very light and perfectly free to follow the comparatively slow rise and fall of the electric impulses or waves.
(Id., 27, p. 852.) In addition to the systems of wireless or space telegraphy depending upon conduction through earth or water, and the in ductive system based upon the power of a magnetic Eelson.
Up to 1895 or 1896 the suggestions for wireless telegraphy which had been publicly announced or tried can thus be classified under three or four divisions, based respectively upon electrical conduction through the soil or sea, magnetic induction through space, combinations of the two foregoing, and lastly, electrostatic induction.
in length, which it is not, it is essentially based upon the supposition that the damping of the waves is negligible.
The receiver was based on the change of friction produced by the passage of an electric current through the point of contact of certain substances in relative motion.
The chief difficulty with this transmitter, and with various others of later date based upon it, has been the frequent packing of the carbon granules, which renders the instrument inoperative.
The Postmaster-General agreed also to buy the private wire plant of the company at a value based upon three years' purchase of the net profits on the average of the three years ending 31st of December 1911.
Although no contemporary copy of Bagimond's Roll is known to exist, at least three documents give particulars of the taxation of the Church of Scotland in the 16th century, which are based upon the original roll.
The impost upon land is based upon the cadastral survey independently of the vicissitudes of harvests.
In addition, the communes have a right to levy a, surtax not exceeding 50% of the quota levied by the state upon lands and buildings; a family tax, or fuocatico, upon the total incomes of families, which, for fiscal purposes, are divided into various categories; a tax based upon the rent-value of houses, and other taxes upon cattle, horses, dogs, carriages and servants; also on licences for shopkeepers, hotel and restaurant keepers, &c.; on the slaughter of animals, stamp duties, one-half of the tax on bicycles, &c. Occasional sources of interest are found in the sale of communal property, the realization of communal credits, and the contraction of debt.
The division of Italy into eleven regions, instituted by Augustus for administrative purposes, which continued in official use till the reign of Constantine, was based mainly on the territorial divisions previously existingi and preserved with few exceptions the ancient limits.
The prestige of the empire~ based upon Roman law and feudal tradition, attracts imaginatiw patriots and systematic thinkers.
(Turin, 1888-1897), based on a diligent stud of the original authorities and containing a large amount of informa tion; the author is a Mazzinian, which fact should be taken mt account, but he generally quotes the opinions of those who disagree with him as well.
Unfortunately, the calculation of probable railway revenue on The railwhich the conventions had been based proved to be way C0fl enormously exaggerated.
The influence of Giolitti was based largely upon the favor of a court clique, and especially of Rattazzi, minister of the royal household.
Here and there it was based upon a bastard Socialism, ~ in other places it was made a means of municipal ~ party warfare under the guidance of the local mafia, and in some districts it was simply popular effervescence against the local octrois on.
the rites based on the sruti or revelation - requiring at least three sacrificial fires and a number of priests, as distinguished from the grihya (domestic) or smarta (traditional) rites, supposed to be based on the smriti or tradition, which are performed on the house-fire and dealt with in the Grihya-sutras.
They are based on facts - upon facts in the light of principles - upon principles purely and ultimately upon one principle.
They are forty-eight in number, and on them Magna Carta was based, the work of converting them into a charter, which was regarded as a much more binding form of engagement, being taken in hand immediately.
Magna Carta is an elaboration of the accession charter of Henry I., and is based upon the Articles of the Barons.
- Diagrams of the Structure of the Gonophores of various Hydromedusae, based on the figures of G.
Careful attempts, based on new scientific truths, an made to explain the genesis of the world as a natural process.
Of later works based on Schelling's doctrine of evolution mention may be made of the volume entitled Natur and Idee, by G.
Thus in the end of the 17th century the seed was sown which has at intervals brought forth recurrent crops of evolutional hypotheses, based, more or less completely, on general reasonings.
At the present moment it is impossible to draw up any definition, based on broad anatomical or developmental characters, by which any one of Cuvier's great groups shall be separated from all the rest.
In fact, the strongest and most conclusive arguments in favour of evolution are those which are based upon the facts of geographical, taken in conjunction with those of geological, distribution.
The ultimate value of numerical inquiries must depend on the equivalence of the units on which they are based.
a " Court of High Commission " with jurisdiction over laity and clergy, based on i Eliz.
The first Pitaka contains the Vinaya - that is, Rules of the Order; the second the Suttas, giving the doctrine, and the third the Abhidhamma, analytical exercises in the psychological system on which the doctrine is based.
Marx, puts forward the theory that Cicero and the Auctor have not produced original works, but have merely given the substance of two r xvai (both emanating from the Rhodian school); that neither used the 'r xvat directly, but reproduced the revised version of the rhetoricians whose school they attended, the introductions alone being their own work; that the lectures on which the Ciceronian treatise was based were delivered before the lectures attended by the Auctor.
The need for a constant supply of water is partly based upon the constitution of protoplasm, so far as we know it.
All physiology, consequently, must be based upon the identity of the protoplasm of all living beings.
It was not till De Bary (1866) made known the true nature of parasitic Fungi, based on his researches between 1853-1863, that the vast domain of epidemic diseases of plants was opened up to fruitful investigation, and such modern treatises as those of Frank (1880 and L895), Sorauer (1886), Kirchner (1890), were gradually made possible.
The homology of members was based, in the first instance, upon similarity of development and upon similar relations to the other parts of the body, that is, upon ontogeny.
From the nature of the case, this view is not, and could not be, based upon actual observation, nor is it universally accepted; however, it seems to correspond more closely than any other to the facts of comparative morphology.
Casimir de Candolle has made an independent investigation, based on Hooker and Benthams Genera plantarum.
A geographical botany based on such resemblances is only in reality a study of adaptations.
circare, to go round in a circle, to explore), the act of searching into a matter closely and carefully, inquiry directed to the discovery of truth, and in particular the trained scientific investigation of the principles and facts of any subject, based on original and first-hand study of authorities or experiment.
Investigations of every kind which have been based on original sources of knowledge may be styled "research," and it may be said that without "research" no authoritative works have been written, no scientific discoveries or inventions made, no theories of any value propounded; but the word also has a somewhat restricted meaning attached to it in current usage.
His geography was based more immediately on the work of his predecessor, Marinus of Tyre, and on that of Hipparchus, the follower and critic of Eratosthenes.
published in 1524, and subsequently edited and added to by Gemma Frisius under the title of Cosmographia, based the whole science on mathematics and measurement.
Amongst his contemporaries were Istakhri, who travelled through all the Mahommedan countries and wrote his Book of Climates in 950, and Ibn Haukal, whose Book of Roads and Kingdoms, based on the work of Istakhri, was written in 976.
Sclater have been found to hold good for a large number of groups of animals as different in their mode of life as birds and mammals, and they may thus be accepted as based on nature.
In 1487 he went with Ferdinand to Malaga and thence to Valladolid, where in the October of 1488 he held another general congregation of the Inquisition and promulgated new laws based on the experience already gained.
Cope's Diatryma of New Mexico, based upon a gigantic FIG.
The great problems involved in the study of geographical distribution must therefore be based mainly upon the other classes, both vertebrate and invertebrate, which, moreover, enjoy less great facilities of locomotion than the birds.
Yet it so happens that the great zoogeographical regions of the world, now more or less generally accepted, have been based upon the distribution of birds.
