He then seized, but soon released, Stephen Colonna and some other barons who had spoken disparagingly of him.
Taking heart, the exiled barons gathered together some troops, and war began in the neighbourhood of Rome.
The same year Charles, on the invitation of the barons, took possession of the kingdom of Lotharingia.
He reformed the administration and extended the powers of the Sicilian parliament, which was composed of the barons, the prelates and the representatives of the towns.
But strategic considerations were cancelled by the Persian barons' code of chivalry, and Alexander found them waiting for him on the banks of the Granicus.
In 1266 the town was the scene of a battle between the royal forces and the barons, when Robert de Ferrers, earl of Derby, was taken prisoner.
This committee consisted of six members, two barons, two ministers and two burgesses - the two barons selected being John Napier of Merchiston and James Maxwell of Calderwood.
Besides many hundreds of princes, dukes, marquesses, counts, barons and viscounts, there are a large number of persons of patrician rank, persons with a right to the designation nobile or signor-i, and certain hereditary knights or cavalieri.
Thus the titular king of Italy found himself simultaneously at war with those great vassals who had chosen him from their own class, with the turbulent factions of the Roman aristocracy, with unruly bishops in the growing cities and with the multitude of minor counts and barons who occupied the open lands, and who changed sides according to the interests of the moment.
Among the most noteworthy examples of such attempts maybe mentioned the revolt of the barons against Ferdinand I.
Briefly, they are to be found in the conditions of the time; the increasing insularity of the English barons, now no longer the holders of estates in Normandy; the substitution of an unpopular for a popular king, an active spur to the rising forces of discontent; and the unprecedented demands for money - demands followed, not by honour, but by dishonour, to the arms of England abroad.
Before this interview a national council had met at St Albans at the beginning of August 1213, and this was followed by another council, held in St Paul's church, London, later in the same month; it was doubtless summoned by the archbishop, and was attended by many of the higher clergy and a certain number of the barons.
Energetically making use of this period of respite, he again issued the charter to the church, ordered his subjects to take a fresh oath of allegiance to him, and sent to the pope for aid; but neither these precautions, nor his expedient of taking the cross, deterred the barons from returning to the attack.
On the 5th of May the barons formally renounced their allegiance to John, and appointed Robert Fitzwalter as their leader.
Promising to assent to their demands, he agreed to meet the barons, and the gathering was fixed for the 15th of June, and was to take place in a meadow between Staines and Windsor, called Runnimede.
At the famous conference, which lasted from Monday the 15th to Tuesday the 23rd of June, the hostile barons were present in large numbers; on the other hand John, who rode over each day from Windsor, was only attended by a few followers.
The document itself provided for an elected committee of twenty-five barons, whose duty was to compel John, by force if necessary, to keep his promises; but this was evidently regarded as insufficient, and the matter was dealt with in a supplementary treaty (Conventio facia inter regem Angliae et barones ejusdum regni).
John then asked the barons for a charter that they on their part would keep the peace.
He appealed to the pope, and hoped to crush his enemies by the aid of foreign troops, while the barons prepared for war, and the prelates strove to keep the peace.
He followed this up by excommunicating the barons who had obtained it, and in the autumn of 1215 the inevitable war began.
Capturing Rochester castle, John met with some other successes, and the disheartened barons invited Louis, son of Philip Augustus of France and afterwards king as Louis VIII., to take the English crown.
The preamble states that the king has granted the charter on the advice of various prelates and barons, some of whom, including the archbishop of Canterbury, the papal legate Pandulf, and William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, are mentioned by name.
and in other early charters, although it had no place in the Articles of the Barons.
Now for a short time the document leaves the great questions at issue between the king and the barons, and two chapters are devoted to protecting the people generally against the exactions of the Jews.
Having thus disposed of this matter, the grievances of the barons are again considered, the vexed question of scutage being dealt with.
In dealing with this matter the Articles of the Barons had declared that aids and tallages must not be taken from the citizens of London and of other places without the consent of the council.
Individual summonses must be sent to the prelates and greater barons, while the lesser barons hill be called together through the sheriffs and bailiffs.
extends the concessions obtained by the greater barons for themselves to the lesser landholders, the tenants of the tenants-in-chief.
Here were many grievances, and the barons set to work to redress them.
In the same way earls and barons must only be fined by their peers, and a similar privilege is extended to the clergy, who, moreover, were not to be fined in accordance with the value of their benefices, but only of their other property.
The king promises to make amends for the injuries he has done to his barons in the past.
The decision on these matters is to rest with the archbishop of Canterbury and the twenty-five barons appointed to see that the terms of the charter are carried out.
A committee is to be formed of twenty-five barons.
Vacancies in the committee are to be filled by the barons themselves.
The twenty-five barons were duly appointed, their names being given by Matthew Paris.
