extends the concessions obtained by the greater barons for themselves to the lesser landholders, the tenants of the tenants-in-chief.
Here were many grievances, and the barons set to work to redress them.
He followed this up by excommunicating the barons who had obtained it, and in the autumn of 1215 the inevitable war began.
He then seized, but soon released, Stephen Colonna and some other barons who had spoken disparagingly of him.
Taking heart, the exiled barons gathered together some troops, and war began in the neighbourhood of Rome.
The same year Charles, on the invitation of the barons, took possession of the kingdom of Lotharingia.
He reformed the administration and extended the powers of the Sicilian parliament, which was composed of the barons, the prelates and the representatives of the towns.
But strategic considerations were cancelled by the Persian barons' code of chivalry, and Alexander found them waiting for him on the banks of the Granicus.
In 1266 the town was the scene of a battle between the royal forces and the barons, when Robert de Ferrers, earl of Derby, was taken prisoner.
This committee consisted of six members, two barons, two ministers and two burgesses - the two barons selected being John Napier of Merchiston and James Maxwell of Calderwood.
Besides many hundreds of princes, dukes, marquesses, counts, barons and viscounts, there are a large number of persons of patrician rank, persons with a right to the designation nobile or signor-i, and certain hereditary knights or cavalieri.
Thus the titular king of Italy found himself simultaneously at war with those great vassals who had chosen him from their own class, with the turbulent factions of the Roman aristocracy, with unruly bishops in the growing cities and with the multitude of minor counts and barons who occupied the open lands, and who changed sides according to the interests of the moment.
Among the most noteworthy examples of such attempts maybe mentioned the revolt of the barons against Ferdinand I.
Briefly, they are to be found in the conditions of the time; the increasing insularity of the English barons, now no longer the holders of estates in Normandy; the substitution of an unpopular for a popular king, an active spur to the rising forces of discontent; and the unprecedented demands for money - demands followed, not by honour, but by dishonour, to the arms of England abroad.
Before this interview a national council had met at St Albans at the beginning of August 1213, and this was followed by another council, held in St Paul's church, London, later in the same month; it was doubtless summoned by the archbishop, and was attended by many of the higher clergy and a certain number of the barons.
Energetically making use of this period of respite, he again issued the charter to the church, ordered his subjects to take a fresh oath of allegiance to him, and sent to the pope for aid; but neither these precautions, nor his expedient of taking the cross, deterred the barons from returning to the attack.
On the 5th of May the barons formally renounced their allegiance to John, and appointed Robert Fitzwalter as their leader.
Promising to assent to their demands, he agreed to meet the barons, and the gathering was fixed for the 15th of June, and was to take place in a meadow between Staines and Windsor, called Runnimede.
At the famous conference, which lasted from Monday the 15th to Tuesday the 23rd of June, the hostile barons were present in large numbers; on the other hand John, who rode over each day from Windsor, was only attended by a few followers.
The document itself provided for an elected committee of twenty-five barons, whose duty was to compel John, by force if necessary, to keep his promises; but this was evidently regarded as insufficient, and the matter was dealt with in a supplementary treaty (Conventio facia inter regem Angliae et barones ejusdum regni).
John then asked the barons for a charter that they on their part would keep the peace.
He appealed to the pope, and hoped to crush his enemies by the aid of foreign troops, while the barons prepared for war, and the prelates strove to keep the peace.
Capturing Rochester castle, John met with some other successes, and the disheartened barons invited Louis, son of Philip Augustus of France and afterwards king as Louis VIII., to take the English crown.
The preamble states that the king has granted the charter on the advice of various prelates and barons, some of whom, including the archbishop of Canterbury, the papal legate Pandulf, and William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, are mentioned by name.
and in other early charters, although it had no place in the Articles of the Barons.
Now for a short time the document leaves the great questions at issue between the king and the barons, and two chapters are devoted to protecting the people generally against the exactions of the Jews.
Having thus disposed of this matter, the grievances of the barons are again considered, the vexed question of scutage being dealt with.
In dealing with this matter the Articles of the Barons had declared that aids and tallages must not be taken from the citizens of London and of other places without the consent of the council.
Individual summonses must be sent to the prelates and greater barons, while the lesser barons hill be called together through the sheriffs and bailiffs.
In the same way earls and barons must only be fined by their peers, and a similar privilege is extended to the clergy, who, moreover, were not to be fined in accordance with the value of their benefices, but only of their other property.
The king promises to make amends for the injuries he has done to his barons in the past.
The decision on these matters is to rest with the archbishop of Canterbury and the twenty-five barons appointed to see that the terms of the charter are carried out.
A committee is to be formed of twenty-five barons.
Vacancies in the committee are to be filled by the barons themselves.
The twenty-five barons were duly appointed, their names being given by Matthew Paris.
Magna Carta is an elaboration of the accession charter of Henry I., and is based upon the Articles of the Barons.
By declaring, as it does, what were the laws and customs of a past age wherein justice prevailed, it shows what was the ideal of good government formed by John's prelates and barons.
Green says "The rights which the barons claimed for themselves they claimed for the nation at large."
The esquires, knights, lesser barons, even the remote descendants of peers, that is, the noblesse of other countries, in England remained gentlemen, but not noblemen - simple commoners, that is, without legal advantage over their fellowcommoners who had no jus imaginum to boast of.
Though on her first landing Matilda only escaped capture through the misplaced chivalry of her opponent, she soon turned the tables upon him with the help of the Church and the barons of the west.
He gives an account of the barons' war from a royalist standpoint, and is a severe critic of Montfort's policy.
Charles, in a spirit of the most vindictive cruelty, had large numbers of Conradin's barons put to death and their estates confiscated, and the whole population of several towns massacred.
It was Celestine's purpose to lay England under the interdict; but Prince John and the barons still refused to recognize the papal legate, the bishop of Ely.
He fought in Wales, was on the side of John during his struggle with the barons over Magna Carta, and was one of this king's.
the castles of Tutbury and Duffield were held against the king, and in the civil wars of John's reign Bolsover and Peak Castles were garrisoned by the rebellious barons.
In the Barons' War of the reign of Henry III.
These proceedings aroused the anger and jealousy of the barons, and their wrath was diminished neither by Gaveston's superior skill at the tournament, nor by his haughty and arrogant behaviour to themselves.
A statement of Peter Langtoft that he was at the parliament of Lincoln in 1301, when the English barons repudiated the claim of Pope Boniface VIII.
At a council held in London on the 6th of April 1152 Stephen induced a small number of barons to do homage to Eustace as their future king; but the primate, Theobald, and the other bishops declined to perform the coronation ceremony on the ground that the Roman curia had declared against the claim of Eustace.
and his barons.
The relation of the king to his own barons within his immediate kingdom of Jerusalem is not unlike the relation of the king to the three princes.
In Norman England the king insisted on his rights; in Frankish Jerusalem the barons insisted on his duties.
Yet the high court, which decided all problems of descent, would naturally intervene if a problem of descent arose, as it frequently did, in the kingdom; and thus the barons had the right of deciding between different claimants, and also of formally "approving" each new successor to the throne.
The barons suspected the crusaders of ulterior motives, and of designing to get new principalities for themselves.
The barons alternated between the extravagances of Western chivalry and the attractions of Eastern luxury: they returned from the field to divans with frescoed walls and floors of mosaic, Persian rugs and embroidered silk hangings.
The crusading barons of France chose their own leader, and determined their own route, without consulting Innocent.
During those fifteen years the kingdom of Jerusalem was agitated by a struggle between the native barons, championing the principle that sovereignty resided in the collective baronage, and taking their stand on the assizes, and Frederick II., claiming sovereignty for himself, and opposing to the assizes the feudal law of Sicily.
had insisted on the right of wardship which he enjoyed as overlord of the island,' and he had appointed a commission of five barons to exercise his rights.
John of Beirut, like many of the Cypriot barons, was also a baron of the kingdom of Jerusalem; and resistance in the one kingdom could only produce difficulties in the other.
This in itself was a serious matter; according to the assizes, the barons maintained, the king must either personally reside in the kingdom, or, in the event of his absence, be replaced by a regency.
The estates of the county had the bishop of Cahors for president; other members were the bishop of Montauban and other ecclesiastics, four viscounts, four barons and some other lords and representatives of eighteen towns.
The lands of the family lay chiefly on the Welsh Marches, and from this date the Bohuns take a foremost place among the Marcher barons.
