Baden sentence example
The frontier which they form is inconveniently long, enclosing an acute-angled wedge of foreign territory - the modern Baden and Wurttemberg.
The first advance came about 74, when what is now Baden was invaded and in part annexed and a road carried from the Roman base on the upper Rhine, Strassburg, to the Danube just above Ulm.
In the spring of 1848 he was in Germany, and on the outbreak of the revolutionary troubles he accepted the invitation of the government of Baden to take the command against the insurgent "free companies" (Freischaaren).
For the Rhine provinces not incorporated in Prussia, with the special object of regulating episcopal elections; concerned Wurttemberg, Baden, Hesse, Saxony, Nassau, Frankfort, the Hanseatic towns, Oldenburg and Waldeck.
It had to be replaced by new concordats concluded with Wurttemberg in 1857 and the grand-duchy of Baden in 1859; but these conventions, not having been ratified by those countries, never came into force.Advertisement
In 1803 it was assigned to the grand duke of Baden, who caused the fortifications to be razed.
The male Urach line becoming extinct in 1457, an heiress carried what remained of their possessions in the Breisgau to the house of Baden.
His successor Ferdinand took the title of duke of Modena-Breisgau, but on his death in 1805 the Breisgau was divided between Baden and Wurttemberg.
The latter ceded its portion to Baden in 1810.
The Academy of Inscriptions of Paris appointed him one of its members, and from the grandduke of Baden he received the dignity of privy councillor.Advertisement
After a short period of study in Paris on the French Revolution, he spent some time working in the archives of Baden and Bavaria, and published in 1845 Die Geschichte der rheinischen Pfalz, which won for him a professorship extraordinarius at Heidelberg.
In 1848 he was elected to the lower legislative chamber of Baden, and in 1850 advocated the project of union with Prussia at the parliament held at Erfurt.
The young duc d'Enghien was then residing at Ettenheim in Baden near the bank of the Rhine.
Stephanie de Beauharnais, niece of Josephine, was also betrothed to the son of the duke (now grand duke) of Baden.
The central or main railway station is in Gross Basel, while the Baden station is in Klein Basel.Advertisement
He studied law and from 1871 to 1882 held various administrative offices in the Grand Duchy of Baden.
From 1875 to 1883 he sat in the Upper Chamber of the Baden Diet.
In 1883 he was sent to Berlin as minister for Baden in the Federal Council and from 1884 to 1890 he represented the Council in the Imperial Insurance Office.
Of its mineral springs, the best known are the sulphur springs of Baden, the iodine springs of Deutsch-Altenburg, the iron springs of Pyrawarth, and the thermal springs of Voslau.
Once more the road to Vienna lay open, but the grand vizier wasted the remainder of the year in fortifying Belgrade, and on August 18th, 1691, he was defeated and slain at Slankamen by the margrave of Baden.Advertisement
In 1803 he entered the service of Baden, which he represented as envoy in Paris.
In 1802 the elector was obliged to cede the portion of the Palatinate lying on the left bank of the Rhine to France, and other portions to Baden and to Hesse-Darmstadt.
At Naples he was tried as a traitor, and on the 29th of October was beheaded with his friend and companion Frederick of Baden, titular duke of Austria.
His remains, with those of Frederick of Baden, still rest in the church of the monastery of Santa Maria del Carmine at Naples, founded by his mother for the good of his soul; and here in 1847 a marble statue, by Thorwaldsen, was erected to his memory by Maximilian, crown prince of Bavaria.
It was commanded by Prince Alexander of Hesse; the 1st division (3 infantry brigades, i cavalry brigade, 6 batteries) came from Wurttemberg; the 2nd division (2 infantry and I cavalry brigades, 5 batteries) from Baden, the least anti-Prussian of all these states; the 3rd division (2 infantry and i cavalry brigades, i rifle battalion, 4 batteries) from Hesse-Darmstadt; the 4th division consisted of an Austrian brigade of 7 battalions (three of which were Italians), a Nassau brigade, and two batteries and some hussars of Hesse-Cassel.Advertisement
On issuing from the Lake of Constance at Constance, the Rhine flows nearly due west to Basel, where it leaves Swiss territory, the south bank during this portion of the river being entirely Swiss, save the town of Constance, but the north shore belongs to Baden, save in the case of the Swiss town of Stein-am-Rhein and the Swiss canton of Schaffhausen.