In the first two volumes fossil birds, occasionally based upon a fragmentary bone only, are also included.
The resulting " classification is based on the examination, mostly autoptic, of a far greater number of characters than any that had preceded it; moreover, they were chosen in a different way, discernment being exercised in sifting and weighing them, so as to determine, so far as possible, the relative value of each, according as that value may vary in different groups, and not to produce a mere mechanical ` key ' after the fashion become of late years so common " (Newton's Dictionary of Birds, Introduction, p. 103).
The literature begins with, as it is almost entirely based upon, the Old Testament.
Its date is now usually given as about Soo B.C. 1 In the next century the document E was composed, so called from its using 1 The dating of these documents is extremely difficult, since it is based entirely on internal evidence.
about 1140), wrote in Arabic a philosophical work based on Greek and Arabic as well as Jewish authorities, known by the name of the Hebrew translation as Arugath ha-bosem, and the Kitab al-Mahadarah, of great value for literary history.
In the first half of the 13th century, Abraham ibn Ilasdai, a vigorous supporter of Maimonides, translated (or adapted) a large number of philosophical works from Arabic, among them being the Sepher ha-tappuah, based on Aristotle's de Anima, and the Mozene Zedeq of Ghazzali on moral philosophy, of both of which the originals are lost.
This is a codification of halakhcth, based on all the authorities then known, some of them now lost.
about 1500) compiled his very useful commentary on the Mishnah, based on those of Rashi and Maimonides.
Indianapolis is governed under a form of government adopted originally in a special charter of 1891 and in 1905 incorporated in the new state municipal code, which was based upon it, It provides for a mayor elected every four years, a single legislative chamber, a common council, and various administrative departments - of public safety, public health, &c. The guiding principle of the charter, which is generally accepted as a model of its kind, is that of the complete separation of powers and the absolute placing of responsibility.
This is a pure supposition inconsistent with chronology, and based only on a misinterpretation of a passage in an old book.
But Boetius belonged to the school of musical writers who based their science on the method of Pythagoras.
The text of the second was based on the fullest collation of MSS.
Alembert was much interested in music both as a science and as an art, and wrote Elements de musique theorique et pratique (1779), which was based upon the system of P. Rameau with important modifications and differences.
In opposition to Aquinas, who maintained that reason and revelation were two independent sources of knowledge, Duns Scotus held that there was no true knowledge of anything knowable apart from theology as based upon revelation.
AItoff, Peuples et langages de la Russie (Paris, 1906), based on the report of the Russian Census Committee of 1897.
Of this system - except so far as the confusion of the laws is -concerned - the reform of 1864 made a clean sweep. The new system established - based partly on English, partly on French models - was built up on certain broad 1864.
The first of these, based on the English model, are the courts of the elected justices of the peace, with jurisdiction over petty causes, whether civil or criminal; the second, based on the French model, are the ordinary tribunals of nominated judges, sitting with or without a jury to hear important cases.
In these courts the ordinary written law had little to say; the decisions of the volost courts were based on the local customary law, which alone the peasants, and the peasants alone, understand.
The steady tendency of Russian society towards increasing the number of secondary schools, where instruction would be based on the study of the natural sciences, is checked by the government in favour of the classical gymnasiums. 5 Sunday schools and public lectures are virtually prohibited.
with the outside world cut off; until at last the government was forced to yield, and on the 17/30th of tionstitu- October 1 05 the tsar issued the famous manifesto tional 9 manifesto promising to Russia a constitution based on the of October main principles of modern Liberalism: national re 1 9 /5.
Even more drastic were the changes in the electoral machinery, by far the most complicated in Europe, established by the law of 1905.6 This was based on the principle of indirect 3 Of this M.
The organs of government seemed paralysed by the repudiation of the principle on which their authority was based, and the empire to be in danger of falling into complete anarchy.
Soloviev's history, from the earliest times to 1774, is based throughout on original investigation of sources, and therefore, though inferior to Karamzin's work as literature, is incomparably superior to it in authority.
de Martens, Recueil des traites conclus par la Russie avec les puissances etrangeres (St Petersburg, from 1878 still incomplete), which contains valuable historical introductions based on unpublished sources; A.
trans., 1896), an admirable account, partly historical, partly based on personal observation of the government, religion and the social and economic conditions of Russia; Combes de Lestrade, La Russie economique et sociale (Paris, 1896); " Nikolai " (pseudonym of Danielson), Histoire des developpement economique de la Russie depuis l'abolition du servage (Paris, 1899).
This classification is based partly upon special conditions of service, which make some articles more economical to carry than others (with particular reference to the question whether the goods are offered to the companies in car-loads or in small parcels), but chiefly with regard to the commercial value of the article, and its consequent ability to bear a high charge or a low one.
The debt in that country is relatively small in amount, and is not represented by securities based upon hypothecation of the company's real property, as with the American railway bond, resting on a first, second or third mortgage.
- Many of the authorities on which the biographies of Xavier have been based are untrustworthy, notably the Peregrinacam of F.
In 1848, however, a peculiar form of it, believed to be based on abundant experimental evidence, arose in America and spread there with great rapidity, and thence over the civilized world.
355) anathematized the over-ascetic people who despised "the agapes based on faith."
The Chemistry of the Sun (1887) is an elaborate treatise on solar spectroscopy based on the hypothesis of elemental dissociation through the intensity of solar heat.
This view is based on Dr Pinches's discovered list in which Sapatti is called the 15th day (Proc. of the Soc. of Biblical Arch., p. 51 foll.).
The sacredness of the number seven is based on the seven planetary deities to whom each day of the week was respectively dedicated, i.e.
There were pre-existent ideas upon which that prophet's epoch-making message was based.
Rabshakeh's appeal to the besieged inhabitants of Jerusalem was based on these same considerations.
In place of the old covenant based on external observance, which had been violated, there was to be a new covenant which was to consist not in outward prescription, but in the law which God would place in the heart (Jer.
9, ro, that God would visit the sins of the fathers upon the children, and it lived on in later Judaism under exaggerated forms. The hopes of the individual Jew were based on the piety of holy ancestors.
We note the laws respecting the clean and unclean animals (certainly based on ancient custom).
The fourth is based on Mantuan's eclogue, De consuetudine divitum erga poetas, with large additions.
The fifth, printed by Wynkyn de Worde, also without date, is entitled the "Fyfte Eglog of Alexandre Barclay of the Cytezen and the uplondyshman" and is also based on Mantuan.
His argument for the Being of God is based on the hypothesis that thought - not individual but universal - is the reality of all things, the existence of this Infinite Thought being demonstrated by the limitations of finite thought.
Manufactures based on the products of mines and quarries (chemicals, glass, clay, stone and metal works) constituted about one-fifth of the whole product.
Thomson) had, in 1846, shown that a totally different assumption, based upon other analogies, led (by its own special mathematical methods) to precisely the same results.
But this was based upon the assumption of a distance-action between electric particles, the intensity of which depended on their relative motion as well as on their position.
The broad facts on which it is based are sufficiently accounted for by the habits of mosquitoes.
- What is commonly understood by thermochemistry is based entirely on the first law of thermodynamics, but of recent years great progress has been made in the study of chemical equilibrium by the application of the second law.