Henry de Bohun figures with the earls of Clare and Gloucester among the twenty-five barons who were elected by their fellows to enforce the terms of the Great Charter.
This Bohun lives in history as one of the recalcitrant barons of the year 1297, who extorted from Edward I.
Tout's "Wales and the March during the Barons' War," in Owens College Historical Essays, pp. 87-136 (1902); J.
As France and Spain were quarrelling over the division of Naples and the Campagna barons were quiet, Cesare set out once more in search of conquests.
The corporation, which in 1298 included a mayor, barons and bailiffs, was dissolved by an act of 1883.
His sermons produced a great effect, and he was protected by several barons of the English faction.
These barons, with the knowledge and approbation of King Henry, were engaged in a plot to assassinate the cardinal, and in this plot Wishart is now proved to have been a willing agent.
undertook on his son's behalf were not the least among the causes which led to the Provisions of Oxford and the Barons' War.
His Norman, like his English administration, was popular with the non-feudal classes, but doubtless oppressive towards the barons.
Sarno has the ruins of a medieval castle, which belonged to Count Francesco Coppola, who took an important part in the conspiracy of the barons against Ferdinand of Aragon in 1485.
(a) The large landowners, owning about 1,899 estates (of these 310 were in Latgalia), mostly Baits and gentry (" Baltic barons "), were expropriated (Land Act, Sept.
16 1920); (b) about 40,000 owners of small holdings, averaging from 26 to 150 ac., formed the backbone of the Lettish middle class, and the liberal professions (nicknamed the " grey barons ") were partly supported by about 10,000 tenants of small farms; (c) the owners of very small holdings in Latgalia and Courland numbered some 10,600.
The immediate object was to overthrow Russian administrative supremacy and to emancipate themselves from the Baltic barons.
century onwards the equivocal nature of the title in France was increased by the royal practice of selling it, either to viscounts or barons in respect of their fiefs, or to rich roturiers.
William had some difficulty in securing the help of his barons.
The barons supported Azo of Liguria, the lawful successor of Herbert II.; the citizens of Le Mans set up a commune, expelled Azo's representatives and made war on the barons.
The Golden Bull has been described as consecrating the humiliation of the crown by the great barons, whose usurpations it legalized; the more usually accepted view, however, is that it was directed not so much to weakening as to strengthening the crown by uniting its interests with those of the mass of the Magyar nobility, equally threatened by the encroachments of the great barons.
Its actual effect in the period succeeding its issue was, however, practically nugatory; if indeed it did not actually give a new handle to the subversive claims of the powerful barons.
These armaments, which cost Matthias 1,000,000 florins per annum, equivalent to 200,00O, did not include the auxiliary troops of the hospodars of Walachia and Moldavia, or the feudal levies of the barons and prelates.
By this time the gentry, as well as the barons and prelates, took part in the legislature.
Kronstadt, now the sole flourishing trade centre in the kingdom, defended itself with hired mercenaries against the robber barons.
From his brother Payn descended the barons of Bedford, of whom William held Bedford Castle against the royal forces in the struggle for the Great Charter, and was afterwards made prisoner at the battle of Lincoln, while John, who sided with the barons under Simon de Montfort, fell at Evesham.
It shared the privileges of the Cinque Ports, whose liberties were exemplified at the request of the barons of Folkestone by Edward III.
Faversham was probably a member of Dover from the earliest association of the Cinque Ports, certainly as early as Henry III., who in 1252 granted among other liberties of the Cinque Ports that the barons of Faversham should plead only in Shepway Court, but ten years later transferred certain pleas to the abbot's court.
All the liberties of the Cinque Ports were granted to the barons of Faversham by Edward I.
is obscure, but in 1326, on the outbreak of war with England, an assembly of prelates and barons met at Meaux.
John granted several charters to the city, and it was expressly stipulated in Magna Charta that the city of London should have all its ancient privileges and free customs. The citizens opposed the king during the wars of the barons.
In the year 1215 the barons having received intelligence secretly that they might enter London with ease through Aldgate, which was then in a very ruinous state, removed their camp from Bedford to Ware, and shortly after marched into the city in the night-time.
The population increased during ten peaceful years of Henry III., and increased slowly until the death of Edward II., and then it began to fall off, and continued to decrease during the period of the Wars of the Roses and of the Barons until the accession of the first Tudor monarch.
Stubbs, in his introduction to the"'Chronicle of Roger de Hoveden, writes: " This done, oaths were largely taken: John, the Justiciar and the Barons swore to maintain the Communa of London; the oath of fealty to Richard was then sworn, John taking it first, then the two archbishops, the bishops, the barons, and last the burghers with the express understanding that should the king die without issue they would receive John as his successor."
When the poll-tax of 1379 was imposed the mayor was assessed as an earl and the aldermen as barons.
The French lost 5000 of noble birth killed, including the constable, 3 dukes, 5 counts and 90 barons; 1000 more were taken prisoners, amongst them the duke of Orleans (the Charles d'Orleans of literature).
Constance profited by his absence by governing the duchy, and in 1194 she had Arthur proclaimed duke of Brittany by an assembly of barons and bishops.
His rising had been encouraged by the pope, by France, and by the English barons.
At the parliament of Oxford (1258) he and his brothers repudiated the new constitution prepared by the barons.
Blaauw's Barons' War (1871).
Just as Arthur was eclipsed by his companions, so Charlemagne's vassal nobles, except in the Chanson de Roland, are exalted at the expense of the emperor, probably the result of the changed relations between the later emperors and their barons.
Within ten years she had created 17 counts, 46 barons and 428 lesser nobles; and, to provide these new peers with adequate appanages, she had sold or mortgaged crown property representing an annual income of 1,200,000 rix-dollars.
But after Yoritomos death the land became once more an armed camp, in which the rival barons discouraged travel beyond the limits of their own domains.
(afterwards 1st Viscount St John, a member of a younger branch of the family of the earls of Bolingbroke and barons St John of Bletso), and of Lady Mary Rich, daughter of the 2nd earl of Warwick, was baptized on the 10th of October 1678, and was educated at Eton.
He fought in many campaigns against the dauphins of Viennois, the counts of Genevois, the people of Sion and Geneva, the marquesses of Saluzzo and Montferrat, and the barons of Faucigny.
The new king of Scots, David, who was his brother-in-law, was a mere boy, and the Scottish barons, exiled for their support of Robert Bruce, took advantage of the weakness of his rule to invade Scotland in 1332.
The barons chose John of Brienne (titular king of Jerusalem) as emperor-regent for life; Baldwin was to rule the Asiatic possessions of the empire when he reached the age of twenty, was to marry John's daughter Mary, and on John's death to enjoy the full imperial sovereignty.
Gradually most of the chansons de geste were attached to the name of Charlemagne, whose poetical history falls into three cycles: - the geste du roi, relating his wars and the personal history of himself and his family; the southern cycle, of which Guillaume de Toulouse is the central figure; and the feudal epic, dealing with the revolts of the barons against the emperor, the rebels being invariably connected by the trouveres with the family of Doon de Mayence.
Charlemagne's march on Saragossa, and the capture of Huesca, Barcelona and Girone, gave rise to La Prise de Pampelune (14th century, based on a lost chanson); and Gui de Bourgogne (12th century) tells how the children of the barons, after appointing Guy as king of France, set out to find and rescue their fathers, who are represented as having been fighting in Spain for twenty-seven years.
In 1192 and 1193 he commanded personally and with success against the Apulian barons, but his death at Palermo (20th of February 1194) a few days after that of Roger, his son and joint-king, made Henry's path clear.
The use of a coronet by the barons dates from the coronation of Charles II., and by letters patent of the 7th of August 1661 their coronet is described as a circle of gold with six pearls on it.
Blanche had to bear the whole burden of affairs alone, to break up a league of the barons (1226), and to repel the attack of the king of England (1230).
Rechin (1068-14th of April 1109) had to carry on a long struggle with his barons, to cede Gatinais to King Philip I., and to do homage to the count of Blois for Touraine.
Having been abruptly recalled into Anjou by a revolt of his barons, he returned to the charge in September 1136 with a strong army, including in its ranks William, duke of Aquitaine, Geoffrey, count of Vendome, and William Talvas, count of Ponthieu, but after a few successes was wounded in the foot at the siege of Le Sap (October 1) and had to fall back.
All the while that Fulk the Young and Geoffrey the Handsome were carrying on the work of extending the countship of Anjou, they did not neglect to strengthen their authority at home, to which the unruliness of the barons was a menace.
