Baltic sentence example

baltic
  • the three Baltic provinces, the nine western governments annexed from Poland by Catherine II., and the Cossack provinces of the Don, Astrakhan, Orenburg and Stavropol.
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  • Kronstadt is the naval headquarters in the Baltic, Sevastopol in the Black Sea and Vladivostok on the Pacific.
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  • even went so far as to disperse 123 skilled Germans whom Ivan's agent had collected and brought to Lubeck for shipment to a Baltic port.
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  • Forty years later it had a market at St Petersburg and the Baltic ports, and in 1796 there were nine brewing firms in the town.
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  • STRALSUND, a seaport of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, on the west side of the Strelasund, an arm of the Baltic, 12 m.
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  • In 1651 the Dutch completed a treaty with Denmark to injure English trade in the Baltic; to which England replied the same year by the Navigation Act, which suppressed the Dutch trade with the English colonies and the Dutch fish trade with England, and struck at the Dutch carrying trade.
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  • On the shores of the Baltic it occurs not only on the Prussian and Pomeranian coast but in the south of Sweden, in Bornholm and other islands, and in S.
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  • Some of the amber districts of the Baltic and North Sea were known in prehistoric times, and led to early trade with the south of Europe.
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  • It has been conjectured that the ancient Etruscan ornaments in amber were wrought in the Italian material, but it seems that amber from the Baltic reached the Etruscans at Hatria.
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  • It has even been supposed that amber passed from Sicily to northern Europe in early times - a supposition said to receive some support from the fact that much of the amber dug up in Denmark is red; but it must not be forgotten that reddish amber is found also on the Baltic, though not being fashionable it is used rather for varnish-making than for ornaments.
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  • - See, for Baltic amber, P. Dahms, "Ueber die Vorkommen and die Verwendung des Bernsteins," Zeitsch.
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  • During this or a second voyage Pytheas entered the Baltic, discovered the coasts where amber is obtained and returned to the Mediterranean.
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  • Thus he placed on record the voyages of the merchant Ulfsten in the Baltic, including particulars of the geography of Germany.
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  • From the 8th to the 11th century a commercial route from India passed through Novgorod to the Baltic, and Arabian coins found in Sweden, and particularly in the island of Gotland, prove how closely the enterprise of the Northmen and of the Arabs intertwined.
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  • The Baltic, with the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland, limits it on the N.W.; and two sinuous lines of land frontier separate it respectively from Sweden and Norway on the N.W.
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  • are Karlo, East Kvarken, the Aland archipelago, Dagd, and Osel or Oesel in the Baltic Sea; Novaya Zemlya, with Kolguyev and Vaigach, in the Barents Sea; the Solovetski Islands in the White Sea; the New Siberian archipelago, Wrangel Land and Bear Islands, off the Siberian coast; the Commander Islands off Kamchatka; the Shantar Islands and the N.
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  • above present sea-level, are found alike on the Arctic Sea and on the Baltic and Black Sea coasts.
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  • Besides the Academy of Science, the Moscow Society of Naturalists, the Mineralogical Society, the Geographical Society, with its Caucasian and Siberian branches, the archaeological societies and the scientific societies of the Baltic provinces, all of which are of old and recognized standing, there have lately sprung up a series of new societies in connexion with each university, and their serials are yearly growing in importance, as, too, are those of the Moscow Society of Friends of Natural Science, the Chemico-Physical Society, and various medical, educational and other associations.
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  • Before the Japanese war Russia maintained four separate squadrons: the Baltic, the Black Sea, the Pacific and the Caspian.
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  • The second-class fortresses are Kronstadt and Sveaborg in the Gulf of Finland, Ivangorod in Poland, Libau on the Baltic Sea, Kerch on the Black Sea and Vladivostok on the Pacific. In the third class are Viborg in Finland, Ossovets and Ust Dvinsk (or Dunamunde) in Lithuania, Sevastopol and Ochakov on the Black Sea, and Kars and Batum in Caucasia.
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  • boundary is purely conventional: it crosses the peninsula of Kola from the Varanger Fjord to the Gulf of Bothnia; thence it runs to the Kurisches Haff in the southern Baltic, and thence to the mouth of the Danube, taking a great circular sweep to the W.
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  • The Gulf of Riga and the Baltic belong also to territory which is not inhabited by Sla y s, but by Finnish races and by Germans.
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  • and the Maanselka heights in the N.W.; the Baltic coast-ridge and spurs of the Carpathians in the W., with a broad depression between the two, occupied by Poland; the Crimean and Caucasian mountains in the S.; and the broad but moderately high swelling of the Ural Mountains in the E.
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  • spurs of the Baltic coast-ridge between the governments of Grodno and Minsk.
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  • By their means the plains of the central plateau - the very heart of Russia, whose natural outlet was the Caspian - were brought into water-communication with the Baltic, and the Volga basin was connected with the Gulf of Finland.
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  • by canal with the Caspian and the Baltic. The Vychegda, which flows W.S.W.
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  • The rivers freeze rapidly; towards November 10th all the streams of the White Sea basin are ice-bound, and so remain for an average of 167 days; those of the Baltic, Black Sea and Caspian basins freeze later, but about December the 10th nearly all the rivers of the country are highways for sledges.
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  • The fauna of the Baltic provinces is described in full in the Memoirs of the scientific bodies of these provinces.
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  • In the Baltic provinces they constitute the ennobled landlord class, and are the tradesmen and artisans in the towns.
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  • In the Baltic provinces (Esthonia, Livonia and Courland) the prevailing population is Esthonian, Kuronian or Lettish, the Germans being respectively only 3.8, 7.6 and 8.2% of the population.
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  • Finally, in the Baltic provinces nearly all the land belongs to the German landlords, who either farm the land themselves, with hired labourers, or let it in small farms. Only one-fourth of the peasants are farmers, the remainder being mere labourers, who are emigrating in great numbers.
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  • i.; Collection of Materials on Landholding, and Statistical Descriptions of Separate Governments, published by several zemstvos (Moscow, Tver, Nyzhniy-Novgorod, Tula, Ryazan, Tambov, Poltava, Saratov, &c.); Kawelin, The Peasant Question; Vasilchikov, Land Property and Agriculture (2 vols.), and Village Life and Agriculture; Ivanukov, The Fall of Serfdom in Russia; Shashkov, " Peasantry in the Baltic Provinces," in Russkaya Mysl.
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  • of this zone, that is in the Baltic provinces, the climate is less severe as well as moister.
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  • governments of Kovno, Vitebsk, Vilna, Mogilev, Minsk and Grodno the climate is more temperate, but agriculture is more backward than in the Baltic provinces.
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  • Beer is chiefly brewed in Poland and the Baltic provinces.
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  • Sea of Azov, 24.7 / o in the Baltic Sea and 5.2% in the White Sea.
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  • In the Baltic Sea, as well as in the lakes of its basin (Ladoga, Onega, Ilmen, &c.), the yearly value is estimated at £ 200,000.
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  • Lake Ilmen and the river Volkhov, on which stands Novgorod, Rurik's capital, formed part of the great waterway from the Baltic to the Black Sea, and we know that by this route travelled from Scandinavia to Constantinople the tall fair-haired Northmen who composed the famous Varangian bodyguard of the Byzantine emperors.
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  • Since the days when Rurik had first chosen it as his headquarters, the little town on the Volkhov had grown into a great commercial of Nov- city and a member of the Hanseatic league, and it had brought under subjection a vast expanse of territory, stretching from the shores of the Baltic to the Ural Mountains, and containing several subordinate towns, of which the principal were Pskov, Nizhniy-Novgorod and Vyatka.
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  • The nucleus of the invading horde was a small pastoral tribe in Mongolia, the chief of which, known subsequently to Europe as Jenghiz Khan, became a mighty conqueror and created a vast empire stretching from China, across northern and central Asia, to the shores of the Baltic and the valley of the Danube - a heterogeneous state containing many nationalities held together by purely administrative ties and by an enormous military force.
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  • When the two became united under one ruler towards the end of the 14th century they formed a broad strip of territory stretching from the Baltic to the Black Sea and separating Russia from central Europe.
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  • the latter aspired to obtaining a firm footing on the Baltic coast and establishing direct relations, diplomatic and commercial, with the Western Powers.
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  • He continued, therefore, his efforts to reach the Baltic coast, and he soon came into collision with the Swedes.
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  • At the same time it was displeasing to the Swedes, who had become rivals of the Poles on the Baltic coast, and they started a false Dimitri of their own in Novgorod.
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  • F o i Notwithstanding the efforts of the Poles and the Military Orders to exclude Russia from the shores of the Baltic and keep her in a state of isolation, she was coming slowly into closer relations with central and western Europe.
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  • Already the desire to make his country a great naval power was becoming his ruling passion, and when he found by experience that the White Sea, Russia's sole maritime outlet, had great practical inconveniences as a naval base, he revived the project of getting a firm footing on the shores of the Black Sea or the Baltic. At first he gave the preference to the former, and with the aid of a flotilla of small craft, constructed on a tributary of the Don, he succeeded in capturing Azov from the Turks.
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  • For his Baltic. schemes, on the contrary, he had found the ground well prepared.
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  • The problem of obtaining a firm footing on the Baltic coast, on which Ivan the Terrible had squandered his resources to no purpose, was now solved satisfactorily.
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  • The first step westwards was taken in Courland, which lay between Russian territory and the Baltic coast.
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  • The sovereigns of Sardinia, Naples, Portugal and Spain were dethroned, the pope was driven from Rome, the Rhine Confederation was extended till France obtained a footing on the Baltic, the grand-duchy of Warsaw was reorganized and strengthened, the promised evacuation of Prussia was indefinitely postponed, an armistice between Russia and Turkey was negotiated by French diplomacy in such a way that the Russian troops should evacuate the Danubian principalities, which Alexander intended to annex to his empire, and the scheme for breaking up the Ottoman empire and ruining England by the conquest of India, which had been one of the most attractive baits in the Tilsit negotiations, but which had not been formulated in the treaty, was no longer spoken of.
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  • In Finland the population is composed of Finnish-speaking and Swedish-speaking Protestants; the Baltic provinces are inhabited by German-speaking, Lettspeaking and Esth-speaking Lutherans; the inhabitants of the south-western provinces are chiefly Polish-speaking Roman Catholics and Yiddish-speaking Jews; in the Crimea and on the Middle Volga there are a considerable number of Tatarspeaking Mahommedans; and in the Caucasus there is a conglomeration of races and languages such as is to be found on no other portion of the earth's surface.
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  • from the Baltic, on the Kamminsche Bodden, a lake connected with the sea by the Dievenow.
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  • Such train ferries arc common in America, especially on the Great Lakes, and exist at several places in Europe, as in the Baltic between Denmark and Sweden and Denmark and Germany, and across the Straits of Messina.
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  • GLUCKSBURG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein, romantically situated among pine woods on the Flensburg Fjord off the Baltic, 6 m.
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  • The city had been founded in 1158 with the express object of controlling the Baltic trade.
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  • and Honorius III., formally renounced all the German lands north of the Elbe and Elde, as well as the Wendish lands on the Baltic, in favour of Valdemar.