The former, however, is based upon the account of victories by the Ephraimite Joshua over confederations of petty kings to the south and north of central Palestine, apparently the specific traditions of the people of Ephraim describing from their standpoint the entire conquest of Palestine.
Biblical criticism is concerned with a composite (Judaean) history based upon other histories (partly of non-Judaean origin), and the relation between native written sources and external contemporary evidence (monumental and.
The assumption that the decay of Assyria awoke the national feeling of independence is perhaps justified by those events which made the greatest impression upon the compiler, and an account is given of Josiah's religious reforms, based upon a source apparently identical with that which described the work of Jehoash.
The more orthodox or conservative Jews preferred the tolerant rule of the Ptolemies: the rest, who chafed at the isolation of the nation, looked to the Seleucids, who inherited Alexander's ideal of a united empire based on a universal adoption of Hellenism.
The Talmud shows the influence of that law in many points, and may justly be compared to it as a monument of codification based on great principles.
The following approximate figures are taken from the American Jewish Year-Book for1909-1910and are based on similar estimates in the English Jewish Year-Book, the Jewish Encyclopedia, Nossig's Jiidische Statistik and the Reports of the Alliance Israelite Universelle.
An order for the removal of a judge must be based upon a conviction for some specified offence before a court of law.
The Ottoman civil code is maintained for the present, but it is proposed to establish a code recently drawn up by Greek jurists which is mainly based on Italian and Saxon law.
The Christian leaders prepared a moderate scheme of reforms, based on the Halepa Pact, which, with a few exceptions, were approved by the powers and eventually sanctioned by the sultan.
He was the author of Principles of Mining (1909), based on lectures given at Stanford and at Columbia universities.
The method of election is peculiar, being based in part upon the national presidential model.
The public school system was established in 1839, being based on the programme for state education prepared in 1816-1817 by Archibald Debow Murphey (1777-1832), whose educational ideas were far in advance of his day.
Sikes, The Transition of North Carolina from Colony to Commonwealth (Baltimore, 1898), based on the public records, is accurate, though dull.
as have been adduced for this view are, however, based on the fallacy of reading into words (mitra, infula, &c.) used by early writers a special meaning which they only acquired later.
Possibly, as its form suggests, it is based on the imperial crown and symbolized at the outsgt the quasi - sovereignty over the rayah population which Mahommed II.
Erigena translated Dionysius into Latin along with the commentaries of Maximus, and his system is, essentially based upon theirs.
The order is divided into two main groups based on the number of the stamens and stigmas.
The Monandreae have been subdivided into twenty-eight tribes, the characters of which are based on the structure of the anther and pollinia, the nature of the inflorescence, whether terminal or lateral, the vernation of the leaf and the presence or absence of a joint between blade and sheath, and the nature of the stem.
Exact surveys in Russia, based upon triangulation, extend as far east as Chinese Turkestan in longitude about 75° E.
Ethnographers have traced a connexion between the Turkoman of central Asia and the Teutonic races of Europe, based on a similarity of national customs and immemorial usage.
Mathematics were cultivated by the Chinese, Indians and Arabs, but nearly all the sciences based on the observation of nature, including medicine, have remained in a very backward condition.
It will thus be seen that European (excluding Russian) power in Asia is based almost entirely on improved navigation.
It has been indeed largely upon the conditions characterizing the Chaetopoda that the conception of the coelom in the Coelomocoela has been based.
One view of the origin of the latter (largely based upon observations upon the development of Polygordius) sees in the blood system a persistent blastocoel.
The embryological facts upon which this view has been based, 'however, have been differently interpreted.
The simplest modes of preparing pure glycerin are based on the saponification of fats, either by alkalis or by superheated steam, and on the circumstance that, although glycerin cannot be distilled by itself under the ordinary pressure without decomposition, it can be readily volatilized in a current of superheated steam.
The didactic novel of Xenophon, the Cyropaedia, is a free invention adapted to the purposes of the author, based upon the account of Herodotus and occasionally influenced by Ctesias, without any independent traditional element.
His first literary work, except the bombastic but eloquent Essai sur le despotisme (Neufchatel, 1 775), was a translation of Robert Watson's Philip II., done in Holland with the help of Durival; his Considerations sur l'ordre de Cincinnatus (London, 1788) was based on a pamphlet by Aedanus Burke (1743-1802), of South Carolina, who opposed the aristocratic tendencies of the Society of the Cincinnati, and the notes to it were by Target;, his financial writings were suggested by the Genevese exile, Claviere.
The fact that they adopted the existing system of government and taxation, which are based upon Koranic law, would in itself be sufficient proof that this was not the case.
This was the first work covering that period based on a scientific study of the archival sources.
He showed the revolutionary and unpractical character of any doctrine such as nullification based on the assumption that the general government was the agent of the state legislatures.
It is a sketch of the history of the world from the creation, based on Jerome, the epitome of Florus, Orosius and the ecclesiastical history of Socrates.
There is no doubt, even on Jordanes' own statements, that his work is based upon that of Cassiodorus, and that any historical worth which it possesses is due to that fact.
His early death prevented any schemes for a revived Romano-Gothic kingdom which may have been based on his personality.
His great plea for toleration is based on the impossibility of erecting theology into a demonstrable science.
The article is chiefly based on H.
Schelle, Turgot (Paris, 1909); and Marquis de Segur, Au Couchant de la monarchie (Paris, 1910), contain much that is based on recent research.
The Mosaic Institute contained an agrarian law, based upon an equal division of the soil amongst the adult males, a census of whom was taken just before their entrance into Canaan.
The earliest known forms of intensive husbandry were based chiefly upon the proximity of rivers and irrigation.
Knowledge must be based upon experience.
ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY, the name given to the study of insects based on their relation to man, his domestic animals and his crops, and, in the case of those that are injurious, of the practical methods by which they can be prevented from doing harm, or be destroyed when present.
His assumptions are based upon ordinary observation and experience, and are usually accurate in proportion to his practical shrewdness and sagacity, so that he is not interested in the speculative flights of philosophy, except in so far as they influence or have influenced conduct.
When the generation whose economic training was based upon J.
- ii.) based on original documents.
Consequently his theology is cosmological speculation and ethical reflection based on the sacred Scriptures.
This cession was based on political motives, which Bonaparte judged to be of overwhelming force; and he now decided to support the Directors and overthrow the moderates.
As for the chambers, based avowedly on universal suffrage, their existence thenceforth was ornamental or sepulchral.
Though based on merely political grounds, the union was for the time a happy one.
He announced a complete reorganization of the navy, which was to be grouped in four fleets, three being for home defence, based on home ports (the third being the Atlantic fleet previously based on Gibraltar), and the fourth, based on Gibraltar, to operate either in home waters or in the Mediterranean.
An English translation of the Theses, with brief life of Erastus (based on Melchior Adam's account), was issued in 1659, entitled The Nullity of Church Censures; it was reprinted as A Treatise of Excommunication (1682), and, as revised by Robert Lee, D.D., in 1844.
The classification here adopted is based on Sharp's scheme, with the addition of suggestions from some of the most recent authors - especially Bdrner and Enderlein.
Thayer, with other essays, 1889), originally a lecture, and in spite of the compression due to its form, up to that time probably the ablest defence, based on external evidence, of the Johannine authorship, and certainly the completest treatment of the relation of Justin Martyr to this gospel.
