Basal-ganglia sentence example
In the region of the neck lateral strands pass through the transverse canal of the cervical vertebrae; but from the thoracic region onwards, where the cardiac branch to the heart is given off, each strand is double and the basal ganglia are successively connected with the next by a branch which runs ventrally over the capitulum of the rib, and by another which passes directly through the foramen or space formed between capitulum and tuberculum.
Case 8 Cerebral embolus from atrial myxoma Findings Subtle reduced density in the left basal ganglia on CT.
In this chapter, recent advances in understanding the neuropsychology of basal ganglia disorders are described in detail.
Traditionally, the basal ganglia have been associated with motor processes, although recent evidence suggests that they may also subserve parallel cognitive functions.
In addition to abnormalities in the production or absorption of these chemical messengers, imaging studies indicate that the blood flow and metabolism in a part of the brain called the basal ganglia are abnormally low.Advertisement
The basal ganglia are groups of nerve cells deep in the brain that control movement as well as emotion and certain aspects of thinking.
Movement is produced and coordinated by several interacting brain centers, including the motor cortex, the cerebellum, and a group of structures in the inner portions of the brain called the basal ganglia.
The basal ganglia send output messages to the motor cortex, helping to initiate movements, regulate repetitive or patterned movements, and control muscle tone.
Circuits within the basal ganglia are complex.
Within this structure, some groups of cells begin the action of other basal ganglia components and some groups of cells block the action.Advertisement
A portion of the basal ganglia called the substantia nigra sends electrical signals that block output from another structure called the subthalamic nucleus.
Disruptions in other portions of the basal ganglia are thought to cause tics, tremors, dystonia, and a variety of other movement disorders, although the exact mechanisms are not well understood.
Transplantation of fetal cells into the basal ganglia has produced mixed results in Parkinson's disease and is being researched for application in other movement disorders.
Fetal tissue transplantation-A method of treating Parkinson's and other neurological diseases by grafting brain cells from human fetuses onto the basal ganglia.
Parkinson's disease-A slowly progressive disease that destroys nerve cells in the basal ganglia and thus causes loss of dopamine, a chemical that aids in transmission of nerve signals (neurotransmitter).Advertisement