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  • An attempt by Otto in 1215 to recover Northalbingia was easily frustrated by Valdemar, who henceforth devoted himself to the extension of the Danish empire over the eastern Baltic shores.
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  • At the end of the 12th century the whole of the Baltic littoral from xxvit.
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  • Despite its superior weapons and mode of warfare, the German east Baltic colony was constantly in danger of being overborne by the endless assaults of the dogged aborigines, whose hatred of the religion of the Cross as preached by the knights is very intelligible; and in 1218 Bishop Albert of Riga was driven to appeal for assistance to King Valdemar.
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  • The south-western Baltic was a Danish Mediterranean, and Danish territory extended from the Elbe to lake Peipus.
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  • SAMLAND, a peninsula of Germany, in the province of East Prussia, on the Baltic. It separates the Frisches Haff on the W.
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  • In amber, as proved by the deposits on the shores of the Baltic, the proverbial "fly" is more numerous than any other creatures, and with very few exceptions representatives of all the existing families have been found.
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  • by the Baltic, on the W.
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  • Besides the Oder and its affluents, the chief of which are the Peene, the Ucker and the Ihna, there are several smaller rivers flowing into the Baltic; a few of these are navigable for ships, but the greater number only carry rafts.
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  • In prehistoric times the southern coast of the Baltic seems to have been occupied by Celts, who afterwards made way for tribes of Teutonic stock.
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  • The Kurisches Haff is separated from the Baltic by a long spit, or tongue of land, the so-called Kurische Nehrung, 72 m.
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  • Even in its last phase, the Order did not forget its original purpose: it maintained several great hospitals in its new home on the south-east shore of the Baltic, in addition to an hotel des invalides at Marienburg for its sick or aged brethren.
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  • By 1260 they ruled the eastern bank of the Vistula from Kulm to its mouth, and the northern shore of the Baltic from the mouth of the Vistula to Konigsberg.
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  • The conversion of Lithuania deprived the Order of its mission: the union of Lithuania to Poland robbed it of the security which it enjoyed while they were disunited, and gave new strength to Poland, a constant enemy to the Order which had deprived it of any outlet on the Baltic. Internally, too, the Order suffered.
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  • from its mouth on the Baltic at the little port of Wyk, and 20 m.
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  • Connected with it are a library of 150,000 volumes and Boo MSS., a chemical laboratory, a zoological museum, a gynaecological institute, an ophthalmological school, a botanical garden and at Eldena (a seaside resort on the Baltic) an agricultural school.
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  • Great tracts of low country along the southern shores of the Baltic and in northern Russia are covered with forests of spruce.
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  • Numerous fossil insects preserved in the amber of the Baltic Oligocene have been described by G.
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  • Strabo himself talks of Armoric Heneti, and supposes them to have come from the neighbourhood of Brittany; another theory gives us Sarmatian Heneti, from the Baltic provinces; while the most widely accepted view was that they reached Italy from Paphlagonia.
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  • Remains of spiders from the Baltic amber beds of Oligocene age and from nearly coeval fluviatile or lacustrine deposits of North America belong to forms identical with or closely related to existing genera, thus proving the great antiquity of our present spider fauna.
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  • The crusaders of northern Germany never went to the Holy Land at all; they were allowed the crusaders' privileges for attacking the Wends to the east of the Elbe - a fact which at once attests the cleavage between northern and southern Germany (intensified of late years by the war of investitures), and anticipates the age of the Teutonic knights and their long Crusade on the Baltic. The crusaders of the Low Countries and of England took the sea route, and attacked and captured Lisbon on their way, thus helping to found the kingdom of Portugal, and achieving the one real success which was gained by the Second Crusade.
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  • On the 1 The Crusades in their course established a number of new states or kingdoms. The First Crusade established the kingdom of Jerusalem (I too); the Third, the kingdom of Cyprus (1195); the Fourth, the Latin empire of Constantinople (1204); while the long Crusade of the Teutonic knights on the coast of the Baltic led to the rise of a new state east of the Vistula.
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  • Henry V., whose father had fought with the Teutonic knights on the Baltic, dreamed of a voyage to Jerusalem.
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  • from the Baltic, and 105 m.
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  • He entered the navy in 1846, and served first at sea off Portugal in 1847; afterwards, in 1848, in the Mediterranean, and from 1848 to 1851 as midshipman of the "Reynard" in operations against piracy in Chinese waters; as midshipman and mate of the "Serpent" during the Burmese War of 1852-53; as mate of the "Phoenix" in the Arctic Expedition of 1854; as lieutenant of the "Hastings" in the Baltic during the Russian War, taking part in the attack on Sveaborg.
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  • He was the only Russian statesman of the day with sufficient foresight to grasp the fact that the Baltic seaboard, or even a part of it, was worth more to Muscovy than ten times the same amount of territory in Lithuania, and, despite ignorant jealousy of his colleagues, succeeded (Dec. 1658) in concluding a three-years' truce whereby the Muscovites were left in possession of all their conquests in Livonia.
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  • VISBY, or Wisby, the capital of the Swedish island and administrative district (lain) of Gotland, in the Baltic Sea.
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  • It frequents the Scandinavian coasts, entering the Baltic in the summer; and is found as far north as Baffin's Bay and as far west as the coasts of the United States.
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  • Yielding to the inevitable, but not forgetting to announce a brilliant victory in a bulletin, he sent his troops into winter quarters along the Passarge and down the Baltic, enjoining on his corps commanders most strictly to do nothing to disturb their adversary.
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  • Before his advance both Ney and Bernadotte (the latter, between Ney and the Baltic, covering the siege of Danzig) were compelled to fall back.
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  • (For the operations in the Baltic in 1801, see Copenhagen, Battle Of.) The Peace of Amiens proved to be only an uneasy truce, and it was succeeded by open war, on the 18th of May 1803.
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  • The sinkingdown occurs in the Kattegat when the inflowing Atlantic water enters the Baltic as an undercurrent which is both warmer and denser than that on the surface.
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  • The inflowing Baltic undercurrent carries with it herrings and other fish from the North Sea outside, and the submarine current entering the Barents Sea also carries with it such fish as plaice.
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  • There is evidence that, towards the close of the mediaeval period, great storms and tidal inundations occurred on the shores of the North Sea and Baltic, and in the course of these floods, culminating in 1297, the Zuider Zee was formed from a lake that existed in its neighbourhood, by the breaking down of dykes.
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  • (Similar effects can be seen on a small scale, even in our own times, as the result of exceptionally big tides.) Severe winters were experienced and the Baltic was frequently frozen over so that there was solid ice communication between Sweden and Denmark across the Belts and Sound: this happened in the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries but not in the 16th.
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  • Many economic changes probably occurred in consequence of the variations in tide-generating force, as, for instance, the decline in the mediaeval Baltic herring fisheries controlled by the Hanseatic League.
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  • Napoleon induced the king of Spain to allow French troops to occupy the country and to send the flower of the Spanish forces (15,000) under the marquis of Romana 1 to assist the French on the Baltic. Then Dupont de l'Etang (25,000) was ordered to cross the Bidassoa on the 22nd of November 1807; and by the 8th of January 1808 he had reached Burgos and Valladolid.
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  • and is a freshwater fish, although examples are exceptionally taken in British estuaries and in the Baltic; some specimens are handsomely marbled with dark brown, with black blotches on the back and dorsal fins.
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  • from the Baltic. Pop. (1900), 10,318.
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  • Its territory comprises chiefly districts of the Baltic provinces of the Russian Empire, which linguistically or ethnographically belonged to the Letts, whence the name of Latvia as a new nation-state.
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  • Education, in those parts of Latvia where it was standardized by the Protestant Church and Baltic regime, remained on a higher level than in Latgalia with only 38% able to read.
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  • (a) The large landowners, owning about 1,899 estates (of these 310 were in Latgalia), mostly Baits and gentry (" Baltic barons "), were expropriated (Land Act, Sept.
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  • Both industry and commerce were largely dependent on foreign (German, Baltic and Russian) capital, and agriculture on large and small agricultural enterprise constantly and rapidly growing.
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  • The immediate object was to overthrow Russian administrative supremacy and to emancipate themselves from the Baltic barons.
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  • and Ulmanis, under the pressure of a Bolshevik invasion and Bolshevik influence among the Letts, did not succeed in forming an anti-Bolshevik Lettish defence force, but on Dec. 7 consented to the creation of a Baltic Landeswehr.
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  • The Baltic volunteers were defeated by the Bolsheviks on Dec. 29 at Hintzenberg; and since the agreement made on Dec. 29 by Ulmanis with the German representative, the Socialist Winnig, did not attract a sufficient number of volunteers from Germany for the formation of an Iron Div., Riga fell on Jan.
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  • The - Baltic Landeswehr retired behind the Windau river, and, reinforced by German volunteers, a Russian (Private A.
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  • The murder of three men of the Baltic Landeswehr led to the coup of April 16 1919, by the proclamation of the Government of a Lettish clergyman, Needra.
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  • It now appeared necessary to the Entente Powers to avert Baltic and German preponderance in Latvia as a consequence of the military situation, and the policy of non-intervention was abandoned in favour of Ulmanis' Government.
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  • The Baltic Landeswehr, unsupported by the other units, were engaged with Esthonian and Lettish forces near Wenden, and were defeated.
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  • The security offered by this treaty was further guaranteed by the formation of a regional league of the Baltic states against external aggression.
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  • In recent times controversies have arisen in connexion with the Baltic, the Black Sea and more especially the Bering Sea.
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  • The harbour, which is formed by a bay of the Baltic, has a depth throughout of 20 ft.
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  • Of agricultural produce there was barely sufficient for home consumption, but the mining industries had reached a very high level of excellence, and iron, tin and copper were very largely exported from the northern counties to Danzig and other Baltic ports.
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  • The first efforts of the new monarch were directed against the Wendish pirates who infested the Baltic and made not merely the political but even the commercial development of the Danish state impossible.
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  • At fifteen he went to sea, and made several voyages to the Baltic and Mediterranean.
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  • Foreign trade is chiefly with the Russian Baltic ports.
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  • It is especially common in the north, though rarely entering the Baltic; it becomes rare south of the English Channel.
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  • London, Hamburg, Bremen and the chief Baltic ports as far as Riga and St Petersburg participate in the traffic on the Rhine.
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  • Russia had in consequence been virtually cut off from intercourse by water with the outer world, seeing that the Baltic likewise was closed owing to action of the German navy; no adequate outlet for the Russian Empire's produce remained available; the most promising avenue for the introduction of warlike stores into the Tsar's dominions from without had been effectually barred.
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  • The Dibothriocephalus latus is not generally found except in districts bordering the Baltic Sea, the districts round the Franco-Swiss lakes and Japan.
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  • It served as a medium of commercial intercourse between the North Sea and the Baltic, and was known to the Arabian geographers.
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  • In 1241 we find Lubeck and Hamburg agreeing to safeguard the important road connecting the Baltic and the North Sea.
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  • The relative weakness of territorial power in the North, after the fall of Henry the Lion of Saxony, diminished without however removing this motive for union, but the comparative immunity from princely aggression on land left the towns freer to combine in a stronger and more permanent union for the defence of their commerce by sea and for the control of the Baltic.
