43) are well adapted for their burrowing habits under the bark of trees.
An occasional sharp high bark soon revealed the source as a little gray squirrel.
He turned his attention to the fire and tucked another piece of bark into the bright coals.
"The key is knowing that—if you're not a bad guy—they can't do more than bark at you," Linda confided to Sofia and Traci.
Some climb trees and feed on leaves, while others tunnel between bark and wood.
rubra; the bark is one of the best tanning materials of the country.
The throaty bark filled the air again and she rolled out of bed into the cold morning.
A huge white sycamore skeleton sprawled on the gravel beach, its bark long gone.
While the sea of history remains calm the ruler-administrator in his frail bark, holding on with a boat hook to the ship of the people and himself moving, naturally imagines that his efforts move the ship he is holding on to.
Their dwellings for the most part are either bowers, formed of the branches of trees, or hovels of piled logs, loosely covered with grass or bark, which they can erect in an hour, wherever they encamp. But some huts of a more substantial form were seen by Captain Matthew Flinders on the south-east coast in 1799, and by Captain King and Sir T.
The Vertebrata come within the scope of our subject, chiefly as destructive agents which cause wounds or devour young shoots and foliage, &c. Rabbits and other burrowing animals injure roots, squirrels and birds snip off buds, horned cattle strip off bark, and so forth.
They shelter in crevices of the bark of trees, in the dried stems of herbaceous plants, or among moss and fallen leaves on the ground.
Many of the gumtrees throw off their bark, so that it hangs in long dry strips from the trunk and branches, a feature familiar in " bush " pictures.
If a piece of bark and cortex are torn off, the occlusion takes longer, because the tissues have to creep over the exposed area of wood; and the same is true of a transverse cut severing the branch, as may be seen in any properly pruned tree.
The viscid pulp soon hardens, affording a protection to the seed; in germination the sucker-root penetrates the bark, and a connexion is established with the vascular tissue of the first plant.
I had some difficulty in holding on, for the branches were very large and the bark hurt my hands.
The Antarctic beech and Winter's bark (Drimys Winteri) are found at intervals along the Andes to the northern limits of this zone.
The value of oak bark depends upon the amount of tannin contained in it, which varies much, depending not only on the growth of the tree but on the care bestowed on the preparation of the bark itself, as it soon ferments and spoils by exposure to wet, while too much sun-heat is injurious.
The bark, resin and " oils " of the eucalyptus are well known as commercial products.
the procession carrying the sacred ark and the bark of the god Amon belonging to the reign of Rameses II.
He used to make a cable for his anchor of strips of hickory bark tied together.
The tanning, currying and finishing of leather, an industry largely dependent on the plentiful supply of oak and hemlock bark for tanning, is centralized in the northern and eastern parts of the state, near the forests.
The rough surface of the bark of many trees is due to the successive phellogens not arising in regular concentric zones, but forming in arcs which join with the earlier-formed arcs, and thus causing the bark to come off in flakes or thick chunks.
That in days so remote as to be undateable, a Dravidian people driven from their primitive home in the hills of the Indian Deccan made their way south via Ceylon (where they may to-day be regarded as represented by the Veddahs) and eventually sailed and drifted in their bark boats to the western and north-western shores of Australia.
Nothing daunted, the two ran back into the bush, and presently returned furnished with shields made of bark, with which to protect themselves from the firearms of the crew.
An important product of oak woods is the bark that from a remote period has been the chief tanning material of Europe.
Frost-cracks, scorching of bark by sun and fire, &c., anc wounds due to plants which entwine, pierce or otherwise materially injure trees, &c., on a large scale.
From the cave we have advanced to roofs of palm leaves, of bark and boughs, of linen woven and stretched, of grass and straw, of boards and shingles, of stones and tiles.
Occurring in all temperate and tropical countries, book-scorpions live for the most part under stones, beneath the bark of trees or in vegetable detritus.
In the woods of Oregon, from the Columbia river southwards, an oak is found bearing some resemblance to the British oak in foliage and in its thick trunk and widely-spreading boughs, but the bark is white as in Q.
He didn't usually bark at the deer and Alex wouldn't like it if he started chasing them now.
The trunk is usually flattened, and twisted as though composed of several stems united; the bark is smooth and light grey; and the leaves are in two rows, 2 to 3 in.
The Nitidulidae are a large family with 1600 species, among which members of the genus Meligethes are often found in numbers feeding on blossoms, while others live under the bark of trees and prey on the grubs of boring beetles.
The inner part of the bark of the hornbeam is stated by Linnaeus to afford a yellow dye.
Wounds may be artificially grouped, under such heads as the following: Burrows and excavations in bark and wood, due te boring insects, especially beetles.
The iron-bark of the eastern coast uplands is well known (Eucalyptus sideroxylon), and is so called from the hardness of the wood, the bark not being remarkable except for its rugged and blackened aspect.
We note in this connexion the form of a sacred bark represented in Meyer's Hist.
In such a neighborhood as this, boards and shingles, lime and bricks, are cheaper and more easily obtained than suitable caves, or whole logs, or bark in sufficient quantities, or even well-tempered clay or flat stones.
The blue-gray bandy legged dog ran merrily along the side of the road, sometimes in proof of its agility and self-satisfaction lifting one hind leg and hopping along on three, and then again going on all four and rushing to bark at the crows that sat on the carrion.
Occasionally he would stand and bark.
In the course of the summer I had discovered a raft of pitch pine logs with the bark on, pinned together by the Irish when the railroad was built.
Among some tribes a circular grave was dug and the body placed in it with its face towards the east, and a high mound covered with bark or thatch raised over it.
The bark of young oak branches has been employed in medicine from the days of Dioscorides, but is not used in modern practice.
In Spain the wood is of some value, being hard and close-grained, and the inner bark is used for tanning.
The formation and gradually increasing thickness of its bark are explained by the continually increasing need of adequate protection to the living cortex, under the strain of the increasing framework which the enormous multiplication of its living protoplasts demands, and the development of which leads to continual rupture of the exterior.
The latter raises the moss and bark gently with his knife in search of insects; the former lays open logs to their core with his axe, and moss and bark fly far and wide.
Common throughout the northern and middle states and Canada, the red oak attains a large size only on good soils; the wood is of little value, being coarse and porous, but it is largely used for cask-staves; the bark is a valuable tanning material.
Bark provides material for string, while baskets and mats are neatly and stoutly made from canes and buckets out of bamboo and wood.
The complex system of dead and dying tissues cut off by these successive periderms, together with the latter themselves in fact, everything outside the innermost phellogen, constitutes what is often known botanically as the bark of the tree.
The bark, very dark externally, is an excellent tanning substance; the inner layers form the quercitron of commerce, used by dyers for communicating to fabrics various tints of yellow, and, with iron salts, yielding a series of brown and drab hues; the colouring property depends on a crystalline principle called quercitrin, of which it should contain about 8%.
Its bark is used for the construction of canoes, and for drinking-cups, dishes and baskets.
Dogs left alone to bark for long periods may be a noise nuisance to people living nearby.
The corky layers which take so prominent a share in the formation of the bark are similarly modified and subserve the same purpose.
Suber, the bark of which yields cork (q.v.), is a native of the west Mediterranean area.
From its rugged silvery bark and dark-green foliage, it is a handsome tree, quite hardy in Cornwall and Devonshire, where it has grown to a large size.
Stumps thirty or forty years old, at least, will still be sound at the core, though the sapwood has all become vegetable mould, as appears by the scales of the thick bark forming a ring level with the earth four or five inches distant from the heart.