Magna Carta is an elaboration of the accession charter of Henry I., and is based upon the Articles of the Barons.
By declaring, as it does, what were the laws and customs of a past age wherein justice prevailed, it shows what was the ideal of good government formed by John's prelates and barons.
Green says "The rights which the barons claimed for themselves they claimed for the nation at large."
The esquires, knights, lesser barons, even the remote descendants of peers, that is, the noblesse of other countries, in England remained gentlemen, but not noblemen - simple commoners, that is, without legal advantage over their fellowcommoners who had no jus imaginum to boast of.
Though on her first landing Matilda only escaped capture through the misplaced chivalry of her opponent, she soon turned the tables upon him with the help of the Church and the barons of the west.
He gives an account of the barons' war from a royalist standpoint, and is a severe critic of Montfort's policy.
Charles, in a spirit of the most vindictive cruelty, had large numbers of Conradin's barons put to death and their estates confiscated, and the whole population of several towns massacred.
It was Celestine's purpose to lay England under the interdict; but Prince John and the barons still refused to recognize the papal legate, the bishop of Ely.
He fought in Wales, was on the side of John during his struggle with the barons over Magna Carta, and was one of this king's.
the castles of Tutbury and Duffield were held against the king, and in the civil wars of John's reign Bolsover and Peak Castles were garrisoned by the rebellious barons.
In the Barons' War of the reign of Henry III.
These proceedings aroused the anger and jealousy of the barons, and their wrath was diminished neither by Gaveston's superior skill at the tournament, nor by his haughty and arrogant behaviour to themselves.
A statement of Peter Langtoft that he was at the parliament of Lincoln in 1301, when the English barons repudiated the claim of Pope Boniface VIII.
At a council held in London on the 6th of April 1152 Stephen induced a small number of barons to do homage to Eustace as their future king; but the primate, Theobald, and the other bishops declined to perform the coronation ceremony on the ground that the Roman curia had declared against the claim of Eustace.
and his barons.
The relation of the king to his own barons within his immediate kingdom of Jerusalem is not unlike the relation of the king to the three princes.
In Norman England the king insisted on his rights; in Frankish Jerusalem the barons insisted on his duties.
Yet the high court, which decided all problems of descent, would naturally intervene if a problem of descent arose, as it frequently did, in the kingdom; and thus the barons had the right of deciding between different claimants, and also of formally "approving" each new successor to the throne.
The barons suspected the crusaders of ulterior motives, and of designing to get new principalities for themselves.
The barons alternated between the extravagances of Western chivalry and the attractions of Eastern luxury: they returned from the field to divans with frescoed walls and floors of mosaic, Persian rugs and embroidered silk hangings.
The crusading barons of France chose their own leader, and determined their own route, without consulting Innocent.
During those fifteen years the kingdom of Jerusalem was agitated by a struggle between the native barons, championing the principle that sovereignty resided in the collective baronage, and taking their stand on the assizes, and Frederick II., claiming sovereignty for himself, and opposing to the assizes the feudal law of Sicily.
had insisted on the right of wardship which he enjoyed as overlord of the island,' and he had appointed a commission of five barons to exercise his rights.
John of Beirut, like many of the Cypriot barons, was also a baron of the kingdom of Jerusalem; and resistance in the one kingdom could only produce difficulties in the other.
This in itself was a serious matter; according to the assizes, the barons maintained, the king must either personally reside in the kingdom, or, in the event of his absence, be replaced by a regency.
The estates of the county had the bishop of Cahors for president; other members were the bishop of Montauban and other ecclesiastics, four viscounts, four barons and some other lords and representatives of eighteen towns.
The lands of the family lay chiefly on the Welsh Marches, and from this date the Bohuns take a foremost place among the Marcher barons.
Henry de Bohun figures with the earls of Clare and Gloucester among the twenty-five barons who were elected by their fellows to enforce the terms of the Great Charter.
This Bohun lives in history as one of the recalcitrant barons of the year 1297, who extorted from Edward I.
Tout's "Wales and the March during the Barons' War," in Owens College Historical Essays, pp. 87-136 (1902); J.
As France and Spain were quarrelling over the division of Naples and the Campagna barons were quiet, Cesare set out once more in search of conquests.
The corporation, which in 1298 included a mayor, barons and bailiffs, was dissolved by an act of 1883.
His sermons produced a great effect, and he was protected by several barons of the English faction.
These barons, with the knowledge and approbation of King Henry, were engaged in a plot to assassinate the cardinal, and in this plot Wishart is now proved to have been a willing agent.
undertook on his son's behalf were not the least among the causes which led to the Provisions of Oxford and the Barons' War.
His Norman, like his English administration, was popular with the non-feudal classes, but doubtless oppressive towards the barons.