After the war of 1866, Prussia negotiated with Baden, Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt with a view to the removal of all tolls.
The chief tobacco-producing divisions are Baden and Alsace.
On entering the Second Chamber of Baden in 1842, he at once began to take part in the opposition against the government, which assumed a more and more openly Radical character, and in the course of which his talents as an agitator and his personal charm won him wide popularity and influence.
A speech, denouncing the projected incorporation of Schleswig and Holstein with Denmark, delivered in the Chamber of Baden on the 6th of February 1845, spread his fame beyond the limits of his own state, and his popularity was increased by his expulsion from Prussia on the occasion of a journey to Stettin.
In 1847 he was temporarily occupied with ideas of emigration, and with this object made a journey to Algiers, but returned to Baden and resumed his former position as the Radical champion of popular rights, later becoming president of the Volksverein, where he was destined to fall still further under the influence of the agitator Gustav von Struve.
In conjunction with Struve he drew up the Radical programme carried at the great Liberal meeting held at Offenburg on the 12th of September 1847 (entitled "Thirteen Claims put forward by the People of Baden").
The proof lies in the new Offenburg demands of the 19th of March, and in the resolution moved by Hecker in the preliminary parliament of Frankfort that Germany should be declared a republic. But neither in Baden nor Frankfort did he at any time gain his point.
The troops of Baden and Hesse marched against him, under the command of General Friedrich von Gagern, and on the 10th of April they met near Kandern, where Gagern was killed, it is true, but Hecker was completely defeated.
He was, it is true, again elected to the Chamber of Baden by the circle of Thiengen, but the government, no longer willing to respect his immunity as a deputy, refused its ratification.
During the second rising in Baden in the spring of 1849 he again made efforts to obtain a footing in his own state, but without success.
He only came as far as Strassburg, but had to retreat before the victories of the Prussian troops over the Baden insurgents.
Karl Hillebrand became involved, as a student in Heidelberg, in the Baden revolutionary move ment, and was imprisoned in Rastatt.
The greater part of Baden belongs to the basin of the Rhine, which receives upwards of twenty tributaries from the highlands; the north-eastern portion of the territory is also watered by the Main and the Neckar.
Owing to its physical configuration Baden presents great extremes of heat and cold.
The mineral wealth of Baden is not great; but iron, coal, zinc and lead of excellent quality are produced, and silver, copper, gold, cobalt, vitriol and sulphur are obtained in small quantities.
The mineral springs of Baden are very numerous and have acquired great celebrity, those of Baden-Baden, Badenweiler, Antogast, Griesbach, Freiersbach and Petersthal being the most frequented.
A greater proportion of Baden than of any other of the south German states is occupied by forests.
The inhabitants of Baden are of various origin - those to the north of the Murg being descended from the Alemanni and those to the south from the Franks, while the Swabian plateau derives its name and its population from another race.
The exports of Baden, which coincide largely with the industries just mentioned, are of considerable importance, but the bulk of its trade consists in the transit of goods.
The educational establishments of Baden are numerous and flourishing, and public education is entirely in the hands of the government.
The government of Baden is an hereditary monarchy, with the executive power vested in the grand-duke, while the legislative authority is shared by him with a representative assembly (Landtag) consisting of two chambers.
By virtue of a convention with Prussia, of 1871, the Baden army forms a portion of the Prussian army.
During the middle ages the district which now forms the grand-duchy of Baden was ruled by various counts, prominent among whom were the counts and dukes of Zahringen.
In 1503 the family of Baden Sausenberg became extinct, and the whole of Baden was united by Christopher, who divided it, however, before his death in 1527 among his three sons.
During the period of the Reformation some of the rulers of Baden adhered to the older and some adopted the newer faith, and the house was similarly divided during the Thirty Years' War.
Baden suffered severely during this struggle, and both branches of the family were exiled in turn.
In 1771 Augustus George of Baden-Baden died without sons, and his territories passed to Charles Frederick of Baden-Durlach, who thus became ruler of the whole of Baden.
Although in 1771 Baden was united under a single ruler it did not form a compact territory, and its total area was only about 1350 sq.
Beginning to reign in 1738 and coming of age in 1746, this prince is the most notable of the rulers of Baden.