England and France, Spain and Portugal, Gold Coast and Slave Coast, all front on this private sea; but no bark from them has ventured out of sight of land, though it is without doubt the direct way to India.
The astringent principle is a peculiar kind of tannic acid, called by chemists quercitannic, which, yielding more stable compounds with gelatine than other forms, gives oak bark its high value to the tanner.
He has a great bundle of white oak bark under his arm for a sick man, gathered this Sunday morning.
"Dustin," came his low bark.
I'll eat tree bark.
mulch of compost or bark is best here.
mulch with homemade compost and lots of bark.
What a terrible situation for our travelers, to be thus overtaken by a tempest in a frail bark which they could not manage!
On the lower slopes of the Andes are found oak, beech, cedar, Winter's bark, pine (Araucaria imbricata), laurel and calden (Prosopis algarobilla).
According to Neubauer, the bark of young oaks contains from 7 to Io% of this principle; in old trees the proportion is much less.
tanning of leather required the use of oak bark, which was another major demand specifically for oak.
Robur than any other species, forming a thick trunk with spreading base and, when growing in glades or other open places, huge spreading boughs, less twisted and gnarled than those of the English oak, and covered with a whitish bark that gives a marked character to the tree.
The true love-birds (Agapornis) may also be said to build nests, for they line their nest-hole with strips of pliant bark.
3) of some weevils live in seeds; others devour roots, while the parentbeetles eat leaves; others, again, are found in wood or under bark.
The grubs, when hatched, start galleries nearly at right angles to this, and when fully grown form oval cells in which they pupate; from these the young beetles emerge by making circular holes directly outward through the bark.
The species C. torulosa of North India, so called from its twisted bark, attains an altitude of 150 ft.; its branches are erect or ascending, and grow so as to form a perfect cone.
a bark mill, and perhaps a pottery; the women did embroidery,.
The appearance of the tree - the bark, the foliage, the flowers - is, however, usually quite characteristic in the two species.
The winter moth (Cheimatobia brumata) must be kept in check by putting greasy bands round the trunks from October till December or January, to catch the wingless females that crawl up and deposit their eggs in the cracks and crevices in the bark.
All fruit and forest trees suffer from these curious insects, which in the female sex always remain apterous and apodal and live attached to the bark, leaf and fruit, hidden beneath variously formed scale-like coverings.
A, Winged female; B, winged D, viviparous wingless female from in patches from old apple trees, where the insects live in the rough bark and form cankered growths both above and below ground.
The younger and smaller trees are remarkably durable, especially when the bark is allowed to remain on them; and most of the poles imported into Britain for scaffolding, ladders, mining-timber and similar uses are furnished by this fir.
In Scandinavia a thick turpentine oozes from cracks or fissures in the bark, forming by its congelation a fine yellow resin, known commercially as "spruce rosin," or "frankincense"; it is also procured artificially by cutting off the ends of the lower branches, when it slowly exudes from the extremities.
In Switzerland and parts of Germany, where it is collected in some quantity for commerce, a long strip of bark is cut out of the tree near the root; the resin that slowly accumulates during the summer is scraped out in the latter part of the season, and the slit enlarged slightly the following spring to ensure a continuance of the supply.
The bark and young cones afford a tanning material, inferior indeed to oakbark, and hardly equal to that of the larch, but of value in countries where substances more rich in tannin are not abundant.
In times of scarcity the Norse peasant-farmer uses the sweetish inner bark, beaten in a mortar and ground in his primitive mill with oats or barley, to eke out a scanty supply of meal, the mixture yielding a tolerably palatable though somewhat resinous substitute for his ordinary flad-brod.
A variety with lighter foliage and reddish bark is common in Newfoundland and some districts on the mainland adjacent.
The fibrous tough roots, softened by soaking in water, and split, are used by the Indians and voyageurs to sew together the birch-bark covering of their canoes; and a resin that exudes from the bark is employed to varnish over the seams. It was introduced to Great Britain at the end of the 17th century and was formerly more extensively planted than at present.
The bark, split off in May or June, forms one of the most valuable tanning substances in Canada.
It forms extensive forests in Vancouver Island, British Columbia and Oregon, whence the timber is exported, being highly prized for its strength, durability and even grain, though very heavy; it is of a deep yellow colour, abounding in resin, which oozes from the thick bark.
When the tree is young the bark is of a silvery grey, but gets rough with age.
In the Alps and Vosges this resinous semi-fluid is collected by climbing the trees and pressing out the contents of the natural receptacles of the bark into horn or tin vessels held beneath them.
Henry Youle Hind, in his work on the Labrador Peninsula (London, 1863) praises the map which the Montagnais and Nasquapee Indians drew upon bark.
Like a wolf, it howls but does not bark.
The Hare Indian dog of the Great Bear Lake and the Mackenzie river is more slender, gentle and affectionate than the Eskimo dog, but is impatient of restraint, and preserves many of the characters of its wild ally, the coyote, and is practically unable to bark.
The bark is completely dog-like, and the primitive hunting instincts have been cultivated into a marvellous aptitude for herding sheep and cattle.
Specimens on the bark of trees require pressure until the bark is dry, lest they become curled; and those growing on sand or friable soil, such as Coniocybefurfuracea, should be laid carefully on a layer of gum in the box in which they are intended to be kept.
The majagua tree grows as high as 40 ft.; from its bark is made cordage of the finest quality, which is scarcely affected by the atmosphere.
Tobacco and cascarilla bark also flourish; and cotton is indigenous and was woven into cloth by the aborigines.
It is said that the aborigines had a breed of dogs which did not bark, and a small coney is also mentioned.
They differ greatly from all other members of the family (Macropodidae), being chiefly arboreal in their habits, and feeding on bark, leaves and fruit.
It exports citrons, wool, oak, bark and skins.
Latex, though chiefly secreted in vessels or small sacs which reside in the cortical tissue between the outer bark and the wood is also found in the leaves and sometimes in the roots or bulbs.
The latex is usually obtained from the bark or stem by making an incision reaching almost to the wood when the milky fluid flows more or less readily from the laticiferous vessels.
The latex, which is usually coagulated by standing or by heating, is obtained from incisions in the bark of the tree.
When the bark has been removed a period of from three to four years must elapse before it is so fully renewed as to render fresh incisions possible.
He then slices off the outer layer of the bark to the height of 4 or 5 ft.
The caoutchouc is collected in the following manner: about eight oblique cuts are made all round the trunk, but only through the bark, and a tin cup is fastened at the bottom of each incision by means of a piece of soft clay.
In the industrial working of indiarubber, the various impurities present in the crude " wild rubber (bark, dirt and the principal impurities derived from the latex, except resin) are removed by the following process: The lumps of crude caoutchouc are first softened by the prolonged action of hot water, and then cut into slices by means of a sharp knife - generally by hand, as thus any large stones or other foreign substances can be removed.
A little vinegar is poured into each pot; they are then covered with plates of sheet lead, buried in horse-dung or spent tanner's bark, and left to themselves for a considerable time.
Caventou from "false Angustura bark."
It is found in the volatile oils of Spiraea, and can be obtained by the oxidation of the glucoside salicin, (C13H1807), which is found in willow bark.
It is divided into four sanjaks - Kastamuni, Boli, Changra and Sinope - is rich in mineral wealth, and has many mineral springs and extensive forests, the timber being used for charcoal and building and the bark for tanning.
Its bark forms a valuable article of commerce.
More important is the cultivation of the black wattle (Acacia mollissima), which began in 1886, the bark being exported for tanning purposes, the wood also commanding a ready sale.
In 1905 the production of wattle bark was 13,620 tons, and the area planted with the tree over 60,000 acres.