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  • While the political element in the development of the Hanseatic League must not be underestimated, it was not so formative as the economic. The foundation was laid for the growth of German towns along the southern shore of the Baltic by the great movement of German colonization of Slavic territory east of the Elbe.
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  • Cologne and the Westphalian towns, the most important of which were Dortmund, Soest and Munster, had long controlled this commerce but now began to feel the competition of the active traders of the Baltic, opening up that direct communication by sea from the Baltic to western Europe which became the essential feature in the history of the League.
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  • Germans were early pushing as permanent settlers into the Scandinavian towns, and in Wisby, on the island of Gothland, the Scandinavian centre of Baltic trade, equal rights as citizens in the town government were possessed by the German settlers as early as the beginning of the 13th century.
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  • But with the extension of the East and West trade beyond the confines of the Baltic, this association by the end of the century was losing its position of leadership. Its inheritance passed to the gradually forming union of towns, chiefly those known as Wendish, which looked to Lubeck as their head.
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  • A similar and contemporary extension of the influence of the Baltic traders under Lubeck's leadership may be witnessed in the West.
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  • The situation thus created led by 1282 to the coalescence of the rival associations in the "Gild-hall of the Germans," but though the Baltic traders had secured a recognized foothold in the enlarged and unified organization, Cologne retained the controlling interest in the London settlement until 1476.
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  • The commercial relations with the North cannot be regarded as an important element in the union of the Hanse towns, but the geographical position of the Scandinavian countries, especially that of Denmark, commanding the Sound which gives access to the Baltic, compelled a close attention to Scandinavian politics on the part of Lubeck and the League and thus by necessitating combined political action in defence of Hanseatic sea-power exercised a unifying influence.
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  • Their highly favoured position in England, contrasting markedly with their refusal of trade facilities to the English in some of the Baltic towns and their evident policy of monopoly in the Baltic trade, incensed the English mercantile classes, and doubtless influenced the increases in customs-duties which were regarded by the Germans as contrary to their treaty rights.
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  • of Denmark in 1361 had disclosed his ambition for the political control of the Baltic. He was promptly opposed by an alliance of Hanse towns, led by Lubeck.
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  • It became, indeed, increasingly difficult to obtain the support of the inland towns for a policy of seapower in the Baltic. Cologne sent no representatives to the regular Hanseatic assemblies until 1383, and during the 15th century its independence was frequently manifested.
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  • In the East, the German Order, while enjoying Hanseatic privileges, frequently opposed the policy of the League abroad, and was only prevented by domestic troubles and its Hinterland enemies from playing its own hand in the Baltic. After the fall of the order in 1467, the towns of Prussia and Livland, especially Dantzig and Riga, pursued an exclusive trade policy even against their Hanseatic confederates.
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  • By the peace of Copenhagen in 1441, after the unsuccessful war of the League with Holland, the attempted monopoly of the Baltic was broken, and, though the Hanseatic trade regulations were maintained on paper, the Dutch with their larger ships increased their hold on the herring fisheries, the French salt trade, and the Baltic grain trade.
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  • The measures were those of the late-medieval town economy applied to the wide region of the German Baltic trade, but not supported, as was the analogous mercantilist system, by a strong central government.
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  • The last wars of the League with the Scandinavian powers in the 16th century, which left it shorn of many of its privileges and of any pretension to control of the Baltic basin eliminated it as a factor in the later struggle of the Thirty Years' War for that control.
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  • He also established an ecclesiastical organization in the newly converted provinces of Prussia, which he divided into four dioceses; but his attempt to govern the Baltic countries through a legate broke on the opposition of the Teutonic Order, whose rights in Prussia he had confirmed.
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  • MECKLENBURG, a territory in northern Germany, on the Baltic Sea, extending from 53° 4' to 54 0 22' N.
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  • This creature displays an almost unexampled frequency and extent of distribution in the whole North Sea, in the western parts of the Baltic, near the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland and the English coasts, so that it may be regarded as a characteristic North Sea echinoderm form.
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  • The war was very unpopular in Denmark, and the closing of the Sound against foreign shipping, in order to starve out Sweden, had exasperated the maritime powers and all the Baltic states.
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  • He aspired to the dominion of all the seas which washed the Scandinavian coasts, and before he died he succeeded in suppressing the pirates who so long had haunted the Baltic and the German Ocean.
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  • as far as Kovno and thence to the Baltic from 185 to 650 yards.
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  • Alone among the Baltic states Lithuania had as yet no national currency in 1921.
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  • The scope of the archaeologist's studies must include every department of the ancient history of man as preserved in antiquities of whatever character, be they tumuli along the Baltic, fossil skulls and graven bones from the caves of France, the flint implements, pottery, and mummies of Egypt, tablets and bas-reliefs from Mesopotamia, coins and sculptures of Greece and Rome, or inscriptions, waxen tablets, parchment rolls, and papyri of a relatively late period of classical antiquity.
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  • BARTH, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Prussia, on the Barther Bodden, a lake connecting with the Baltic, 15 m.
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  • This was an essential modification of Charles's Baltic policy; but the alliance of the elector had now become indispensable on almost any terms. So serious, indeed, were the difficulties of Charles X.
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  • Not without reason did the medal struck to commemorate "the glorious transit of the Baltic Sea" bear the haughty inscription: Natura hoc debuit uni.
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  • He therefore also sailed north to meet the Baltic trade.
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  • Hence it takes an easterly course, and, entering the territory of the free city of Lubeck, receives from the right the Stecknitz, through which and the Stecknitz canal built by the merchants of Lubeck in 1398) a direct water communication is maintained with the Elbe, and passing the city of Lubeck discharges itself into the Baltic at the port of Travemiinde after a course of 58 m.
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  • the Baltic Sea and Hudson Bay with very low salinity, the Red Sea and Persian Gulf with very high salinity.
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  • The annual range of temperature between summer and winter of a surface layer of water about 25 fathoms thick in the Baltic is as much as 20° F., but this only corresponds to a difference of level of 14 in.
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  • Recent levellings along the Swedish and Danish coasts have confirmed the higher level of the Baltic; and the level of the Mediterranean has also been determined by exact measurements to be from 15 to 24 in.
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  • Wind also gives rise to differences of level by driving the water before it, and the prevailing westerly wind of the southern Baltic is the chief cause of the sea-level at Kiel being 51 in.
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  • Deep soundings were made in the Atlantic coasts of the North Sea and Baltic, when the rise may amount for this purpose by vessels both of the British and of the American to very many feet.
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  • Such valleys are very clearly indicated in the belts of the western Baltic by furrows a thousand yards wide and twenty to thirty fathoms deeper than the neighbouring sea-bed.
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  • The Baltic Sea exceeds 50 fathoms in few places except the broad central portion, though small caldron-like depressions here and there may sink below zoo fathoms. The Red Sea on the other hand, though shut off from the Indian Ocean by shallows of the Strait of Bab-elMandeb with little more than ioo fathoms, sinks to a very considerable depth in its central trough, which reaches 1209 fathoms in 20° N.
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  • Similar effects are produced along the boulder-clay cliffs of the Baltic. Where the force of the waves on the beach produces its full effect the coarser material gets worn down to gravel, sand and silt, the finest particles remaining long suspended in the water to be finally deposited as mud in quiet bays.
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  • the speed is 1482.6 metres (4860 ft.) per second, in Baltic water of 8 per mille salinity and a temperature of 50° F.
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  • Jacobsen on some occasions found water in the surface layers of the Baltic supersaturated with oxygen, which he ascribed to the action of the chlorophyll in vegetable plankton; in other cases when examining the nearly stagnant water from deep basins he found a deficiency of oxygen due no doubt to the withdrawal of oxygen from solution, by the respiration of the animals and by the oxidation of the deposits on the bottom.
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  • Ruppin's analysis of Baltic water, which has an alkalinity of 16 to 18 instead of the 5 or 6 which would be the amount proportional to the salinity, while the water of the Vistula and the Elbe with a salinity of o 1 per mille has an alkalinity of 28 or more.
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  • a temperature of 40.1 ° F., the carbonic acid amounts to 51 J5 cc. per litre, and the oxygen only to 2.19 cc. Vegetable plankton in sunlight can reverse this process, assimilating the carbon of the carbonic acid and restoring the oxygen to solution, as was proved by Martin Knudsen and Ostenfeld in the case of diatoms. Little is known as yet of the distribution of carbonic acid in the oceans, but the amount present seems to increase with the salinity as shown by the four observations quoted: Water from Gulf of Finland of 3.2 per mille salinity =17.2 cc. C02 Western Baltic of 14.2 North Atlantic of .0, , 49'0 Eastern Mediter ranean of 39.o, , =53'0, , Unfortunately the very numerous determinations of carbonic acid made by J.
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  • The fresher enclosed seas include the Malay and the East Asiatic fringing seas with 30 to 34.5 per mille, the Gulf of St Lawrence with 30 to 31, the North Sea with 35 north of the Dogger Bank diminishing to 32 further south, and the Baltic, which freshens rapidly from between 25 to 31 in the Skagerrak to 7 or 8 eastward of Bornholm and to practically fresh water at the heads of the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland.
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  • Where the evaporation is at a minimum, the inflow of rivers from a large continental area and the precipitation from the atmosphere at a maximum, there is necessarily the greatest dilution of the sea-water, the Baltic and the Arctic Sea being conspicuous examples.
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  • How closely two bodies of water at different temperatures may come together is shown by the fact that in the Baltic in August between 10 and 11 fathoms there is sometimes a fall of temperature from 57° to 46.5° F.
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  • Pack-ice forms regularly in the inner part of the Baltic every winter, but not in the Norwegian fjords.
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  • The differences of salinity support this method, and, especially in the northern European seas, often prove a sharper criterion of the boundaries than temperature itself; this is especially the case at the entrance to the Baltic. Evidence drawn from drift-wood, wrecks or special drift bottles is less distinct but still interesting and often useful; this method of investigation includes the use of icebergs as indicators of the trend of currents and also of plankton, the minute swimming or drifting organisms so abundant at the surface of the sea.
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  • Through the Bosporus and Dardanelles at the entrance of the Black Sea, and through the sound and belts at the entrance of the Baltic, streams of fresh surface-water flow outwards to the salter Mediterranean and North Sea, while salter water enters in each case as an undercurrent.
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  • Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
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  • He entered the Prussian navy in 1865, and by 1890 had risen to be chief-of-staff of the Baltic station in the Imperial navy.
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  • from the Baltic Sea and 64 m.
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  • From its source to its mouth in the Baltic it has a total length of 560 m., of which 480 m.
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  • He next organized an extensive international business in coal, and had 13 steamers trading to and from North Sea, Baltic, Mediterranean and Black Sea ports.
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  • At Flensburg in Schleswig he secured control of the largest Baltic shipping concern, and proceeded to build a new fleet of ships, christening one of them the " Hindenburg."
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  • LIVONIA, or Livland (Russian, Liflandia), one of the three Baltic provinces of Russia, bounded W.
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  • Sand-dunes cover large tracts on the shores of the Baltic. No traces of marine deposits are found higher than loo or 150 ft.
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  • The Russian civil code was introduced in the Baltic provinces in 1835, and the use of Russian, instead of German, in official correspondence and in law courts was ordered in 1867, but not generally brought into practice.