In the work just mentioned few details are given; but even the more elaborate classification of birds contained in his Lecons d'anatomie comparee of 1805 is based wholly on external characters, such as had been used by nearly all his predecessors; and the Regne Animal of 1817, when he 1 This was reprinted in 5882 by the Willughby Society.
Of the compilations based upon this work, without which they could not have been composed, there is no need to speak.
This is a very disappointing performance, since the author observes that, notwithstanding his new classification of birds is based on a study of the form of the sternal apparatus, yet, because that lies wholly within the body, he is compelled to have recourse to such outward characters as are afforded by the 1 From carin g, a keel.
251269) a statement of his general views on ornithological classification which were based on a comparative examination of those bodies in various forms. It seems unnecessary here to occupy space by giving an abstract of his plan, 8 which hardly includes any but European species, because it was subsequently elaborated with no inconsiderable modifications in a way that must presently be mentioned at greater length.
We have already seen that De Blainville, though fully persuaded of the great value of sternal features as a method of classification, had been compelled to fall back upon the old pedal characters so often employed before; but now the scholar had learnt to excel his teacher, and not only to form an at least provisional arrangement of the various members of the Class, based on sternal characters, but to describe these characters at some length, and so give a reason for the faith that was in him.
Its great merit is that it proved the necessity of combining another and hitherto much-neglected factor in any natural arrangement, though vitiated as so many other schemes have been by being based wholly on one class of characters.
Again, the arrangement followed in the Pterylographie was of course based on pterylographical considerations, and we have its author's own word for it that he was persuaded that the limitation of natural groups could only be attained by the most assiduous research into the species of which they are composed from every point of view.
Indeed he was so much prepossessed in favour of a classification based on the structure of the digestive organs that he could not bring himself to consider vocal muscles to be of much taxonomic use, and it was reserved to Johannes Muller to point out that the contrary was the fact.
Carrying on the work from the anatomical point at which he had left it, correcting his errors, and utilizing to the fullest extent the observations of Keyserling and Blasius, to which reference has already been made, Muller, though hampered by mistaken notions of which he seems to have been unable to rid himself, propounded a scheme for the classification of this group, the general truth of which has been admitted by all his successors, based, as the title of his treatise expressed, on the hitherto unknown different types of the vocal organs in the Passerines.
This will perhaps be the most convenient place to mention another kind of classification of birds, which, based on a principle wholly different from those that have just been explained, requires a few words, though it has not been productive, parte.
as to the Boo chapels on wheels in the nomadic host), are based on fact.
In 1845 the legislature chartered for twenty years the State Bank of Ohio, based on the model of the State Bank of Indiana of 1834.
Up to this time the English had based their claim to the same territory on the discovery of the Atlantic Coast by the Cabots and upon the Virginia, Massachusetts and Connecticut charters under which these colonies extended westward to the Pacific Ocean.
The term " Catholic " does not occur in the old Roman symbol; but Professor Loofs includes it in his reconstruction, based on typical phrases in common use at the time of the ante-Nicene creeds of the East.
The principle on which the work is based is that plants have their individualities and tend to transmit them to their progeny.
ANTONINI ITINERARIUM, a valuable register, still extant, of the stations and distances along the various roads of the Roman empire, seemingly based on official documents, which were probably those of the survey organized by Julius Caesar, and carried out under Augustus.
" If a dead man did come to life, the fact would be evidence, not that any law of nature had been violated, but that these laws, even when they express the results of a very long and uniform experience, are necessarily based on incomplete knowledge, and are to be held only on grounds of more or less justifiable expectation " (Hume, p. 135).
Mr. Harding based his campaign chiefly upon criticism of the Wilson administration, denouncing especially the excessive power that, as he maintained, had been exercised by the executive as a result of war centralization; he demanded as speedy as possible a return to normal conditions, political and industrial.
In 1308 Charles Robert of Anjou was elected king of Hungary, his claim being based on the marriage of his grandfather Charles II., king of Naples and count of Anjou, with Maria, daughter of Stephen V., king of Hungary.
Before it was completed he had already begun the researches on which was based the second of his masterpieces, his Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Reformation (Berlin, 1839-47), a necessary pendant to his book on the popes, and the most popular of his works in his own country.
The critical method which has since become almost a formal system, aiming at scientific certainty, was with him an unexampled power, based on the insight acquired from wide knowledge, which enabled him to judge the credibility of an author or the genuineness of an authority; but he has made it impossible for any one to attempt to write modern history except on the "narratives of eye-witnesses and the most genuine immediate documents" preserved in the archives.
The liturgy of the Lutheran church of Russia has, since 1898, been based on his Liturgische Formulare (1872).
But it is also probable that these apocryphal versions are based on a genuine original.
In writing his account of the First Crusade, von Sybel accordingly based himself on the three contemporary Western authorities - the Gesta Francorum, Raymond of Agiles, and Fulcher.
Taking the Western authorities for the First Crusade separately, one may divide them, in the light of von Sybel's work, into four kinds - the accounts of eye-witnesses; later compilations based on these accounts; semi-legendary and legendary narratives; and lastly, in a class by itself, the "History" of William of Tyre, who is rather a scientific historian than a chronicler.
The minor authorities for the Fifth Crusade have been collected by Rohricht, in the publications of the Societe de l'Orient Latin for 1879 and 1882; the ten valuable letters of Oliver, bishop of Paderborn, and the Historia Damiettina, based on these letters, have also been edited by Rohricht in the Westdeutsche Zeitschrift per Geschichte and Kunst (1891).
Very convenient and accurate instruments based on the above principles have been devised by Lord Kelvin, and a large variety of these ampere balances, as they are called, suitable for measuring currents from a fraction of an ampere up to many thousands of amperes, have been constructed by that illustrious inventor.
14, probably based on Marius Maximus; Eutropius viii.
But the connexion with foreign parts led to the gradual introduction of a procedure resembling that coming into use on the continent and based on the Roman civil law.
He immediately began to complain to Hyde, earl of Clarendon, of the poverty of the see, and based claims for a better benefice on a certain secret service, which he explained on the 20th of January 1661 to be the sole invention of the Eikon Basilike, The Pourtraicture of his sacred Majestic in his Solitudes and Sufferings put forth within a few hours after the execution of Charles I.
This paper is principally based on the following general theorem, which is a remarkable extension of Pascal's hexagram: "If a polygon move so that each of its sides passes through a fixed point, and if all its summits except one describe curves of the degrees m, n, p, &c., respectively, then the free summit moves on a curve of the degree 2mnp. ..
His chief work is his Istorie della Gila di Firenze, covering the period from 1498 to 1538, in part based on Biagio Buonaccorsi's Diario.
Then came the stress of war in Europe, a wretched neutrality at home, fierce outbreaks of human passions, and the fair structure of government by a priori theories based on the goodness of unoppressed humanity came to the ground.
The canons of 1200 are based in large measure on recommendations of the Lateran Council of 1179.
of the document extant; our knowledge of it is based upon B.
Parts of it are based on the Capitulare legi Ribuariae additum of 803, and it seems to have been drawn up in the same conditions and circumstances as the law of the Saxons.
Ignacio de Loyola (Madrid, 1594), based on an early Latin work (Naples, 1572).
But the student may be referred to the modern books Henri Joli's St Ignace de Loyola (Paris, 1899), which is based on the best authorities, and to H.
