Basalt sentence example
The soil, of decomposed basalt, is wonderfully fertile.
Such rocks as basalt, diorite and trachyte are comparatively rare.
Large areas are overlain with trachyte, basalt, obsidian, tuff and pumice.
In most cases the eruptions appear to be of Pliocene or later date, but in the extreme north some of the basalt seems to belong to the Miocene period.
It is formed of basalt, trachyte and phonolite, and the soil is very fertile.Advertisement
Rocks belonging to the Cretaceous system at one time covered considerable areas on both sides of the Highlands, but they have been entirely stripped off the eastern side, while on the western they have been reduced to a few fragmentary patches, which have survived because of the overlying sheets of basalt that have protected them.
These rocks form a prominent feature underneath the basalt terraces of the east side of Skye, Raasay and Eigg.
The objects found in these researches are in the museum, the most notable being a great basalt bull, probably once an object of cult in the Serapeum.
This iron is considered by several of the first authorities"on the subject to be of meteoric origin,' but no evidence hitherto given seems to prove decisively that it cannot be telluric. That the nodules found were lying on gneissic rock, with no basaltic rocks in the neighbourhood, does not prove that the iron may not originate from basalt, for the nodules may have been transported by the glaciers, like other erratic blocks, and will stand erosion much longer than the basalt, which may long ago have disappeared.
The hills west of the town consist of horizontal strata of sandstone covered with irregular pieces of basalt and the top of the hill on which the observatory stood was made level by taking away the basalt.Advertisement
These are worked in brown basalt, syenite, porphyry, alabaster and limestone.
In later days, in the time of the Sargonid kings of Akkad or the monarchs of Ur, stones such is granite, basalt, diorite and dolerite were probably brought from the Sinaitic peninsula, if not from the western desert of Egypt, if the Red Sea coast is to be identified, as seems very probable, with Magan, " the place to which ships went," the land whence the Babylonians got some of their first stones for sculpture and architecture.
These beds, as well as the Cretaceous series, from which they are as yet only imperfectly distinguished, are associated with sheets of basalt, which penetrate them in great dikes, and in some places, owing to the wearing away of the softer sedimentary rocks, stand out in long walls running across the beds.
This iron seems, however, in several respects to be unlike the celebrated large nodules of iron found by Nordenskiold at Ovifak, but appears to resemble much more closely the softer kind of iron nodules found by Steenstrup in the basalt;' it stands exposure to the air equally well, and has similar Widmannstaten figures very sharp, as is to be expected in such a large mass.
The rocks on the verge of the Kisumu province of East Africa are mainly volcanic (basalt, tuff, lava, kenyte).Advertisement
In the Eastern province the rocks are mainly quartz, gneiss and granite, with sandstone in Busoga, basalt round Mt Elgon, slate (Busoga) and iron- g stone (Busoga and Bukedi).
In the Rudolf province there and are the basalt, lava, tuff and kenyte of the volcanic mineralogy.
The tree has a remarkable appearance, due to shedding its primary branches for about five-sixths of its height and replacing them by a small bushy growth, the whole resembling a tall column crowned with foliage, suggesting to its discoverer, Captain Cook, a tall column of basalt.
They are formed of trachyte, dolerite and basalt.
Steenstrup in several places on the west coast enclosed as smaller or larger nodules in the basalt.Advertisement
The lavas and ashes ejected by these volcanoes consist of liparite, dacite, andesite and basalt.
The summits of the flattopped hills about Betsy Cove, in the south-east of the island, are formed of caps of basalt.
Many of the oceanic islets are composed of coral limestone, which in this way becomes phosphatized; others are igneous, consisting of trachyte or basalt, and these rocks are also phosphatized on their surfaces but are not so valuable, inasmuch as the presence of iron or alumina in any quantity renders them unsuited for the preppration of artificial manures.
Dr Bunge found Bolshoy to consist of granite protruding from beneath non-fossiliferous deposits; while the promontory of Svyatoy Nos Qonsists of basalt hills, 1400 ft.