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  • Coins of the time of Alexander the Great, found on the island of Oesel, show that the coasts of the Baltic were at an early period in commercial relation with the civilized world.
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  • The chronicle of Nestor mentions as inhabitants of the Baltic coast the Chudes, the Livs, the Narova, Letgola, Semigallians and Kors.
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  • He had to accept the services of many ex-officers whose hearts were with the old regime, and he also found it difficult and, in some cases impossible, to dissolve reactionary Free Corps like those which returned from the Baltic provinces or like Ehrhardt's Marine Brigade.
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  • In the 18th century it ranked next to Leith as a port, but the growth of Grangemouth, higher up the firth, seriously affected its shipping trade, which is, however, yet considerable, coal and pig-iron forming the principal exports, and pit props from the Baltic the leading import.
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  • by the Baltic, on the E.
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  • The greater part is occupied by the low Baltic plateau, intersected by a network of streams and lakes, and rising to the Turmberg (1086 ft.) near Danzig.
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  • Baltic coast, in the district (lain) of Malmdhus, 39 m.
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  • Its artificial harbour, which admits vessels drawing 19 ft., is freer from ice in winter than any other Swedish Baltic port.
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  • But a reinforcement under RearAdmiral Nebogatov was despatched from the Baltic via Suez early in March 1905, and the armada proceeded by the Straits of Malacca, Nebogatov joining at Kamranh Bay in Cochin China.
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  • In the Baltic, where the water is gradually losing its saline constituents, thus becoming less adapted for the development of marine species, the herring continues to exist in large numbers, but as a dwarfed form, not growing either to the size or to the condition of the North-Sea herring.
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  • He was probably intended to watch the conduct of his colleague, Admiral Montagu (afterwards 1st earl of Sandwich), who was in command of the Baltic squadron.
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  • From time immemorial the isle of Gotland had been the staple of the Baltic trade, and its capital, Visby, whose burgesses were more than half German, the commercial intermediary between east and west, was the wealthiest city in northern Europe.
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  • It was also proposed to link up the Elbe and the Danube by a canal which would enable direct transport to be effected from North and Baltic Seas to the Black Sea.
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  • He was primarily a warrior, whose reign, an almost uninterrupted warfare, resulted in the formation of a vast kingdom extending from the Baltic to the Carpathians, and from the Elbe to the Bug.
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  • Originally planted on the Baltic shore for the express purpose of christianizing their savage neighbours, these crusading monks had freely exploited the wealth and the valour of the West, ostensibly in the cause of religion, really for the purpose of founding a dominion of their own which, as time went on, lost more and more of its religious character, and was now little more than a German military forepost, extending from Pomerania to the Niemen, which deliberately excluded the Sla y s from the sea and thrived 'Archbishop of Gnesen 1219-1220.
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  • For if it had failed utterly as a mission in partibus, it had succeeded in establishing on the Baltic one of the strongest military organizations in Europe.
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  • The territory of the Knights was now reduced to Prussia proper, embracing, roughly speaking, the district between the Baltic, the lower Vistula and the lower Niemen, with Konigsberg as its capital.
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  • All the Baltic powers were more or less interested in the apportionment of this vast tract of land, whose geographical position made it not only the chief commercial link between east and west, but also the emporium whence the English, Dutch, Swedes, Danes and Germans obtained their corn, timber and most of the raw products of Lithuania and Muscovy.
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  • Jagiellonic Out of the ancient Piast kingdom, mutilated by the Period, loss of Silesia and the Baltic shore, arose a republic 1386-1572.
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  • With all the means at her disposal cheerfully placed in the hands of such valiant and capable ministers, it would have been no difficult task for the Republic to have wrested the best part of the Baltic littoral from the Scandinavian powers, and driven the distracted Muscovites beyond the Volga.
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  • 12, 1635), recovered the Prussian provinces and the Baltic seaboard from Sweden.
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  • Henceforth Absalon was the chief counsellor of Valdemar, and the promoter of that imperial policy which, for three generations, was to give Denmark the dominion of the Baltic. Briefly, it was Absalon's intention to clear the northern sea of the Wendish pirates, who inhabited that portion of the Baltic littoral which we now call Pomerania, and ravaged the Danish coasts so unmercifully that at the accession of Valdemar one-third of the realm of Denmark lay wasted and depopulated.
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  • But he continued to keep a watchful eye over the Baltic, and in 1170 destroyed another pirate stronghold, farther eastward, at Dievenow on the isle of Wollin.
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  • (1654-1660) he was employed in the Baltic provinces both as a civilian and a soldier, although in the latter capacity he gave the martial king but little satisfaction.
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  • He also felt the necessity of a Baltic seaboard, and attempted to obtain Livonia by diplomatic means.
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  • During his twenty years' reign Denmark advanced steadily along the path of greatness and prosperity marked out for her by Valdemar I., consolidating and extending her dominion over the North Baltic coast and adopting a more and more independent attitude towards Germany.
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  • He had commenced them with a survey of Livonia (1816-1819), which was followed by the measurement of an arc of meridian of more than 31° in the Baltic provinces of Russia (Beschreibung der Breitengradmessung in den Ostseeprovinzen Russlands, 2 vols.
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  • Adam's Historia - known also as Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum, Bremensium praesulum Historia, and Historia ecclesiastica - is a primary authority, not only for the great diocese of Hamburg-and-Bremen, but for all North German and Baltic lands (down to 1072), and for the Scandinavian colonies as far as America.
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  • Here occurs the earliest mention of Vinland, and here are also references of great interest to Russia and Kiev, to the heathen Prussians, the Wends and other Slav races of the South Baltic coast, and to Finland, Thule or Iceland, Greenland and the Polar seas which Harald Hardrada and the nobles of Frisia had attempted to explore in Adam's own day (before 1066).
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  • KOLBERG (or Colberg), a town of Germany, and seaport of the Prussian province of Pomerania, on the right bank of the Persante, which falls into the Baltic about a mile below the town, and at the junction of the railway lines to Belgard and Gollnow.
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  • ALSEN (Danish Als), an island in the Baltic, off the coast of Schleswig, in the Little Belt.
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  • On the Baltic, France guaranteed the Treaty of Oliva between her old allies Sweden, Poland and Brandenburg, which preserved her influence in that quarter.
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  • by the Baltic Sea, W.
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  • Petersburg to confer with the Tsar and his ministers about the Franco-Russian Alliance and the new developments of the Eastern question, a visit which countered the somewhat depressing effect in France of the meeting of the German and Russian Emperors at Baltic Port on July 4.
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  • above the Baltic, in a broad and pleasant valley on both banks of the Elbe.
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  • When it was announced in 1905 that a British fleet was about to manoeuvre in the Baltic Sea, several German newspapers suggested that Germany should combine with other Baltic powers to assure its neutralization.
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  • 2 No official observation on the subject, however, was made on the part of any Baltic power.
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  • The Baltic is still an open sea for the whole world, without restriction of any kind; and even hostilities between any two non-Baltic powers could be carried on in the Baltic, as elsewhere on the high sea, under the existing practice.
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  • The Baltic was a closed door to Muscovy, and the key to it was held by Sweden.
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  • He had concluded peace with the Porte (June 13, 1700) on very advantageous terms, in order to devote himself wholly to a war with Sweden to the end that Russia might gain her proper place on the Baltic. The possession of an ice-free seaboard was essential to her natural development; the creation of a fleet would follow inevitably upon the acquisition of such a seaboard; and she could not hope to obtain her due share of the trade and commerce of the world till she possessed both.
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  • It lies at the head of the Byfjord, an inlet of the Baltic. The ruins of its once famous castle, the town hall (1662), and the district governor's residence, are notable buildings.
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  • It is likely that the name really belonged only to the peoples of the southern Baltic. Very probably there were many tribes which did not regard themselves as belonging to any of these groups.
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  • The art of sailing seems to have been unknown, and it is probable that down to the 3rd century the only peoples which could truly be described as seafaring were those of the Baltic and the Cattegat.
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  • Their father, Niiir6r, the god of wealth, who is a somewhat less important figure, corresponds in name to the goddess Nerthus (Hertha), who in ancient times was worshipped by a number of tribes, including the Angli, round the coasts of the southern Baltic. Tacitus describes her as " Mother Earth," and the account which he gives of her cult bears a somewhat remarkable resemblance to the ceremonies associated in later times with Frey.
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  • Promoted rear-admiral a few days after this action, Hood was in 1807 entrusted with the operations against Madeira, which he brought to a successful conclusion, and a year later went to the Baltic, with his flag in the "Centaur," to take part in the war between Russia and Sweden.
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  • ERMELAND, or ERN - Land (Varmia), a district of Germany, in East Prussia, extending from the Frisches Haff, a bay in the Baltic, inland towards the Polish frontier.
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  • Military operations against Sweden's Baltic provinces were to be begun simultaneously by the Saxons and Russians.
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  • They can hardly have fetched it themselves from the Baltic or the North Sea; it came to them by two wellmarked routes, one from the Baltic to the Adriatic, the other up the Rhine and down the Rhone.
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  • The chief imports are Baltic timber, coal, salt and manure; and the exports, manufactured goods, grain, potatoes and slates.
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  • It formerly had an extensive trade with the ports of the Baltic, the Levant and America, and was once a sub-port to Aberdeen, but was made independent in 1832.
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  • Its merchant ships vied with those of Genoa, Venice and Ragusa, trading as far west as the North Sea and the Baltic, and as far east as Alexandria.
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  • On his election, Sigismund promised to maintain a fleet in the Baltic, to fortify the eastern frontier against the Tatars, and not to visit Sweden without the consent of the Polish diet.
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  • Devoted, however, as were the labours of Boniface and his disciples, all that he and they and the emperor Charlemagne after them achieved for the fierce untutored world of the 8th century seemed to have been done in vain when, in the 9th " on the north and north-west the pagan Scandinavians were hanging about every coast, and pouring in at every inlet; when on the east the pagan Hungarians were swarming like locusts and devastating Europe from the Baltic to the Alps; when on the south and south-east the Saracens were pressing on and on with their victorious hosts.
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  • The continent of Europe is no more than a great peninsula extending westwards from the much vaster continent of Asia, while it is itself broken up by two inland seas into several smaller peninsulas - the Mediterranean forming the Iberian, the Italian and the Greek peninsulas, while the Baltic forms that of Scandinavia and the much smaller one of Denmark.
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  • One result of this limit, marked out by Nature herself, is that the waters which flow down the northern slope of the Alps find their way either into the North Sea through the Rhine, or into the Black Sea by means of the Danube, not a drop reaching the Baltic Sea.
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  • "Baltic" flora on the north and the "Mediterranean" flora on the south, but chiefly to the presence on their heights of a third flora which has but little in common with either of the others.
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  • Plant houses constructed of the best Baltic pine timber are very durable, but the whole of the parts should be kept as light as possible.
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  • An examination of its lists of exports and imports will show that Holland receives from its colonies its spiceries, coffee, sugar, tobacco, indigo, cinnamon; from England and Belgium its manufactured goods and coals; petroleum, raw cotton and cereals from the United States; grain from the Baltic provinces, Archangel, and the ports of the Black Sea; timber from Norway and the basin of the Rhine, yarn from England, wine from France, hops from Bavaria and Alsace; ironore from Spain; while in its turn it sends its colonial wares to Germany, its agricultural produce to the London market, its fish to Belgium and Germany, and its cheese to France, Belgium and Hamburg, as well as England.