His scientific fame is based mainly on his encouragement of astronomy.
The Confederates now abandoned all idea of regaining the Decatur line, and based themselves on Jonesboro' and the Macon railway.
It was based, therefore, on the great mosque at Kairawan, and although more or less rebuilt, it still preserves its original plan.
Thus he based Judaism on love, not on knowledge; love was the bond between God and man, and man's fundamental duty was love as expressed in obedience to God's will.
To the physicist matter is presented in three leading forms - solids, liquids and gases; and although further subdivisions have been rendered necessary with the growth of knowledge the same principle is retained, namely, a classification based on properties having no relation to composition.
From the mazy and incoherent alchemical and iatrochemical doctrines, the former based on false conceptions of matter, the latter on erroneous views of life processes and physiology, a new science arose - the study of the composition of substances.
was primarily based upon certain experiments on combustion and calcination, and in effect reduced the number of the alchemical principles, while setting up a new one, a principle of combustibility, named phlogiston (from (PXoyun-6s, burnt).
In addition to the vitalistic doctrine of the origin of organic compounds, views based on purely chemical considerations were advanced.
This tetrahedral configuration is based on the existence of only one methylene dichloride, two being necessary if the carbon valencies were directed from the centre of a plane square to its corners, and on the existence of two optical isomers of the formula C. A.
The preceding considerations render it comparatively easy to follow the reasoning on which the experimental verification of the EgaJva- above statements is based.
The formation of this substance readily follows from Kekule's formula, while considerable difficulties are met with when one attempts an explanation based on Ladenburg's representation.
Marckwald (Ann., 93, 74, 331; 1894, 79, 14) has supported this formula from considerations based on the syntheses of the quinoline ring.
The third formula is based on Dewar's benzene formula, which we have seen to be incorrect.
Formula (4) is symmetrical and based on Kekule's formula: it is in full accord with the syntheses and decompositions of the naphthalene nucleus and the number of isomers found.
The former, based on Kekule's symbol for benzene, explains the decompositions and syntheses of the ring, but the character of naphthalene is not in keeping with the presence of five double linkages, although it is more readily acted upon than benzene is.
Liebig; and certain others based on a different procedure have been suggested.
Photography is based on chemical action induced by luminous rays; apart from this practical application there are many other cases in which actinic rays occasion chemical actions; these are treated in the article Photochemistry.
Lorentz of Leiden, from considerations based on the Clausius-Mossotti theory of dielectrics.
The method is based on the supposition that the magnetic rotation measures the strain produced in the molecule by an auxochrome, and he arranges the groups in the following order: O.
A theory of a physical nature, based primarily upon Sir J.
The development of the theory of crystal structure, and the fundamental principles on which is based the classification of crystal forms, are treated in the article Crystallography; in the same place will be found an account of the doctrine of isomorphism, polymorphism and morphotropy.
Isomorphism is most clearly discerned between elements of analogous chemical properties; and from the wide generality of such observations attempts have been made to form a classification of elements based on isomorphous replacements.
Accepting this, he remained actively employed until 1839, when he made his first visit to Paris, taking with him an unfinished opera based on Bulwer Lytton's Rienzi, and, like his earlier attempts, on his own libretto.
Wagner's next and last work was Parsifal, based upon the legend of the Holy Grail, as set forth, not in the legend of the Morte d'Arthur, but in the versions of Chrestien de Troyes and Wolfram von Eschenbach and other less-known works.
There is a special pleasure in the subsidence of that meaning beneath a soothing sensation; but a system based thereon cannot be universal.
Its teaching as to the name of God, which claimed to be based on the authority of such eminent saints as St.
Thuasne (Paris, 1883-1884), which is characterized by accuracy and extraordinary candour often amounting to gross indecency; the despatches of Giustiniani, the Venetian ambassador, edited by P. Villari (Florence, 1876), which show great insight and are based on the most accurate information; and Paolo Cappelli's "Diarii" in E.
Schmidt, Tableaux de la Revolution francaise, &c. (Leipzig, 1867-1870), a collection of reports of the secret police on which the above work is based.
His French style, based partly on his Latin reading, has, together with its undeniable vigour and picturesqueness, the characteristic redundance and rhetorical quality of the Burgundian school.
It was upon a map based upon such a source that Eratosthenes (276-196 B.C.) measured the distance between Syene and Alexandria which he required for his determination of the length of a degree.
In fact, he demanded that maps should be based upon a regular projection, several 1 If, with W.
Climata based on the length of the longest day were introduced by Hippocrates (c. 400 B.C.).
Among geographers should be mentioned Posidonius (13-551), the head of the Stoic school of Rhodes, who is stated to be responsible for having reduced the length of a degree to 500 stadia; Artemidorus of Ephesus, whose " Geographumena " (c. Ioo B.C.) are based upon his own travels and a study of itineraries, and above all, Strabo, who has already been referred to.
The map is supposed to be based upon actual surveys or rather reconnaissances, and if it be borne in mind that.
the Roman Empire at that time was traversed in all directions by roads furnished with mile-stones, that the Agrimensores employed upon such a duty were skilled surveyors, and that the official reports of the commanders of military expeditions and of provincial governors were available, this map, as well as the provincial maps upon which it'was based, must have been a work of superior excellence, the loss of which is much to be regretted.
- Map of Albi (8th century) Aethicus a work widely read at the time, but this does not prove that the author was able to avail himself of a map based upon that survey.
One of the earliest plans of Jerusalem is contained in Gesta Francorum, a history of the Crusades up to 1106, based upon information furnished by Fulcherius of Chartres (c. 1109).
These maps are based upon information collected during many years at the instance of King Roger.
Among the more important productions of more recent times, may be mentioned a map of the empire, said to be based upon actual surveys by Yhang (721), who also manufactured FIG.
These charts are based upon estimated bearings and distances between the principal ports or capes, the intervening coast-line being filled in from more detailed surveys.
The so-called " Nancy globe " is of chased silver, richly ornamented, the earliest works are a map of Palestine (1537), a map of the world on a double heart-shaped projection (1525), and a topographical map of Flanders based upon his own surveys (1540), a pair of globes (1541, diam.
In no other country of Europe was there at the close of the 16th century a geographical establishment capable of competing with the Dutch towns or with Sanson, but the number of those who produced maps, in many instances based upon original surveys, was large.
32), delineated the Chinese Empire in accordance with the map based on the surveys conducted during the reign of the emperor Kanghi, with the aid of Jesuit missionaries, and published in 1718; boldly refused to believe in the existence of an Antarctic continent covering half the southern hemisphere, and always brought a sound judgment to bear upon the materials which the ever-increasing number of travellers placed at his disposal.
Among other French works of importance deserving notice are Le Neptune oriental of Mannevillette (1745) and more especially the Carte geometrique de la France, which is based upon surveys carried on (1744-1783) by Cesar Francois Cassini de Thury and his son Dominique de Cassini.
C. Mailer's Bavaria, both based on trigonometrical surveys.
Lehmann (1783) who based his method of hill-shading or hachuring upon these horizontal contours.
More than 80 methods of showing the hills have found advocates since that time, but all methods must be based upon contours to be scientifically satisfactory.
