How to use Bark in a sentence
An occasional sharp high bark soon revealed the source as a little gray squirrel.
Some climb trees and feed on leaves, while others tunnel between bark and wood.
He turned his attention to the fire and tucked another piece of bark into the bright coals.
Occasionally he would stand and bark.
The throaty bark filled the air again and she rolled out of bed into the cold morning.Advertisement
They shelter in crevices of the bark of trees, in the dried stems of herbaceous plants, or among moss and fallen leaves on the ground.
A huge white sycamore skeleton sprawled on the gravel beach, its bark long gone.
While the sea of history remains calm the ruler-administrator in his frail bark, holding on with a boat hook to the ship of the people and himself moving, naturally imagines that his efforts move the ship he is holding on to.
The viscid pulp soon hardens, affording a protection to the seed; in germination the sucker-root penetrates the bark, and a connexion is established with the vascular tissue of the first plant.
I'll eat tree bark.Advertisement
The bark, resin and " oils " of the eucalyptus are well known as commercial products.
Its bark forms a valuable article of commerce.
I had some difficulty in holding on, for the branches were very large and the bark hurt my hands.
In the course of the summer I had discovered a raft of pitch pine logs with the bark on, pinned together by the Irish when the railroad was built.
When the bark has been removed a period of from three to four years must elapse before it is so fully renewed as to render fresh incisions possible.Advertisement
He then slices off the outer layer of the bark to the height of 4 or 5 ft.
A little vinegar is poured into each pot; they are then covered with plates of sheet lead, buried in horse-dung or spent tanner's bark, and left to themselves for a considerable time.
It is divided into four sanjaks - Kastamuni, Boli, Changra and Sinope - is rich in mineral wealth, and has many mineral springs and extensive forests, the timber being used for charcoal and building and the bark for tanning.
More important is the cultivation of the black wattle (Acacia mollissima), which began in 1886, the bark being exported for tanning purposes, the wood also commanding a ready sale.
In 1905 the production of wattle bark was 13,620 tons, and the area planted with the tree over 60,000 acres.Advertisement
The chief exports, not all products of the province, are coal, wool, mohair, hides and skins, wattle bark, tea, sugar, fruits and jams. The import trade is of a most varied character, and a large proportion of the goods brought into the country are in transit to the Transvaal and Orange Free State, Natal affording, next to Delagoa Bay, the shortest route to the Rand.
The tissues of an animal or plant are all under a certain pressure, caused, in the one case, by the expulsive action of the heart and the restraint of the skin and other elastic tissues, and, in the other case, by the force of the rising sap and the restraint of the periderm or bark.
One chief means employed by nature in accomplishing this object is the investment of those parts of the organism liable to be attacked with an armour-like covering of epidermis, periderm, bark, &c. The grape is proof against the inroads of the yeastplant so long as the husk is intact, but on the husk being injured the yeast-plant finds its way into the interior and sets up vinous fermentation of its sugar.
In Rome olibanum alone is employed; in other places benzoin, storax, lign, aloes, cascarilla bark, cinnamon, cloves and musk are all said to be occasionally used.
The thin greyish bark is usually removed.Advertisement
There is much less moisture, and the flora is of a less tropical character than farther north; it has some Polynesian and New Zealand affinities, and on the west coast a partially Australian character; on the higher hills it is stunted; on the lower, however, there are fine .grass lands, and a scattered growth of niaulis (Melaleuca viridiflora), useful for its timber, bark and cajeput oil.
It has small leaves and fibrous bark, the wood is light, soft and easily-worked, and very durable in contact with the soil, and is much used for boat-building and for making fences and coopers' staves.
But the forests of Huanuco and Huamalios abound in species yielding the grey bark of commerce, which is rich in cinchonine, an alkaloid efficacious as a febrifuge, though inferior to quinine.
The natural products of Peru include rubber, cabinet woods in great variety, cinchona or Peruvian bark and other medicinal products, various fibres, and guano.
The export of cinchona, or Peruvian bark, is not important in itself, being only 64 tons, valued at £1406 in 1905.
The best bark comes from the Carabaya district in southeastern Peru, but it is found in many localities on the eastern slopes of the Andes.
The Peruvian supply is practically exhausted through the destructive methods employed in collecting the bark, and the world now depends chiefly on Bolivia and Ecuador.
During this century the first sumptuary edict ordered that the dwellings of all high officials and opulent civilians should have tiled roofs and be colored red, the latter injunction being evidently intended to stop the use of logs carrying their bark.
The parent chamber and the ambulatory were ceiled, sometimes with interlacing strips of bark or broad laths, so as to produce a plaited effect sometimes with plain boards.
The principal exports from Maracaibo are coffee, hides and skins, cabinet and dye-woods, cocoa, and mangrove bark, to which may be added dividivi, sugar, copaiba, gamela and hemp straw for paper-making, and fruits.
In addition to their use for timber or basket-making, willows contain a large quantity of tannin in their bark.
A valuable medicinal glucoside named salicin (q.v.) is also extracted from the bark.
They lay their parthenogenetically produced eggs in the angles of the veins of the leaves, in the buds, or, if the season is already far advanced, in the bark.
From the forests are obtained rubber, copal, bark, various kinds of fibre, and timber (teak, mahogany, &c.).
They are mainly nocturnal, and subsist chiefly on bark and twigs or the roots of water plants.
Beavers also gnaw the bark of birch, poplar and willow trees; but during the summer a more varied herbage, with the addition of berries, is consumed.
The products of the textile industry in America were bark cloth, wattling for walls, fences and weirs, paper, basketry, matting, loom products, needle or point work, net-work, lacework and embroidery.