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  • But the losses to Dutch trade were so serious that negotiations for peace were set on foot by the burgher party of Holland, and Cromwell being not unwilling, an agreement was reached in the Treaty of Westminster, signed on Provinces with a view to the settlement of the Dano Swedish question, which ended in securing a northern peace in 1660, and in keeping the Baltic open for Dutch trade.
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  • H.) Battle Of Copenhagen The formation of a league between the northern powers, Russia, Prussia, Denmark and Sweden, on the 16th of December 1800, nominally to protect neutral trade at sea from the enforcement by Great Britain of her belligerent claims, led to the despatch of a British fleet to the Baltic on the 12th of March 1801.
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  • Of those actually in the Baltic and fit to go to sea, twelve were at Reval shut in by the ice, and the others were at Kronstadt.
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  • Nelson urged immediate attack, and recommended, as an alternative, that part of the British fleet should watch the Danes while the remainder advanced up the Baltic to prevent the junction of the Russian Reval squadron with the ships in Kronstadt.
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  • Sir Hyde Parker was, however, unwilling to go up the Baltic with the Danes unsubdued behind him, or to divide his force.
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  • An armistice was made for fourteen weeks, which left the British fleet free to proceed up the Baltic. On the 12th of April, after lightening the three-deckers of their guns, the fleet passed over the shallows.
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  • Great Britain released her prisoners on the 4th of June, and on the 17th of June was signed the convention which terminated the Baltic campaign.
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  • SUNDSVALL, a seaport of Sweden in the district (lain) of Vesternorrland, on a wide bay of the Baltic, at the north of the Selanger River, 360 m.
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  • A low swelling separates it from the Baltic Sea; while in the south it rises gradually to a series of plateaus, which merge imperceptibly into the northern spurs of the Carpathians.
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  • The Vistula, which skirts them on the south-west, cuts its way through them to the great plain of Poland, and thence to the Baltic. Its valley divides the hilly tracts into two parts - the Lublin heights on the east, and the Scdomierz (Sandomir) or central heights on the west.
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  • Coniferous forests, consisting mostly of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and birch, cover large tracts in Mazovia in the north, extend across the Baltic lake-ridge southwards as far as the confluence of the Bug with the Narew, and join in the south-east the Polysie of the Pripet.
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  • Numerous aquatic birds breed on the waters of the Baltic lake-region.
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  • In East Prussia they occupy the southern slope of the Baltic swelling (the Mazurs), and extend down the left bank of the lower Vistula to its mouth (the Kaszubes or Kassubians).
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  • The place cannot now be identified, as the formation of the Baltic coast has been much modified in the course of subsequent centuries, partly by the gradual silting up of the sea, and partly by the storms of the 14th century.
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  • Olaf had been during the summer in the eastern Baltic. The allies lay in wait for him at the island of Swold on his way home.
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  • Mecklenburg lies wholly within the great North-European plain, and its flat surface is interrupted only by one raiIge of low hills, intersecting the country from south-east to north-west, and forming the watershed between the Baltic Sea and the Elba.
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  • along the Baltic (without including indentations), for the most part in flat sandy stretches covered with dunes.
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  • Amber is found on and near the Baltic coast.
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  • It occupies both banks of the Motala, the wide and rapid emissary of lake Vetter, close to its outlet in the Bravik, an inlet of the Baltic. Having been burned by the Russians in 1719 and visited by further fires in 1812, 1822 and 1826, the whole town has a modern appearance, with wide and regular streets.
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  • KALMAR (CALMAR), a seaport of Sweden on the Baltic coast, chief town of the district (lain) of Kalmar, 250 m.
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  • Ever since Russia had become the dominant Baltic power, as well as the state to which the Gottorpers looked primarily for help, the necessity for a better understanding between the two Scandinavian kingdoms had clearly been recognized by the best statesmen of both, especially in Denmark from Christian VI.'s time; but unfortunately this sound and sensible policy was seriously impeded by the survival of the old national hatred on both sides of the Sound, still further complicated by Gottorp's hatred of Denmark.
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  • The length of German coast on the North Sea or German Ocean is 293 m., and on the Baltic 927 km., the intervening land boundary on the north of Schleswig being only 47 km.
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  • The area, including rivers and lakes but not the haffs or lagoons on the Baltic coast, is 208,830 sq.
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  • A great difference, however, is to be remarked between the coasts of the North Sea and those of the Baltic. On the former, where the sea has broken up the ranges of dunes formed in bygone times, and divided them into separate islands, the mainland has to be protected by massive dikes, while the Frisian Islands are being gradually washed away by the waters.
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  • The coast of the Baltic, on the other hand, possesses few islands, the chief being Alsen and Fehmarn off the coast of Schleswig-Holstein, and Rtigen off Pomerania.
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  • The Baltic has no perceptible tides; and a great part of its coast-line is in winter covered with ice, which also so blocks up the harbours that navigation is interrupted for several months every year.
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  • Long narrow alluvial strips called Nehrungen, lie between the last two haffs and the Baltic. The Baltic coast is further marked by large indentations, the Gulf of LUbeck, that of Pomerania, east of Rugen, and the semicircular Bay of Danzig between the promontories of Rixhoft and Brusterort.
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  • A second tract, of moderate elevation, sweeps round the Baltic, without, however, approaching its shores.
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  • The finely wooded heights which surround the bays of the east coast of Holstein and Schleswig may be regarded as a continuation of these Baltic elevations.
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  • The Baltic has the lowest spring temperature, and the autumn there is also not characterized by an appreciably higher degree of warmth.
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  • The country forms a section of the central European zone, and its flora is largely under the influence of the Baltic and Alpine elements, which to a great degree here coalesce.
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  • Principalities A narrow strip along the shores Schwarzburg-Sondershausen of the Baltic is covered with Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt -
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  • Languages.The German-speaking nations in their various branches and dialects, if we include the Dutch and the Walloons, extend in a compact mass along the shores of the Baltic and of the North Sea, from Memel in the east to a point between Gravelines and Calais near the Straits of Dover.
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  • Equally well developed are the Baltic fisheries, the chief ports engaged in which are Danzig, Eckernfrde, Kolherg and Travemnde.
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  • The catch of the North Sea and Baltic fisheries in 1906 was valued at over 700,000, exclusive of herrings for salting.
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  • Of other minerals (with the exceptions of coal, iron and salt treated below) nickel and antimony are found in the upper Harz; cobalt in the hilly districts of Hesse and the Saxon Erzgebirge; arsenic in the Riesengebirge; quicksilver in the Sauerland and in the spurs of the Saarbrucken coal hills; graphite in Bavaria; porcelain clay in Saxony and Silesia; amber along the whole Baltic coast; and lime and gypsum in almost all parts.
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  • Baltic Ports.
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  • The Baltic ports, such as Lubeck, Stettin, Danzig (Neufahrwasser) and Konigsberg, principally provide communication with the coast towns of the adjacent countries, Russia and Sweden.
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  • long, connecting th North Sea and the Baltic; it was made with a breadth at bottom of 72 ft.
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  • The coast defences include, besides the great naval ports of Wilhelmshaven on the North Sea and Kiel on the Baltic, Danzig, Pillau, Memel, Friedrichsort, Cuxhaven, Geestemunde and Swinemunde.
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  • To meet the difficulty arising from the want of good harbours in the Baltic, a small extent of territory near Jade Bay was bought from Oldenburg in 1854, for the purpose of establishing a war-port there.
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  • The navy is divided between the Baltic (Kid) and North Sea (Wilhelmshaven) stations, which are strategically linked by the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal (opened in 1895), across the Schleswig-Holstein peninsula.
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  • Devoting himself to the conquest of the lands lying along the shore of the Baltic, Henry succeeded as no one before him had ever done.
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  • After Bouvines he purchased the assistance of Valdemar II., king of Denmark, by ceding to him a large stretch of land along the Baltic coast; and, promising to go on crusade, he secured his coronation at Aix-la-Chapelle in July 1215.
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  • now duke of Friedland, was authorized to govern the conquered duchies of Mecklenburg and Pomerania; but his ambitious scheme of securing the whole of the south coast of the Baltic was thwarted by the resistance of the city of Stralsund, which for five months he vainly tried to take.
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  • These acquisitions, which surpassed the advantages Gustavus Adolphus had hoped to win, gave Sweden the command both of the Baltic and of the North Sea.
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  • The Danes, who were supported by Russia, responded by blockading the Baltic ports, which Germany, having no navy, was unable effectually to defend.
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  • He saw clearly what the possession of the duchies would mean to Germany, their vast importance for the future of German sea-power; already he had a vision of the great war-harbour of Kiel and the canal connecting the Baltic and the North seas; and he was determined that these should be, if not wholly Prussian, at least wholly under Prussian control.
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  • Stringent measures were taken to stamp out German nationality in the Baltic provinces, similar to those used by the Germans against the Poles.
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  • The acquisition of Heligoland enabled a new naval station to be established off the mouth of the Elbe; the completion of the canal from Kid to the mouth of the Elbe, by enabling ships of war to pass from the Baltic to the North Sea greatly increased the strategic strength of the fleet.
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  • Since 1900 the development of the naval establishment and of the town has been exceptionally rapid, coincident with the growth of the German navy, and with the shifting of political and naval activity from the Baltic to the North Sea.
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  • The Palatinate was conquered, the Danish king was overthrown, and it seemed that Austria would establish its predominance over the whole of Germany, and that the Baltic would become an Austrian lake.
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  • ROSTOCK, a town of Germany, in the grand duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, one of the most important commercial cities on the Baltic. It is situated on the left bank of the estuary of the Warnow, 8 m.
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  • from the port of Warnemunde on the Baltic. 177 m.
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  • DENMARK (Danmark), a small kingdom of Europe, occupying part of a peninsula and a group of islands dividing the Baltic and North Seas, in the middle latitudes of the eastern coast.
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  • The Cattegat is divided from the Baltic by the Danish islands, between the east coast of the Cimbric peninsula in the neighbourhood of the German frontier and south-western Sweden.
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  • Besides the numerous steam-ferries which connect island and island, and Jutland with the islands, and the Gjedser-Warnemiinde route, a favourite passenger line from Germany is that between Kiel and KorsOr, while most of the German Baltic ports have direct connexion with Copenhagen.
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  • corner of the Baltic, and not the whole sea.
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  • Meanwhile the Danish monarchy was attempting to aggrandize itself at the expense of the Germans, the Wends who then occupied the Baltic littoral as far as the Vistula, and the other Scandinavian kingdoms. Harold Bluetooth Danis expansion.
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  • (1182-1202) to establish the dominion of Denmark over the Baltic, mainly at the expense of the Wends.
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  • Vatde= His long reign (1340-1375) resulted in the re-establish- mar IV., ment of Denmark as the great Baltic power.
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  • It was during this war that a strong Danish fleet dominated the Baltic for the first time since the age of the Valdemars.
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  • It enabled him to prosecute shipbuilding with such energy that, 'by 1550, the royal fleet numbered at least thirty vessels, which were largely employed as a maritime police in the pirate-haunted Baltic and North Seas.