The volcanic fissures that allowed of the upwelling of basalt are represented by numerous dykes, many cutting the earlier lava-flows as well as all the beds below them.Advertisement
The glens of Antrim are deep notches cut by seaward-running streams through the basalt scarp, their floors being formed of Triassic or older rocks.
In the Hauran 22.16 is shown by a basalt door (British Museum), and perhaps elsewhere in Syria (25).
On the north-west are several conical hills of basalt, which are surrounded by oases of fertile soil.
The sapphire occurs also in Europe, being found in the Iserweise of Bohemia and in the basalt of the Rhine valley and of Le-Puy-en-Velay in France, but the European stones have no interest as gems.
With the exception of the coral and a small amount of calcareous sandstone, the rocks are entirely volcanic and range from basalt to trachyte, but are mainly basalt.Advertisement
They include colossal figures of Aesculapius and Bacchus, and the lower half of a seated Egyptian divinity in black basalt, bearing the cartouche of Tethmosis (Thothmes) I.
The town is still surrounded by the masonry walls of black basalt which give it the name of Kara or Black Amid; they are well built and imposing on the west facing the open country, but almost in ruins where they overlook the river.
Augite-andesite predominates, but basalt and rhyolite also occur.
In both occurrences, however, there is still the possibility that the eclogite or the basalt is not the original matrix, but may have caught up the already formed diamond from some other matrix.
The ground is here covered with black basalt.Advertisement
In the middle of the ruins are the scattered remains of a synagogue of richly ornamental style built of black basalt.
An instructive example of the similar destruction of a much younger platform is to be found in the terraced plateaus of Skye, Eigg, Canna, Muck, Mull and Morven, which are portions of what was probably originally a continuous plain of basalt.
Above the highest Secondary rocks on the west coast come terraced plateaus of basalt, which spread out over wide areas in Skye, Eigg, 1VIull and Morven, and form most of the smaller islets of the chain of the Inner Hebrides.
These plateaus are composed of nearly horizontal sheets of basalt - columnar, amorphous or amygdaloidal - which, in Ben More, in Mull, attain a thickness of more than 3000 ft.
The presence of these fossils indicates that the eruptions were subaerial, and a comparison of them with those elsewhere found among Older Tertiary strata shows that they probably belong to the Oligocene stage of the Tertiary series of formations, and therefore that the basalt eruptions took place in early Tertiary time.Advertisement
It appears to have resembled in its main features those remarkable outpourings of basalt which have deluged so many thousand square miles of the western area of the United States.
The eruptions were connected with innumerable fissures up which the basalt rose and from numerous points on which it flowed out at the surface.
These fissures with the basalt that solidified in them now form the vast assemblage of dykes which cross Scotland, the north of England and the north of Ireland.
Geologically, its northern half is composed of Torridonian sandstone, with basalt at points between the West coast and the centre, of gabbro in the south-east, with a belt of gneissose rocks on its east seaboard and of quartz-porphyry in the south-west.
The play of colour is exquisite, the basalt combining every tint of warm red, brown and rich maroon; sea-weeds and lichens paint the cave green and gold; while the lime that has filtered through has crusted the pillars here and there a pure snow-white.Advertisement
South of the Yarmuk the formation is Cretaceous, Hauran basalt being found only in the eastern portion.
There are some small industries, embracing textile manufactures, oil mills and tanneries, and a trade in wine, while near the town are extensive quarries of basalt.
All the rocks are of basalt and greyishtinted lavas, excepting some beds of upraised coral.
Columnar basalt is seen in several places.
This iron needed no tempering, and the Celts had probably found it ready smelted by nature, just as the Eskimo had learned of themselves to use telluric iron embedded in basalt.Advertisement
It is worthy of note that the dykes and sheets of felsite are seldom pierced by the basalt dykes and are probably about the most recent of the intrusive rocks.
Finally the basic dykes of dolerite, basalt and augite-andesite are abundant and traverse the various sedimentary formations and the granite.