The chief exports, not all products of the province, are coal, wool, mohair, hides and skins, wattle bark, tea, sugar, fruits and jams. The import trade is of a most varied character, and a large proportion of the goods brought into the country are in transit to the Transvaal and Orange Free State, Natal affording, next to Delagoa Bay, the shortest route to the Rand.
The tissues of an animal or plant are all under a certain pressure, caused, in the one case, by the expulsive action of the heart and the restraint of the skin and other elastic tissues, and, in the other case, by the force of the rising sap and the restraint of the periderm or bark.
One chief means employed by nature in accomplishing this object is the investment of those parts of the organism liable to be attacked with an armour-like covering of epidermis, periderm, bark, &c. The grape is proof against the inroads of the yeastplant so long as the husk is intact, but on the husk being injured the yeast-plant finds its way into the interior and sets up vinous fermentation of its sugar.
He introduced a milder and better way of treating fevers - especially small-pox, and gave strong support to the use of specific medicines - especially Peruvian bark.
The grateful perfumed powder abir or rand y is composed either of rice, flour, mango bark or deodar wood, camphor and aniseed, or of sandalwood or wood aloes, and zerumbet, zedoary, rose flowers, camphor and civet.
In Rome olibanum alone is employed; in other places benzoin, storax, lign, aloes, cascarilla bark, cinnamon, cloves and musk are all said to be occasionally used.
The thin greyish bark is usually removed.
There is much less moisture, and the flora is of a less tropical character than farther north; it has some Polynesian and New Zealand affinities, and on the west coast a partially Australian character; on the higher hills it is stunted; on the lower, however, there are fine .grass lands, and a scattered growth of niaulis (Melaleuca viridiflora), useful for its timber, bark and cajeput oil.
in height; its inner bark yields an extractive, juglandin, given as an hepatic stimulant and cathartic in doses of 2-5 grains.
aongitudinal slits are made in the bark, and the gum is caught in cups fixed beneath.
It has small leaves and fibrous bark, the wood is light, soft and easily-worked, and very durable in contact with the soil, and is much used for boat-building and for making fences and coopers' staves.
But the forests of Huanuco and Huamalios abound in species yielding the grey bark of commerce, which is rich in cinchonine, an alkaloid efficacious as a febrifuge, though inferior to quinine.
The natural products of Peru include rubber, cabinet woods in great variety, cinchona or Peruvian bark and other medicinal products, various fibres, and guano.
The export of cinchona, or Peruvian bark, is not important in itself, being only 64 tons, valued at £1406 in 1905.
The best bark comes from the Carabaya district in southeastern Peru, but it is found in many localities on the eastern slopes of the Andes.
The Peruvian supply is practically exhausted through the destructive methods employed in collecting the bark, and the world now depends chiefly on Bolivia and Ecuador.
seven villages were partially wrecked; forests were levelled or the trees entirely denuded of bark; rivers were blocked up, and lakes were formed.
During this century the first sumptuary edict ordered that the dwellings of all high officials and opulent civilians should have tiled roofs and be colored red, the latter injunction being evidently intended to stop the use of logs carrying their bark.
The parent chamber and the ambulatory were ceiled, sometimes with interlacing strips of bark or broad laths, so as to produce a plaited effect sometimes with plain boards.
The principal exports from Maracaibo are coffee, hides and skins, cabinet and dye-woods, cocoa, and mangrove bark, to which may be added dividivi, sugar, copaiba, gamela and hemp straw for paper-making, and fruits.
In addition to their use for timber or basket-making, willows contain a large quantity of tannin in their bark.
A valuable medicinal glucoside named salicin (q.v.) is also extracted from the bark.
BIBIRINE, or Bebeerine, C19H21N03, an alkaloid obtained from the bark and fruit of the greenheart tree, Nectandra rodiaei, called bibiru or sipiri in Guiana, where the tree grows.
They lay their parthenogenetically produced eggs in the angles of the veins of the leaves, in the buds, or, if the season is already far advanced, in the bark.
From the forests are obtained rubber, copal, bark, various kinds of fibre, and timber (teak, mahogany, &c.).
It is obtained by making incisions in the bark of the trees, and appears to be formed as the result of the wound, not to be secreted normally.
They are mainly nocturnal, and subsist chiefly on bark and twigs or the roots of water plants.
Beavers also gnaw the bark of birch, poplar and willow trees; but during the summer a more varied herbage, with the addition of berries, is consumed.
The Eskimo underground houses of sod Hablta- and snow, the Dene (Tinneh) and Sioux bunch of bark.
The products of the textile industry in America were bark cloth, wattling for walls, fences and weirs, paper, basketry, matting, loom products, needle or point work, net-work, lacework and embroidery.
All textile work was done by hand; the only devices known were the bark peeler and beater, the shredder, the flint-knife, the spindle, the rope-twister, the bodkin, the warp-beam and the most primitive harness.
The absence of good bark, dugout timber, and chisels of stone deprived the whole Mississippi valley of creditable water-craft, and reduced the natives to the clumsy trough for a dugout and miserable bull-boat, made by stretching dressed buffalo hide over a crate.
The simplest form of navigation in Brazil was the woodskin, a piece of bark stripped from a tree and crimped at the ends.
Finally, the Fuegian bark canoe, made in three pieces so that it can be taken apart and transported over hills and sewed together, ends the series.
Among veld plants the elandsboontje provides tanning material equal to oak bark.
Tea, oni the contrary, is prepared and packed on the estates; but there is a considerable amount of work still done in the Colombo stores in sorting, blending and repacking such teas as are sold at the local public sales; also in dealing with cacao, cardainoms, cinchona bark and the remnant still left of the coffee indiustry.
The roofs were thatched with bark, straw, reeds or rushes.
In the central and southern parts of the belt oak and hickory constitute valuable hard woods, and certain varieties of the former furnish quantities of tan bark.
Coccus pinicorticis causes the growth of patches of white flocculent and downy matter on the smooth bark of young trees of the white pine in America.
The chief tree which has commercial value is the cork, and the stripping of the bark is under official supervision.
buzino d'oro, " golden bark," latinized in the middle ages as bucentaurus on the analogy of a supposed Gr.
Tot/15,s de Acosta, governor from 1797 to 1809, confirmed this report, and stated that the Indians were clothed in bark, and compelled in many cases to borrow even this primitive attire when the law required their attendance at church.
The arboreal life of the tropical forests has developed the treeclimbing habit among snakes as well as among frogs and toads, and also the habit of mimicry, their colour being in harmony with the foliage or bark of the trees which form their " hunting-grounds."
These officers always include three selectmen, a clerk, a treasurer and one or more auditors, and they may include any or all of the following: assessors, who together with the selectmen constitute a board for the assessment of taxes, one or more collectors of taxes, overseers of the poor, constables, surveyors of highways, fence-viewers, sealers of weights and measures, measurers of wood and bark, surveyors of lumber, cullers of staves, a chief fireward or engineer and one or more assistants, a clerk of the market and a pound keeper.
Great care should be exercised in planting lest the bark be fractured, loosened or removed from the wood.
They are then cut direct from the head and the bark is easily removed by drawing the rods through a bifurcated hand-brake of smooth, well-rounded steel, framed in wood.
The bark is red, like that of the Scots fir, deeply furrowed, with the ridges often much curved and twisted.
The bark, of nearly the same tint as that of the redwood, is extremely thick and is channelled towards the base with vertical furrows; at the root the ridges often stand out in buttress-like projections.
26, "the light laden moon" for "light-laden"; Revolt of Islam, 4805, "Our bark hung there, as one line suspended I Between two heavens," for "on a line."