All textile work was done by hand; the only devices known were the bark peeler and beater, the shredder, the flint-knife, the spindle, the rope-twister, the bodkin, the warp-beam and the most primitive harness.
The absence of good bark, dugout timber, and chisels of stone deprived the whole Mississippi valley of creditable water-craft, and reduced the natives to the clumsy trough for a dugout and miserable bull-boat, made by stretching dressed buffalo hide over a crate.
The simplest form of navigation in Brazil was the woodskin, a piece of bark stripped from a tree and crimped at the ends.
Finally, the Fuegian bark canoe, made in three pieces so that it can be taken apart and transported over hills and sewed together, ends the series.
Among veld plants the elandsboontje provides tanning material equal to oak bark.
Tea, oni the contrary, is prepared and packed on the estates; but there is a considerable amount of work still done in the Colombo stores in sorting, blending and repacking such teas as are sold at the local public sales; also in dealing with cacao, cardainoms, cinchona bark and the remnant still left of the coffee indiustry.
The roofs were thatched with bark, straw, reeds or rushes.
Coccus pinicorticis causes the growth of patches of white flocculent and downy matter on the smooth bark of young trees of the white pine in America.
The chief tree which has commercial value is the cork, and the stripping of the bark is under official supervision.
Tot/15,s de Acosta, governor from 1797 to 1809, confirmed this report, and stated that the Indians were clothed in bark, and compelled in many cases to borrow even this primitive attire when the law required their attendance at church.
The arboreal life of the tropical forests has developed the treeclimbing habit among snakes as well as among frogs and toads, and also the habit of mimicry, their colour being in harmony with the foliage or bark of the trees which form their " hunting-grounds."
Great care should be exercised in planting lest the bark be fractured, loosened or removed from the wood.
They are then cut direct from the head and the bark is easily removed by drawing the rods through a bifurcated hand-brake of smooth, well-rounded steel, framed in wood.
The bark is red, like that of the Scots fir, deeply furrowed, with the ridges often much curved and twisted.
The bark, of nearly the same tint as that of the redwood, is extremely thick and is channelled towards the base with vertical furrows; at the root the ridges often stand out in buttress-like projections.
They belong to the family Psocidae which has a few score species - most of them winged - living out of doors on the bark of trees and among vegetable refuse.
The bark in most of the trees occurs in fine soft membranous layers, the outer cuticle of which peels off in thin, white, papery sheets.
The bark of the common birch is much more durable, and industrially of greater From Strasburger, Lehrbuch der Botanik.
It is impermeable to water, and is therefore used in northern countries for roofing, for domestic utensils, for boxes and jars to contain both solid and liquid substances, and for a kind of bark shoes, of which it is estimated 25 millions of pairs are annually worn by the Russian peasantry.
The jars and boxes of birch bark made by Russian peasants are often stamped with very effective patterns.
By dry distillation the bark yields an empyreumatic oil, called diogott in Russia, used in the preparation of Russia leather; to this oil the peculiar pleasant odour of the leather is due.
The bark itself is used in tanning; and by the Samoiedes and Kamchatkans it is ground up and eaten on account of the starchy matter it contains.
The whole tree, but especially the bark and leaves, has a very pleasant resinous odour, and from the young leaves and buds an essential oil is distilled with water.
Their usual food consists of water-plants and bark, but in cultivated districts they do much harm to crops.
In the prevalent European varieties the bark is reddish-grey, and rather rough and scarred in old trees, which are often much lichen-covered.
Old trees are selected, from the bark of which it is observed to ooze in the early summer; holes are bored in the trunk, somewhat inclined upward towards the centre of the stem, in which, between the layers of wood, the turpentine is said to collect in small lacunae; wooden gutters placed in these holes convey the viscous fluid into little wooden pails hung on the end of each gutter; the secretion flows slowly all through the summer months, and a tree in proper condition yields from 6 to 8 Ib a year, and will continue to give an annual supply for thirty or forty years, being, however, rendered quite useless for timber by subjection to this process.
The soft inner bark is occasionally used in Siberia as a ferment, by hunters and others, being boiled and mixed with rye-meal, and buried in the snow for a short time, when it is employed as a substitute for other leaven, and in making the sour liquor called " quass."
The young seedlings are sometimes nibbled by the hare and rabbit; and on parts of the highland hills both bark and shoots are eaten in the winter by the roe-deer; larch woods should always be fenced in to keep out the hill-cattle, which will browse upon the shoots in spring.
It contains, in addition to tannin, a peculiar principle called larixin, which may be obtained in a pure state by distillation from a concentrated infusion of the bark; it is a colourless substance in long crystals, with a bitter and astringent taste, and a faint acid reaction; hence some term it larixinic acid.
The bark is dark bluish-grey, smoother than in the red larch, on the trunk and lower boughs often glossy; the branches are more or less pendulous and very slender.
The bark of the trunk has the same reddish tint as that of the common larch of Europe.
It is also fond of gnawing the bark of young trees, and thus often does great damage to plantations.
Otherwise it may be obtained by making incisions in the bark or wood of the secreting plant.
The wauke plant (Broussonetia papyrifera), and to a less extent the mamake (Pipturus albidus) and Boehmeria stipularis, furnished the bark out of which the famous kapa cloth was made, while the olopa (Cheirodendron gaudichaudii) and the koolea (Myrsine lessertiana) furnished the dyes with which it was coloured.
The bright red ovoid berries are cathartic, the whole plant is acrid and poisonous, and the bark is used medicinally.
The manufacture of great quantities of coke has resulted from the demand for this product in the iron and steel industry and from the abundance of coking coal; the manufacture of glass has been promoted by the supply of glass sand and natural gas in the west of the state; the manufacture of leather by the abundance of hemlock bark; the manufacture of pottery, terra-cotta and fire-clay products by the abundance of raw material; the manufacture of silk and silk goods by the large number of women and girls who came into the state in families of which the men and boys were employed in mining and picking anthracite coal; and in each of these industries as well as in a few others the state has for many years produced a large portion of the country's product.