The great igneous masses of Troodos, &c., consisting of diabase, basalt and serpentine, are of later date.
The recent lavas of the still active volcanoes of the south are olivine-bearing hypersthene-andesite and basalt.'
The rock itself is basalt, with a tendency to columnar formation, and some parts of it have a magnetic quality.
The northern part of the western side of the anticline is broken off by a great fault in the valley of the Eden, and the scarp thus formed is rendered more abrupt by the presence of a sheet of intrusive basalt.
The streets of Naples are generally well-paved with large blocks of lava or volcanic basalt.
The geological core of the system consists of primitive argillaceous schists, capped by quartzite and broken through in places by basalt.
In the Rajmahal Hills basaltic lava flows are interbedded with the Gondwana deposits, and in the Karharbari coalfield the Gondwana beds are traversed by dikes of mica-peridotite and basalt, which are supposed to be of the same age as the Rajmahal lavas.
The powerful erosion has often caused the columnar black basalt to assume weird and fantastic shapes.
The town lies at the foot of an extinct volcano, the Montagne St Loup, and is built of black volcanic basalt, which gives it a gloomy appearance.
The fjords and glens which cut into it are shut in by precipitous walls of basalt, which plainly shows that they have been formed by erosion through the mass of the plateau.
The principal varieties are basalt and palagonitic breccias, the former covering two-thirds of the entire area, the latter the remaining one-third.
The palagonitic breccias, which stretch in an irregular belt across the island, are younger than the basalt.
In the north-west, north and east the coasts are formed of basalt, and rise in steep, gloomy walls of rock to altitudes of 3000 ft.
Deposits of clay, with remains of plants of the Tertiary period, lignite and tree-trunks pressed flat, which the Icelanders call surtarbrandur, occur in places in the heart of the basalt formation.
All over Iceland, in both the basalt and breccia formations, there occur small intrusive beds and dikes of liparite, and as this rock is of a lighter colour than the basalt, it is visible from a distance.
The fundamental formation is a series of great sheets of columnar basalt, 70 to Ioo ft.
Upon the basalt rests the so-called Coal formation, 35 to 50 ft.
The alteration of the fossiliferous Lias by dolerite at Portrush into a flinty rock that looked like basalt served at one time as a prop for the " Neptunist " theory of the origin of igneous rocks.
Probably its original thickness Lough Neagh Tertiary Clays Eocene Basalt and Dolerite Cretaceous Trias, sometimes surmounted by Lower Jurassic Upper Carboniferous Carboniferous was not more than 150 ft., while now only from 40 to loo ft.
The basalt again broke out, through dikes that cut even the Mourne granite, and some of the best-known columnar masses of lava overlie the red deposits of iron-ore and mark this second basaltic epoch.
Probably before this period the movements of subsidence had set in which faulted the basalt plateaus, lowered them to form the basin of Lough Neagh, and broke up the continuity of the volcanic land of the North Atlantic area.
The rocks of Tristan da Cunha are felspathic basalt, dolerite, augite-andesite, sideromelane and palagonite; some specimens of the basalt have porphyritic augite.
The additional strata consist of the immense quantities of volcanic material on the plateau of East Africa, the basalt flows of West Africa and possibly those of the Zambezi basin.
There occur also quartz-porphyry (Sierra Morena, Pyrenees, &c), diorite, porphyrite, diabase (well developed in the north of Andalusia, where it plays a great part in the structure of the Sierra Morena), ophite (Pyrenees, Cadiz), serpentine (forming an enormous mass in the Serrania de Ronda), trachyte, liparite, andesite, basalt.
For a considerable distance above the falls the river flows over a level sheet of basalt, its valley bounded by low and distant sandstone hills.
In the Recent Tertiary period the soils of these plains and valleys have been greatly enriched by extensive outbursts of basalt with accompanying tuffs.