As regards Fulk the Young we know only a few isolated facts and dates: about 110 9 Doue and L'Yle Bouchard were taken; in 1112 Brissac was besieged, and about the same time Eschivard of Preuilly subdued; in 1114 there was a general war against the barons who were in revolt, and in 1118 a fresh rising, which was put down after the siege of Montbazon; in 1123 the lord of Doue revolted, and in 1124 Montreuil-Bellay was taken after a siege of nine weeks.
Geoffrey took Elias prisoner, forced Robert of Sable to beat a retreat, and reduced the other barons to reason.
In the same year Alexander joined the English barons in their struggle against John, and led an army into England in support of their cause; but on the conclusion of peace after John's death between his youthful son Henry III.
A threat of invasion by Henry in 1243 for a time interrupted the friendly relations between the two countries; but the prompt action of Alexander in anticipating his attack, and the disinclination of the English barons for war, compelled him to make peace next year at Newcastle.
The earliest instance in English history is the appointment of the earl of Pembroke with the assent of the loyal barons on the accession of Henry III.
Ruding enumerates 128 mints operated at various times in the United Kingdom, including some established by usurpation, as in the reign of Stephen by certain barons, and also mints established by grants to ecclesiastics to be worked for their own profit.
He and the constable Muzio Attendolo Sforza completely dominated her, and the turbulent barons wished to provide her with a husband who would be strong enough to break her favourites yet not make himself king.
But James at once declared himself king, had Alopo killed and Sforza imprisoned, and kept his wife in a state of semi-confinement; this led to a counteragitation on the part of the barons, who forced James to liberate Sforza, renounce his kingship, and eventually to quit the country.
Her perpetual intrigues and her political incapacity made Naples a prey to anarchy and foreign invasions, destroying all sense of patriotism and loyalty both in the barons and the people.
The family of Leiborne of Leiborne Castle, of whom Sir Roger Leiborne took an active part in the barons' wars, became extinct in the 14th century.
with his barons was captured by Gilbert de Clare.
In the autumn of 1096 the nobles of France and Italy, joined by the Norman barons of England and Sicily, set out to wrest the Holy Land from the unbelievers; and for more than a century the cry, " Christ's land must be won for Christ," exercised an unparalleled power in Western Christendom.
The chief baron's fourth son, Sir Charles Edward Pollock (1823-1897), had a successful career at the bar and in 1873 became a judge, being the last survivor of the old barons of the exchequer; he was thrice married and had issue by each wife.
His uncle receives him with joy, but the barons of the court are bitterly jealous and plot his destruction.
Tristan undertakes the mission, though he stipulates that he shall be accompanied by twenty of the barons, greatly to their disgust.
Two assemblies of barons and prelates were held at Bourges in November 1283 and February 1284 to deliberate on the question.
If so the younger Bernard was one of the northern barons who raised the siege of Alnwick, and took William the Lion, king of Scotland, prisoner in July 1174.
He sided with the English barons against John in 1215, and accompanied Henry III.
This edition consists of nine volumes folio; it is a genealogical and chronological history of the royal house of France, of the peers, of the great officers of the crown and of the king's household, and of the ancient barons of the kingdom.
In the barons' war he took the royalist side, but did not distinguish himself by great activity.
Two months later Eric was crowned at Upsala, on which occasion he first introduced the titles of baron and count into Sweden, by way of attaching to the crown the higher nobility, these new counts and barons receiving lucrative fiefs adequate to the maintenance of their new dignities.
After some years of desultory fighting de Courci established his power over that part of Ulster comprised in the modern counties of Antrim and Down, throughout which he built a number of castles, where his vassals, known as "the barons of Ulster," held sway over the native tribes.
There is some indication of his having sided with John in his struggle with the barons; but of the later history of de Courci little is known.
Barons and earls of Dudley >>
The claims were made by petition, and included amongst others: the claim of Thomas of Woodstock to act as constable, the rival claims of John Dymock and Baldwin de Frevile to act as champion, and the claim of the barons of the Cinque Ports to carry a canopy over the king.
Afterwards it came into the possession of the Norman barons Malet or Mallet, one of whom was fined for rebellion in the reign of King John.
On his deathbed Richard, reversing his former arrangements, caused his barons to swear fealty to John (1199), although the hereditary claim of Arthur was by the law of primogeniture undoubtedly superior.
Threatened with the desertion of his barons he drove all whom he suspected to desperation by his terrible severity towards the Braose family (1210); and by his continued misgovernment irrevocably estranged the lower classes.
The barons were consequently able to exact, in Magna Carta (June 1215), much more than the redress of legitimate grievances; and the people allowed the crown to be placed under the control of an oligarchical committee.
John's struggle against the barons and Prince Louis (1216), afterwards King Louis VIII., was the most creditable episode of his career.
In spite of his power and influence, his position as a leader of the Guelphs was greatly shaken during the latter years of his reign, while at home he was never able completely to subjugate his rebellious barons.
through the influence of the Roman barons, who, however, had pledged themselves to take no action without Hildebrand, who was then absent from Rome.
and Simon de Montfort he wavered between the two at the beginning of the Barons' War, but finally took the royalist side and was among the prisoners taken by Montfort at Lewes (1264).
Blaauw's The Barons' War (ed.
The barons, always chafing against the royal power, were encouraged to revolt by Pope Adrian IV., whose recognition William had not yet sought, by the Basileus Manuel and the emperor Frederick II.
The Barons' War engaged all the forces of England, and he was able to make himself lord of south and north Wales.
Llewelyn also assisted the barons.
The origin of the earls or counts, on the other hand, is to be found in the governors of large districts (Tacitus's principes), who seem at first generally to have been members of the royal family, though later they were drawn from the highest barons.
In the midst of the frequent changes of pope which went on during these years, and the political vicissitudes of Italy, Hildebrand took such measures as .enabled him to checkmate the opposition of the Roman barons by turning against them, now the armed force of the Normans, now the influence of the German king.'
These sprang from his participation in the War of the Barons; but to this vtu., 1484= the pope was absolutely compelled.
This was nothing new, for as early as 1215 the English barons protested against it.
The greater part of eastern England being in the hands of the French pretender, Prince Louis, afterwards King Louis VIII., and the rebel barons, Henry was crowned by his supporters at Gloucester, the western capital.
But the title of regent was given by the loyal barons to William Marshal, the aged earl of Pembroke; and Peter des Roches, the Poitevin bishop of Winchester, received the charge of the king's person.
1219), and his successor, the justiciar Hubert de Burgh, asserted the royal prerogative against native barons and foreign mercenaries.
Disregarding the wishes of the Great Council, and excluding all the more important of the barons and bishops from office, he acted as his own chief minister and never condescended to justify his policy except when he stood in need of subsidies.
The Savoyards encouraged his natural tendency to support the Papacy against the Empire; at an early date in the period of misrule he entered into a close alliance with Rome, which resulted in heavy taxation of the clergy and gave great umbrage to the barons.
Among the lay barons, the first place naturally belonged to Richard of Cornwall who, as the king's brother, was unwilling to take any steps which might impair the royal prerogative; while Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, the ablest man of his order, was regarded with suspicion as a foreigner, and linked to Henry's cause by his marriage with the princess Eleanor.
And if the designation of knights was first applied to the military tenants of the earls, bishops and barons - who although they held their lands of mesne lords owed their services to the king - the extension of that designation to the whole body of military tenants need not have been a very violent or prolonged process.
Against invasion it furnished a permanent provision both in men-at-arms and strongholds; nor was it unsuited for the campaigns of neighbouring counts and barons which lasted for only a few weeks, and extended over only a few leagues.
In the reign of Edward I., whose warlike enterprises after he was king were confined within the four seas, this alteration does not seem to have proceeded very far, and Scotland and Wales were subjugated by what was in the main, if not exclusively, a feudal militia raised as of old by writ to the earls and barons and the sheriffs.'
Hence Du Cange divides the medieval nobility of France and Spain into three classes: first, barons or ricos hombres; secondly, chevaliers or caballeros; and thirdly, ecuyers or infanzons; and to the first, who with their several special titles constituted the greater nobility of either country, he limits the designation of banneret and the right of leading their followers to war under a banner, otherwise a " drapeau quarre " or square flag.
In Scotland, even as late as the reign of James VI., lords of parliament were always created bannerets as well as barons at their investiture, " part of the ceremony consisting in the display of a banner, and such ` barones majores ' were thereby entitled to the privilege of having one borne by a retainer before them to the field of a quadrilateral form."