Mimicry is a special form of protective resemblance, differing from ordinary protective resemblance as exemplified by the similarity of the resting goat-sucker to a piece of bark or of leafand stick-insects to the objects after which they are named, in that the imitated object belongs to the animal kingdom and not to the vegetable kingdom or to inorganic nature.
When the alga is predominant it forms felted patches on the bark of trees, the Laudatea form.
Lichens are found growing in various situations such as bare earth, the bark of trees, dead wood, the surface of stones and rocks, where they have little competition to fear from ordinary plants.
Chiefly, however, they are the bark of trees, rocks, the ground, mosses and, rarely, perennial leaves.
The outer bark of each being removed, the two shoots are kept in contact by ligature until union is established, when the scion is completely severed from its original attachments.
When heat is required, it is sometimes supplied by means of fermenting dung, or dung and leaves, or tanner's bark, but it is much more economically provided by hot-water pipes.
In the propagating house budding may be done at any season when the sap is in motion; but for fruit trees, roses, &c., in the open air, it is usually done in July or August, when the buds destined for the following year are completely formed in the axils of the leaves, and when the bark separates freely from the wood it covers.
A horizontal incision is made in the bark quite down to the wood, and from this a perpendicular slit is drawn upwards to the extent of perhaps an inch, so that the slit has a resemblance to the letter T, as at a.
The bit of wood e must be gently withdrawn, care being taken that the bud adheres wholly to the bark or shield, FIG.
The bark on each side of the perpendicular slit being then cautiously opened, as at b, with the handle of the knife, the bud and shield are inserted as shown at c. The upper tip of the shield is cut off horizontally, and brought to fit the bark of the stock at the transverse incision.
The union is effected as in grafting, by means of the organizable sap or cambium, and the less this is disturbed until the inner bark of the shield is pressed and fixed against it the better.
One of the expedients for inducing a state of fruitfulness in trees is the ringing of the branches or stem, that is, removing a narrow annular portion of the bark, by which means, it is said, the trees are not only rendered productive, but the quality of the fruit is at the same time improved.
The advantage depends on the obstruction given to the descent of the sap. The ring should be cut out in spring, and be of such a width that the bark may remain separated for the season.
Care should be taken that the ties or fastenings do not eventually cut into the bark as the branches swell with increased age.
They demonstrated the ascent of the sap through the wood of the tree, and supposed the sap to "precipitate a kind of white coagulum or jelly, which may be well conceived to be the part which every year between bark and tree turns to wood and of which the leaves and fruits are made."
It generally makes its nest in a hollow branch, plastering up the opening with clay, leaving only a circular hole just large enough to afford entrance and exit; and the interior contains a bed of dry leaves or the filmy flakes of the inner bark of a fir or cedar, on which the eggs are laid.
The cloth is made of the cotton grown in the country, woven on small handlooms and dyed either with indigo or with a magenta dye obtained from the bark of a tree.
The Litanies of the Sun contain the acclamations with which the sun-god Re was greeted, when at eventide his bark reached the entrance of the nether world.
Outside its walls there was a huge brick model of the solar bark in which the god daily traversed the heavens.
They occur in the sea, in fresh water, on moist earth, on damp rocks and on the bark of trees.
They also made various kinds of mats, baskets and fans from the leaves of the pandanus, the bark of the hibiscus, from species of bohmeria or other Urticaceous plants.
Forest Products.-The forest and other natural products include rubber, cinchona bark, ivory-nuts, mocora and toquilla fibre for the manufacture of hats, hammocks, &c., cabaya fibre for shoes and cordage, vegetable wool (Bombax ceiba), sarsaparilla, vanilla, cochineal, cabinet woods, fruit, resins, &c. The original source of the Peruvian bark of commerce, the Cinchona calisaya, is completely exhausted, and the " red bark " derived from C. succirubra, is now the principal source of supply from Ecuador.
Guaranda is the centre of the industry, but bark gatherers are to be found everywhere in the forest regions.
By some authorities it is considered a good plan to remove the bark in the early spring and fell the tree in the ensuing winter.
In Canada it is called "Norway pine" and "red pine" from the colour of the bark.
Ceylon cinnamon of fine quality is a very thin smooth bark, with a light-yellowish brown colour, a highly fragrant odour, and a peculiarly sweet, warm and pleasing aromatic taste.
This essential oil, as an article of commerce, is prepared by roughly pounding the bark, macerating it in sea-water, and then quickly distilling the whole.
When powdered bark is treated with tincture of iodine, little effect is visible in the case of pure cinnamon of good quality, but when cassia is present a deep-blue tint is produced, the intensity of the coloration depending on the proportion of the cassia.
The bark possesses tanning properties, and in Scotland in past times yielded with ferrous sulphate a black dye for wool.
A considerable amount bf the bark from private plantations is bought by the government and treated at the government factories.
The bark of the musuemba (Albizzia coriaria) is largely used in the tanning of leather.
The wood of the aspen is very light and soft, though tough; it is employed by coopers, chiefly for pails and herring-casks; it is also made into butchers' trays, pack-saddles, and various articles for which its lightness recommends it; sabots are also made of it in France, and in medieval days it was valued for arrows, especially for those used in target practice; the bark is used for tanning in northern countries; cattle and deer browse greedily on the young shoots and abundant suckers.
The powdered bark is sometimes given to horses as a vermifuge; it possesses likewise tonic and febrifugal properties, containing a considerable amount of salicin.