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  • The possession of the Sound enabled her to close the Baltic against the Western powers; the possession of Norway carried along with it the control of the rich fisheries which were Danish monopolies, and therefore a source of irritation to England and Holland.
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  • The freedom from the Sound tolls was by the same treaty also extended to Sweden's Baltic provinces.
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  • Thus at the peace of Fontainebleau (September 2, 1679) Denmark, which had borne the brunt of the struggle in the Baltic, was compelled by the inexorable French king to make full restitution to Sweden, the treaty between the two northern powers being signed at Lund on the 26th of September.
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  • Great Britain retaliated by laying an embargo on the vessels of the three neutral powers, and by sending a considerable fleet to the Baltic under the command of Parker and Nelson.
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  • He experimented in the outlying provinces of his empire; and the Russians noted with open murmurs that, not content with governing through foreign instruments, he was conferring on Poland, Finland and the Baltic provinces benefits denied to themselves.
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  • It is the seat of a branch board of the Russian admiralty and of the administration of the Baltic lighthouses.
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  • Baltic Port, 30 m.
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  • In 1710 it was surrendered to Peter the Great, who immediately began the erection of a military port for his Baltic fleet.
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  • If the designation of this or that personage as mikill vikingr or rauba vikingr (red viking) be not reckoned an instance of such use; we have it at all events in the name of a small quasi-nationality, the Jomsvikingar, settled at J6msborg on the Baltic (in modern Pomerania), to whom a saga is dedicated: who possessed rather peculiar institutions evidently the relic of what is now called the Viking Age, that preceded the Saga Age by a century.
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  • There is certainly a historical connexion between the ships which the tribes on the Baltic possessed in the days of Tacitus and the viking ships (Keary, The Vikings in Western Europe, pp. 108-9): a fact which would lead us to believe that the art of shipbuilding had been better preserved there than elsewhere in northern Europe.
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  • 2 Equally certain it is that this special type of shipbuilding was developed in the Baltic, if not before 1 More especially the beautiful series contained in book iii.
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  • The northern pine (Pinus sylvestris) has a number of othe r names and may be referred to under any of the following: Scotch fir, red deal, red fir, yellow deal, yellow fir, Baltic pine, Baltic fir.
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  • Baltic oak is grown in Norway, Russia and Germany, and is exported from the Baltic ports.
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  • The following is a list of the best timbers for different situations: for general construction, spruce and pine of the different varieties; for heavy constructions, pitch pine, oak (preferably of English growth), teak, jarrah; for constructions immersed in water, Baltic pine, elm, oak, teak, jarrah; for very dry situations, spruce, pines, mahogany, teak, birch, sycamore.
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  • Notwithstanding this, some modern writers have supposed him to have entered the Baltic and penetrated as far as the Vistula (his Tanais).
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  • It has been conjectured that the "estuary" here mentioned refers to the Baltic, the existence of which as a separate sea was unknown to all ancient geographers; but the obscure manner in which it is indicated, as well as the inaccuracy of the statements concerning the place from whence the amber was actually derived, both point to the sort of hearsay accounts which Pytheas might readily have picked up on the shores of the German Ocean, without proceeding farther than the mouth of the Ems, Weser or Elbe, which last is supposed by Ukert to have been the limit of his voyage in this direction.
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  • It must be observed also that amber is found in Friesland and on the west coast of Schleswig, as well as in the Baltic, though not in equal abundance.
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  • by the Sound, separating it from Sweden, and the Baltic Sea, S.
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  • to the promontory of the Skaw (Skagen), thus preventing a natural communication directly east and west between the Baltic and North Seas.
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  • It is served by the New York, New Haven & Hartford and the Central Vermont railways, and by electric lines to Baltic, Norwich and New London, and to South Coventry.
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  • The state is situated on an arm of the Baltic between Holstein and Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
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  • The state lies in the lowlands of the Baltic, is diversified by gently swelling hills, and watered by the Trave and its tributaries, the Wakenitz and the Stecknitz.
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  • Its position as the first German emporium of the west end of the Baltic has been to some extent impaired by Hamburg and Bremen since the construction of the North Sea and Baltic Canal, and by the rapid growth and enterprise of Stettin.
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  • An excellent harbour, sheltered against pirates, it became almost at once a competitor for the commerce of the Baltic. Its foundation coincided with the beginning of the advance of the Low German tribes of Flanders, Friesland and Westphalia along the southern shores of the Baltic - the second great emigration of the colonizing Saxon element.
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  • Frisian and Saxon merchants from Soest, Bardowiek and other localities in Lower Germany, who already navigated the Baltic and had their factory in Gotland, settled in the new town, where Wendish speech and customs never entered.
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  • On the other hand their town, being the principal emporium of the Baltic by the middle of the 13th century, acted as the firm ally of the Teutonic knights in Livonia.
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  • Before the close of the century the statutes of Lubeck were adopted by most Baltic towns having a German population, and Visby protested in vain against the city on the Trave having become the court of appeal for nearly all these cities, and even for the German settlement in Russian Novgorod.
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  • As early as 1425 the herring, a constant source of early wealth, began to forsake the Baltic waters.
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  • On the 27th of June 1867 Lubeck concluded a military convention with Prussia, and on the 11th of August 1868 entered the German Customs Union (Zollverein), though reserving to itself certain privileges in respect of its considerable wine trade and commerce with the Baltic ports.
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  • In the first half of the 19th century other exports were lime, freestone, and grain; West Indian, American and Baltic produce, Irish flax and Welsh pig iron were imported, and shipbuilding was a growing industry.
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  • From the Ukraine he was transferred to the Baltic Provinces and was made the first governor-general of Riga after its capture in 1710.
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  • In November 1805 he was raised to the rank of admiral; and in the summer of 1807, whilst still a lord of the admiralty, he was appointed to the command of the fleet ordered to the Baltic, which, in concert with the army under Lord Cathcart, reduced Copenhagen, and enforced the surrender of the Danish navy, consisting of nineteen ships of the line, besides frigates, sloops, gunboats, and naval stores.
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  • As a navigable river, and forming a portion of the canal system which unites the Black Sea with the Baltic, it is of importance for commerce, but is subject to severe floods.
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  • The details, as well as those of the German settlement at Wisby and on the east coast of the Baltic,.
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  • In some regions, notably in the Baltic province and in parts of the United States, the rocks still retain their original horizontality of deposition, the muds are scarcely indurated and the sands are still incoherent; but in most parts of the world they bear abundant evidence of the many movements and stresses to which they have been exposed through so enormous a period of time.
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  • RUGEN, an island of Germany, in the Baltic, immediately opposite Stralsund, 12 m.
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  • of its entrance, at Neufahrwasser, into the Baltic, 253 m.
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  • The question was, however, a vital one not only for Sweden but for Great Britain, whose trade in the Baltic was threatened.
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  • of Konigsberg, at the mouth of the Dange, and on the bank of a sound, called the Memeler Tief, which connects the Kurische Haff with the Baltic. Pop. (1905), 20,687.
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  • He was bound by the pacta conventa which he signed on his accession to maintain a fleet on the Baltic. He proposed to do so by levying tolls on all imports and exports passing through the Prussian ports which had been regained by the truce of Stumdorf.
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  • It touches at its south-eastern extremity the government of St Petersburg, includes the northern half of Lake Ladoga, and is separated from the Russian governments of Arkhangelsk and Olonets by a sinuous line which follows, roughly speaking, the water-parting between the rivers flowing into the Baltic Sea and the White Sea.
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  • Some Finnish geologists - Sederholm for one - consider it probable that during the Glacial period an Arctic sea (Yoldia sea) covered all southern Finland and also Scania (Sickle) in Sweden, thus connecting the Atlantic Ocean with the Baltic and the White Sea by a broad channel; but no fossils from that sea have been found anywhere in Finland.
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  • Conclusive proofs, however, of a later submergence under a post-Glacial Littorina sea (containing shells now living in the Baltic) are found up to 150 ft.
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  • in the south, and nearly zero in the Baltic provinces.
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  • It permits ships navigating the Baltic to penetrate 270 m.
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  • The term Finn has a wider application than Finland, being, with its adjective Finnic or Finno-Ugric (q.v.) or Ugro-Finnic, the collective name of the westernmost branch of the Ural-Altaic family, dispersed throughout Finland, Lapland, the Baltic provinces (Esthonia, Livonia, Curland), parts of Russia proper (south of Lake Onega), both banks of middle Volga, Perm, Vologda, West Siberia (between the Ural Mountains and the Yenissei) and Hungary.
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  • USEDOM, an island of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, lying off the Baltic coast, and separated by the Swine from the island of Wollin, which together with it divides the Stettiner Haff from the open sea.
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  • By a system of canals which connect the upper Volga with the Neva, the commercial mouth of the Volga has been transferred, so to speak, from the Caspian to the Baltic, thus making St Petersburg, the capital and chief seaport of Russia, the chief port of the Volga basin as well.
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  • in length joins the Volga with the Don and the Sea of Azov, and three great trunk lines bring its lower parts into connexion with the Baltic and western Europe.
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  • The fibre is cultivated in the Russian provinces of Archangel, Courland, Esthonia, Kostroma, Livonia, Novgorod, Pskov, Smolensk, Tver, Vyatka, Vitebsk, Vologda and Yaroslav or Jaroslav, while the bulk of the material is exported through the Baltic ports.
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  • Sometimes it is exported from Archangel, but this port is frost-bound for a great period of the year; moreover, most of the districts are nearer to the Baltic.
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  • STOCKHOLM, the capital of Sweden, on the east coast, not far south of the junction of the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia.
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  • Stockholm was founded by Birger Jarl, it is said, in or about 1255, at a time when pirate fleets were less common than they had been, and the government was anxious to establish commercial relations with the towns which were now beginning to flourish on the southern coast of the Baltic. The city was originally founded as a fortress on the island of Stadholm.
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  • Things came to such a pass that, in the spring of 1726, an English squadron was sent to the Baltic and cast anchor before Reval.
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  • Ehstland and Esshland, Esthonian Eestimaa and Meie-maa, also Viroma and Rahvama; Lettish Iggaun Senna), a Baltic province of Russia, stretching along the south coast of the Gulf of Finland, and having Lake Peipus and Livonia on the S.
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  • The province is intersected by a railway running from St Petersburg to Reval, with branches from the latter city westwards to Baltic Port and southwards into Livonia, and from Taps south to Yuryev (Dorpat).
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  • The chief seaports are Reval, Baltic Port, Hapsal, Kunda and Dag.
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  • The Esthonians first appear in history as a warlike and predatory race, the terror of the Baltic seamen in consequence of their piracies.
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  • FEHMARN, an island of Germany, belonging to the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein, in the Baltic, separated from the north-east corner of Holstein by a strait known as the Fehmarn-Sund, less than a quarter of a mile in breadth.
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  • by the Gulf of Bothnia and the Baltic Sea, S.W.
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  • Lake Vetter drains eastward by the Motala to the Baltic, Lake Malar drains in the same direction by a short channel at Stockholm, the normal fall of which is so slight that the stream is sometimes reversed.