In England all the barons or greater nobility were entitled to bear banners, and therefore Du Cange's observations would apply to them as well as to the barons or greater nobility of France and Spain.
And also among the Englishmen there were certain rascals that went afoot with great knives, and they went in among the men of arms, and slew and murdered many as they lay on the ground, both earls, barons, knights and squires, whereof the king of England was after displeased, for he had rather they had been taken prisoners."
This was drawn up, not in Latin, but in Norman French, and was passed "par le assentement des erceveskes, eveskes, abbes, priurs, contes, barons, et la communaute de la tere ileokes somons."
He was one of the envoys who invited Louis to England, and was the first of the barons to do homage when the prince entered London.
The commune also tried to restrict the power of the barons, who, in the 13th century especially, though we find them feudatories of the holy see from the 10th century onwards, threatened to become masters of the whole territory, which is still dotted over with the baronial castles and lofty solitary towers of the rival families of Rome - Orsini, Colonna, Savelli, Conti, Caetani - who ruthlessly destroyed the remains of earlier edifices to obtain materials for their own, and whose castles, often placed upon the high roads, thus following a strategic line to a stronghold in the country, did not contribute to the undisturbed security of traffic upon them, but rather led to their abandonment.
Wallace retired to the north, and although deserted by the barons was soon at the head of a large army.
Barons North >>
During the Barons' War Thomas favoured Simon de Montfort and the baronial party.
He represented the barons before St Louis of France 'E.g.
Of its illegitimate descendants the house of Cornwall was founded by Richard, a natural son of Richard, king of the Romans and earl of Cornwall, who was ancestor of Lord Cornewall of Fanhope, temp. Henry VI., of the Cornewalls, " barons of Burford," and other families; but the principal house is that which was founded, at a later date, by Sir Charles Somerset, natural son of Henry (Beaufort) duke of Somerset (beheaded 1464), who was created earl of Worcester in 1513, and whose descendant Henry, marquess and earl of Worcester, obtained the dukedom of Beaufort in 1682.
Corfe Castle was held for the empress Maud against King Stephen in 1139, was frequently the residence of King John, and was a stronghold of the barons against Henry III.
The tenants, or "barons," elected themselves a mayor and coroners, but the constable received the assize of ale.
Elizabeth in 1577 gave exclusive admiralty jurisdiction within the island of Purbeck to Sir Christopher Hatton, and granted the mayor and "barons" of Corfe the rights they enjoyed by prescription and charter and that of not being placed on juries or assizes in matters beyond the island.
All immediate nobles were not princes; but even petty knights or barons, who possessed little more than the rude towers from which they descended upon passing travellers, if their only lord was the emperor, recognized no law save their own will.
In his later years he made some attempts to maintain the public peace, and he distinguished himself by the vigour with which he punished robber barons in Thuringia; he also won back some of the crown lands and dues which had been stolen during the interregnum.
The German peasants had grievances compared with which those of the knights and lesser barons were The imaginary.
67.) The history of Genoa during the dark ages, throughout the Lombard and Carolingian periods, is but the repetition of the general history of the Italian communes, which succeeded in snatching from contending princes and barons the first charters of their freedom.
But they were assemblies of barons, or at most of barons and citizens; they could only have represented the Latin elements, Norman and Lombard, in the island.
By birth he was only one of many Sikh barons and owed his rapid rise entirely to force of character and will.
But Hellenism in Cappadocia was for centuries to come still confined to the castles of the king and the barons, and the few towns.
Though written many years afterwards and drawn from other sources, it is a spirited account of the barons' war.
Eventually, and long after the imperial army had begun its retreat, the gallant schiltron was ridden down and annihilated by a charge of three thousand men-at-arms. Reginald was taken prisoner in the melee; and the prisoners also included two other counts, Ferdinand and William Longsword, twenty-five barons and over a hundred knights.
The ivy-clad ruins of Bomby castle, founded in 1582 by Sir Thomas Maclellan, ancestor of the barons of Kirkcudbright, stand at the end of the chief street.
He was instructed to persuade the Scottish barons who had just imprisoned the queen to restore her to her authority.
Moreover, the queen of England increased his difficulties by making him the bearer of offensive messages to the barons, and by contradictory instructions.
He cannot have undertaken his task with much zeal, for his own opinion was that Elizabeth would consult her interests best by supporting the barons.
He offended his mistress by showing his instructions to the Scottish barons, and was recalled in August.
In the reign of Edward the Confessor Wem was held as four manors, but at the time of the Domesday Survey William Pantulf was holding the whole as one manor of Roger, earl of Shrewsbury, from whom it passed to the Botelers, barons of Wem.
The germ of a parliament existed in the crown vassals and the royal officials - chancellor, steward, constable, marischal and the rest - with bishops, priors, earls, barons and other probi homines.
Offences were no longer against the individual and his kin, but against the king's peace, or against the peace of subordinate holders of courts - earls, thanes, barons, bishops and abbots.
Royal authority, sheriffs, juries and witnesses gradually superseded ordeal, compurgation, and trial by battle, though even barons long retained the right of " pit and gallows."
The barons of England angrily refused to submit to the papal interference, but nothing decisive was attempted by Edward, though Bruce had again entered his service.
In March 1425 he met his second parliament, relying on a council of barons with no great earl but Mar.
The English translation (1440) of a lost contemporary Latin history of the events avers that Sir Robert Graham rose in parliament, denounced James as a tyrant and called on the barons to seize their king: Graham was taken, was banished from court, was confiscated and fled to the Atholl hills.
The good Bishop Elphinstone founded the university of Aberdeen in 1495; and in 1496 parliament decreed compulsory education, and Latin, for sons of barons and freeholders.
Meanwhile the many noble and dissatisfied pensioners of England adopted Protestantism, which also made its way among the barons, burgesses and clergy, so that, for political reasons, James at last could not but be hostile to the new creed; he bequeathed this anti-protestantism, with the French alliance, through his wife, Mary of Guise, and the influence of the house of Lorraine, to his unhappy daughter, Mary Stuart.
Having become unpopular, the barons in 1301 vainly asked Edward to dismiss him; about the same time he was accused of murder, adultery and simony.
and even of the restored archbishop, Winchelsea, who was anxious to uphold the privileges of his order, Langton, accused again by the barons in 1309, remained in prison after Edward's surrender to the "ordainers" in 1310.
and his barons, and in the Scottish expeditions of Edward I.
The barons, who were in arms against his father King John, had called Louis, son of Philip Augustus, king of the French, to their aid.
The political importance of the battle was very great, for it gave the death-blow to the cause of the barons who supported Louis, and it fixed Henry III.
Once on the enemy's side of the obstacle the bishop halted to wait for Edward, who was now following him, but his undisciplined barons, shouting "'Tis not for thee, bishop, to teach us war.
He quelled a rising of Sicilian barons and Saracens, and confined 60,000 of the latter at Lucera in Capitanata, where they ended by becoming a most loyal colony.
His policy was anti-feudal and tended to concentrate power into his own hands; hence the frequent risings of the barons.
By his political sagacity and moderation Manfred won a strong party to his side and helped Conrad to subjugate the rebellious barons.
Manfred, too, encountered the hostility of the popes, against whom he had to wage war, generally with success, and of some of the barons whom the papacy encouraged to rebel; and in 1258, on a rumour of Conradin's death, he was offered and accepted the crown of Naples and Sicily.
and the barons stirred up trouble, and in 1345 Andrew was assassinated by order of Catherine, widow of Philip, son of Charles II., and of several nobles, not without suspicion of Joanna's complicity.
With the help of some of the barons he drove Joanna and her second husband, Louis of Taranto, from the kingdom, and murdered Charles of Durazzo; but as Pope Clement refused to recognize his claims he went back to Hungary in 1348, and the fickle barons recalled Joanna, who returned and carried on desultory warfare with the partisans of Louis of Hungary.
died two years later and the kingdom was plunged into anarchy once more, part of the barons siding with his sevenyear-old son Ladislas, and part with Louis II.
In 1415 Joanna married James of Bourbon, who kept his wife in a state of semi-confinement, murdered her lover, Pandolfo Alopo, and imprisoned her chief captain, Sforza; but his arrogance drove the barons to rebellion, and they made him renounce the royal.
In 1485 the disaffection of the barons, due to.
But from 1181 to 1185 he had to struggle against a feudal league of his Champagnard uncles and other great barons, whose most active member was Stephen I., count of Sancerre 1152-1191).