Vast quantities of coarse matting used for packing furniture, heavy and coarse goods, flax and other plants, &c., are made in Russia from the bast or inner bark of the lime tree.
The bark of the older stems is of a bright brown, mottled with grey, that of the young twigs is ash-coloured, and glandular and hairy.
The witch hazel is quite a distinct plant, Hamamelis virginica, of the natural order Hamamalideae, the astringent bark of which is used in medicine.
The bark of Acacia arabica, under the name of babul or babool, is used in Scinde for tanning.
The bark of various Australian species, known as wattles, is also very rich in tannin and forms an important article of export.
The tannin of oak, C/9H16010, which is found, mixed with gallic acid, ellagic acid and quercite, in oak bark, is a red powder; its aqueous solution is coloured dark blue by ferric chloride, and boiling with dilute sulphuric acid gives oak red or phlobaphene.
Out of the vague and limitless body there sprung a central mass, - this earth of ours, cylindrical in shape, poised equidistant from surrounding orbs of fire, which had originally clung to it like the bark round a tree, until their continuity was severed, and they parted into several wheelshaped and fire-filled bubbles of air.
In the great fir forests of the north the limit set in respect of cutting down living trees for sawing and export is a diameter of the trunk, without bark, of 84 in.
The quillay (Quillaja saponaria) is another characteristic evergreen tree of this region, whose bark possesses saponaceous properties.
A peculiar vegetable product of this inclement region is a small globular fungus growing on the bark of the beech, which is a staple article of food among the Fuegians - probably the only instance where a fungus is the bread of a people.
Parrots are found as far south as Tierra del Fuego, where Darwin saw them feeding on seeds of the Winter's bark.
The red pine of Canada and New England (so called from the colour of its bark), P. resinosa, is a tree of considerable size, sometimes attaining the dimensions of P. sylvestris.
It is a straight-growing tree, with grey bark and whorls of horizontal branches giving a cylindro-conical outline; the leaves are short, rigid and glaucous; the cones, oblong and rather pointing upwards, grow only near the top of the tree, and ripen in the second autumn; the seeds are oily like those of P. Pinea, and are eaten both on the Alps and by the inhabitants of Siberia; a fine oil is expressed from them which is used both for food and in lamps, but, like that of the Italian pine, it soon turns rancid.
By preference the condor feeds on carrion, but it does not hesitate to attack sheep, goats and deer, and for this reason it is hunted down by the shepherds, who, it is said, train their dogs to look up and bark at the condors as they fly overhead.
It is remarkable for the whiteness of the bark.
The inner bark is dusky red.
On the Continent, especially in Italy, the varieties having a white starchy bark, like those of Honduras and Guatemala, are preferred.
Sarsaparilla is grown to a small extent in Jamaica, and is occasionally exported thence to the London market in small quantities, but its orange colour and starchy bark are so different in appearance from the thin reddish-brown bark of the genuine drug, that it does not meet with a ready sale.
The root bark is reddish-brown, thin and shrivelled, and there is an abundance of rootlets, which are technically known by the name of "beard."
In Honduras sarsaparilla the roots are less wrinkled, and the bark is whiter and more starchy, than in the Jamaica kind.
Guatemala sarsaparilla is very similar to that of Honduras, but has a more decided orange hue, and the bark shows a tendency to split off.
The bark is thick and furrowed, and of a pale fawn colour internally; the rootlets are few, and the root itself is of larger diameter than in the other kinds.
These roots are readily distinguished from those of true sarsaparilla by their loose cracked bark and by their odour and taste, recalling those of melilot.
The cultivation of the cinchona, several species of which have been introduced from South America and naturalized in the Sikkim Himalaya, promises to yield at a comparatively small cost an ample supply of the febrifuge extracted from its bark.
The calisaya trees of Bolivia rank among the best, and their bark forms an important item in her foreign trade.
The destructive methods of collecting the bark are steadily diminishing the natural sources of supply, and experiments in cinchona cultivation were undertaken during the last quarter of the 19th century, with fair prospects of success.
Although representing less value in the aggregate, the collecting of cinchona bark is one of the oldest forest industries of Bolivia, which is said still to have large areas of virgin forest to draw upon.
From the seeds have been obtained starch (about 14%), gum, mucilage, a non-drying oil, phosphoric acid, salts of calcium, saponin, by boiling which with dilute hydrochloric or sulphuric acid aesculic acid is obtained, quercitrin, present also in the fully developed leaves, aescigenin, C12H2n02, and aesculetin, C 9 H 6 O 4, which is procurable also, but in small quantity only, from the bark.
The bark has been employed for dyeing yellow and for tanning, and was formerly in popular repute as a febrifuge and tonic. The powder of the dried nuts was at one time prescribed as a sternutatory (to encourage sneezing) in the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia.
Bast mats are now made chiefly in Russia, the bark being cut in long strips, when the liber is easily separable from the corky superficial layer.
Others cause much damage in forests, by boring under the bark and through the wood of trees, whilst some even burrow in the tissue of the leaves.
From the bark of another plant they manufacture mats.
Cortes met them in 1525, but they preserved their independence till 1697, when the Spaniards destroyed the city and temples, and a library of sacred books, written in hieroglyphics on bark fibre.
Ignorant of agriculture, with no dwellings but rough huts or breakwinds of sticks and bark, without dogs or other domestic animals, these savages, until the coming of civilized man, roamed after food within their tribal bounds.
Logs and clumsy floats of bark and grass enabled them to cross water under favourable circumstances.
They had clothing of skins rudely stitched together with bark thread, and they were decorated with simple necklaces of kangaroo teeth, shells and berries.
In 1810 Gomez of Lisbon obtained a mixture of alkaloids which he named cinchonino, by treating an alcoholic extract of the bark with water and then adding a solution of caustic potash.