The Baden contingent continued to assist France, and by the peace of Vienna in 1809 the grandduke was rewarded with accessions of territory at the expense of the kingdom of Wurttemberg.
In 1815 Baden became a member of the Germanic confederation established by the Act of the 8th of June, annexed to the Final Act of the congress of Vienna of the 9th of June.
By the treaty of the 16th of April 1816, by which the territorial disputes between Austria and Bavaria were settled, the succession to the Baden Palatinate was guaranteed to Maximilian I., king of Bavaria, in the expected event of the extinction of the line of Zahringen.
A controversy between Bavaria and Baden resulted, which was only decided in favour of the Hochberg claims by the treaty signed by the four great powers and Baden at Frankfort on the 10th of July 181 9.
In Baden the conditions were not favourable to success.
The reaction that followed was as severe in Baden as elsewhere in Germany, and culminated in.
The July Revolution led to no disturbances in Baden; but the new grand-duke from the first showed liberal tendencies.
In 1832 the adhesion of Baden to the Prussian Zollverein did much for the material prosperity of the country.
For the time this was mastered without much difficulty; the insurgents were beaten at Kandern on the 10th of April; Freiburg, which they held, fell on the 24th; and on the 27th a FrancoGerman " legion," which had invaded Baden from Strassburg,, was routed at Dossenbach.
It had little chance of doing more than make speeches; the country was in the hands of an armed mob of civilians and mutinous soldiers; and, meanwhile, the grand-duke of Baden had joined with Bavaria in requesting the armed intervention of Prussia, which was granted on the condition that Baden should join the League of the Three Kings.
From this moment the revolution in Baden was doomed, and with it the revolution in all Germany.
The Prussians, under Prince William (afterwards emperor), invaded Baden in the middle of June.
Such of the insurgent leaders as were caught, notably the ex-officers, suffered military execution; the army was dispersed among Prussian garrison towns; and Baden was occupied for the time by Prussian troops.
The internal affairs of Baden during the period that followed have comparatively little general interest.
In the greater politics of Germany, Baden, between 1850 and 1866, was a consistent supporter of Austria; and in the war of 1866 her contingents, under Prince William, had two sharp engagements with the Prussian army of the Main.
The ministry, now at one, resigned; Baden announced her withdrawal from the German confederation; and on the 17th of August a treaty of peace and alliance was signed with Prussia.
The adhesion of Baden to the North German confederation was, prevented by Bismarck himself, who had no wish to give Napoleon III.
The troops of Baden took a conspicuous share in the war of 1870; and it was the grand-duke of Baden, who, in the historic assembly of the German princes at Versailles, was the first to hail the king "of Prussia as German emperor.
Not till 1880, after the fall of the ministry of Jolly, was a reconciliation with Rome effected; in 1882 the archbishopric of Freiburg was again filled up. The political tendency of Baden, meanwhile, mirrored that of all Germany.
By the treaty under which Baden had become an integral part of the German empire, he had reserved only the exclusive right to tax beer and spirits; the army, the post-office, railways and the conduct of foreign relations were placed under the effective control of Prussia.
It was Napoleon, and he alone, who created this whole state in 1803 to reward in the person of the little margrave of Baden a relative of the emperor of Russia.
But in 1813 Baden joined the coalition, and since then that nation created of odds and ends (de brit et de broc) and always handsomely treated by us, had not ceased to take a leading part in the struggles against our country.
In 1415 Baden (with the Aargau) was conquered by the Eight Swiss Confederates, whose bailiff inhabited the other castle, on the right bank of the Limmat, which defends the ancient bridge across that river.
As the conquest of the Aargau was the first made by the Confederates, their delegates (or the federal diet) naturally met at Baden, from 1426 to about 1712, to settle matters relating to these subject lands, so that during that period Baden was really the capital of Switzerland.
The diet sat in the old town-hall or Rathaus, where was also signed in 1714 the treaty of Baden which put an end to the war between France and the Empire, and thus completed the treaty of Utrecht (1713).
Baden was the capital of the canton of Baden, from 1798 to 1803, when the canton of Aargau was created.
In 1900 the permanent population of Baden was 6050 (German-, speaking, mainly Romanists, with many Jews), but it is greatly swelled in summer by the influx of visitors.