But John soon alienated the Poitevin barons, and William des Roches signed a treaty with Philip on the 22nd of March 1203.
He had collected 1 soo vessels and summoned all his barons when Innocent III., having sufficiently frightened John, sent Pandulf with the terms of submission, which John accepted on the 13th of May.
On the 19th of June he laid siege to La Roche-aux-Moines, the fortress which defended Angers and commanded the Loire valley; but on the approach of a royal army under Prince Louis on the 2nd of July his Poitevin barons refused to risk a pitched battle, and he fled hastily to La Rochelle.
The small barons were completely reduced to submission, whilst the greater feudatories could often appoint a castellan to their own castles only after he had taken an oath to the king.
Instead of appearing under the Hundreds and townships they now appeared under the names of the local "barons," i.e.
As a diplomatist and state official Pontano played a part of some importance in the affairs of southern Italy and in the Barons' War, the wars with Rome, and the expulsion and restoration of the Aragonese dynasty.
Destined originally for the Church, he had preferred to become a knight, and in forty years of tournaments and fights he had won himself a considerable reputation, when in 1208 envoys came from the Holy Land to ask Philip Augustus, king of France, to select one of his barons as husband to the heiress, and ruler of the kingdom, of Jerusalem.
In 1229 John, now eighty years of age, was invited by the barons of the Latin empire of Constantinople to become emperor, on condition that Baldwin of Courtenay should marry his second daughter and succeed him.
His predecessor having created an order of nobility, - counts, barons and nobles, Gustavus Adolphus in the beginning of the 17th century established the diet of Finland, composed of the four orders of the nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants.
The Scottish Reformation came out of a covenant in which the barons, inspired by John Knox, then abroad, bound themselves in 1557 to oppose the Roman Catholic religion and to promote the cause of the Reformation.
A noble scheme of education was sketched for the whole country, but neither this nor the provision made for ministers' stipends was carried out, the revenues of the old church, from which the expenses of both were to be paid, being in the hands of the barons.
Presbytery was never much in favour with the crown - this was the case in other countries as well as in Scotland - and when the crown, so weak at the Reformation, gained strength, encroachments were made on the popular character of the kirk; while the barons also had obvious reasons for not wishing the kirk to be too strong.
This document consisted of three parts: (1) A covenant signed by King James and his household in 1580, to uphold Presbyterianism and to defend the state against Romanism; (2) A recital of all the acts of parliament passed in the reigns of James and Charles in pursuance of the same objects; and (3) The covenant of nobles, barons, gentlemen, burgesses, ministers and commons to continue in the reformed religion, to defend it and resist all contrary errors and corruptions.
By first connecting himself with John through his marriage with the English king's daughter Joan, by straining every nerve to repress dissensions and enforce obedience amongst the Welsh chieftains, and later by allying himself with the English barons against his suzerain, this prince during a reign of 44 years was enabled to give a considerable amount of peace and prosperity to his country, which he persistently sought to rule as an independent sovereign, although acknowledging a personal vassalage to the king of England.
Nevertheless, the hostile policy of Llewelyn, who had closely associated himself with the cause of Simon de Montfort and the barons, was at first successful.
For after the battle of Evesham a treaty was concluded between the English king and the Welsh prince at Montgomery, whereby the latter was confirmed in his principality of Gwynedd and was permitted to receive the homage of all the Welsh barons, save that of the head of the house of Dynevor, which the king reserved to himself; whilst the four fertile cantrefs of Perfeddwlad, lying between Gwynedd and the earldom of Chester, were granted to the prince.
After hearing the case Innocent 1 Pope Innocent, however, would not confirm this election, and the disappointed candidate threw himself into the contest between the English barons on the one side and King John and the pope on the other.
Langton encouraged the barons to formulate their demands, and is said to have suggested that they should take their stand upon the charter of Henry I.
At Runnymede he appeared as a commissioner on the king's side, and his influence must therefore be sought in those clauses of the Charter which differ from the original petitions of the barons.
At the moment of his departure he was suspended by the representatives of Innocent for not enforcing the papal censures against the barons.
Of the Protestant barons Knox, though in exile, seems to have been henceforward the chief adviser; and before the end of 1 557 they, under the name of the "Lords of the Congregation," had entered into the first of the religious "bands" or "covenants" afterwards famous in Scotland.
As guardian of Henry's infant son, and adviser of the empress Agnes, Victor now wielded enormous power, which he began to use with much tact for the maintenance of peace throughout the empire and for strengthening the papacy against the aggressions of the barons.
In 1600 it was incorporated under the title of the "Mayor, Jurats and Commons" of the town and hundred of Tenterden, in the county of Kent, the members of the corporation ranking henceforward as barons of the Cinque Ports.
The castle passed with the lordship or seigniory of Gower, of which it was the caput, into the hands of the De Braose family in 1203 (by grant from King John) and eventually it came by marriage to the Somersets and is still held by the dukes of Beaufort, whose title of barons de Gower dates from 1506.
(See Benefice.) As spiritual peers, bishops of the Church of England have (subject to the limitations stated below) seats in the House of Lords, though whether as barons or in their spiritual character has been a matter of dispute.
Bishops of the Church of England rank in order of precedency immediately above barons.
One earl, forty-two barons and bannerets, two hundred knights, seven hundred esquires and probably 10,000 foot were killed in the battle and the pursuit.
One earl, twenty-two barons and bannerets and sixty-eight knights fell into the hands of the victors, whose total loss of 4000 men included, it is said, only two knights.
Its representatives continued for some time to claim the sovereignty; but the country was practically very much in the condition of Germany at about the same time - chieftains of almost independent power ruled from their castles on the hill-tops over the adjacent valleys, engaged in petty wars, and conducted plundering expeditions against the neighbouring tenants, whilst the great abbeys were places of refuge for the studious or religious, and their heads were the only rivals to the barons in social state, and in many respects the only protectors and friends of the people.
He granted to the abbot of the Sakya monastery in southern Tibet the title of tributary sovereign of the country, head of the Buddhist church, and overlord over the numerous barons and abbots, and in return was officially crowned by the abbot as ruler over the extensive domain of the Mongol empire.
Equestrian seals of barons and knights; the seals of ladies of rank; the armorial seals of the gentry; and the endless examples, chiefly of private seals, with devices of all kinds, sacred and profane, ranging from the finely engraved work of art down to the roughly cut merchant's mark of the trader and the simple initial letfer of the yeoman, typical of the time when everybody had his seal.
In 1795 Sassari was the centre of the reaction of the barons against the popular ideas sown by the French Revolution; an insurrection of the people led by one Angioi lasted only a short while, and led to reactionary measures.
In 974 he was substituted by Crescentius and the Roman barons for Benedict VI., who had been assassinated.
He continued, however, to take part in public affairs; mediating between the king and Earl Thomas of Lancaster in 1318, and attempting to do so between Edward and his rebellious barons in 1321.
Histories of commerce and cities now rank beside those on war and kings, although there are readers still who prefer to follow the pennants or robber barons rather than to watch the slow evolution of modern conditions.
Henry atoned for this by a reign marked by unceasing struggle against the great barons.
The lords of the different territories belonged to five orders of nobility, corresponding closely to the dukes, marquises, earls, counts and barons of feudal Europe.
" He strengthened the ruler," it is said, " and repressed the barons.
To his high connexions and his adroitness, as well as to the gross mistakes of his rival, Clement owed the immediate support of Queen Joanna of Naples and of several of the Italian barons; and the king of France, Charles V., who seems to have been sounded beforehand on the choice of the Roman pontiff, soon became his warmest protector.
Robert, lord of Clifford, and subsequently the barons styled themselves indifferently Lords Clifford or de Clifford, until in 1777 the 11th lord definitively adopted the latter form.
Clemence's son, born on the 15th of November, lived only four days, and Philip immediately proclaimed himself king, though several of the great barons declared that the rights of Jeanne, daughter of Louis X.
The barons all did homage except Edward II.
Again the county was thrown into the barons' war when Bedford Castle, seized from the Beauchamps by Falkes de Breaute, one of the royal partisans, was the scene of three sieges before it was demolished by the king's orders in 1224.
During the loth, 11th and 12th centuries the Church had been organized on the lines of the prevailing feudal system - the bishops and abbots were feudal barons, and the effects of the system were felt throughout the ranks of the lower clergy.