They belong to the family Psocidae which has a few score species - most of them winged - living out of doors on the bark of trees and among vegetable refuse.
The bark in most of the trees occurs in fine soft membranous layers, the outer cuticle of which peels off in thin, white, papery sheets.
The bark of the common birch is much more durable, and industrially of greater From Strasburger, Lehrbuch der Botanik.
It is impermeable to water, and is therefore used in northern countries for roofing, for domestic utensils, for boxes and jars to contain both solid and liquid substances, and for a kind of bark shoes, of which it is estimated 25 millions of pairs are annually worn by the Russian peasantry.
The jars and boxes of birch bark made by Russian peasants are often stamped with very effective patterns.
By dry distillation the bark yields an empyreumatic oil, called diogott in Russia, used in the preparation of Russia leather; to this oil the peculiar pleasant odour of the leather is due.
The bark itself is used in tanning; and by the Samoiedes and Kamchatkans it is ground up and eaten on account of the starchy matter it contains.
The whole tree, but especially the bark and leaves, has a very pleasant resinous odour, and from the young leaves and buds an essential oil is distilled with water.
The bark, which is dark brown or reddish, and very durable, is used by Indians and backwoodsmen in the same way as the bark of B.
The bark is also used as a substitute for paper.
Bhojputtra) growing on the Himalayan Mountains, as high up as 9000 ft., yields large quantities of fine thin papery bark, extensively sent down to the plains as a substitute for wrapping paper, for covering the "snakes" of hookahs and for umbrellas.
Their usual food consists of water-plants and bark, but in cultivated districts they do much harm to crops.
In the prevalent European varieties the bark is reddish-grey, and rather rough and scarred in old trees, which are often much lichen-covered.
The Siberian larch has smooth grey bark and smaller cones, approaching in shape somewhat to those of the American hackmatack; it seems even hardier than the Alpine tree, growing up to latitude 68°, but, as the inclement climate of the polar shores is neared, dwindling down to a dwarf and even trailing bush.
Old trees are selected, from the bark of which it is observed to ooze in the early summer; holes are bored in the trunk, somewhat inclined upward towards the centre of the stem, in which, between the layers of wood, the turpentine is said to collect in small lacunae; wooden gutters placed in these holes convey the viscous fluid into little wooden pails hung on the end of each gutter; the secretion flows slowly all through the summer months, and a tree in proper condition yields from 6 to 8 Ib a year, and will continue to give an annual supply for thirty or forty years, being, however, rendered quite useless for timber by subjection to this process.
The bark of the larch is largely used in some countries for tanning; it is taken from the trunk only, being stripped from the trees when felled; its value is about equal to that of birch bark; but, according to the experience of British tanners, it is scarcely half as strong as that of the oak.
The soft inner bark is occasionally used in Siberia as a ferment, by hunters and others, being boiled and mixed with rye-meal, and buried in the snow for a short time, when it is employed as a substitute for other leaven, and in making the sour liquor called " quass."
The young seedlings are sometimes nibbled by the hare and rabbit; and on parts of the highland hills both bark and shoots are eaten in the winter by the roe-deer; larch woods should always be fenced in to keep out the hill-cattle, which will browse upon the shoots in spring.
It contains, in addition to tannin, a peculiar principle called larixin, which may be obtained in a pure state by distillation from a concentrated infusion of the bark; it is a colourless substance in long crystals, with a bitter and astringent taste, and a faint acid reaction; hence some term it larixinic acid.
The bark is dark bluish-grey, smoother than in the red larch, on the trunk and lower boughs often glossy; the branches are more or less pendulous and very slender.
The bark of the trunk has the same reddish tint as that of the common larch of Europe.
It is also fond of gnawing the bark of young trees, and thus often does great damage to plantations.
Otherwise it may be obtained by making incisions in the bark or wood of the secreting plant.
The wauke plant (Broussonetia papyrifera), and to a less extent the mamake (Pipturus albidus) and Boehmeria stipularis, furnished the bark out of which the famous kapa cloth was made, while the olopa (Cheirodendron gaudichaudii) and the koolea (Myrsine lessertiana) furnished the dyes with which it was coloured.
side of the island; scarlet feathers for similar mantles were taken from the iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea), a black-bodied, scarlet-winged song-bird, which feeds on nectar and on insects found in the bark of the koa and ohia trees, and front the Fringilla coccinea.
The bright red ovoid berries are cathartic, the whole plant is acrid and poisonous, and the bark is used medicinally.
The manufacture of great quantities of coke has resulted from the demand for this product in the iron and steel industry and from the abundance of coking coal; the manufacture of glass has been promoted by the supply of glass sand and natural gas in the west of the state; the manufacture of leather by the abundance of hemlock bark; the manufacture of pottery, terra-cotta and fire-clay products by the abundance of raw material; the manufacture of silk and silk goods by the large number of women and girls who came into the state in families of which the men and boys were employed in mining and picking anthracite coal; and in each of these industries as well as in a few others the state has for many years produced a large portion of the country's product.
Mimicry is a special form of protective resemblance, differing from ordinary protective resemblance as exemplified by the similarity of the resting goat-sucker to a piece of bark or of leafand stick-insects to the objects after which they are named, in that the imitated object belongs to the animal kingdom and not to the vegetable kingdom or to inorganic nature.
(d) The hypophloeodal thallus is often concealed beneath the bark of trees (as in some Verrucariae and Arthoniae), or enters into the fibres of wood (as in Xylographa and After Bonnier, from v.
When the alga is predominant it forms felted patches on the bark of trees, the Laudatea form.
Lichens are found growing in various situations such as bare earth, the bark of trees, dead wood, the surface of stones and rocks, where they have little competition to fear from ordinary plants.
Chiefly, however, they are the bark of trees, rocks, the ground, mosses and, rarely, perennial leaves.
The outer bark of each being removed, the two shoots are kept in contact by ligature until union is established, when the scion is completely severed from its original attachments.
the removal from the branch of a ring of bark, or the application of a tight cincture, in consequence of which the growth of the fruits above the wound or the obstruction is enhanced.
When heat is required, it is sometimes supplied by means of fermenting dung, or dung and leaves, or tanner's bark, but it is much more economically provided by hot-water pipes.
it closely with wire, by taking off a ring of bark, or by " tonguing."
- Budding is the inserting of a bud of a choice variety cut with a portion of bark into the bark of the stock of an inferior nature where it is bound gently but firmly.
In the propagating house budding may be done at any season when the sap is in motion; but for fruit trees, roses, &c., in the open air, it is usually done in July or August, when the buds destined for the following year are completely formed in the axils of the leaves, and when the bark separates freely from the wood it covers.
provided with a sharp budding knife having a thin ivory or bone handle, for raising the bark of the stock.
A horizontal incision is made in the bark quite down to the wood, and from this a perpendicular slit is drawn upwards to the extent of perhaps an inch, so that the slit has a resemblance to the letter T, as at a.
The bit of wood e must be gently withdrawn, care being taken that the bud adheres wholly to the bark or shield, FIG.
The bark on each side of the perpendicular slit being then cautiously opened, as at b, with the handle of the knife, the bud and shield are inserted as shown at c. The upper tip of the shield is cut off horizontally, and brought to fit the bark of the stock at the transverse incision.
The union is effected as in grafting, by means of the organizable sap or cambium, and the less this is disturbed until the inner bark of the shield is pressed and fixed against it the better.
One of the expedients for inducing a state of fruitfulness in trees is the ringing of the branches or stem, that is, removing a narrow annular portion of the bark, by which means, it is said, the trees are not only rendered productive, but the quality of the fruit is at the same time improved.