The alkaloids exist in the bark chiefly in combination with cinchotannic and quinic acids.
This method is to exhaust the powdered bark with water acidulated with hydrochloric acid and then to precipitate the alkaloids by caustic soda.
Another method consists in mixing the powdered bark with milk of lime, drying the mass slowly with frequent stirring, exhausting the powder with boiling alcohol, removing the excess of alcohol by distillation, adding sufficient dilute sulphuric acid to dissolve the alkaloid and throw down colouring matter and traces of lime, &c., filtering, and allowing the neutralized liquid to deposit crystals.
Sulphate of quinine manufactured from cuprea bark (Remijia pedunculata) may contain from -Do to.
The other alkaloids of cinchona bark - quinidine, cinchonidine, and cinchonine - also possess similar properties, but all are much less effective than quinine.
Until 1867 English manufacturers of quinine were entirely dependent upon South America for their supplies of cinchona bark, which were obtained exclusively from uncultivated trees, growing chiefly in Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador, the principal species which were used for the purpose being Cinchona Calisaya; C. officinalis; C. macrocalyx, var.
Calisaya, known as the calisaya of Santa Fe, was strongly recommended for cultivation, because the shoots of felled trees afford bark containing a considerable amount of quinine; C. Pitayensia has been introduced into the Indian plantations on account of yielding the valuable alkaloid quinidine, as well as quinine.
The first importation from India took place in 1867, since which time the cultivated bark has arrived in Europe in constantly increasing quantities, London being the chief market for the Indian barks and Amsterdam for those of Java.
In order to obtain the cultivated bark as economically as possible, experiments were made which resulted in the discovery that, if the bark were removed from the trunks in alternate strips so as not to injure the cambium, or actively growing zone, a new layer of bark was formed in one year which was richer in quinine than the original bark and equal in thickness to that of two or three years' ordinary growth.
This is known in commerce as "renewed bark."
The process has been found to be most conveniently practised when the trees are eight years old, at which age the bark separates most easily.
The portion of the trunk from which the bark has been, removed is sometimes protected by moss, and the new bark which forms is then distinguished by the name of "mossed bark."
Cinchona bark as imported is never uniform in quality.
No definite knowledge has as yet been attained of the exact steps by which quinine is formed in nature in the tissues of the bark.
From analyses of the leaves, bark and root, it appears that quinine is present only in small quantities in the leaves, in larger quantity in the stem bark, and increasing in proportion as it approaches the root, where quinine appears to decrease and cinchonine to increase in amount, although the root bark is generally richer in alkaloids than that of the stem.
Karsten also ascertained by experiments made at Bogota on C. lancifolia that the barks of one district were sometimes devoid of quinine, while those of the same species from a neighbouring locality yielded 32 to 42% of the sulphate; moreover, Dr De Vrij found that the bark of C. officinalis cultivated at Utakamand varied in the yield of quinine from I to 9%.
Free access of air to the tissues also seems to increase the yield of quinine, for the renewed bark is found to contain more quinine than the original bark
Apart from the Tartarides, the Pedipalpi are large or medium-sized Arachnida, nocturnal in habits and spending the day under stones, logs of wood or loosened bark.
Ginkgo biloba, which may reach a height of over 30 metres, forms a tree of pyramidal shape with a smooth grey bark.
Owing to increased competition, and in some degree to careless harvesting, there was a great fall in prices after 1900, and the Seychellois, though still producing vanilla in large quantities, paid greater attention to the products of the coconut palm - copra, soap, coco-nut oil and coco-nuts - to the development of the mangrove bark industry, the collection of guano, the cultivation of rubber trees, the preparation of banana flour, the growing of sugar canes, and the distillation of rum and essential oils.
Cheeses of ewe's milk, packed in sheepskins or bark, are in great demand.
An important element in the story is the connexion of Adonis with the boar, which (according to one version) brings him into the world by splitting with his tusk the bark of the tree into which Smyrna was changed, and finally kills him.
It manufactures sugar, woollen goods and pottery, and exports Peruvian bark (cinchona), hats, cereals, cheese, hides, &c. It was founded in 1 557 on the site of a native town called Tumibamba, and was made an episcopal see in 1786.
Southern Colombia, especially the eastern slopes of the Andes, produces another valuable tree, the Cinchona calisaya, from the bark of which quinine is made.
Quin i c acid, C 6 H 7 (OH) 4 CO 2 H (tetra -oxy.cyclohexane carboxylic acid), is found in coffee beans and in quinia bark.
They dwell in caves or bark huts, and their word for house is Sinhalese for a hollow tree, rukula.
According to the story told by Hesychius of Miletus, during the siege of Byzantium by Philip of Macedon the moon suddenly appeared, the dogs began to bark and aroused the inhabitants, who were thus enabled to frustrate the enemy's scheme of undermining the walls.
The bark is astringent; it is used for tanning and dyeing.
In Lapland the bark is made into ropes.
Contorted stems, sometimes of considerable thickness, very hard, and covered with a grey cracked bark, rise out of the sand, bearing green plumes with small greyish leaves and pink fruit.
Besides bananas the largest exports are hides, rubber, coco-nuts, limes, native curios and quaqua bark.
They use small bark canoes.
Strassburg turpentine is obtained from the bark of the silver fir; but it is collected only in small quantities.
They cultivate mandioc, and make pottery and bark canoes.
The outer layer of bark in the cork oak by annual additions from within gradually becomes a thick soft homogeneous mass, possessing those compressible and elastic properties upon which the economic value of the material chiefly depends.
The yield, which is rough, unequal and woody in texture, is called virgin cork, and is useful only as a tanning substance, or for forming rustic work in ferneries, conservatories, &c. Subsequently the bark is removed every eight or ten years, the quality of the cork improving with each successive stripping; and the trees continue to live and thrive under the operation for 150 years and upwards.