21 a contours are based upon instrumental measurement, and as a whole these ordnance maps were undoubtedly superior in accuracy, with rare exceptions, to similar maps published by foreign governments.
The hachured hills are based upon contours, and are of admirable commensurability.
The maps are based upon the cadastral plans (1: 1000), thoroughly revised and connected with the triangulation of France and furnished with contours at intervals of 5 m.
The Specialkarte of Austria-Hungary on a scale of r:75,000 (765 sheets), based upon a triangulation and cadastral surveys (1816-1867), was completed in 1889, and published in heliogravure.
1875), is based upon a triangulation (1809-1833) and surveys on a scale of 1:25,000 for the lowlands, r :50,000 for the alpine districts, and was published (1842-1865) on a scale of r:roo,000.
The new survey of the Netherlands, based upon General Krayenhoff's primary triangulation (1802-1811) was completed in 1855.
In Italy Tavulette rilevata on a scale of 1: 25,000 or 1: 50,000, with contours, based on surveys made 1862-1890, are being.
A similar map, mainly based upon surveys made by Austrian officers and revised by H.
Far superior to these maps is the Karte von Attika (1: ioo,000 and 1:25,000) based upon careful surveys made by Prussian officers and published by E.
Among maps based upon actual surveys those of Palestine, by Lieutenant G.
Of Java we possess an excellent topographical map based upon surveys made1850-1887(I:100,000).
A similar map has been in progress for Sumatra since 1883, while the maps for the remaining Dutch Indies are still based, almost exclusively, upon flying surveys.
It is based upon a careful triangulation, superintended by Sir D.
Of Italian Eritrea we have excellent maps on various scales of i :ioo,000, 1:200,000 and 1:500,000, based upon surveys made between 1888 and 1900.
They are based upon theodolite traverses 15 m.
It is based upon a triangulation by the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.
annually, and in course of time it will supersede the map of the separate states, based on older surveys.
Raimondi's Mapa del Peru (1 :500,000) based upon surveys made before 1869.
Hoskold's Mapa topografica (1: 2,000,000; London, 1895), which were published by it, nor any of the numerous provincial maps are based upon scientific surveys.
Their testimony is not based primarily on any objection to War.
He had a vision of a political economy based not on selfishness but on love, not on desire but on self-denial.
It figured in astronomical tables until the time of Copernicus, but is now known to have no foundation in fact, being based on an error in Ptolemy's determination of precession.
Brown wrote a criticism of Darwin's Zoonomia (1798), and was one of the first contributors to the Edinburgh Review, in the second number of which he published a criticism of the Kantian philosophy, based entirely on Villers's French account of it.
Hence a regular commerce in slaves was established, which was based on the " systematically-prosecuted hunting of man," and indicated an entire perversion of the primitive institution, which was essentially connected with conquest.
The History of the Abbots and the prose life of Cuthbert were based on earlier works which still survive.
They are based largely on the works of the four great Latin Fathers, SS.
This he modifies by explaining that self-interest is based on the relationships of life; a man needs money for the sake of his children, his friends and the state whose general prosperity depends on the wealth of its citizens.
De Rossi's Ronia sotterranea, on which most of the accounts in other languages than Italian have been based.
Works written in English are: Northcote and Brownlow, Roma sotterranea (London, 1869; based upon De Rossi); Wharton Marriott, The Testimony of the Catacombs (London, 1870); J.
The group of instincts which we class as imitative (and they afford only the foundations on which intelligent imitation is based) are of biological value chiefly, if not solely, in those species which form larger or smaller communities.
The true site can be determined, if at all, by excavation only; identifications based on mere outward similarity of names have always been fruitful sources of error.
He had not based his case against the Transvaal on the letter of the Conventions, and regarded the employment of the word "suzerainty" merely as an "etymological question," but he realized keenly that the spectacle of thousands of British subjects in the Transvaal in the condition of "helots" (as he expressed it) was undermining the prestige of Great Britain throughout South Africa, and he called for "some striking proof" of the intention of the British government not to be ousted from its predominant position.
The " parishes " date from 1807; they were based on an earlier Spanish division for religious purposes - whence the names of saints in parish nomenclature.
Gayarre, coming down to the war, based on deep and scholarly research, and greatly altered in successive editions.
Third Series of Lectures (N.Y., 1852); then, based upon the preceding, History of Louisiana: The French Domination (2 vols., N.Y., 1854) and The Spanish Domination (N.Y., 1854); a second edition of the last two works, supplemented by The American Domination (N.Y., 1866-1867, 4 vols.
The Cuban coast was uninterruptedly full of infection, and the danger of an outbreak in each year was never absent, until the work of the United States army in 1901-1902 conclusively proved that this disease, though ineradicable by the most extreme sanitary measures, based on the accepted theory of its origin as a filth-disease, could be eradicated entirely by removing the possibility of inoculation by the Stegomyia mosquito.
The promise of " special laws " based upon such consideration was therefore not, in itself, unjust, nor unwelcome.
1-2 of the book cited above, being the Historia fisica y politica, and also the earlier work on which they are based, Historia economica-politica y estadistica de..
Mathematical Logic as based on the Theory of Types,"Amer.
Thus rational mechanics, based on the Newtonian Laws, viewed as mathematics is independent of its supposed application, and hydrodynamics remains a coherent and respected science though it is extremely improbable that any perfect fluid exists in the physical world.
Primarily their system was based on the great principles enunciated by the immediate successors of the Prophet, especially by Omar, involving the absolute distinction between, and impartiality of treatment of, the Mussulman conquerors and the i As Dedeagatch is gaining, and will gradually gain, importance, it has been included in this table.
The conquered peoples fell into an inferior caste, made to work for, and to pay for the subsistence of, their conquerors, as under the Arab domination; the principal taxes exacted from them were the kharaj, a tax of indeterminate amount upon realty, based on the value of lands owned by unbelievers - (in contradistinction to the tithe [ashar] which was a tax of fixed amount upon lands owned by believers) - and levied in payment of the privilege of gaining means of existence in a Mussulman country, and the jiziye, a compulsory payment, or poll-tax, to which believers were not subjected, in lieu of military service.
The tithes were originally based on one-tenth of the agricultural produce of the country, but this proportion was gradually raised under the euphemistic pretence of " public instruction," but really, under financial pressure, to 12% and again in 1900 for military " equipments " (Tejhizat-i-'Askeriyeh) by a further 2% to 122%.
The intervention of the powers, based on the convention of London of the i 5th of July 1840, led to the withdrawal of Ibrahim from Syria, and the establishment by the firman of the 13th of February 1841 of Mehemet Ali as hereditary pasha of Egypt under conditions intended to safeguard the sovereign rights of the Ottoman sultan.
9), based on the best extant authorities; in Latin, the imitation of Apollonius (a free translation or adaptation of whose Argonautica was made by Terentius Varro Atacinus in the time of Cicero) by Valerius Flaccus.
Hitherto he had been based on the entrenched camp of Warsaw, but he had already taken steps to organize a new line of supply and retreat via Thorn, and this was now completed.
In these he seems suddenly to have cut adrift from every principle the truth of which he had himself so brilliantly demonstrated, and we find him discussing plans based on hypothesis, not knowledge, and on the importance of geographical points without reference to the enemy's field army.
The facts as to the position of an opponent accurately observed and correctly reported at a given moment, afford no reliable guarantee of his position 48 hours later, when the orders based on this information enter upon execution.