The advantage depends on the obstruction given to the descent of the sap. The ring should be cut out in spring, and be of such a width that the bark may remain separated for the season.
Care should be taken that the ties or fastenings do not eventually cut into the bark as the branches swell with increased age.
311), he was a fifty-headed monster with a fearful bark, the offspring of Typhon and Echidna.
In the hilly districts more than half the surface is sc:netimes occupied by forests, and large plantations of oak are formed for the use of the bark in tanning.
They demonstrated the ascent of the sap through the wood of the tree, and supposed the sap to "precipitate a kind of white coagulum or jelly, which may be well conceived to be the part which every year between bark and tree turns to wood and of which the leaves and fruits are made."
It generally makes its nest in a hollow branch, plastering up the opening with clay, leaving only a circular hole just large enough to afford entrance and exit; and the interior contains a bed of dry leaves or the filmy flakes of the inner bark of a fir or cedar, on which the eggs are laid.
The cloth is made of the cotton grown in the country, woven on small handlooms and dyed either with indigo or with a magenta dye obtained from the bark of a tree.
Such are the story of Sinhi, a fugitive to Syria in the reign of Sesostris enwosri] I., and perhaps the narrative of Unamun of his expedition in quest of cedar wood for the bark of the Theban Ammon in the XXIst Dynasty.
The Litanies of the Sun contain the acclamations with which the sun-god Re was greeted, when at eventide his bark reached the entrance of the nether world.
The whc 1st conceptions represented Re as sailing across the heavens ran: ship called Manzet, the bark of the dawn; at sunset bro stepped aboard another vessel named Mesenktet, the Res k of the dusk, which bore him back from west to east fror ing the night.
Outside its walls there was a huge brick model of the solar bark in which the god daily traversed the heavens.
The life of the dead man in the sky is variously envisaged in different texts: at one moment he is spoken of as accompanying the sun-god in his celestial bark, at another as a mighty king more powerful than Re himself; the crudest fancy of all pictures him as a hunter who catches the stars and gods, and cooks and eats them.
They occur in the sea, in fresh water, on moist earth, on damp rocks and on the bark of trees.
They also made various kinds of mats, baskets and fans from the leaves of the pandanus, the bark of the hibiscus, from species of bohmeria or other Urticaceous plants.
Forest Products.-The forest and other natural products include rubber, cinchona bark, ivory-nuts, mocora and toquilla fibre for the manufacture of hats, hammocks, &c., cabaya fibre for shoes and cordage, vegetable wool (Bombax ceiba), sarsaparilla, vanilla, cochineal, cabinet woods, fruit, resins, &c. The original source of the Peruvian bark of commerce, the Cinchona calisaya, is completely exhausted, and the " red bark " derived from C. succirubra, is now the principal source of supply from Ecuador.
Guaranda is the centre of the industry, but bark gatherers are to be found everywhere in the forest regions.
The principal exports are cacao, rubber, coffee, tobacco, hides, cotton, Panama hats, cinchona bark and ivory nuts, the value of all exports for the year 1905 being 14,148,877 sucres, in a total of 18,565,668 sucres for the whole republic. In 1908 the exports were: cacao, about 64,000,000 lb, valued at $6,400,000; hides, valued at $135,000; rubber, valued at $235,000; coffee, valued at $273,000; and vegetable ivory, valued at $102,000.
A transverse section of a tree of this class shows it to consist of three distinct parts: the pith or medulla, the wood, made up of annual rings or layers, and the bark.
The medullary rays extend radially from the centre of the tree to the bark at right angles to the grain of the wood, and serve during life to bind the whole together as well as to convey nourishment from one part of the tree to another.
By some authorities it is considered a good plan to remove the bark in the early spring and fell the tree in the ensuing winter.
Definitions and sizes are given below of the most usual forms of sawn timber: A log is the trunk of a tree with the bark removed and branches lopped.
In Canada it is called "Norway pine" and "red pine" from the colour of the bark.
CINNAMON, the inner bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a small evergreen tree belonging to the natural order Lauraceae, native to Ceylon.
Ceylon cinnamon of fine quality is a very thin smooth bark, with a light-yellowish brown colour, a highly fragrant odour, and a peculiarly sweet, warm and pleasing aromatic taste.
This essential oil, as an article of commerce, is prepared by roughly pounding the bark, macerating it in sea-water, and then quickly distilling the whole.
When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine, little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality, but when cassia is present a deep-blue tint is produced, the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of the cassia.
The bark possesses tanning properties, and in Scotland in past times yielded with ferrous sulphate a black dye for wool.
A considerable amount bf the bark from private plantations is bought by the government and treated at the government factories.
The bark of the musuemba (Albizzia coriaria) is largely used in the tanning of leather.
The wood of the aspen is very light and soft, though tough; it is employed by coopers, chiefly for pails and herring-casks; it is also made into butchers' trays, pack-saddles, and various articles for which its lightness recommends it; sabots are also made of it in France, and in medieval days it was valued for arrows, especially for those used in target practice; the bark is used for tanning in northern countries; cattle and deer browse greedily on the young shoots and abundant suckers.
The powdered bark is sometimes given to horses as a vermifuge; it possesses likewise tonic and febrifugal properties, containing a considerable amount of salicin.
The bark is of some value as a tonic and febrifuge.
Vast quantities of coarse matting used for packing furniture, heavy and coarse goods, flax and other plants, &c., are made in Russia from the bast or inner bark of the lime tree.
inside the bark 4 ft.
The bark of the older stems is of a bright brown, mottled with grey, that of the young twigs is ash-coloured, and glandular and hairy.
The witch hazel is quite a distinct plant, Hamamelis virginica, of the natural order Hamamalideae, the astringent bark of which is used in medicine.
The bark of Acacia arabica, under the name of babul or babool, is used in Scinde for tanning.
The bark of various Australian species, known as wattles, is also very rich in tannin and forms an important article of export.
The following description of the retting of jute is taken from Royle's Fibrous Plants of India:- " The proper point being attained, the native operator, standing up to his middle in water, takes as many of the sticks in his hands as he can grasp, and removing a small portion of the bark from the ends next the roots, and grasping them together, he strips off the whole with a little management from end to end, without breaking either stem or fibre.
The tannin of oak, C/9H16010, which is found, mixed with gallic acid, ellagic acid and quercite, in oak bark, is a red powder; its aqueous solution is coloured dark blue by ferric chloride, and boiling with dilute sulphuric acid gives oak red or phlobaphene.
Out of the vague and limitless body there sprung a central mass, - this earth of ours, cylindrical in shape, poised equidistant from surrounding orbs of fire, which had originally clung to it like the bark round a tree, until their continuity was severed, and they parted into several wheelshaped and fire-filled bubbles of air.
In the great fir forests of the north the limit set in respect of cutting down living trees for sawing and export is a diameter of the trunk, without bark, of 84 in.
The quillay (Quillaja saponaria) is another characteristic evergreen tree of this region, whose bark possesses saponaceous properties.
antarctica), 2 and Winter's bark (Drimys Winteri), intermingled with a dense undergrowth composed of a great variety of shrubs and plants, among which are Maytenus magellanica, Arbutus rigida, Myrtus memmolaria, two or three species of Berberis, wild currant (Ribes antarctica), a trailing blackberry, tree ferns, reed-like grasses and innumerable parasites.
A peculiar vegetable product of this inclement region is a small globular fungus growing on the bark of the beech, which is a staple article of food among the Fuegians - probably the only instance where a fungus is the bread of a people.