The name Arthur of Ardrossan is found in connexion with a charter dated 1226; and Sir Fergus of Ardrossan accompanied Edward Bruce in his Irish expedition in 1316, and in 1320 signed the appeal to the pope, made by the barons of Scotland, against the aggressions of England.
Their preservation was due to the enlightened energy of the principal at the time of the Reformation, who armed his folk to save the building from the barons of the Mearns after they had robbed St Machar's of its bells and lead.
For many centuries the city was subject to attacks by the neighbouring barons, and was strongly fortified, but the gates were all removed by 1770.
Disagreements and disputes were continual, and the easy expedient of rewarding the officials of the Curia and increasing the papal revenue by "reserving" more and more benefices was met by repeated protests, such as that of the bishops and barons of England (the chief sufferers), headed by Robert Grosseteste of Lincoln, at the council of Lyons in 1245.2 The subject, indeed, frequently became one of national interest, on account of the alarming amount of specie which was thus drained away, and hence numerous enactments exist in regard to it by the various national governments.
The earliest struggles between the king and the people testify to the extent to which this prerogative became a public grievance, and the charter by which its exercise was bounded (Carta de Foresta) was in substance part of the greatest constitutional code imposed by his barons upon King John.
The hardships of the forest laws under the Norman kings, and their extension to private estates by the process of afforestment, were among the grievances which united the barons and people against the king in the reign of John.
Barons and earls of Morley >>
The earl founded the abbey of St Mary de Pre at Leicester and other religious houses, and by a charter confirmed the burgesses of Leicester in the possession of their merchant-gild and customs. His son, Robert, succeeded to the earldom of Leicester, and with other English barons assisted prince Henry in his revolt against his father the king in 1173.
The only result of the long series of insurrections was to provoke the king to a cruelty which he had not at first shown, and to give him an excuse for confiscating and dividing among his foreign knights and barons the immense majority of the estates of the English theglihood.
To guard against them he laid down three general rules: (1) that no one should be recognized as pope in England till he had himself taken cognizance of the papal election, and that no papal letters should be brought into the realm without his leave; (2) that no decisions of the English eccIe~iastical synods should be held valid till he had examined and sanctioned them; (3) that none of his barons or ministers should be~x.
William had introduced into his new realm alike the barons, with their personal ambition, and the clerics of the school of Hildebrand, with their intense jealousy for the rights of the church.
But he made head against it with the aid of mercenary bands, the loyal minority of the barons, and the shire-levies of his English subjects.
When he summoned out the fyrd they came in great force to his aid, not so much because they trusted in the promises of good governance and reduced taxation which he made, but because they saw that a horde of greedy barons would be worse to serve than a single king, however hard and selfish he might be.
In 1095 the same body of barons made a second and a more formidable rising, headed by the earls of Shrewsbury, Eu and Northumberland.
His barons subdued much of South Wales, though his own expeditions into North Wales, which he had designed to conquer and annex, had a less fortunate ending.
Roberts claim seemed the more likely to succeed, for not only was he the elder, but England was full of barons who desired his accession, and had already taken up arms for him in 1087 or 1095.
The match, though his Norman barons sneered at it, gave him the hearts of all his English subjects, who supported him with enthusiasm, and not merely (as had been the case with Rufus) because they saw that a strong king would oppress them less than a factious and turbulent baronage.
and many other barons, but proved unable to stand before the king, who was loyally supported by the English shire levies.
Nevertheless he was driven by the logic of events to attack Normandy, for as long as his brother reigned there, and as long as many English barons retained great holdings on both sides of the Channel and were subjects of the duke as well as of the king, intrigues and plots never ceased.
Every English king difficulties for five generations had to face the danger from the with the church, no less than the danger from the barons, church.
A majority of the Norman barons ap- Milda, pealed to Theobald, count of Blois, son of the Con- S7ephen.
Both parties were exhausted, both were sick of the incessant treachery of their more unscrupulous barons, and at last they came to the compromise of Wallingford (October 1153), by which it was agreed that Stephen should reign for the remainder of his life, but that on his death the crown should pass to Henry.
He expelled all Stephens mercenaries, took back into his hands the royal lands and castles which his predecessor had granted away, and destroyed hundreds of the adulterine castles which the barons and knights had built without leave during the years of the anarchy.
He did not return for fifteen months; but when he did reappear it was to complete the work which he had begun in 1155, to extort from the greater barons the last of the royal fortresses which still remained in their hands, and to restore the northern boundaries of the realm.
He could not spare attention for the matter, but gave Dermot leave to enlist auxiliaries among the turbulent barons of the South Welsh Marches.
The two barons were promised lands, the earl a greater bribethe hand of Dermots only daughter Eva and the inheritance of the kingdom of Leinster.
Inland, the intruding barons and the Irish chiefs fought perpetually, with varying fortunes.
Her old subjects in Aquitaine were secretly encouraged by her to follow her son Richard against his father, whom the barons of the south always regarded as an alien and an intruder.
The English barons were simply desirous of getting rid of the strong and effective govern.ance of the king, and the alleged wrongs of his sons were an empty excuse.
The best proof that King Henrys orderly if autocratic rgime was appreciated at its true value by his English subjects, is that when the second series of rebellions raised by his undutiful sons began In 1182, there was no stir whatever in England, though in Normandy, Brittany and Aquitaine the barons rose in full force to support the young princes, whose success would mean the triumph of particularism and the destruction of the Angevin empire.
A generation before it is certain that England would have been convulsed by a great feudal rising when such an opportunity was granted to the barons.
At the same time King Philips invasion of Normandy was repulsed by the barons of the duchy.
This act offended the English barons, but in choosing a new queen John gave much greater offence abroad; he Carried off Isabella of Angoulme from her affianced husband, Hugh of Lusignan, the son of the count of Ia Marche, his greatest vassal in northern Aquitaine, and married her despite the precontract.
Roused by the insult the Lusignans took arms, and a great part of the barons of Poitou joined them.
The Norman barons had refused to strike a blow for John, and the cities had shown but a very passive and precarious loyalty to him.
For each of the two kings declared the property of the barons who did not support him confiscated to the crown.
The king kept collecting scutages and tallages, yet barons and towns complained that nothing seemed to be done with the money he collected.
to Ireland, where he compelled rebellious barons to do homage, and received the submission of more than twenty of the local kinglets.
The barons expressed their wish for a peace with France, and when summoned to produce their feudal contingents pleaded poverty, and raised a rather shallow theory to the effect that their services could not be asked for wars beyond seasagainst which there were conclusive precedents in the reigns of Henry I.
In great anger and indignation he marched off towards the north, with his hired soldiery, swear- * ing to pm~nish the barons who had taken the leitd in the strike which had defeated his purpose.
A great landmark in the constitutional history of England was reached when Langton assembled the leading barons, rehearsed to them the charter issued by Henry I.
on his accession, and pointed out to them- the rights ~7~t~t00 and liberties therein promised by the crown to the barons.
To Langton and the barons the charter of Henry I.
Meanwhile John, leaving his barons to discuss and formulate their grievances, pushed on with a great scheme of foreign alliances, by which he hoped to crush Philip of France, even though the aid of the feudal levies of England ~ was denied him.
Matters soon came to a head: on hearing that the king was mobilizing his mercenary bands, the barons met at Bury St Edmunds, and leagued themselves by an.
At Easter, nothing having, been yet obtained from the king, an army headed by five earls, forty barons, and Giles Braose, bishop of Hereford, mustered at Stamford and marched on.
It is a long document of 63 clauses, in whi4 Archbishop Langton and a committee of the barons had en.deavoured to recapitulate all their grievances, and to obtain redress for them.
But it is most noteworthy that the barons, while providing for the abolition of abuses which affect themselves, show an unselfish and patriotic spirit in laying down the rule that all the concessions which the king makes to them shall also be extended by themselves to their own sub-tenants.
There is to be no taxation without the consent of the Great Council of the Realmwhich is to consist of all barons, who arc to be summoned by individual units, and of all smaller tenalitsin-chief, who are to be ~aiied not by separate letters, but by a general notice published by the sberiff~ It has beep pointed out thatthis provides no representation for sub-tenants or the rest of the nation, so that we are still far from the ideal of a repre~ sentative parliament.
The special clauses for the benefit of the city of London were undoubtedly, inserted as a tribute of gratitude on the part of the barons for the readiness which the citizens had shown in adhering to their cause.
But these clauses are less numerous than might have been expectedthe framers of the document were, after all, barons and not burghers.