Between these three or four longitudinal incisions are then made, the utmost care being taken not to injure the inner bark.
The inner bark of the cork-tree is a valuable tanning material.
The male Papuan is usually naked save for a loin-cloth made of the bark of the Hibiscus, Broussonetia and other plants, or a girdle of leaves.
The houses are generally built of wood and roofed with birch bark covered with turf.
The people of the south and south-east make large use of soft rush matting for covering, and they also prepare a rough cloth of bark.
Tanning bark, coffee and guano are also recent exports.
The first of these two shows certain affinities with the culture characteristic of the western area of Africa, such as rectangular huts, clothing of bark and palm-fibre, fetishism, &c., but cattle-breeding is found as well as agriculture.
A popular name with Indian sportsmen is "barking deer," on account of the alarm-cry - a kind of short shrill bark, like that of a fox, but louder.
They live beneath the bark of trees, in the crevices of rock and of rotten stumps of trees, and beneath stones.
In the autumn a single fertile egg is laid by apterous females in a crevice of the bark of the vine where it is protected during the winter.
Here it need only be said that the masses of vegetable substance, more or less carbonized and chemically altered, of which coal is composed, frequently contain cells and fragments of tissue in a condition recognizable under the microscope, as for example spores (sometimes present in great quantities), elements of the wood, fibres of the bark, &c. These remnants, however, though interesting as revealing something of the sources of coal, are too fragmentary and imperfect to be of any botanical importance.
In the old stems the primary cortex was replaced by periderm, giving rise to a thick mass of bark.
In the southern districts hemp and flax are raised, but grain crops are little cultivated, so that the bark of trees has often to be ground up to eke out the scanty supply of flour.
To obtain the frankincense a deep incision is made in the trunk of the tree, and below it a narrow strip of bark 5 in.
The aromatic bitters such as chamomile flowers, cascarilla bark, hops, orange peel and others contain in addition small quantities of essential oils which increase their local action.
Several of the other alkaloids found in cinchona bark act very much like quinine.
Large tanneries were attracted to the state, soon after the Civil War, by the abundance of tan bark in the forests, and the cheapness of labour.
He laughed, a cynical bark.
Taran of Landis inched his way down the ancient tree, oblivious to the rough bark nipping at his moist skin.
It was one thing to have him bark at and disapprove of her, but she wasn't going to tolerate him being short with the children.
The muscles in her legs complained as she squatted behind the log, peering over the rotting bark.
An oil obtained from the inner bark is astringent and is used in the treatment of various skin afflictions, especially eczema and psoriasis.
The bark has an astringent and slightly bitter taste.
For a truly authentic feel, finish the planting off with a mulch of chipped bark.
Many different kinds of weird and wonderful beetles and other invertebrates may live in the cracks in gnarled and fissured old bark.
If you peel the bark off a tree, you don't renew its youth as a sapling; it just dies.
From the 17th century, quinine from the powdered bark of a South American tree was used to treat malaria in Europe.
She is the light of birch bark, carved to sail on her soothing rivers.
A brown dye is obtained from the inner bark A glue is made from the sap.
The first drug picture clearly defined by him was that of cinchona bark.
The active ingredient in aspirin was originally derived from willow bark.
The tree trunks are beaten and the peeling bark is removed.
The outputs of these systems include meat, milk, wool, charcoal, cork bark and grain.
The nest is usually made of honeysuckle bark, often in brambles.
Among these are the great spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus micans) and defoliating insects such as the European sawfly (Gilpinia hercyniae ).
The bark of European white birch is beautiful and white, but does not peel in large plates as does the Northern paper birch.
Bark has almost square plates as in U. procera, but still vertically fissured; large boles are fluted (Mitchell, 1974 ).
In native oaks in the USA, Phytophthora ramorum causes bark cankers.
He explored further up the river by birch bark canoe manned by native Americans.
The center of the soup bowl had large cauliflowers in and different colored tree bark was used to do all the two-foot diameter nuts.
The shank is sweet chestnut with the bark stripped off.
Alternatively you can use powdered cinnamon, but it is better to grind fresh bark if you can, sticks if not.
Mulching with bark, rotted compost or the like will do a good job in keeping weeds at bay.
You will also make cordage from the materials provided and be shown how to braid the straps for your Bark Basket casing.
Worse still when they tried to bark at us nothing happened except for a tiny hoarse croak.
Taken each month during menstruation, a bark decoction is held to be contraceptive.
The Caddis larvae normally live on river-beds, and make cocoons for themselves from bark, gravel and other river detritus.
A tea of leaves and bark is ingested in treating diarrhea.
I smoothed down the sharp edges of the twist, cutting through the bark to emphasize the twisty shapes.
With their bark removed, the gallery of the beetle may be seen on the trunk of dead elms.
They have brown bark and grow in a zig-zag fashion from one bud to the next.
The graphic equalizer display is based on a number of auditory filter sized channels, each 1 bark wide.
The dark brown bark has deep vertical fissures which often spiral up the trunk.
Upper bark is warm red, lower bark is deeply fissured.
Our pagan forefathers believed the oak to be a sacred tree and that the marks in the bark revealed the presence of a dryad.
The bark from this tree is a valuable remedy against a prostate disorder, called benign prostatic hyperplasia.
The spark will easily ignite a stove or barbecue, paper, dry grass or bark.
The dried bark from this species has been applied as a counter irritant (Morton 1977 ).
The oil from the bark smells like the spice and is a very strong skin irritant and should never be used on the skin.
The bark exudes a kino (astringent tannin ).
We tried bark chippings last year, and an area of ` chamomile lawn ' (more chamomile ` patch ' ).