Parrots are found as far south as Tierra del Fuego, where Darwin saw them feeding on seeds of the Winter's bark.
in diameter at the base, and gnarled twisted boughs, densely clothed at the extremities with glaucous green foliage, which contrasts strongly with the fiery red-brown bark.
in diameter without the bark, showed four hundred circles of annual growth.
P. sylvestris in Britain is liable to many insect depredations: the pine-chafer, Hylurgus piniperda, is destructive in some places, the larva of this beetle feeding on the young succulent shoots, especially in young plantations; Hylobius abietis, the fir-weevil, eats away the bark, and numerous lepidopterous larvae devour the leaves; the pine-sawfly is also injurious in some seasons; the removal of all dead branches from the trees and from the ground beneath them is recommended, as most of these insects lay their eggs among the decaying bark and dead leaves.
In Scandinavia and Russia houses are chiefly constructed of its timber; and log-huts are made of the smaller trunks and lined and roofed with the bark.
The inner bark is twisted into ropes, and, like that of the spruce, is kiln dried, ground up, and mixed with meal in times of scarcity; in Kamchatka it is macerated in water, then pounded, and made into a kind of substitute for bread without any admixture of flour.
Large quantities of turpentine are extracted from this pine in Sweden and Russia by removing a strip of bark, terminating below in a deep notch cut in the wood, into which the turpentine runs, and from which it is scooped as it accumulates; but the product is not equal to that of the silver fir and other species.
The red pine of Canada and New England (so called from the colour of its bark), P. resinosa, is a tree of considerable size, sometimes attaining the dimensions of P. sylvestris.
It is a straight-growing tree, with grey bark and whorls of horizontal branches giving a cylindro-conical outline; the leaves are short, rigid and glaucous; the cones, oblong and rather pointing upwards, grow only near the top of the tree, and ripen in the second autumn; the seeds are oily like those of P. Pinea, and are eaten both on the Alps and by the inhabitants of Siberia; a fine oil is expressed from them which is used both for food and in lamps, but, like that of the Italian pine, it soon turns rancid.
By preference the condor feeds on carrion, but it does not hesitate to attack sheep, goats and deer, and for this reason it is hunted down by the shepherds, who, it is said, train their dogs to look up and bark at the condors as they fly overhead.
pseudo-platanus, the sycamore or great maple, is a handsome tree of quick growth, with a smooth bark.
It is remarkable for the whiteness of the bark.
The inner bark is dusky red.
This body, which is named parillin, is allied to the saponin of quillaia bark, from which it differs in not exciting sneezing.
On the Continent, especially in Italy, the varieties having a white starchy bark, like those of Honduras and Guatemala, are preferred.
Sarsaparilla is grown to a small extent in Jamaica, and is occasionally exported thence to the London market in small quantities, but its orange colour and starchy bark are so different in appearance from the thin reddish-brown bark of the genuine drug, that it does not meet with a ready sale.
The root bark is reddish-brown, thin and shrivelled, and there is an abundance of rootlets, which are technically known by the name of "beard."
In Honduras sarsaparilla the roots are less wrinkled, and the bark is whiter and more starchy, than in the Jamaica kind.
Guatemala sarsaparilla is very similar to that of Honduras, but has a more decided orange hue, and the bark shows a tendency to split off.
The bark is thick and furrowed, and of a pale fawn colour internally; the rootlets are few, and the root itself is of larger diameter than in the other kinds.
These roots are readily distinguished from those of true sarsaparilla by their loose cracked bark and by their odour and taste, recalling those of melilot.
The cultivation of the cinchona, several species of which have been introduced from South America and naturalized in the Sikkim Himalaya, promises to yield at a comparatively small cost an ample supply of the febrifuge extracted from its bark.
The calisaya trees of Bolivia rank among the best, and their bark forms an important item in her foreign trade.
The destructive methods of collecting the bark are steadily diminishing the natural sources of supply, and experiments in cinchona cultivation were undertaken during the last quarter of the 19th century, with fair prospects of success.
Although representing less value in the aggregate, the collecting of cinchona bark is one of the oldest forest industries of Bolivia, which is said still to have large areas of virgin forest to draw upon.
The bark of the horse-chestnut contains a greenish oil, resin, a yellow body, a tannin, C26 H 24012, existing likewise in the seeds and various parts of the tree, and decomposable into phloroglucin and aesciglyoxalic acid, C 7 H 6 O 3, also aesculetin hydrate, and the crystalline fluorescent compound aesculin, of the formulaC21H24013 (Rochleder and Schwarz), with which occurs a similar substance fraxin, the paviin of Sir G.
From the seeds have been obtained starch (about 14%), gum, mucilage, a non-drying oil, phosphoric acid, salts of calcium, saponin, by boiling which with dilute hydrochloric or sulphuric acid aesculic acid is obtained, quercitrin, present also in the fully developed leaves, aescigenin, C12H2n02, and aesculetin, C 9 H 6 O 4, which is procurable also, but in small quantity only, from the bark.
lxxvi., 1850, p. 379) after drying found, in spring and autumn respectively, 10.9 and 3.38% of ash in the wood, 8.68 and 6.57 in the bark, and 7.68 and 7.52 in the leaves of the horsechestnut.
The bark has been employed for dyeing yellow and for tanning, and was formerly in popular repute as a febrifuge and tonic. The powder of the dried nuts was at one time prescribed as a sternutatory (to encourage sneezing) in the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia.
The economic value of the tree chiefly lies in the inner bark or liber (Lat.
for bark), called bast, and the wood.
Bast mats are now made chiefly in Russia, the bark being cut in long strips, when the liber is easily separable from the corky superficial layer.
apart, through the bark, one cut being made each day, the first at the bottom of the tree, another directly above the first, and so on.
The Rhyncophora embrace four families, - (1) the Curculionidae, or true weevils, (2) the Scolytidae, or bark:.
Others cause much damage in forests, by boring under the bark and through the wood of trees, whilst some even burrow in the tissue of the leaves.
From the bark of another plant they manufacture mats.
Cortes met them in 1525, but they preserved their independence till 1697, when the Spaniards destroyed the city and temples, and a library of sacred books, written in hieroglyphics on bark fibre.
Ignorant of agriculture, with no dwellings but rough huts or breakwinds of sticks and bark, without dogs or other domestic animals, these savages, until the coming of civilized man, roamed after food within their tribal bounds.
Logs and clumsy floats of bark and grass enabled them to cross water under favourable circumstances.
They had clothing of skins rudely stitched together with bark thread, and they were decorated with simple necklaces of kangaroo teeth, shells and berries.
In 1810 Gomez of Lisbon obtained a mixture of alkaloids which he named cinchonino, by treating an alcoholic extract of the bark with water and then adding a solution of caustic potash.
The alkaloids exist in the bark chiefly in combination with cinchotannic and quinic acids.
This method is to exhaust the powdered bark with water acidulated with hydrochloric acid and then to precipitate the alkaloids by caustic soda.
Another method consists in mixing the powdered bark with milk of lime, drying the mass slowly with frequent stirring, exhausting the powder with boiling alcohol, removing the excess of alcohol by distillation, adding sufficient dilute sulphuric acid to dissolve the alkaloid and throw down colouring matter and traces of lime, &c., filtering, and allowing the neutralized liquid to deposit crystals.
Sulphate of quinine manufactured from cuprea bark (Remijia pedunculata) may contain from -Do to.
The other alkaloids of cinchona bark - quinidine, cinchonidine, and cinchonine - also possess similar properties, but all are much less effective than quinine.
Until 1867 English manufacturers of quinine were entirely dependent upon South America for their supplies of cinchona bark, which were obtained exclusively from uncultivated trees, growing chiefly in Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador, the principal species which were used for the purpose being Cinchona Calisaya; C. officinalis; C. macrocalyx, var.