The twenty-five were to hear and decide upon any claims and complaints preferred against the king, and to keep tip their numbers by co-optation, so that it would seem that the barons intended to keep a permanent watch upon the crown.
That the barons were right to suspect John is sufficiently shown by hi~ subsequent conduct.
The king, who had already gathered in many mercenaries, gained the first advantage by capturing Rochester Castle before the army of the barons was assembled.
Presently, when the French prince came over with a considerable army to join the insurgent barons, he retired northward, leaving London and the home counties to his rival.
Owing to the unwise and unpatriotic conduct of the barons in summoning over Louis of France to their aid, John had become in some sort the representative of national independence.
Very soon the barons began to return to their allegiance, or at least to slacken in their support of Louis, who had given much offence by his openly displayed distrust of his partisans and his undisguised preference for his French followers.
The former was slain, the other two taken prisoners, with more than 300 knights and barons.
A long experience of his character and actions convinced barons and commons alike that he was a just and sincere man, a friend of good governance, and an honest opponent of arbitrary and unconstitutional rule.
When county members begin to present themselves along with the barons at the national assembly, the conception of parliament is already reached.
which met at Oxford, 1258, the barons informed their master that his misgovernment had grown so hopeless that they were resolved to put him under constitutional restraints.
They provided that he was to do nothing without the consent of a permanent council of fifteen barons and bishops, and that all his finances were to be controlled by another committee of twenty-four persons.
Though Montfort and the barons voiced the public discontent, the constitution which they thus imposed on the king had nothing popular about it.
To conciliate them the barons allowed the Provisions of Westminster to be enacted in 1259, in which the power of feudal courts Was considerably restricted, and many classes of suit were transferred to the royal tribunals, a sufficient proof that the kings judges did not share in the odium which appertained to their master, and were regarded as honest and impartial.
Seeing the barons quarrelling among themselves, and Montfort accused of ambition and overweening masterfulness by many of his colleagues, the king took heart.
Having heard the claims of the king and the barons, he issued the mise of Amiens (Jan.
But many of the barons stood neutral, not seeing how they could refuse to accept the arbitration they had courted, while a number not inconsiderable joined the king, deciding that Leicester had passed the limits of reasonable loyalty, and that their first duty was to the crown.
The earl, who could only raise a trifling force in the Marches, where the barons were all his enemies, failed in several attempts to force a passage eastward.
Five years later this legislation was supplemented by the statute Quia Emptores, equally beneficial to king and barons, which provided that subtenants should not be allowed to make over land to other persons, retaining the nominal possession and feudal rights over it, but should be compelled to sell it out and out, so that their successor in title stood to the overlord exactly as the seller had done~ Hitherto they had been wont to dispose of the whole or parts of their estates while maintaining their feudal rights over it, so that the ultimate landlord could not deal directly with the new occupant, whose reliefs, wardship, &c., fell to the intermediate holder who had sold away the land.
This submission having been made, Edward acted with honesty and fairness, handing over the adjudication to a body of eighty Scottish and twenty-four English barons, knights and bishops.
Though the barons and the cOmmons voted a liberal grant at the parliament of Bury (Nov.
At the same time the barons, headed by the earls of Norfolk and Hereford, raised the old grievance about feudal service beyond seas, which had been so prominent in the time of King John.
Hereford ~nd a number of other barons, gave him hearty support.
As to the barons, the king took the important constitutional step of conceding that he would not ask them to serve abroad as a feudal obligation, but would pay them for their services, if they would oblige him by joining his banner.
Its first leader was none of the great barons, but a Renfrewshire knight, Sir William Wallace; but ere long more important persons, including Robert Bruce, earl of Carrick (grandson of Robert Bruce of Annandale, one of the competitors for the crown of Scotland), and the bishop of Glasgow, were found to be in communication with the rebels.
Scotland rose in arms on hearing of this victory, but the barons showed less.
are mainly filled by contemporary chroniclers with details of the miserable strife between the king and his barons on the question of Pro2ress, Gavestons unconstitutional position.
might have mastered his enemy; indeed the Comyns and Umfravilles and other loyalist barons of Scotland would have carried out the business for him, if only he had given them adequate support.
The unhappy king was compelled to promise to forget and forgive this offence, and was then restored to a certain amount of freedom and power; the barons believed that when freed from the influence of Gaveston he would prove a less unsatisfactory sovereign.
Finding that the king was ready to back them in all their enterprises, the Despensers resolved to take the fearful risk of snatching at supreme power by using their masters name to oust the barons who were now directing affairs from their position.
Moreover, the Despensers felt that they had a great advantage over Gaveston in that they were native-born barons of ancient ancestry and good estate: the ~,rounger Hugh, indeed, through his marriage with the sister of the earl of Gloucester who fell at Bannockburn, was one of the greatest landowners on the Welsh border: they could not be styled upstarts or adventurers.
The barons brought up many armed retainers to the parliament of 1321, and forced the king to dismiss and to condemn them to exile.
Having secured promise of aid from Henry of Lancaster, his cousins and other barons, he executed a coup de main, and seized Mortimer in -his chamber at midnight.
Instead of discharging their proper functions, bishops and abbots had become statesmen or wealthy barons, and took no interest in anything save politics.
Originally he had taken to the hills as a mere outlaw, in consequence of a quarrel with one of the marcher barons; but after many small successes he began to be recognized as a national leader by his countrymen, and proclaimed himself prince of Wales.
From one point of view they were little more ~ e~u~ than a great faction fight between two alliances of tending over-powerful barons.
The systefn had spread so far that the majority of the smaller tenants-in-chief, and even many of the lesser barons, were the sworn followers of an insignificant number of the greater lords.
Up to this moment the civil war had been conducted like a great faction fight; the barons and their livened retainers had been wont to seek some convenient heath or hill and there to fight out their quarrel with the minimum of damage to the countryside.
Warwick represented the better side of the -victorious cause; he was no mere factious king-maker, and his later nickname of the last of the barons by no means expresses his character or his position.
The cause of York was popular in the Pale, and the Anglo-Irish barons seem to have conceived the notion that Henry VII.
When parliament met in 1610 the whole subject was discussed, and it was conclusively shown that, if the barons of the exchequer had been right in any sense, it was only in that narrow technical sense which is of no value at all.
25 a barons against King John, his castle was taken into the king's hands.
Thomas, who as a lad had ridden on the barons' side at Evesham, followed the king's wars for half a century of his long life, flying his banner at Falkirk and at Bannockburn, in which fight he was taken by the Scots.
His seal of arms is among those attached to the famous letter of remonstrance addressed by the barons of England to Pope Boniface VIII.
Barons and dukes of Chandos >>
As a result of the rebellion of 1173-1174 it was provided that an oath of fealty should be taken by all, to wit, barons, knights, freeholders and even villeins (rustici)", and that any one who refused should be arrested as the king's enemy, and the justices were to see that the castles whose demolition had been ordered were completely razed.
Although he had been on friendly terms with Harold, the bishop submitted to William at Berkhampstead, and he was very useful in checking the rebellious barons during the revolt of 1075.
Within twenty years after the great victory of Dundalk, the quarrels of the barons allowed the Irish to recover much of the land they had lost.
1348), daughter and heiress of Henry Lacy, earl of Lincoln, and added the earldom of Derby to those which he already held, he was marked out both by his wealth and position as the leader of the barons in their resistance to the new king.
Quarrelling with some of the barons, he neglected both the government and the defence of the kingdom, and in 1317 began a private war with John, Earl Warrenne, who had assisted his countess to escape from her husband.
Like his father, he subsequently managed to retrieve some of the crown lands from William the Bastard, the too-powerful duke of Normandy; and he made a praiseworthy though fruitless attempt to regain possession of Lorraine for the French crown; Finally, by the coronation of his son Philip (1059) he confirmed the hereditary right of the Capets, soon to be superior to the elective rights of the bishops and great barons of the kingdom.
His first successes against Theobald of Champagne, who for thirty years had been the most dangerous of the great French barons and had refused a vassals services to Louis VI., as well as the adroit diplomacy with which he wrested from Geoffrey the Fair, count of Anjou, a part of the Norman Vexin long claimed by the French kings, in exchange for permitting him to conquer Normandy, augured well for his boldness and activity, had he but confined them to serving his own interests.
Bernard of Clairvaux and the barons.