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  • The Smaland highlands are drained to the Baltic and Cattegat by numerous rivers of less importance.
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  • The coast of Sweden is not indented with so many or so deep fjords as that of Norway, nor do the shores of the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic and the Cattegat share in the peculiar Coast..
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  • The sk,rgard of the Gulf of Bothnia is less fully developed than that of either the Baltic or the Cattegat.
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  • In the Baltic many are well wooded, but the majority are bare or heathclad, as are those of the Gulf of Bothnia.
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  • Of the large islands in the Baltic and Cattegat, besides Oland, only Gotland is Swedish.
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  • At the beginning of the Glacial period the height of Scandinavia above the level of the sea was greater than at present, Sweden being then connected with Denmark and Germany and also across the middle of the Baltic with Russia.
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  • At this epoch the North Sea and the Baltic were connected along the line of Vener, Vetter, Hjelmar and Malar.
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  • On the other side the White Sea was connected by Lakes Onega and Ladoga with the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic. In the depths of the Baltic and of Lakes Vener and Vetter there actually exist animals which belong to the arctic fauna and are remnants of the ancient ice-sea.
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  • The mountains of the Keel are not so high as wholly to destroy this effect over Sweden, and the maritime influence of the Baltic system has also to be considered.
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  • As to the seas, the formation of ice on the west and south coasts is rare, but in the central and northern parts of the Baltic drift-ice and a fringe of solid ice along the coast arrests navigation from the end of December to the beginning of April.
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  • At Kalmar, however, on the Baltic opposite Oland, the average is 14.6 in.
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  • South of a line running, roughly, from the foot of Lake Vener to Kalmar on the Baltic coast the beech begins to appear, and in Sickle and the southern part of the Cattegat seaboard becomes predominant in the woods which break the wide cultivated places.
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  • The common and grey seals are met with in the neighbouring seas, and Phoca foetida is confined to the Baltic. Among birds by far' the greater proportion is migrant.
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  • Among the lower marine animals a few types of arctic origin are found, not only in the Baltic but even in Lakes Vener and Vetter, having remained, and in the case of the lakes survived the change to fresh water, after the disappearance of the connexion with the Arctic seas across the region of the great lakes, the Baltic, and north-east thereof.
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  • Marstrand near Gothenburg is one of the most fashionable; Stromstad, Lysekil and Varberg on the same coast, Ronneby on the Baltic, with its chalybeate springs, Visby the capital of Gotland, and several villages in the neighbourhood of Stockholm may also be noted.
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  • Passing to the Baltic, Trelleborg and Ystad lie on the southernmost coast of the country, and Simrishamn, !thus the outport of Kristianstad, Karlshamn, Ronneby and Karlskrona on the wide Hano Bay.
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  • Ptolemy puts the Gotar in the southern part of the country, and from the earliest historical times their name has been given to the whole region between the Cattegat and the Baltic, exclusive of the provinces of Halland and Skane which down to the 17th century always belonged to Denmark.
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  • Their home is probably to be placed on the Cattegat rather than on the Baltic. The same is true also of Ragnarr Labrok, who is said to have been the son of Sigurar Hringr.
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  • During the 9th century extensive Scandinavian settlements were made on the east side of the Baltic, and even as early as the reign of Louis I.
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  • The fact that many of the names which occur in Russian chronicles seem to be peculiarly Swedish suggests that Sweden was the home of the settlers, and the best authorities consider that the original Scandinavian conquerors were Swedes who had settled on the east coast of the Baltic.
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  • She lost her lands east of the Baltic, but received as compensation in Norway part of Trondhjem and the district now called Bohiislan.
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  • Still more offensive was the attitude of Sweden's eastern neighbour Muscovy, with whom the Swedish king was nervously anxious to stand on good terms. Gustavus attributed to Ivan IV., whose resources he unduly magnified, the design of establishing a universal monarchy round the Baltic.
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  • To have retreated would have meant the ruin of her Baltic trade, upon which the national prosperity so much depended.
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  • contest for the possession of the northern Baltic provinces.
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  • When Great Novgorod submitted provisionally to Peace of the suzerainty of Sweden, Swedish statesmen had Stolbova, believed, for a moment, in the creation of a Trans- 1617 baltic dominion extending from Lake Ilmen northwards to Archangel and eastwards to Vologda.
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  • It was, in the first place, a struggle for the Baltic littoral, and the struggle was intensified war with Poland.
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  • Thus Sweden held, for a time, the control of the principal trade routes of the Baltic up to the very confines of the empire; and the increment of revenue resulting from this commanding position was of material assistance to her during the earlier stages of the war in Germany, whither Gustavus transferred his forces in June 1630.
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  • Very careful statesmanship might mean permanent dominion on the Baltic shore, but there was not much margin Christina, for blundering.
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  • Denmark was also compelled to recognize, practically, the independence of the dukes of HolsteinGottorp. The Russian War was terminated by the Peace of Kardis (July 2, 1661), confirmatory of the Peace of Stolbova, whereby the tsar surrendered to Sweden all his Baltic provinces - Ingria, Esthonia and Kexholm.
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  • Modern Sweden is bounded by the Baltic; during the 17th century the Baltic was merely the bond between her various widely dispersed dominions.
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  • All the islands in the Baltic, except the Danish group, belonged to Sweden.
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  • The navy, of even more importance to Sweden if she were to maintain the dominion of the Baltic, was entirely remodelled; and, the recent war having demonstrated the unsuitability of Stockholm as a naval station, the construction of a new arsenal on a gigantic scale was simultaneously begun at Karlskrona.
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  • Moreover, two of Sweden's Baltic provinces, Esthonia and Ingria, had been seized by the tsar, and a third, Livonia, had been.
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  • In 1707 Peter was ready to retrocede everything except St Petersburg and the line of the Neva, and again Charles preferred risking the whole to saving the greater part of his Baltic possessions (for details see Charles Xii.; Peter The Great).
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  • Loss Nystad, in May 1720, but peace was not concluded of the Baltic till the 30th of August 1721, and then only under Provinces.
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  • naturally rejected all the Conquest of proposals of Alexander to close the Baltic against Finland, the English; but took no measures to defend Finland 1808.
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  • Szelagowski, The Fight for the Baltic (Pol.; Warsaw, 1904); K.
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  • It furnishes the yellow deal of the Baltic and Norway.
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  • Oysters do not flourish in water containing less than 3% salt; and hence they are absent from the Baltic. The chief enemies of oysters are the dog-whelk, Purpura lapillus, and the whelk-tingle, Murex erinaceus, which bore through the shells.
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  • The most fertile soil is found in the valleys of the Pregel and the Memel, but the southern slopes of the Baltic plateau and the district to the north of the Memel consist in great part of sterile moor, sand and bog.
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  • At the present time the majority of scholars believe that the Angli had lived from the beginning on the coasts of the Baltic, probably in the southern part of the Jutish peninsula.
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  • But as the most dreaded of these Celtic tribes came down from the shores of the Baltic and Northern Ocean, the ancients applied the name Celt to those peoples who are spoken of as Teutonic in modern parlance.
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  • The Teutons, whose name is generic for Germans, appear in history along with the Cimbri, universally held to be Celts, but coming from the same region as the Guttones (Goths) by the shores of the Baltic and North Sea.
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  • By means of the Dnieper-Bug (King's) canal, and the Berezina and Oginski canals, this river has a sort of water connexion with the Baltic Sea.
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  • KIEL, the chief naval port of Germany on the Baltic, a town of the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein.
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  • The Kaiser Wilhelm Canal, commonly called the Kiel Canal, connecting the Baltic with the North Sea at Brunsbiittel, has its eastern entrance at Wik, 12 m.
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  • The situation of Berlin, midway between the Elbe and the Oder, with which rivers it is connected by a web of waterways, at the crossing of the main roads from Silesia and Poland to the North Sea ports and from Saxony, Bohemia and Thuringia to the Baltic, made it in medieval days a place of considerable commercial importance.
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  • Lying apart from the system are the Lehrter Bahnhof for Hamburg and Bremen, the Stettiner for Baltic ports, and the Gorlitzer, Anhalter and Potsdamer termini for traffic to the south, of which the last two are fine specimens of railway architecture.
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  • from the shores of the Baltic and 7 W.
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  • from the Baltic, 84 m.
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  • Having direct railway communication with the fertile parts of southern and south-eastern Russia, Riga has become the second port for foreign trade on the Baltic, ranking next after St Petersburg.
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  • Its present importance, however, rests on the commercial facilities afforded by its connexion with the North Sea and the Baltic through the Kaiser Wilhelm canal, by which transit trade is carried on in grain, timber, Swedish iron and coals.
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  • It is beautifully situated on a bay of Lake Molar, which is here connected with the Baltic by the SOdertelge canal, ri m.
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  • by the Baltic Sea, Lubeck and Mecklenburg, and S.
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  • (For map, see Denmark.) In addition to the mainland, which decreases in breadth from south to north, the province includes several islands, the most important being Alsen and Fehmarn in the Baltic, and Rom, Sylt and Fohr of the North Frisian chain in the North Sea.
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  • Schleswig-Holstein belongs to the great North-German plain, of the characteristic features of which it affords a faithful reproduction in miniature, down to the continuation of the Baltic ridge or plateau by a range of low wooded hills skirting its eastern coast and culminating in the Bungsberg (538 ft.), a little to the north of Eutin.
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  • The Baltic coast has generally steep welldefined banks and is irregular, being pierced by numerous long and narrow inlets (Feihrden) which often afford excellent harbours.
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  • The hills skirting the bays of the Baltic coast are generally pleasantly wooded, but the forests are nowhere of great extent except in Lauenburg.
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  • The fishing in the Baltic is productive; Eckernforde is the chief fishing station in Prussia.
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  • A proposal to send the British fleet into the Baltic was overruled, and the result was that Denmark was left to her own resources against her formidable opponents.
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  • KARLSKRONA [CARLSCRONA,] a seaport of Sweden, on the Baltic coast, chief town of the district (loin) of Blekinge, and headquarters of the Swedish navy.
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  • COURLAND, or Kurland, one of the Baltic provinces of Russia, lying between 55° 45' and 57° 45' N.
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  • by the Baltic, and S.
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  • They all flow north-westwards and discharge into the Baltic Sea.
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  • The Baltic provinces - Esthonia, Livonia and Courland - ceased to form collectively one general government in 1876.
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  • BORNHOLM, an island in the Baltic Sea, 22 m.
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  • in 1684, and important as commanding the entrance to the Baltic, is situated on Christiansd, one of a small group of islands 15 m.
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  • Aslong as he lived England was the centre of a great Northern empire, for Canute reconquered Norway, which had lapsed into independence after his fathers death, and extended his power into the Baltic. Moreover, all the so-called Scandinavian colonists in the Northern Isles and Ireland owned him as overlord.
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  • The seaports soon recovered from their losses in the Black Death, and English shipping was beginning to appear in the distant seas of Portugal and the Baltic. Nothing illustrates the growth of English wealth better than the fact that the kingdom had, till the time of Edward IlL, contrived to conduct all its commerce with a currency of small silver, but that within thirty years of his introduction of a gold coinage in 1343, the English noble was being struck in enormous quantities.