Calisaya, known as the calisaya of Santa Fe, was strongly recommended for cultivation, because the shoots of felled trees afford bark containing a considerable amount of quinine; C. Pitayensia has been introduced into the Indian plantations on account of yielding the valuable alkaloid quinidine, as well as quinine.
The first importation from India took place in 1867, since which time the cultivated bark has arrived in Europe in constantly increasing quantities, London being the chief market for the Indian barks and Amsterdam for those of Java.
In order to obtain the cultivated bark as economically as possible, experiments were made which resulted in the discovery that, if the bark were removed from the trunks in alternate strips so as not to injure the cambium, or actively growing zone, a new layer of bark was formed in one year which was richer in quinine than the original bark and equal in thickness to that of two or three years' ordinary growth.
This is known in commerce as "renewed bark."
The process has been found to be most conveniently practised when the trees are eight years old, at which age the bark separates most easily.
The portion of the trunk from which the bark has been, removed is sometimes protected by moss, and the new bark which forms is then distinguished by the name of "mossed bark."
Some years ago it was discovered that a bark imported from Colombia under the name of cuprea bark, or "hard" bark, and derived from Remijia pedunculata, Triana, and other species, contained quinine to the extent of 4 to 22%, and in 1881 this bark was exported in enormous quantities from Santander, exceeding in amount the united importations of all the other cinchona barks;: and by reason of its cheapness this has since that date been largely used for the manufacture of quinine.
Cinchona bark as imported is never uniform in quality.
No definite knowledge has as yet been attained of the exact steps by which quinine is formed in nature in the tissues of the bark.
From analyses of the leaves, bark and root, it appears that quinine is present only in small quantities in the leaves, in larger quantity in the stem bark, and increasing in proportion as it approaches the root, where quinine appears to decrease and cinchonine to increase in amount, although the root bark is generally richer in alkaloids than that of the stem.
Karsten also ascertained by experiments made at Bogota on C. lancifolia that the barks of one district were sometimes devoid of quinine, while those of the same species from a neighbouring locality yielded 32 to 42% of the sulphate; moreover, Dr De Vrij found that the bark of C. officinalis cultivated at Utakamand varied in the yield of quinine from I to 9%.
Free access of air to the tissues also seems to increase the yield of quinine, for the renewed bark is found to contain more quinine than the original bark
Under the last head fall tobacco, tea, coffee, cocoa, sugar, Peruvian bark and other drugs.
Apart from the Tartarides, the Pedipalpi are large or medium-sized Arachnida, nocturnal in habits and spending the day under stones, logs of wood or loosened bark.
Ginkgo biloba, which may reach a height of over 30 metres, forms a tree of pyramidal shape with a smooth grey bark.
Owing to increased competition, and in some degree to careless harvesting, there was a great fall in prices after 1900, and the Seychellois, though still producing vanilla in large quantities, paid greater attention to the products of the coconut palm - copra, soap, coco-nut oil and coco-nuts - to the development of the mangrove bark industry, the collection of guano, the cultivation of rubber trees, the preparation of banana flour, the growing of sugar canes, and the distillation of rum and essential oils.
Cheeses of ewe's milk, packed in sheepskins or bark, are in great demand.
An important element in the story is the connexion of Adonis with the boar, which (according to one version) brings him into the world by splitting with his tusk the bark of the tree into which Smyrna was changed, and finally kills him.
It manufactures sugar, woollen goods and pottery, and exports Peruvian bark (cinchona), hats, cereals, cheese, hides, &c. It was founded in 1 557 on the site of a native town called Tumibamba, and was made an episcopal see in 1786.
Southern Colombia, especially the eastern slopes of the Andes, produces another valuable tree, the Cinchona calisaya, from the bark of which quinine is made.
Quin i c acid, C 6 H 7 (OH) 4 CO 2 H (tetra -oxy.cyclohexane carboxylic acid), is found in coffee beans and in quinia bark.
They dwell in caves or bark huts, and their word for house is Sinhalese for a hollow tree, rukula.
According to the story told by Hesychius of Miletus, during the siege of Byzantium by Philip of Macedon the moon suddenly appeared, the dogs began to bark and aroused the inhabitants, who were thus enabled to frustrate the enemy's scheme of undermining the walls.
The bark is astringent; it is used for tanning and dyeing.
In Lapland the bark is made into ropes.
Contorted stems, sometimes of considerable thickness, very hard, and covered with a grey cracked bark, rise out of the sand, bearing green plumes with small greyish leaves and pink fruit.
Besides bananas the largest exports are hides, rubber, coco-nuts, limes, native curios and quaqua bark.
They use small bark canoes.
Strassburg turpentine is obtained from the bark of the silver fir; but it is collected only in small quantities.
They cultivate mandioc, and make pottery and bark canoes.
cortex, bark, but possibly connected with quercus, oak), the outer layer of the bark of an evergreen species of oak (Quercus Suber).
The outer layer of bark in the cork oak by annual additions from within gradually becomes a thick soft homogeneous mass, possessing those compressible and elastic properties upon which the economic value of the material chiefly depends.
The yield, which is rough, unequal and woody in texture, is called virgin cork, and is useful only as a tanning substance, or for forming rustic work in ferneries, conservatories, &c. Subsequently the bark is removed every eight or ten years, the quality of the cork improving with each successive stripping; and the trees continue to live and thrive under the operation for 150 years and upwards.
Between these three or four longitudinal incisions are then made, the utmost care being taken not to injure the inner bark.
The inner bark of the cork-tree is a valuable tanning material.
The male Papuan is usually naked save for a loin-cloth made of the bark of the Hibiscus, Broussonetia and other plants, or a girdle of leaves.
The houses are generally built of wood and roofed with birch bark covered with turf.
oracle declared that whoever succeeded in untying the strangely entwined knot of cornel bark which bound the yoke to the pole should reign over all Asia.
This contains a large variety of hard-wooded and valuable timber trees, including species of Weinmannia (Lalona 1), Elaeocarpus (Voanana), Dalbergia (Vbambbana), Nuxia (Valanirana), Podocarpus, a pine, the sole species in the island (Hetatra),Tambourissa (Amhara), Neobaronia (Harah¢ra), Ocotea (Varongy) and probably ebony, Diospyros sp., &c. The following trees are characteristic of Madagascar vegetation, some of them being endemic, and others very prominent features in the landscape: the traveller's-tree (Urania speciosa), with its graceful crown of plantain-like leaves growing like an enormous fan at the top of a tall trunk, and affording a supply of pure cool water, every part of the tree being of some service in building; the Raphia (rofia) palm (Sagus ruffia); the tall fir-like Casuarina equisetifolia or beef wood tree, very prominent on the eastern coast, as well as several species of screw-pine (Pandanus); the Madagascar spice (Ravintsara madagascariensis), a large forest tree, with fragrant fruit, leaves and bark; a beautiful-leaved species of Calophyllum; and the Tangena (Tanghinia veneniflua), formerly employed as a poison ordeal.
The people of the south and south-east make large use of soft rush matting for covering, and they also prepare a rough cloth of bark.
Tanning bark, coffee and guano are also recent exports.
The first of these two shows certain affinities with the culture characteristic of the western area of Africa, such as rectangular huts, clothing of bark and palm-fibre, fetishism, &c., but cattle-breeding is found as well as agriculture.
A popular name with Indian sportsmen is "barking deer," on account of the alarm-cry - a kind of short shrill bark, like that of a fox, but louder.
They live beneath the bark of trees, in the crevices of rock and of rotten stumps of trees, and beneath stones.