He met his death at the battle of Salankamen in 1691, when the total defeat of the Turks by the Austrians under Prince Louis of Baden led to their expulsion from Hungary.
The interest felt by German literary men in Shaftesbury was revived by the publication of two excellent monographs, one dealing with him mainly from the theological side by Dr Gideon Spicker (Freiburg in Baden, 1872), the other dealing with him mainly from the philosophical side by Dr Georg von Gizycki (Leipzig, 1876).
This category contains places located in the Kingdom of WÃ¼rttemberg, the Grand Duchy of Baden, the Prussian province of Hohenzollern, and the Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine.
The bishop was a prince of the Holy Roman Empire, while his diocese was one of the largest in Germany, including (shortly before the Reformation) most of Baden and Wurttemberg, and 12 out of the 22 Swiss cantons (all the region on the right bank of the Aar, save the portions included in the diocese of Coire) - in it were comprised 350 monasteries, 1760 benefices and 17,000 priests.
In 1633 Constance resisted successfully an attempt of the Swedes to take it, and, in 1805, by the treaty of Pressburg, was handed over by Austria to Baden.
In 1526 he was at the abortive conference of Baden, and in January 1528 drafted and defended the ten theses for the conference of Bern which established the new religion in that city.
It contains the famous hot sulphur springs of Baden and Schinznach, while at Rheinfelden there are very extensive saline springs.
The capital of the canton is Aarau, while other important towns are Baden, Zofingen (4591 inhabitants), Reinach (3668 inhabitants), Rheinfelden (3349 inhabitants), Wohlen (3274 inhabitants), and Lenzburg (2588 inhabitants).
Bern kept the south-west portion (Zofingen, Aarburg, Aarau, Lenzburg, and Brugg), but some districts, named the Freie Amter or "free bailiwicks" (Mellingen, Muri, Villmergen, and Bremgarten), with the county of Baden, were ruled as "subject lands" by all or certain of the Confederates.
In 1798 the Bernese bit became the canton of Aargau of the Helvetic Republic, the remainder forming the canton of Baden.
This law was followed in Brunswick by a law of the 2nd of July 1896, and in Baden by a law of the 16th of April 1886.
Among them the Baden Ladies' Society, founded in 1859 by the Grand Duchess Luise, deserves mention.
The white wines of Baden or the Rhine did not suit him; he could only drink those of Burgundy or Franche-Comte.
The Evangelical Lutheran Community in Baden has a membership of about 1 ioo with 2 ordained pastors.
Customs vary in different states; thus in Schleswig-Holstein the state nominates but the parish elects; in Alsace-Lorraine the directorium or supreme consistory appoints, but the appointment must be confirmed by the viceroy; in Baden the state offers the parish a selection from six names and then appoints the one chosen.
Some disputes between Baden and Bavaria remained unsettled, and many questions arising out of the new federal constitution of Germany, which had been hurriedly patched together under the influence of the news of Napoleon's return, had to be postponed for further discussion, and were not settled until the Final Act agreed upon by the conference of German statesmen at Vienna in 1821.
Its new parish (Evangelical) church (1897) is built at the foot of the 11 th-century castle which belonged to the margraves of Baden, and was destroyed by the French during the wars of Louis XV.
In 1325 Backnang was ceded to Wurttemberg by Baden.
In 1849 he took part in the republican rising in the Palatinate and Baden; on the restoration of order he was condemned to death, but he had escaped to Switzerland.
In 1855 he was appointed professor of mineralogy and geology at the Polytechnic Institute at Karlsruhe, and he took part in the geological survey of Baden.
There is more than one meaning of Baden discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
In 1864 he became assistant professor there, and in 1866 was chosen to represent Heidelberg in the Baden Chamber, but soon resigned.
The Baden insurgents gained a victory at Freiburg in 1848, and the revolutionary government took refuge in the town in June 1849, but in the following July the Prussian forces took possession and occupied it until 1851.
The Order of the Zdhringen Lion was founded in 1812 in commemoration of the descent of the reigning house of Baden from the dukes of Zahringen.
He studied law and politics at Heidelberg, and entered the Baden government department of finance in 1829.
On his return to Baden in 1840 he edited the Landtagszeitung at Carlsruhe, and in 1842 he entered the estates for the town of Constance.
He was made finance minister in Baden in May 1849, but was dismissed after a few days of office.