The surroundings of Mount Tronador, consisting of Tertiary granite and basalt, form one of the most interesting regions in the Patagonian Andes for the mountaineers of the future.
Thus plant-beds in the basalt of Scotland and Ireland were called Miocene; and in the Arctic regions and in North America even plant-beds of Upper Cretaceous age were referred to the same period.
The volcanic origin of the whole archipelago is proved by the principal rocks being of basalt, trachyte and lava.
The usual branch services are considerably augmented by mineral traffic from the basalt quarries near Christow.
Seismic energy seemed to be highly attenuated by basalt.
Between these are structurally weaker palaeosol horizons of weathered basalt that encourage localized collapse as the wear back and undermine the overlying basalt.
It is made out of locally found materials such as quartz, blue mussel shells, black basalt and worn down colored glass.
The dark basalt overlies a thin band of chalk, which forms a strong contrast in color whenever it is visible.
The three volcanic cones are relatively old and comprise late-stage fractionated and highly vesicular basalt.
The little museum had a completely different feel with the hard black basalt, but because of that the carvings remained much sharper.
These can erupt sheets of flood basalt lava at the Earth's surface.
However, the summits along the edge of the basalt escarpment have much steeper slopes which plummet toward Belfast.
Small wooded glens on steep slopes of basalt uplands.
Upper Basalt Formation Comprise a crudely-bedded succession of lava flows, columnar jointed lava flows, ash-falls and red-weathered horizons (or boles ).
Agates may also be found in the tertiary basalt lavas of some areas on the west coast.
The Larne Coast is an undulating lowland to the east of the Larne Basalt Moorland.
Paved with polygonal slabs of basalt brought from the hills, it crossed marshland, valleys, streams and mountains.
The black basalt outcrops have a distinctive, sheer profile which is broken by a series of steep, wooded glens.
The fauna and flora (including nesting peregrines ), of this basalt based grassland reserve will form the basis of the tour.
One large basalt pestle constituted the only complete groundstone tool recovered this season.
Like Solomon's in Layout The two basalt pillars in the porch had no structural purpose.
Shallow ridges extend from the basalt escarpment to the south to create an undulating plateau.
The surface of the basalt plateau is rolling, with a series of broad ridges aligned northwest to southeast.
The communities develop on extensive crags of calcareous basalt, which provides a refugium for a rich calcicolous flora.
These little bubbles eventually had other crystals deposited in them to give white speckles in the basalt.
The sheer strangeness of this place and the bizarre regularity of its 37,000 basalt columns has made it the subject of numerous legends.
Detailed topography is largely controlled by a succession of Tertiary basalt lava flows that define successive, large-scale steps within the landscape.
A black basalt urn will be much, much heavier than a cut crystal vase.
The steeper slopes, on the edge of the basalt moorland to the north, become progressively more wooded toward the east.
This is due to the strong remanent magnetization of fresh basalt lavas at the sea floor.
Rhombic crystals on a crust of tiny calcite crystals covering basalt matrix.
More frequent eruptions of basalt and rhyolite lava flows have occurred before and after the large caldera-forming events.
Basalt was erupted also along the rifted margin of eastern India (Rajmahal).
The large basalt boulders were split up into sizes the knapper could handle by heating, and shattered into fragments with gun-like reports.
In the example of Figure 3, tho, the sedimentary P-wave velocities are significantly lower than the basalt S-wave velocities.
In preparing for a hot stone massage, the therapist heats smooth black basalt stones in water heated to 120-150 degrees Fahrenheit.
The university, founded in 1869, built mainly of basalt, has schools of arts, medicine, chemistry and mineralogy.
Two days' journey beyond Rakka, where the Euphrates breaks through the basalt dike of el-IIamme, are two admirably preserved ruins, built of gypsum and basalt, that on the Mesopotamian side called Zelebiya (Chanuga), and that on the Syrian, much the finer of the two, Halebiya or Zenobiya, the ancient Zenobia.
These are modified forms of basic rocks such as basalt, dolerite and diabase.