The scheme of invasion was based on the Boulogne flotilla, a device inherited from the old French royal government, through the Republic. Its object was to throw a great army ashore on the coast between Dover and Hastings.
All these views have, however, been cast in the shade by more recent investigations based on minute literary analysis of the Pentateuch, begun by Graf, continued by Kuenen, and culminating in the work of Wellhausen and Robertson Smith.
His criticism is based on the common misinterpretation of the scientist's theory.
(For the theory based on Plutarch, Aristid.
In 1846 he achieved high reputation by his Life of David Hume, based upon extensive and unused MS. material.
But many hold that his letters and essays are finer contributions to pure literature, and that on these exquisite mixtures of wisdom, pathos, melody and humour his fame is likely to be ultimately based.
The empirical data on which the hydrodynamical investigations are based are: (I) observed velocities and directions of oceanic currents and drifts; (2) salinity; (3) density; (4) temperature of the sea water in situ; (5) oceanic soundings.
HoppeSeyler, based primarily on solubilities and distribution, may be conveniently retained.
Based on rivers (the navigation of which greatly improved) and the sea, he formed depots or magazines of provisions at many points, which enabled him always to take and keep the field.
Accordingly the conception of the ark must be based in the first instance upon the beliefs of the particular clans or tribes whose sacred object it was.
Kohlrausch formulated a theory of electrolytic conduction based on the idea that, under the action of the electric forces, the oppositely charged ions moved in opposite directions through the liquid, carrying their charges with them.
On the other hand, it is commonly thought that the single potentialdifferences at the surface of metals and electrolytes have been determined by methods based on the use of the capillary electrometer and on others depending on what is called a dropping electrode, that is, mercury dropping rapidly into an electrolyte and forming a cell with the mercury at rest in the bottom of the vessel.
The attitude of the second group is based on a mistake as to the technical meaning of "the second year of Edward VI.," the second Prayer Book not having come into use till the third year.
It becomes, then, a question whether the present-day practice of many of the clergy, ostensibly based on the rubric of 1549, is in fact covered by this.
Tomlinson, The Prayer Book, Articles and Homilies (1897), a polemical work from the Protestant point of view, but scholarly and based on a mass of contemporary authorities to which references are given; the bishop of Exeter, The Ornaments Rubric (London, 1901), a pamphlet.
This would fix the date of his death in 738; and, as Alcuin tells us he was eighty-one years old when he died, it may be inferred that he was born in 657 - a theory on which all the dates given above are based, though it must be added that they are substantially confirmed by the incidental notices of Bede.
In a later scheme based on our increased knowledge of fossil forms, the Brachiopoda are divided into four primary groups (orders).
Beecher's division of the Brachiopoda into four orders is based largely on the character of the aperture through which the stalk or pedicle leaves the shell.
The following scheme of classification is based on Beecher's and Schubert's.
In 1771 he published his well-known Commentary on the Psalms, a series of expositions based on the Messianic idea.
In the process the yield in metal, based upon the charge in the kettle, is lead 99%, silver loo-}- %, gold 98-100%.
1170) in Foucon de Candie (Candie = Gandia in Spain ?) is the return of Guillaume from the battle; and the Italian compilation I Nerbonesi, based on these and other chansons, seems in some cases to represent an earlier tradition than the later of the French chansons, although its author Andrea di Barberino wrote towards the end of the 14th century.
The minnesinger Wolfram von Eschenbach based his Willehalm on a French original which must have differed from the versions we have.
The latter work appears to have been based on the story of the drum which was alleged to have been heard every night in a house in Wiltshire (Tedworth, belonging to a Mr Mompesson), a story which made much noise in the year 1663, and which is supposed to have furnished Addison with the idea of his comedy the Drummer.
From the beginning until about 1324 this work is based upon Adam Murimuth's Continuatio chronicarum, but after this date it is valuable and interesting, containing information not found elsewhere, and closing with a good account of the battle of Poitiers.
The failure of the method based on transits of Venus led to an international effort carried out on the initiative of Sir David Gill to measure the parallax by observations on those minor planets which approach nearest the earth.
The indirect method is based upon the observed constant of aberration or the displacement of the stars due to the earth's motion.
From the observed motion of the node of Venus, as shown by the four transits of 1761, 1769, 1874 and 1882, is found Mass of (earth +moon) _Mass of sun 332600 In gravitational units of mass, based on the metre and second as units of length and time, Log.
Upon one of these is based the principle of the mariner's compass, which is said to have been known to the Chinese as early as I ioo B.C., though it was not introduced into Europe until more than 2000 years later; a magnet supported so that its axis is free to turn in a horizontal plane will come to rest with its poles pointing approximately north and south.
This experiment proves that the condition of magnetization is not confined to those parts where polar phenomena are exhibited, but exists throughout the whole body of the magnet; it also suggests the idea of molecular magnetism, upon which the accepted theory of magnetization is based.
- The so-called " ballistic " method of measuring induction is based upon the fact that a change of the induction through a closed linear conductor sets up in the conductor an electromotive force which is proportional to the rate of change.
Nickel was believed by Thomson to behave oppositely to iron, becoming negative when magnetized; but though his conclusion was accepted for nearly fifty years, it has recently been shown to be an erroneous one, based, no doubt, upon the result of an experiment with an impure specimen.
His title to be honoured as the " Father of Magnetic Philosophy " is based even more largely upon the scientific method which he was the first to inculcate and practise than upon the importance of his actual discoveries.
With a charter, or a representative system based on population, he would have nothing to do.
The Christian legend, which is no doubt in the main based on the Jewish, is found in Greek, Syriac, Armenian, Slavonic and Medieval Latin.
It is based on Procopius, whose very words are to some extent copied, and indeed it adds nothing to what the latter tells us, except the statement that Tribonian was the son of Macedonianus, was lore) Suc. r yopwv uirap X wv, and was a heathen and atheist, wholly averse to the Christian faith.
Appointed, in 1754, professor of geometry in the royal school of artillery, he formed with some of his pupils - for the most part his seniors - friendships based on community of scientific ardour.
Montono dissenting both from the conclusion of his colleagues and from the reasons on which it was based.
Any application for a revision of the award must be based on the discovery of new evidence of such a nature as to exercise a decisive influence on the judgment and unknown up to the time when the hearing was closed, both to the tribunal itself and to the party asking for the revision.
Its eminence, however, was so largely based upon dalliance with Roman society, its weakness so great in having only a mythical character, instead of a personality, as an object of adoration, and in excluding women from its privileges, that it fell rapidly before the assaults of Christianity.
The civil code of the republic is based upon Roman law.
In a temperate and learned speech, based on Fox's declaration against constitution-mongering, he supported both the enfranchising and the disfranchising clauses, and easily disposed of the cries of "corporation robbery," "nabob representation," "opening for young men of talent," &c. The following year (1832) found Campbell solicitor-general, a knight and member for Dudley, which he represented till 1834.
An outlawed Englishman, Hereward by name, fortified the Isle of Ely and attracted a number of desperate spirits to his side; amongst others came Morcar, formerly earl of Northumbria, who had been disappointed in the hopes which he based on William's personal favour.
He based his foreign policy on alliance with Florence and France, and directed the internal affairs of the state by means of the council (collegio) of the balia, which, although occasionally reorganized for the purpose of conciliating rival factions, was always subject to his will.
