He crossed Arabia from Bahrein to Jidda, traversed the Red sea and the desert to Syene, and descended the Nile to Cairo.
There are no valuable oyster-banks in Persian waters, and all the Persian Gulf pearls are obtained from banks on the coast of Arabia and near Bahrein.
Miles made his adventurous journey through Oman, while Theodore Bent threw searchlights backwards into ancient Semitic history by his investigations in the Bahrein Islands in 1888 and in Hadramut in 1894 - 181n northern Asia it is impossible to follow in detail the results of the organized Russian surveys.
in width that forms the eastern boundary of Nejd, to reappear in the copious springs that fertilize El Hasa and the Bahrein littoral.
North of Katif it is desert and only inhabited by nomads; at Katif, however, and throughout the district to the south bordering on the Gulf of Bahrein there are ample supplies of underground water, welling up in abundant springs often at a high temperature, and bringing fertility to an extensive district of which El Hofuf, a town of 15,000 to 20,000 inhabitants, is the most important centre.
Bahrein, Kuwet and Muscat are in steam communication with India, and the Persian Gulf ports; all the great lines of steamships call at Aden on their way between Suez and the East, and regular services are maintained between Suez, Jidda, Hodeda and Aden, as well as to the ports on the African coast, while native coasting craft trade to the smaller ports on the Red Sea and Indian Ocean.
The principal trade centre of the Arabian side of the Persian Gulf is Bahrein; the total volume of trade of which amounted in 1904 to £1,900,000, nearly equally divided between imports and exports; rice, piece goods, &c., form the bulk of the former, while pearls are the most valuable part of the latter.
Bent (Southern Arabia, pp. 24 ff.) explored one of several mounds in Bahrein.
The inhabitants of this land are said in Tabari's history to have been of three classes: - (s) The Tanukh (Tnuhs), who lived in tents and were made up of Arabs from the Tehama and Nejd, who had united in Bahrein to form a new tribe, and who migrated from there to Hira, probably at the beginning or middle of the 3rd century A.D., when the Arsacid power was growing weak.
Details of their history are not known, but they seem to have gained power at one time even over the aakhmids of Hira; and to have ruled over Bahrein as well as Yemama until the battle of Shi'b ul Jabala, when they lost this province to Hira.
Bahrein, inhabited chiefly by the Bani'Abd Qais and the Bani Bakr, was largely subject to Persian influence near its coast, and a Persian governor, Sebocht, resided in Hajar, its chief town.
Bahrein was influenced by this battle, and the rebellion there, which was threatening, was crushed.
In goo `Abu Said al-Jannabi, who had been sent to Bahrein by Haman, had secured a large part of this province and had won the city of Katif (Ketif) which contained many Jews and Persians.
The Arabs who lived more inland were mostly Bedouin who found the obligations of Islam irksome, and do not seem to have made a very vigorous opposition to the Carmathians who took Hajar the capital of Bahrein in 903.
Abu Sa`id was assassinated (913) in his palace at aahsa (which in 926 was fortified and became the Carmathian capital of Bahrein).
In Arabia he subjugated Oman, and swooping down on the west in 92 9 he horrified the Moslem world by capturing Mecca and carrying off the sacred black stone to Bahrein.
For a time it looked as if the supremacy of the Wahhabi empire was to be renewed; El Hasa, Harik, Kasim and Asir returned to their allegiance, but over Oman and Yemen Fesal never re-established his dominion, and the Bahrein sheiks with British support kept their independence.
Turkey was indeed too much occupied by the war with Russia to pay much attention to Arab affairs, though a few years later she attempted to occupy Bahrein by a coup de main, which was only frustrated by the action of a British gunboat.
In 1889 he undertook excavations in the Bahrein Islands of the Persian Gulf, and found evidence that they had been a primitive home of the Phoenician race.
But the pearl fisheries of Katr are still under the protection of the chiefs of Bahrein, who are themselves under British suzerainty.
In 1895 the chief of Katr (Sheikh Jasim ben Thani), instigated by the Turks, attacked Sheikh Isa of Bahrein, but his fleet of dhows was destroyed by a British gunboat, and Bahrein (like Zanzibar) has since been detached from Oman and placed directly under British protection.
The Sheikh of Bahrein exercises no authority over the mainland, which from the S.
extremity of the bay in which Bahrein lies to Jebel Manifa N.
Among other mineral products, asphalt is found at Bahrein; coal 30 m.
Horses are scarce in Oman and few are kept in Trucial Oman or in Bahrein or El Hasa.
Nummulitic limestones of Persia; Muscat series; and Bahrein series.
Pearling Industry.-The pearling grounds of Bahrein are in over six fathoms of water, mostly beyond the three-mile limit.