Northern and eastern France recognized the suzerainty of the Capet, and Philip Augustus was now bold enough to attack Henry II., the master of the west, whose friendly neutrality (assured by the treaty of Gisors) had made possible the successive defeats of the great French barons.
in Germany it brought about Ottos fall before Frederick II.; in England it introduced the great drama of 1215, the first act of which closed with Magna CartaJohn LaCkland being forced to acknowledge the control of his barons, and to share with them the power he had abused and disgraced.
When his son Louis wished to wrest the English crown from John, now crushed by his barons, Philip intervened without seeming to do so, first with the barons, then with Innocent III., supporting and disowning his son by turns; until the latter, held in.
They insinuated themselves into the counsels of their ignorant masters, and though still sitting humbly at the feet of the barons, these upright and well-educated servitors were already dreaming of the great deeds they would do when.
of England with his barons; it was because of his justice and his disinterestedness that he was appealed to as a trusted mediator.
France had not escaped any of these conflicts; but Philip the Fair was the initiator or the instrument (it is difficult to say which) who was to put an end to both imperial and theocratic dreams, and to the international crusades; who was to remove the political axis from the centre of Europe, mueh to the benefit of the western monarchies, now definitely emancipated from the feudal yoke and firmly organized against both the Church and the barons.
An assembly of peers and barons, relying on two precedents under Philip V.
In the struggles between John and his barons Lincoln in 1216 made peace with the king by surrendering hostages for the payment of a fine of 1000 marks, but after the landing of Louis the city was captured by Gilbert de Gant, then earl of Lincoln.
Among other historic families connected with Lincolnshire were the Wakes of Bourne and the d'Eyncourts, who flourished at Blankney from the Conquest to the reign of Henry VI.; Belvoir Castle was founded by the Toenis, from whom it passed by the Daubeneys, then to the Barons Ros and later to the Manners, earls of Rutland.
In the 14th century Lincoln and Stamford were several times the meeting-places of parliament or important councils, the most notable being the Lincoln Parliament of 1301, while at Stamford in 1309 a truce was concluded between the barons, Piers Gaveston and the king.
He left his kingdom by will to the Knights of the Temple and the Hospital, but the barons of Aragon paid no attention to his wish, and drew his brother Ramiro, a monk, from his cell to continue the royal line.
Their second task was to reduce their turbulent barons, in Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia alike, to the position of obedient subjects.
The barons of Aragon and Valencia had extorted from his weak father the charter known Peter IV.
was to force the barons to surrender their charter.
With the aid of dissatisfied barons, Adrian brought William I.
Uttoxeter, with the rest of the honour of Tutbury, escheated to the Crown in 1266 owing to the complicity of Robert Ferrers in the barons' rebellion; it was regranted to Edmund Crouchback, ancestor of the dukes of Lancaster, under whom it became part of the duchy of Lancaster, from which it was not severed until 1625.
William the Conqueror's own horse was of the Spanish breed, and others of the same kind were introduced by the barons on their estates.
The castle was besieged by William Rufus, was taken by John in the wars with the barons, and again by Prince Edward, son of Henry III.
It does not seem that the barons were ever summoned to parliament, and the title, like all parliamentary titles, has fallen into disuse since the abolition of feudal tenures.
The island was seething with disorder, but by stern and sometimes cruel measures the emperor suppressed the anarchy of the barons, curbed the power of the cities, and subdued the rebellious Saracens, many of whom, transferred to the mainland and settled at Nocera, afterwards rendered him valuable military service.
In 1246 a formidable conspiracy of the discontented Apulian barons against the emperor's power and life, fomented by papal emissaries, was discovered and crushed with ruthless cruelty.
In the introduction (c. 1240) to his Vie Seint Edmund le Rey Denis Pyramus says she was one of the most popular of authors with counts, barons and knights, but especially with ladies.
barons, judges, and doctors and masters of the universities.
Philip passed most of his early years in and around Paris, where the castles of lawless barons, such as that of Montlhery, threatened even his personal safety.
Ultimately bannerets obtained a place in the feudal hierarchy between barons and knights bachelors, which has given rise to the idea that they are the origin of King James I.'s order of baronets.
This proceeding gave the barons and knights an opportunity to buy out the village magistrates and to replace them with nominees of their own.
barons of the exchequer to enquire whether Saier de Rochford, escheator in co.
barons of hell throughout this episode, which is nice to see.
Henry forced the barons to obey him by using his army.
barons led to Portchester Castle's capture.
He was one of many rebellious barons excommunicated by Thomas a Becket.
Under King John of England, the revolt of the rebel barons led to Portchester Castle's capture.
By now, a number of powerful barons were withholding their taxes in protest.
Some are similar to what 19th century American robber barons built.
The money they fetched went into the hands of the drug barons.
While government wages war on drugs, it remains almost silent about these, the biggest drug peddlers of all - the tobacco barons.
I politely squeezed past three Argentinian cattle barons for a closer look.
busybody be better to live under robber barons than under omnipotent moral busybodies.
The barons are now spreading the contagion to the developing world.
A small area of grazed floodplain grassland with shallow ponds occurs by the River Clyde, southeast of Barons Haugh.
Back to the old hacienda Once home to Mexico's jute barons, Yucatan's colonial estates now attract a ritzy crowd.
Robber barons became a law unto themselves and built unlicensed castles from which they terrorized the populace and against them Stephen was largely ineffectual.
rebel barons support the son of the king of France, Prince Louis in preference to King John.
rebellious barons excommunicated by Thomas a Becket.
It's a world of charming rustics, sinister barons and wicked, wicked stepmothers.
Sealed burial vaults below the chapel are thought to contain the remains of ten Barons of Rosslyn in their full armor.
Promotion fees would only be paid as the barons become viscounts, counts, marquises, dukes, and eventually, WOW, princes!
As the global Press barons such as Murdoch and Black moved in, the attacks, if anything, became even more vitriolic.
It's a world of charming rustics, sinister barons and wicked, wicked, wicked stepmothers.
and the souls of Henry V., Thomas, duke of Clarence, and all the dukes, earls, barons, knights, squires and other nobles and subjects of our father who during the time and in the service of our father and ourselves ended their lives in the wars of the kingdom of France, and for the souls of all the faithful departed."
On an eminence east of the town are the ruins of Kendal castle, attributed to the first barons of Kendal.
The advocati were often great barons who added their function of protector of an abbey to their own temporal sovereignty; whereas the vidames were usually petty nobles, who exercised their office in strict subordination to the bishop. Their chief functions were: to protect the temporalities of the see, to represent the bishop at the count's court of justice, to exercise the bishop's temporal jurisdiction in his name (placitum or curia vice-domini) and to lead the episcopal levies to war.
In 920 the barons, jealous of the growth of the royal authority and discontented with the favour shown by the king to his counsellor Hagano, rebelled, and in 922 elected Robert, brother of King Odo, in place of Charles.
The last is Peter I., Hugh's second son and successor, who reigned from 1359 to 1369, when he was assassinated as the result of a conspiracy of the barons.
and his successor, in place of the justiciar - who had presided over all causes vice regis- separate heads were established in the three branches into which the curia regis as a judicial body had been divided: justices of common pleas, justices of the king's bench and barons of the exchequer.
His chief literary work is La Congiura dei baroni, a history of the unsuccessful conspiracy of the Neapolitan barons against King Ferdinand L of Naples in 1485; it is based on the authentic records of the state trials, but is prejudiced in favour of the royal power.
Turning once more his attention to the recovery of Normandy, he asked the barons for assistance for this undertaking; in reply they, or a section of them, refused, and instead of crossing the seas the king marched northwards with the intention of taking vengeance on his disobedient vassals, who were chiefly barons of the north of England.
The northern barons refused to pay, and the gathering forces of resistance received a powerful stimulus when a little later came the news of the king's humiliation at Bouvines.
However, this did not prevent the prelates from continuing to act to some extent with the barons, and early in January 1215 the malcontents asked the king to confirm the laws of Edward the Confessor and the other liberties of the kingdom.
At once the malcontents presented their demands in a document known popularly as the Articles of the Barons, more strictly as Capitula quae barones petunt et dominus rex concedit.
are those in which the king promises to make amends for the injuries he has done to his barons in the past.
The conclusion is that the friends of the towns and the traders were less in evidence at Runnimede than they were at the earlier meetings of the barons, but that the neighbouring Londoners were strong enough to secure a good price for their support.
The traders, too, get little, while preferential treatment is meted out to the clergy and the barons.
War was being waged against Louis of France, and the executive must not be hampered in the work of raising money; moreover the personal equation had disappeared, the barons did not need to protect themselves against John.