Sarno has the ruins of a medieval castle, which belonged to Count Francesco Coppola, who took an important part in the conspiracy of the barons against Ferdinand of Aragon in 1485.
(a) The large landowners, owning about 1,899 estates (of these 310 were in Latgalia), mostly Baits and gentry (" Baltic barons "), were expropriated (Land Act, Sept.
16 1920); (b) about 40,000 owners of small holdings, averaging from 26 to 150 ac., formed the backbone of the Lettish middle class, and the liberal professions (nicknamed the " grey barons ") were partly supported by about 10,000 tenants of small farms; (c) the owners of very small holdings in Latgalia and Courland numbered some 10,600.
The immediate object was to overthrow Russian administrative supremacy and to emancipate themselves from the Baltic barons.
century onwards the equivocal nature of the title in France was increased by the royal practice of selling it, either to viscounts or barons in respect of their fiefs, or to rich roturiers.
William had some difficulty in securing the help of his barons.
The barons supported Azo of Liguria, the lawful successor of Herbert II.; the citizens of Le Mans set up a commune, expelled Azo's representatives and made war on the barons.
The Golden Bull has been described as consecrating the humiliation of the crown by the great barons, whose usurpations it legalized; the more usually accepted view, however, is that it was directed not so much to weakening as to strengthening the crown by uniting its interests with those of the mass of the Magyar nobility, equally threatened by the encroachments of the great barons.
Its actual effect in the period succeeding its issue was, however, practically nugatory; if indeed it did not actually give a new handle to the subversive claims of the powerful barons.
These armaments, which cost Matthias 1,000,000 florins per annum, equivalent to 200,00O, did not include the auxiliary troops of the hospodars of Walachia and Moldavia, or the feudal levies of the barons and prelates.
By this time the gentry, as well as the barons and prelates, took part in the legislature.
Kronstadt, now the sole flourishing trade centre in the kingdom, defended itself with hired mercenaries against the robber barons.
From his brother Payn descended the barons of Bedford, of whom William held Bedford Castle against the royal forces in the struggle for the Great Charter, and was afterwards made prisoner at the battle of Lincoln, while John, who sided with the barons under Simon de Montfort, fell at Evesham.
It shared the privileges of the Cinque Ports, whose liberties were exemplified at the request of the barons of Folkestone by Edward III.
Faversham was probably a member of Dover from the earliest association of the Cinque Ports, certainly as early as Henry III., who in 1252 granted among other liberties of the Cinque Ports that the barons of Faversham should plead only in Shepway Court, but ten years later transferred certain pleas to the abbot's court.
All the liberties of the Cinque Ports were granted to the barons of Faversham by Edward I.
is obscure, but in 1326, on the outbreak of war with England, an assembly of prelates and barons met at Meaux.
John granted several charters to the city, and it was expressly stipulated in Magna Charta that the city of London should have all its ancient privileges and free customs. The citizens opposed the king during the wars of the barons.
In the year 1215 the barons having received intelligence secretly that they might enter London with ease through Aldgate, which was then in a very ruinous state, removed their camp from Bedford to Ware, and shortly after marched into the city in the night-time.
The population increased during ten peaceful years of Henry III., and increased slowly until the death of Edward II., and then it began to fall off, and continued to decrease during the period of the Wars of the Roses and of the Barons until the accession of the first Tudor monarch.
A small party of the citizens under Henry of Cornhill remained faithful to the chancellor Longchamp, but at a meeting held at St Paul's on the 8th of October, the barons welcomed the archbishop of Rouen as chief justiciar (he having produced the king's sign manual appointing a new commission), and they saluted John as regent.
Stubbs, in his introduction to the"'Chronicle of Roger de Hoveden, writes: " This done, oaths were largely taken: John, the Justiciar and the Barons swore to maintain the Communa of London; the oath of fealty to Richard was then sworn, John taking it first, then the two archbishops, the bishops, the barons, and last the burghers with the express understanding that should the king die without issue they would receive John as his successor."
When the poll-tax of 1379 was imposed the mayor was assessed as an earl and the aldermen as barons.
The French lost 5000 of noble birth killed, including the constable, 3 dukes, 5 counts and 90 barons; 1000 more were taken prisoners, amongst them the duke of Orleans (the Charles d'Orleans of literature).
Constance profited by his absence by governing the duchy, and in 1194 she had Arthur proclaimed duke of Brittany by an assembly of barons and bishops.
His rising had been encouraged by the pope, by France, and by the English barons.
At the parliament of Oxford (1258) he and his brothers repudiated the new constitution prepared by the barons.
Blaauw's Barons' War (1871).
Just as Arthur was eclipsed by his companions, so Charlemagne's vassal nobles, except in the Chanson de Roland, are exalted at the expense of the emperor, probably the result of the changed relations between the later emperors and their barons.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.