The rejection of Anglican orders in the 16th and 17th centuries was based on a theory about the " tradition of instruments," which has long ceased to be tenable in the face of history, and is abandoned by Romanists themselves.
Joao III (1844), prepared Herculano for his life's work, and the year 1846 saw the first volume of his History of Portugal from the Beginning of the Monarchy to the end of the Reign of Affonso III., a book written on critical lines and based on documents.
And accordingly it gave rise to the three great doctrines which divided the medieval schools: Realism of the Platonic type, embodied in the formula universalia ante rein; Realism of the Aristotelian type, universalia in re; and Nominalism, including Conceptualism, expressed by the phrase universalia post rem, and also claiming to be based upon the Peripatetic doctrine.
Erigena pronounces no express opinion upon the question which was even then beginning to occupy men's minds; but his Platonico-Christian theory of the Eternal Word as containing in Himself the exemplars of created things is equivalent to the assertion of universalia His whole system, indeed, is based upon the idea of the divine as the exclusively real, of which the world of individual existence is but the theophany; the special and the individual are immanent, therefore, in the general.
1207; see Amalric and MYsTicism), though based by him upon a revival of Scotus Erigena, was doubtless connected in its origin with the Neoplatonic treatises which now become current.
The soul must be immaterial since it has the power of cognizing the universal; and its immortality is further based by St Thomas on the natural longing for unending existence which belongs to a being whose thoughts are not confined to the " here " and " now," but are able to abstract from every limitation.
The freedom here spoken of is a freedom from the immediacy of impulse - a freedom based upon our possession of reason as a power of comparison, memory and forethought.
Estimates, based on a census of the tax-paying peasantry in the years 1494 and 1495, give five millions of inhabitants, a very respectable number, which explains fully the predominant position of Hungary in the east of Europe at that epoch.
The constitution of Hungary is in many respects strikingly analogous to that of Great Britain, more especially in the fact that it is based on no written document but on immemorial prescription, confirmed or modified by a series of enactments, of which the earliest and most famous was the Golden Bull of Andrew III.
The ancient constitution, often suspended and modified, based upon this charter, was reformed under the influence of Western Liberalism in 1848, the supremacy of the Magyar race, however, being secured by a somewhat narrow franchise.
The House of Representatives consists of members elected, under the Electoral Law of 1874, by a complicated franchise based upon property, taxation, profession or official position, and ancestral privileges.3 The house consists of 453 members, of which 413 are deputies elected in Hungary and 43 delegates of Croatia-Slavonia sent by the parliament of that province.
Although he broke off the Magyar tribal system, encouraged the private ownership of land, and even made grants of land on condition of military service... he based his new principle of government, not on feudalism, but on the organization of the Frankish empire, which he adapted.
Both Charles and Louis were diplomatists as well as soldiers, and their foreign policy, largely based on family alliances, was almost invariably successful.
Rado-Rothfeld, Die ungarische Verfassung (Berlin, 1898) and, based on this, A.
As a masterly production based on extensive investigation, we note the Wesselenyi Ferencz.
Laplace was, moreover, the first to offer a complete analysis of capillary action based upon a definite hypothesis - that of forces "sensible only at insensible distances"; and he made strenuous but unsuccessful efforts to explain the phenomena of light on an identical principle.
This reaction has taken the form of a return to the alliance between algebra and geometry (ï¿½5), on which modern analytical geometry is based; the alliance, however, being concerned with the application of graphical methods to particular cases rather than to general expressions.
These formulae are of two kinds: - (a) the general properties, such as m(a+b) = ma+mb, on which algebra is based, and (b) particular formulae such as (x - a) (x+a) = x 2 - a 2 .
This latter process, however, is itself based on a definition of division in terms of multiplication (ï¿½ï¿½ 15, 16).
The development is based on the necessity of being able to represent geometrical magnitude by arithmetical magnitude; and it may be regarded as consisting of three stages.
Although the results of ordinary algebra will be taken for granted, it is convenient to give the principal rules upon which it is based.
His notation is based on that of Vieta, but he introduced the sign X for multiplication, - for continued proportion, :: for proportion, ' and denoted ratio by one dot.
His notation is based primarily on that of Harriot; but he differs from that writer in retaining the first letters of the alphabet for the known quantities and the final letters for the unknowns.
The "High Church" view, now predominant, is practically identical with that of the Gallicans and Febronians, and is based on Catholic practice in those ages of the Church to which, as well as to the Bible, the formularies of the Church of England make appeal.
Methodist episcopacy is therefore based on the denial of any special potestas ordinis in the degree of bishop, and is fundamentally distinct from that of the, Catholic Church - using this term in its narrow sense as applied to the ancient churches of the East and West.
The money required for local administration in England is raised (when the ordinary revenues are insufficient) by assessments on lands and buildings based on their annual rental value.
The earliest rate levied in England was that for poor relief, and of the great variety of rates now existing, the majority are based on the poor rate and levied with it, under the term of precept rates.
This article, which was based upon a mass of incriminating documents supplied to Friedjung by the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Office, had been timed to coincide with the outbreak of hostilities against Serbia, and was to have been the first of a series convicting the Serbian Government and dynasty of aggressive and even murderous designs.
Under his weaker but more neutral guidance, and aided by the unifying force of the Adriatic crisis, the parties reached agreement upon a new parliamentary franchise, based on universal suffrage.
Contemporaneous with these were various schemes of classification which were based, not on a consideration of the entire structure of each animal, but on the variations of a single organ, or on the really non-significant fact of the structure of the egg.
General Tendencies Since Darwin Darwin may be said to have founded the science of bionomics, and at the same time to have given new stimulus and new direction to morphography, physiology, and plasmology, by uniting them as contributories to one common biological doctrine-the doctrine of organic evolution-itself but a part of the wider doctrine of universal evolution based on the laws of physics and chemistry.
Every higher vertebrate animal possesses the power of forming for itself a series of cerebral mechanisms or reasoned conclusions based on its individual experience, in proportion as it has a large cerebrum and has got rid of or has acquired the power of controlling its inherited instincts.
The general explanation of the formation of shadows may also be conveniently based upon Fresnel's zones.
It appears that Fresnel's results, although based on an imperfect theory, require only insignificant corrections.
The Teubner text by Naber is based on this.
Such an enthusiasm of militant piety, plainly based on actual successes of Israel and the house of Aaron, can only be referred to the first victories of the Maccabees, culminating in the purification of the Temple in 164 B.C. This restoration of the worship of the national sanctuary, under circumstances that inspired religious feelings very different from those of any other generation since the return from Babylon, might most naturally be followed by an extension of the Temple psalmody; it certainly was followed by some liturgical innovations, for the solemn service of dedication on the 25th day of Chisleu was made the pattern of a new annual feast (that mentioned in John x.
The original music of the psalms was therefore apparently based on popular melodies.
The laws are based on Roman-Dutch law, as modified by local acts.
The British official History of the War gave the number as 87,000; another calculation, based on the number killed, taken prisoner and surrendered, made the total 90,000.
Kelly Kenny, Colvile and Chermside held the communications based on Bloemfontein.
those which were called forth by passing events), the author is called "the son of Amoz" and Rabbinical legend identifies this Amoz with a brother of Ama