Besides huge masses of old schists and sandstones, the range contains extensive limestone, marble, diorite, basalt and porphyry formations, while granite prevails on its southern slopes.
The church of Preshute, largely rebuilt, but preserving its Norman pillars, has a curious piscina, and a black basalt font of great size dating from 1100-1150, in which according to a very old tradition King John was baptized.
In alluvial deposits the richest ground is usually found in contact with the "bed rock"; and, when the overlying cover of gravel is very thick, or, as sometimes happens, when the older gravel is covered with a flow of basalt, regular mining by shafts and levels, as in what are known as tunnel-claims, may be required to reach the auriferous ground.
The Nile at the Ripon Falls leaps over a basalt dike.
The Nahuatl lapidaries had at hand many varieties of workable and beautiful stone - onyx, marble, limestone, quartz and quartz crystal, granite, syenite, basalt, trachyte, rhyolite, diorite and obsidian, the best of material prepared for them by nature; while the Mayas had only limestone, and hard, tenacious rock with which to work it, and timber for burning lime.
His idol was a huge block of basalt (still thought to be preserved in Mexico), on one side of which he is sculptured in hideous form, adorned with the feathers of the humming-bird.
The dome of Knocklayd, capped by an outlier of chalk and basalt, consists mostly of this far more ancient series.
In the Miocene period andesites of various kinds were erupted, while at the close of the Pliocene began the great eruptions of basalt which reached their maximum in Quaternary times and continue to the present day.'
These deities are not easily ' One of the most important sources for the ancient Mexican traditions and myths is the so-called " Codex Chimalpopoca," a manuscript in the Mexican language discovered by the Abbe analysed, but on the other hand Tonatiuh and Metztli, the sun and moon, stand out distinctly as nature gods, and the traveller still sees in the huge adobe pyramids of Teotihuacan, with their sides oriented to the four quarters, an evidence of the importance of their worship. The war-god Huitzilopochtli was the real head of the Aztec pantheon; his idol remains in Mexico, a huge block of basalt on which is sculptured on the one side his hideous personage, adorned with the humming-bird feathers on the left hand which signify his name, while the not less frightful war-goddess Teoyaomiqui, or " divine wardeath," occupies the other side.
Figure 9, Plate I., shows the top of the De Beers' crater with basalt overlying the shale.
The hamlet of Aremberg is at the foot of a basalt hill 2067 ft.
Basalt and tuff, probably of Tertiary age, form the great mass of the Cameroon mountain, also the island of Fernando Po.
A hard and fine-grained quartzite sandstone was quarried at Jebel Ahmar behind Heliopolis, and basalt was found thence along the eastern edge of the Delta to near the Wadi Tumilat.
The Saitic heads in basalt show a school of close observation, with fair power of rendering the personal character; and even in Roman times there still were provincial artists who could model a face very truthfully, as is shown in one case in.
The materials are quartz crystal, basalt, porphyry, syenite, granite, volcanic ash, various metamorphics, serpentine, slate, dolomite marble, alabaster, many colored marbles, saccharine marble, grey and white limestones.
The islands are volcanic, the main geological formation being Tertiary or Jurassic basalt, which occasionally protrudes through the ice-cap in high isolated blocks near the shore.
The bulk of the mountain consists of andesite, but porphyry, obsidian, trachyte, basalt, and.
Where lava has been piled up in successive nearly horizontal sheets, with occasional layers of tuff or other softer rock between them, it offers conditions peculiarly favourable for the formation of escarpments, as in the wide basalt plateaus of the Inner Hebrides.
The Carboniferous beds contain numerous sheets and flows of basalt and andesite.
Cretaceous rocks occur around the basalt platform of the Cameroon mountain and generally along the coastal belt.
Thousands of feet of basalt have been worn away from many parts of its surface; deep and wide valleys have been carved out of it; and so enormously has it been wasted, that it has been almost entirely stripped from wide tracts which it formerly covered and where only scattered outliers remain to prove that it once existed.