He was recalled to Baden in 1862, and in 1864 became president of the new ministry of commerce.
He sought to bring Baden institutions into line with those of northern Germany with a view to ultimate union, and when in 1866 Baden took sides with Austria against Prussia he sent in his resignation.
The Alamannic and Swabian dialects are now spoken in German Switzerland, the southern parts of Baden and Alsace, Wurttemberg and a small portion of Bavaria.
Bavaria is bounded by Wurttemberg, Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt.
He shared in the defeat at Hochstalt on the 13th of August 1704; his dominions were temporarily partitioned between Austria and the elector palatine, and only restored to him, harried and exhausted, at the peace of Baden in 1714.
But with the collapse of France the old fear and jealousy of Austria had revived in full force, and Bavaria only agreed to these cessions (treaty of Munich, April 16th, 1816) on Austria promising that, in the event of the powers ignoring her claim to the Baden succession in favour of that of the line of the counts of Hochberg, she should receive also the Palatinate on the right bank of the Rhine.
At the congress of Aix (1818) the question of the Baden succession was settled in favour of the Hochberg line, without the compensation stipulated for in the treaty of Munich; and by the treaty of Frankfurt, signed on behalf of the four great powers on the 10th of July 1819, the territorial questions at issue between Bavaria and Austria were settled, in spite of the protests of the former, in the general sense of the arrangement made at Vienna.
It was to obtain popular support for this policy and for the Bavarian claims on Baden that the crown prince pressed for a liberal constitution, the reluctance of Montgelas to concede it being the cause of his dismissal.
His first wife was Margaret of Baden, by whom he had six children; and his second was Anne of Saxony, by whom he had thirteen.
In 1712 the town succeeded Baden in Aargau as the meeting-place of the Federal Diet, and continued to be the capital of the Confederation till its transformation in 1798.
These are Franconia (Franken), which embraces the districts of Bamberg, Schweinfurt and Wurzburg on the upper Main; Swabia (Schwaben), in which is included Wtirttemberg, parts of Bavaria and Baden and Hohenzollern; the Palatinate (Pfalz), embracing Bavaria west of the Rhine and the contiguous portion of Baden; Rhineland, applied to Rhenish Prussia, Nassau, Hesse-Darmstadt and parts of Bavaria and Baden; Vogtland, the mountainous country lying in the south-west corner of the kingdom of Saxony; Lusatia (Lausitz), the eastern portion of the kingdom of Saxony and the adjacent portion of Prussia watered by the upper Spree; Thuringia (Thulingen), the country lying south of the Harz Mountains and including the Saxon duchies; East Frlesland (Ost Friesland), the country lying between the lower course of the Weser and the Ems, and Westphalia (Westfalen), the fertile plain lying north and west of the Harz Mountains and extending to the North Sea and the Dutch frontier.
Germany is not nearly so well Wurttemberg Forests, wooded as central Grand-Duchies and southern Ger- Baden many, where indeed most of the Hesse lower mountains are covered Mecklenburg-Schwerin -
The increase of population during 1895 1900 was greatest in Hamburg, Bremen, LUbeck, Saxony, Prussia and Baden, and least in Mecklenburg-Strelitz and Wakieck.
The largest estates are found in the Prussian provinces of Pomerania, Posen and Saxony, and in East and West Prussia, while in the Prussian Rhine province, in Baden and Wurttemberg small farms are the rule.
The total production of hops was 29,000 tons in 1905, and of this over 25,000 were grown in Bavaria, Wurttemberg, Baden and Alsace-Lorraine.
The total extent tinder this crop in 1905 was about 35,000 acres, of which 45% was in Baden, 12% in Bavaria, 30% in Prussia, and the rest in Alsace and Hesse-Darmstadt.
In the valley of the Saale and Elbe (near Dresden), and in lower Silesia (between Guben and Grunberg), the number of vineyards is small, and the wines of inferior quality; but along the Rhine from Basel to Coblenz, in Alsace, Baden, the Palatinate and Hesse, and above all in the province of Nassau, the lower slopes of the hills are literally covered with vines.
The total amount produced in Germany is estimated at 1000 million gallons, of a value of 4,000,000; Alsace-Lorraine turning out 400 millions; Baden, 175; Bavaria, Wrttemberg and Hesse together, 300; while the remainder, which though small in quantity is in quality the best, is produced by Prussia.