In the autumn a single fertile egg is laid by apterous females in a crevice of the bark of the vine where it is protected during the winter.
Here it need only be said that the masses of vegetable substance, more or less carbonized and chemically altered, of which coal is composed, frequently contain cells and fragments of tissue in a condition recognizable under the microscope, as for example spores (sometimes present in great quantities), elements of the wood, fibres of the bark, &c. These remnants, however, though interesting as revealing something of the sources of coal, are too fragmentary and imperfect to be of any botanical importance.
In the old stems the primary cortex was replaced by periderm, giving rise to a thick mass of bark.
In the southern districts hemp and flax are raised, but grain crops are little cultivated, so that the bark of trees has often to be ground up to eke out the scanty supply of flour.
The members of the genus are possessed of the following characters: - Bark often papyraceous; leaves deciduous, compound, alternate and imparipinnate, with leaflets serrate or entire; flowers in racemes or panicles, white, green, yellowish or pink, having a.
To obtain the frankincense a deep incision is made in the trunk of the tree, and below it a narrow strip of bark 5 in.
Porter Smith, op. cit., p. 162.) Common frankincense or thus, Abietis resina, is the term applied to a resin which exudes from fissures in the bark of the Norway spruce fir, Abies excelsa, D.C.; when melted in hot water and strained it constitutes " Burgundy pitch," Pix abietina.
- Tannic acid is present in small quantities in the great majority of plants, but in notable quantity in gall-nuts, oak bark, bearberry leaves, rhatany root, catechu, kino, red gum, bael fruit, logwood and witch hazel, all of which are largely used as medicines.
The aromatic bitters such as chamomile flowers, cascarilla bark, hops, orange peel and others contain in addition small quantities of essential oils which increase their local action.
- This includes the male-fern, santonin, cusso, pomegranate bark, pumpkin seeds and many other substances containing active principles which have a specific poisonous action on intestinal parasitic worms. Apart from this their actions vary considerably, but are of little practical importance.
Several of the other alkaloids found in cinchona bark act very much like quinine.
Large tanneries were attracted to the state, soon after the Civil War, by the abundance of tan bark in the forests, and the cheapness of labour.
"The key is knowing thatâ€”if you're not a bad guyâ€”they can't do more than bark at you," Linda confided to Sofia and Traci.
He laughed, a cynical bark.
Taran of Landis inched his way down the ancient tree, oblivious to the rough bark nipping at his moist skin.
It was one thing to have him bark at and disapprove of her, but she wasn't going to tolerate him being short with the children.
The muscles in her legs complained as she squatted behind the log, peering over the rotting bark.
An oil obtained from the inner bark is astringent and is used in the treatment of various skin afflictions, especially eczema and psoriasis.
The bark has an astringent and slightly bitter taste.
For a truly authentic feel, finish the planting off with a mulch of chipped bark.
barberry bark tincture.
barberry root bark and milk thistle seed will help.
Many different kinds of weird and wonderful beetles and other invertebrates may live in the cracks in gnarled and fissured old bark.
If you peel the bark off a tree, you don't renew its youth as a sapling; it just dies.
From the 17th century, quinine from the powdered bark of a South American tree was used to treat malaria in Europe.
She is the light of birch bark, carved to sail on her soothing rivers.
Shredded bark, left in a pile will eventually break down and become great compost.
A brown dye is obtained from the inner bark A glue is made from the sap.
bark chippings, topped up every couple of years.
bark decoction is held to be contraceptive.
bark mulch near my compost bins.
The first drug picture clearly defined by him was that of cinchona bark.
The active ingredient in aspirin was originally derived from willow bark.
The tree trunks are beaten and the peeling bark is removed.
The outputs of these systems include meat, milk, wool, charcoal, cork bark and grain.
Add the garlic and cinnamon bark and fry for 2 minutes.
The nest is usually made of honeysuckle bark, often in brambles.
Among these are the great spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus micans) and defoliating insects such as the European sawfly (Gilpinia hercyniae ).
barquee A Leigh was a 4 masted steel bark.
barque launched their first ship, the iron built bark Sepia, the same year.
barqueommanded the sailing bark Althea before being given the command of a steamship.
barqueer built about 120 ships including the famous Anglo-American Oil Company's four-masted bark Arrow in 1902, later renamed Parma.
barquethree-masted steel bark ' Killoran ' (1900) tied up off Charlton.
barquehe middle of the ceiling is the solar bark traversing the sky.
barque947, the academy received as a war reparation the german bark Horst Wessel, a magnificent 295 foot " tall ship " .
barqueNorwegian bark Patria in the process of being destroyed on the Chesil in October 1903.
barqueas originally a three masted wooden bark launched 21 April 1863.
barque883 she was sold to Charles Barrie, renamed Dacca and reduced to a bark rig.
barqueLargo Bay was 68m long, beam 11m, an iron sailing bark carrying general cargo, bound London to Aukland.
barquehe 13th January 1879, the 500 ton sailing bark " Luigi Olivari " was wrecked in a storm at Coulderton.
barqueing took on a new lease of life in the mid-19th century, with the typical whaling bark being fitted with an auxiliary engine.
barque experience will take place on either the J.R. Tolkien, a 2 mast topsail schooner or the Artemis, a 3 mast bark.
birch bark, carved to sail on her soothing rivers.
The bark of European white birch is beautiful and white, but does not peel in large plates as does the Northern paper birch.
Bark has almost square plates as in U. procera, but still vertically fissured; large boles are fluted (Mitchell, 1974 ).
cambium layer A thin layer of specialized cells which lies between the inner bark and the sapwood.
In native oaks in the USA, Phytophthora ramorum causes bark cankers.
He explored further up the river by birch bark canoe manned by native Americans.
cascarilla bark, grown in a few of the Out Islands, is used to flavor Campari and Vermouth.
cassia bark " .
The center of the soup bowl had large cauliflowers in and different colored tree bark was used to do all the two-foot diameter nuts.
The shank is sweet chestnut with the bark stripped off.
Alternatively you can use powdered cinnamon, but it is better to grind fresh bark if you can, sticks if not.
cinnamon bark and fry for 2 minutes.
cohosh root and cramp bark.
coir compost and bark mix and keep damp.
Mulching with bark, rotted compost or the like will do a good job in keeping weeds at bay.
You will also make cordage from the materials provided and be shown how to braid the straps for your Bark Basket casing.
cork bark in the water will help the creatures stay out of trouble.
corky bark that in itself is a talking point.
crevice in the bark of an ancient oak tree in parkland.
Worse still when they tried to bark at us nothing happened except for a tiny hoarse croak.
dahlia flowers, the cracks in shed doors or under loose tree bark.
decoction of bark, or infusion of berries, 1 to 4 fluid ounces.
APPLE: European settlers in the U.S.A. used a decoction made from Apple tree bark for gravel in the bladder.
One-half cup bark decoction 2 times daily or 2-4 ml of a 4:1 bark tincture twice daily.
Taken each month during menstruation, a bark decoction is held to be contraceptive.
The Caddis larvae normally live on river-beds, and make cocoons for themselves from bark, gravel and other river detritus.
A tea of leaves and bark is ingested in treating diarrhea.
discolour discolored patches of bark form white pustules in summer & red fruiting bodies in winter.
I smoothed down the sharp edges of the twist, cutting through the bark to emphasize the twisty shapes.
With their bark removed, the gallery of the beetle may be seen on the trunk of dead elms.
elm bark beetles colonize the bark of diseased trees for breeding purposes.
elm bark beetles.
etiology Ingestion of the bark, berries or branches in times of food shortage.
exuded from the bark at the base of a heavily infected coast live oak.