The normal value, for example, of the post-war exports of Bahrein should be more nearly £3,000,000 than £ I,000,000, owing to the enhanced value in terms of money of pearls, and the export trade of Bandar 'Abbas should likewise be more in a normal post-war than in a pre-war year.
Bushire, Hanjam, Bahrein, Abadan and Basra Summary showing Import and Export Values of Trade in the Persian Gulf (excluding Iraq and Arabistan) in two pre-war years and in the latest post-war year available.
The Eastern Bank has a branch at Bahrein.
Persian currency is also in use, principally in Bahrein.
Lighthouses exist on one of the Quwain group of islands off Ras Musandam and on Tunb I.; light-buoys have been placed at Bushire in the outer and inner anchorages, at Bahrein and on the Shatt al 'Arab bar.
Bahrein is Sunni, but has a large Shiah population of Persian origin.
Zwemer, who established a branch at Bahrein in 1892 and later at Muscat.
Rawlinson also suggests that the Phoenicians may have originally come from the Bahrein Is.
Though there is no direct evidence of this connexion, enormous numbers of tumuli, probably of Phoenician origin, exist on the Bahrein Is., which also contain tumuli of Babylonian age.
Thousands of years before Christ the pearls of Bahrein were sold in Egypt; Bahrein still supplies 80% of the world's output of pearls.
After the Phoenicians, Babylonians, and Arabs came the Persians; though they never aspired to command of the seas and are indeed not a maritime race, the Persian Gulf was no obstacle to them, and at one time or another they occupied Muscat and parts of Oman and Bahrein, and penetrated into the greater part of Arabia.
Somewhat similar action was taken at Bahrein.
Bahrein Islands >>
Ali, received the government of Basra with Bahrein and Oman; Isma 'il b.
Abu Sa`id al-Jannabi, who had founded a Carmathian state in Bahrein, the north-eastern province of Arabia (actually called Lahsa), which could become dangerous for the pilgrim road as well as for the commerce of Basra, in the year 900 routed an army sent against him by Motadid, and warned the caliph that it would be safer to let the Carmathians alone.
Far more dangerous, however, for the Caliphate of Bagdad at the time were the Carmathians of Bahrein, then guided by Abu Tahir, the son of Abu Sa`id Jannabi.
Both here and in Babylonia he re-established the imperial authority, and in 205 undertook a voyage from the mouth of the Tigris, through the Arabian gulf to the flourishing mercantile town of Gerrha in Arabia (now Bahrein) (Polyb.
Eastward he extended his dominions to Balkh, and in the south his generals made the conquest of Bahrain (Bahrein), on the Arabian side of the Persian Gulf, and the territory and islands of the Persian seaboard, inclusive of the mountainous province of Lar.
In the meanwhile the Saduzai tribe revolted at Herat, and declared itself independent in 1717; the Kurds overran the country rous~d Hamadan; the Uzbegs desolated Khorasan; and the Arabs of Muscat seized the island of Bahrein and threatened Bander Abbasi.
He made one vain attempt to regain his possessions in the Persian Gulf; but the Portuguese fleet which had promised to transport his troops to Bahrein was defeated by the imam of Muscat and forced to retreat to Goa.
In 1865 the shah had mooted the idea of a Persian naval flotilla in the Persian Gulf, to consist of two or three steamers manned by Arabs and commanded by English naval The Control officers; but the idea was discountenanced by the of the British government, to whom it was known that the Persian project really concealed aggressive designs upon the independence of the islands and pearl fisheries of Bahrein (Curzon, Persia, ii.
It is the chief port for the Persian province of Laristan (under Fars), and has a thriving trade with Bahrein and the Arab coast.
BAHREIN ISLANDS, a group of islands situated about 20 m.
The largest of the group is called Bahrein.
The next island in size to Bahrein is Moharek, curved in shape, and about 5 m.
to the north of Bahrein.
The sea around the Bahrein islands is shallow, so shallow as to admit only of the approach of native craft, and the harbour is closely shut in by reefs.
Bahrein has always been the centre of the pearl fishing industry of the Persian Gulf.
The capital town of Bahrein is Manameh, a long, straggling, narrow town of about 8000 inhabitants, chiefly of the Wahabi sect.
The present Sheik of Bahrein (who lives chiefly at Moharek) is of the family of El Kalifa.
In the year 1867 the Persians threatened Bahrein, and in 1875 the Turks laid their hands on it.
British interference in both cases was successful in maintaining the integrity of Arab rule, and the Bahrein islands are now under British protection.
To the south-west of the picturesque belts of palm trees which stretch inland from the northern coast of Bahrein, is a wide space of open sandy plain filled with gigantic tumuli or earth mounds, of which the outer layers of gravel and clay have been hardened by the weather action of centuries to the consistency of conglomerate.
There are also the Bahrein Islands in the Persian Gulf.
R.G.S., 1896; " Bahrein Islands," vol.
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