One day, as I plucked a leaf, a bit of the bark came off.
Current status This crustose lichen grows on the trunks of mature trees with basic bark.
It would then use its incredibly long, curved upper mandible to probe under any dislodged bark or moss.
Fact sheets describe the morphology of each tree in text and in photographs of bark, twigs, fruits and leaves.
Giving them a good soaking late in the afternoon helps, and our decorative bark mulch will also help keep moisture in.
A peat or bark mulch in the Spring will assist in keeping weeds at bay.
Make a propagating compost from three parts sphagnum moss peat to one part perlite, sieved bark or acid sand.
The bark, red peony root, and white peony root, and white peony root all have somewhat different properties.
Tell tale signs of their presence include scratches on the bark of trees and chewed pine cones.
The melody is played with the other hand on the longer string using a plectrum made from a small piece of wood or bark.
Collin quotes Perris who in 1839 bred this species from larvae found under the bark of various dead trees including poplars.
The bark of the young tree is studded with stout prickles.
The use of the bark as a strong purgative dates back to Hippocrates, but is rarely used nowadays.
Sunken, discolored patches of bark form white pustules in summer & red fruiting bodies in winter.
Once discovered, methods were developed to extract the quinine from the natural bark to sell as a antimalarial drug.
This tiny plant, less than 1 cm long, has root-like hairs called rhizoids to anchor it to soil, bark or rock.
Many people did bark rubbings off the tree trunks.
Play some games and create some bark and leaf rubbings to design your own tree.
Very beautiful form with lobed leaves not deeply serrated, which unfurl gold with pink edges contrasting well against the colorful bark.
Like his father and his half-sister ir sh Ch Lislone Jazz Singer he loved showing and would bark if left behind.
Just a dirty old shack, Where the hound dogs bark, That we called our home.
Within his bending sickle 's compass come; which alters when it alteration finds, it is the star to every wand'ring bark.
In Jamaica the bark is used to feed silkworms.
The bark is poisonous and the plant, when used for fodder, is said to produce stomatitis in animals.
The inner surface of the bark is smooth, of a pale, yellowish brown and very finely striated.
A immense problem is the fact that it needs the inner bark of six trees to gather enough taxol to treat one patient!
Possible candidates include wild grass or reed thatch, bark or turf.
Why not try using some of our multi-coloured Natesh embroidery threads to create a natural bark or leaf effect without having to change threads!
Creole dogs, he concluded, were not only ugly, but they had also unlearned how to bark.
Last Saturday, I went on a little day trip upriver with Steve in a bark canoe.
Mackenzie traveled by bark canoe and had a cache of rum and a crew of Canadian voyageurs, hard-living backwoodsmen, for company.
He carried as the staff of office a willow wand, from which the bark was peeled.
The Latin proverb has it that "Turdus malum sibi cacat"; but the sowing is really effected by the bird wiping its beak, to which the seeds adhere, against the bark of the tree on which it has alighted.
Canoes of bent bark, for the inland waters, are hastily prepared at need; but the inlets and straits of the north-eastern sea-coast are navigated by larger canoes and rafts of a better construction.
The pure Sakai in the interior have a good knowledge of planting rice, tapioca, &c., fashion pretty vessels from bamboos, which they decorate with patterns traced by the aid of fire, make loin-cloths (their only garment) from the bark of the trap and ipoh trees; are very musical, using a rude lute of bamboo, and a noseflute of a very sweet tone, and singing in chorus very melodiously; and altogether have attained in their primitive state to a higher degree of civilization than have the Semang.
Robur, but in old age the boughs generally curve downwards, and the tree acquires a wide spreading head; the bark is dark brown, becoming grey and furrowed in large trees; the foliage varies much, but in the prevailing kinds the leaves are very deeply sinuated, with pointed, often irregular lobes, the footstalks short, and furnished at the base with long linear stipules that do not fall with the leaf, but remain attached to the bud till the following spring, giving a marked feature to the young shoots.
Of the European kinds one of the most important and best marked forms is the white poplar or abele, P. alba, a tree of large size, with rounded spreading head and curved branches, which, like the trunk, are covered with a greyish white bark, becoming much furrowed on old stems. The leaves are ovate or nearly round in general outline, but with deeply waved, more or less lobed and indented margins and cordate base; the upper side is of a dark green tint, but the lower surface is clothed with a dense white down, which likewise covers the young shoots - giving, with the bark, a hoary aspect to the whole tree.
Rhytidome is, however, a preferable term, as the word bark has long been established in popular usage to mean all the tissue that can easily be peeled offi.e.
This large evaporation, which constitutes the so-called transpiration of plants, takes place not into the external air but into this same intercellular space system, being possible only through the delicate cell-walls upon which it abuts, as the external coating, whether bark, cork or cuticle, is impermeable by watery vapour.
Many larvae of beetles, moths, &c., bore into bark, and injure the cambium, or even the wood and pith; in addition to direct injury, the interference with the transpiration current and the access of other parasites through the wounds are also to be feared in proportion to the numbers of insects at work.
The injured cells die and turn brown; the living cells beneath grow out, and form cork, and under the released pressure bulge outwards and repeatedly divide, forming a mass Of succulent regenerative tissue known as callus, Living cells of the pith, phloem, cortex, &c., may also co-operate in this formation of regenerative tissue, and if the wound is a mere knife-cut in the bark, the protruding lips of callus formed at the edges of the wound soon meet, and the slit is healed overoccluded.
Flux.A common event in the exudation of turbid, frothing liquids from wounds in the bark of trees, and the odours of putrefaction and even alcoholic fermentation in these are sufficiently explained by the coexistence of albuminous and saccharine matters with fungi, yeasts and bacteria in such fluxes.