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  • Edward did mercial much in his later years to develop interchange of develop- commodities with the Baltic, making treaties with ment.
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  • Nearly all the Baltic goods, and most of those from Denmark and Norway, had been reaching London or Hull in foreign bottoms. Henry allied himself with John of Denmark, who was chafing under the monopoly of the Hansa, and obtained the most ample grants of free trade in his realms. The Germans murmured, but the English shipping in eastern and northern waters continued to multiply.
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  • In deciding on war the British government relied on the capacity of its fleet, which was entrusted to the command of Sir Charles Napier, to strike a great blow in the Baltic. The fleet was despatched with extraordinary rejoicings, and amidst loud and confident expressions of its certain triumph.
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  • BALTIC SEA (Scand.
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  • The Baltic is connected with North Sea by the winding channel between the south of Scandinavia and the Cimbrian peninsula.
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  • This channel is usually included in the Baltic. The part of it west of a line joining the Skaw with Christiania fjord receives the name of Skagerrak; the part east of this line is called the Kattegat.
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  • At its southern end the Kattegat is blocked by the Danish islands, and it communicates with the Baltic proper by narrow channels called the Sound, the Great Belt and the Little Belt.
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  • The real physical boundary between the North Sea and the Baltic is formed by the plateau on which the islands Zealand, Fiinen and Laaland are situated, and its prolongation from the islands Falster and Moen to the coasts of Mecklenburg and Riigen.
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  • East of this plateau the Baltic proper forms a series of hollows or troughs.
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  • Along the Swedish coast a deep channel runs northward from outside the island of Oland; this is entirely cut off to the south and east by a bank which sweeps eastward and northward from near Karlskrona, and on which the island of Gotland stands, but it communicates at its northern end with the Gotland deep, and near the junction opposite Landsort is the deepest hole in the Baltic (420 metres = 2 3 o fathoms).
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  • An unbroken ridge, extending from Stockholm to Hango in Finland, separates the Baltic basin proper from the depression between Sweden and the Aland Isles, to which the name Aland Haf has been given.
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  • The Gotland deep may be said to extend directly into the Gulf of Finland, an arm of the Baltic, running eastwards for about 250 m., and separating Finland from Esthonia.
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  • In the deeper hollows in the south part of the Baltic the bottom consists almost invariably of either soft brown or grey mud or hard clay, while on the shallow banks and near the low coasts fine sand, of white, yellow or brown colour with small pebbles, is usually found.
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  • At the time of the last great subsidence, in glacial times, an arm of the sea extended across Sweden, submerging a great part of the littoral up to the Gulf of Bothnia, and including the Plies period the this of themnorthe and Baltic were s fg ficiently salt for oysters to flourish.
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  • The subsequent upheaval restricted direct communication with the open sea to the Danish channels, and the Baltic waters became fresher: the oyster disappeared, but a number of cold salt-water fishes and crustaceans, and even seals, became acclimatized.
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  • In the next stage of its history the Baltic is transformed by further elevation into a vast freshwater lake, the Ancylus lake of G.
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  • m., including the whole of the present Baltic area and a large part of Finland, with Lake Ladoga.
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  • Then followed a subsidence, which not only re-established communication through the Danish channels, but allowed the Baltic to become sufficiently salt for such forms as Cardium edule and Littorina littorea.
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  • At this time the Gulf of Bothnia must have suffered greater depression than the Baltic proper, for the deposits of that epoch show a thickness of 100 metres (328 ft.) near Hernosand, but of only 25 metres (82 ft.) in the neighbourhood of Gotland.
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  • After this period of subsidence the process of elevation set in which gave the Baltic its present form and physical condition, and appears to be still in progress.
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  • Sieger has traced a series of isobasic lines, or lines of equal rate of elevation, for portions of Sweden and Finland; these indicate that the movement is now almost nil along the axial lines of the Baltic and the Gulf of Finland, but increases in amplitude northwards to the Gulf of Bothnia and in the direction of the main ridge of the massif of southern Sweden.
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  • The coast of the Baltic is rocky only in the island-studded region at the head of the Baltic basin proper - a submerged lake-districtand the littoral generally is a typical morainic land, the work of the last great Baltic glacier.
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  • Baltic is of peculiar interest.
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  • The drainage area of the Baltic is relatively large.
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  • Levellings from Swinemunde show that the mean level of the surface of the Baltic at that point is 0.093 metres (_ 305 ft.) below.
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  • The waves of the Baltic are usually short and irregular, often dangerous to navigation.
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  • The range of the tides is about one foot at Copenhagen; within the Baltic proper ordinary tides are scarcely perceptible.
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  • The circulation of water in the Baltic proper must be considered apart from the circulation in the channels connecting it with the Circu1 North Sea; and in this relation the plateau connecting the islands Falster and Moen with the coast of Mecklen burg and Rugen must be taken as the dividing line.
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  • Their salter waters must have been originally derived from outside, and must therefore have passed over the plateau between Falster and Mecklenburg, but their horizontal extension is checked by the ridges separating the deep hollows in the Baltic from each other.
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  • The circulation in the channels connecting the Baltic proper with the North Sea is of a complex character.
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  • The Baltic receives much more water by rainfall, discharge of rivers, &c., than it loses by evaporation; hence a surplus must be got rid of by an outflowing current which may be named the "Baltic Stream."
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  • That the Baltic Stream must be a surface current, because it originates from a redundancy of fresh water.
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  • That, on account of the earth's rotation, the main part of the Baltic Stream must keep close to the coast of the Scandinavian peninsula.
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  • That it must be a periodic stream, because the discharge of the rivers into the Baltic varies with the season of the year.
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  • In spring and summer the water from the Baltic is sufficiently abundant to inundate the whole surface of the Kattegat and Skagerrak, but in winter the sources of the Baltic current are for the most part dried up by the freezing of the land water.
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  • WISMAR, a seaport town of Germany, in the grand duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, situated on the Bay of Wismar, one of the best harbours on the Baltic, 20 m.
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  • Ermanaric built up for himself a vast kingdom, which eventually extended from the Danube to the Baltic and from the Don to the Theiss.
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  • At his death in 1025 he left Poland one of the mightiest states of Europe, extending from the Bug to the Elbe, and from the Baltic to the Danube, and possessing besides the overlordship of Russia.
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  • As the highlands of Austria form part of the great watershed of Europe, which divides the waters flowing northward into the North Sea or the Baltic from those flowing southward or eastward into the Mediterranean or the Black Sea, its rivers flow in three different directions - northward, southward and eastward.
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  • The Vistula and the Oder both fall into the Baltic. The former rises in Moravia, flows first north through Austrian Silesia, then takes an easterly direction along the borders of Prussian Silesia, and afterwards a north-easterly, separating Galicia from Russian Poland, and leaving Austria not far from Sandomir.
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  • On the 24th of February 1389, Albert, who had returned from Mecklenburg with an army of mercenaries, was routed and taken prisoner at Aasle near Falk ping, and Margaret was now the omnipotent mistress of three kingdoms. Stockholm then almost entirely a German city, still held out; fear of Margaret induced both the Mecklenburg princes and the Wendish towns to hasten to its assistance; and the Baltic and the North Sea speedily swarmed with the privateers of the Viktualien brodre or Vitalianer, so called because their professed object was to revictual Stockholm.
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  • SWINEMUNDE, a port and seaside resort of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, situated at the east extremity of the island of Usedom, and on the left bank of the river Swine which connects the Stettiner Haff with the Baltic. Pop. (1905), 13,272.
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  • The entrance to the harbour, the best on the Prussian Baltic coast, is protected by two long breakwaters, and is strongly fortified.
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  • In 1897 the river continuation of the Kaiserfahrt was opened to navigation, and, further, the waterway between the Haff and the Baltic was deepened to 24 ft.
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  • The Swine, the central and shortest passage between the Stettiner Haff and the Baltic Sea, was formerly flanked by the fishing villages of West and East Swine.
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  • The Spaniards had no longer any hope of adding Luxemburg to their Franche-Comt; while the Holy Roman Empire in Germany, taken in the rear by Sweden (now mistress of the Baltic and the North Sea), cut off for good from the United Provinces and the Swiss cantons, and enfeebled by the recognized right of intervention in German affairs on the part of Sweden and France, was now nothing but a meaningless name.
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  • of Spain and by the emperor (who had accepted the portion assigned to them by the treaty of Utrecht, while claiming the whole), by Savoy and Brandenburg (who had profited too much by European conflicts not to desire their perpetuation), by the crisis from which the maritime powers of the Baltic were suffering, and by the Turks on the Danube.
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  • To the coalition of the northern powers blockade, he added the league of the Baltic and Mediterranean ports, and to the bombardment of Copenhagen by an English fleet he responded by a second decree of blockade, dated from Milan on the 17th of Dec~mbcr 1807.
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  • Similar letters were sent to the Wendish or Baltic cities, and to the bishops and landowners of Livonia and Esthonia.
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  • This feature of the tale contains some hint of the long nightless summer in the Arctic regions, which perhaps reached the Greeks through the merchants who fetched amber from the Baltic coasts.
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  • It is the centre of an active shipping trade with the Baltic ports and with England, and of a railway system connecting it with all parts of the grand duchy and with St Petersburg.
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  • On the Baltic shores of Prussia there is found a quantity of amber, containing remains of insects and plants.
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  • The elector had overthrown Sweden and inherited her position on the Baltic, and had offered a steady and not ineffectual resistance to the ambition of France.
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  • He had little enthusiasm for the beauties of nature, and indeed never sailed out into the Baltic, or travelled more than 40 miles from Konigsberg.
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  • By this peace Gustavus succeeded in excluding Muscovy from the Baltic. "I hope to God," he declared to the Stockholm diet in 1617, when he announced the conclusion of peace, "that the Russians will feel it a bit difficult to skip over that little brook."
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  • At the end of 1626, the Swedish fleet, with 14,000 men on board, anchored in front of the chain of sand-dunes which separates the Frische-Haff from the Baltic. Pillau, the only Baltic port then accessible to ships of war, was at once occupied, and Konigsberg shortly afterwards was scared into a unconditional neutrality.
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  • Here he says plainly that it was the fear lest the emperor should acquire the Baltic ports and proceed to build up a sea-power dangerous to Scandinavia.
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  • His naval adjutant had himself seen how mercilessly the Reds fought in the Baltic states in 1919.
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  • Specifically degradation mechanisms and inhibition of degradation in archeological Baltic amber 2b.
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  • arboure include a lattice arbor with seat, an arbor with planters, and a baltic pine seated arbor.
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  • calcite cement in thin section, Pwll y Cwm Oolite, Lower Carboniferous, Baltic Quarry, South Wales.
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  • Cathodoluminescence micrograph of zoned calcite cement in thin section, Pwll y Cwm Oolite, Lower Carboniferous, Baltic Quarry, South Wales.
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  • Our client has an opportunity for an experienced trailer export clerk to handle all aspects of services from the Baltic States and CIS Countries.
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  • commissar of the American government in the Baltic Provinces of Russia.
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  • He is appointed the commissar of the American Government in the Baltic Provinces of Russia.
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  • The daily integral of nitrogen fixation by planktonic cyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea.
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  • enlivened by the presence of many Ships & steamers of war, just returned from the Baltic or Black Sea.