Examples of Selenops (Clubionidae) lie flat and absolutely still on the bark of trees, to which their coloration assimilates, and spring like a flash of light upon any insect that touches their legs; the Lycosidae dart swiftly upon their prey; and the Salticidae, which compared with other spiders have keen powers of vision, stealthily stalk it to within leaping distance, then, gathering their legs together, cover the intervening space with a spring and with unerring aim seize it and bury their fangs in its body.
The fibres were either animal or vegetable; animal fibres were hair, Textile fur on the skin, feathers, hide, sinew and intestines; vegetable fibres were stalks of small trees, brush, straw, cotton, bast, bark, leaves and seed vessels in great variety as one passes from the north southward through all the culture provinces.
The stock is headed off by an oblique transverse cut as shown at a, a slice is then pared off the side as at b, and on the face of this a tongue or notch is made, the cut being in a downward direction; the scion c is pared off in a similar way by a single clean sharp cut, and this is notched or tongued in the opposite direction as the figure indicates; the two are then fitted together as shown at d, so that the inner bark of each may come in contact at least on one side, and then tied round with damp soft bast as at e; next some grafting clay is taken on the forefinger and pushed down on each side so as to fill out the space between the top of the stock and the graft, and a portion is also rubbed over the ligatures on the side where the graft is placed, a handful of the clay is then taken, flattened out, and rolled closely round the whole point of junction, being finished off to a tapering form both above and below, as shown by the dotted line f.
At grafting time a slit is cut in the bark f, f, a wedge-shaped piece of FIG.
Those include mites, termites (or white ants), thread blight, grey blight, caterpillars (naked or in bags) and caterpillars armed with stinging hairs to protect them, and borers, red and black, some of which eat the core out of the wood, while others content themselves with eating only the bark.
That hitherto adopted by the Indian Government for the preparation of the cinchona febrifuge (see below) is simple, but the whole of the alkaloid present in the bark is not obtained by it.
I was pleased with anything that made a noise and liked to feel the cat purr and the dog bark.
A small dog began to bark.
He looked at the row of birches shining in the sunshine, with their motionless green and yellow foliage and white bark.
All these substances play a role in the purgative action of the bark.
But I did n't understand them, I do n't speak raccoon and they kept giving me pieces of pine bark.
Bark as Cloth Cloth made from beaten bark is found only in the tropical regions of the globe.
The bark of the tree contains a thick, resinous, acrid sap which blackens on exposure to the air.
It is roundish in outline with a greyish-white bark marked with black pores.
Paullinia pinnata The root and root bark are applied for rubefacient purposes (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk 1962).
It is manufactured from saw dust, wood chips, shaving or bark.
By housing them together in a large tank furnished with ample hiding places (cork bark) one can set up a self-feeding system.
Like his father and his half-sister Ir Sh Ch Lislone Jazz Singer he loved showing and would bark if left behind.
The bark is smooth in the shrub 's youth, silvery gray with darker stripes.
And like the tree bark, the sloth 's fur is teeming with insect life.
Bark shedding helps the tree breathe in smoky atmospheres.
Grays are destructive feeders due to their habit of stripping bark, which will often ring and kill younger trees.
The tanning of leather required the use of oak bark, which was another major demand specifically for oak.
A immense problem is the fact that it needs the inner bark of six trees to gather enough Taxol to treat one patient !
What a terrible situation for our travelers, to be thus overtaken by a tempest in a frail bark which they could not manage !
Why not try using some of our multi-coloured Natesh embroidery threads to create a natural bark or leaf effect without having to change threads !
Of the tincture made with spirit from the bark, 5 to 10 drops may be taken in water or on sugar.
You're completely naked, or with undergarments perhaps made from bark.
Look for distorted growth and a whitish fluffy coating on bark.
There were minimal side effects reported in those people taking willow bark extract.
To tell the difference, look at the bark.
Smooth, glossy bark indicates a young tree, while thicker rough bark means the tree is older, but unhealthy.
When working with your tree, carry it by the root ball, never by the bark.
Especially when the tree has already started growing for the spring, the bark is very fragile.
Spices come from the bark, seeds, roots and fruit of plants, such as ginger root, cinnamon, coriander (which comes from the seeds of the cilantro plant) and pepper (berries).
Pet Safe is another brand of underground fence that can also act as bark control when your pet is outdoors.
The wood used has most, or all, of the bark removed, giving the furniture a more polished uniform look.
Although the bark is often removed by machine, there are still craftsmen that peel and sand the logs by hand.
Curved draw knives are used for peeling or stripping the bark and straight draw knives are used to shape the wood.
If you prefer a more rugged rustic style of log furniture, known as skip peeled or rough rustic, you leave on a large amount of layers of inner bark.
To create log furniture with a more polished look, remove all of the bark before working with the wood.
Many craftspeople lovingly strip the bark and sand the logs by hand.
These knives are used for peeling the bark off the wood, shaping the pieces and making tenons.
When logs are hand peeled, a large amount of the inner bark is left on the wood resulting in a very rugged look and the style is often called rough rustic.
Leaves are rich in carbon, but you should include other sources such as straw, non-glossy paper and wood or bark chips.
Herbal pain remedies include are white willow bark, and pau d' arco.
This tea features the calming ingredients of the company's popular Sleepytime tea (spearmint and soothing Egyptian chamomile), plus licorice root, lemongrass, ginger and slippery elm bark to help coat the throat.
Depending on the particular plant, the bark, flowers, roots or leaves may be used for medicinal purposes.
Slippery elm bark powder is an herbal remedy that originated in the Appalachian mountains in the United States.
Unlike many other herbal remedies, slippery elm bark has no side effects and can be used by people of all ages, including children.