Deposits of less consequence are found in upper Bavaria, upper Franconia, Baden, the Harz and elsewhere.
Hesse and Baden, Lorraine and the upper Palatinate have also saltworks.
Cotton goods are largely produced in Baden, Bavaria, Alsace-Lorraine and Wurttemberg, woollens and worsteds in Saxony and the Rhine province, silk in Rhen.ish Prussia (Elberfeld), Alsace and Baden.
Zoliverein, with the exception of Bavaria, Wflrttemberg Baden and Alsace-Lorraine, in which countries the excise duties arc separately collected.
The total number of breweries in the beer excise district was, in 1905-1906, 5995, which produced I017 millior gallons; in Bavaria nearly 6000 breweries with 392 million gallons in Baden over 700 breweries with 68 million gallons; in WUrttem berg over 5000 breweries with 87 million gallons; and in Alsace Lorraine 95 breweries with about 29 million gallons.
The amoun brewed per head of the population amounted, in 1905, roughly t 160 imperial pints in the excise district; to 450 in Bavaria; 280 jI Wurttemberg; 260 in Baden; and 122 in Alsace-Lorraine.
Included within it, besides the grand-duchy of Luxemburg, are the Austrian communes of Jungholz and Mittelberg; while, outside, lie the little free-port territories of Hamburg, Cuxhaven, Bremerhaven and Geestemnde, Heligoland, and small portions of the districts of Constance and Waldshut, lying on the Baden Swiss frontier.
The board responsible for the imperial control over the whole railway system in Germany is the Reichseisenbahnamt in Berlin, the administration of the various state systems residing, in Prussia, in the ministry of public works; in Bavaria in the ministry of the royal house and of the exterior; in Wurttemberg in the ministry of the exterior; in Saxony in the ministry of the interior; in Baden and- Hesse-Darmstadt in commissions of the ministry of finance; and in Alsace-Lorraine in the imperial ministry of railways.
Below the Regierungsbezirk is the Kreis, or Circle, in Prussia, Baden and Hesse, which corresponds to the Distrikt in Bavaria, the Oberamt in Wurttembergi and the Amtshauplmannschaft in Saxony.
In Wurttemberg, Baden and Hesse-Nassau the system is a compromise between the two; both the town and rural communes have a mayor (Blirgermeister or Schuitheiss, as the case may be) and a Gemeinderat for administrative purposes, the citizens exercising control through a representative Gemeindeausschuss (communal committee).
AlsaceLorraine, Bavaria and Baden; and in four states the Protestant element prevails, but with from 24 to 34% of Roman Catholics; viz.
Generally speaking, South Germany is predominantly Roman Catholic. Sothe districts along the Danube (province of Bavaria, Upper Palatinate, Swabia), southern \Vurttemberg and Baden, and in Alsace-Lorraine are entirely so.
These territories are bordered by a broad stretch of country on the north, where Protestantism has maintained its hold since the time of the Reformation, including Bayreuth or eastern upper Franconia, middle Franconia, the northern half of Wui-ttemberg and Baden, with Hesse and the Palatinate.
The coinage takes place in the six mints belonging to the various states thus Berlin (Prussia), Munich (Bavaria), Dresden (in the Muldenerhtte near Freibcrg, Saxony), Stuttgart (WUrttemberg), Karlsruhe (Baden) and Hamburg (for the state of Hamburg).
In Germany its centre is Bavaria, Baden and Wurttemberg, with the Thuringian forest as the northern boundary.
The Boii were expelled from their territories inBohemia by the Marcomanni in the time of Augustus, and the Helvetii are also recorded to have occupied formerly lands east of the Rhine, in what is now Baden and Wurttemberg.
The general result was that the power of the territorial lords became greater than eve-r, although in some cases, especially in Tirol and in Baden, the condition of the peasants was somewhat improved.
In this war she was opposed not only by France, but by Bavaria, Wurttemberg and Baden, all of which were liberally rewarded for their services, the rulers of the two former countries being proclaimed kings.
In the so-called narrower assembir (Engere Versammlung), for the transaction of ordinary business, Austria, Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Hanover, Wurttemberg, Baden, Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Darmstadt, Holstein and Luxemburg had one vote each; while the remaining twenty-eight states were divided into six curiae, of which each had but a single vote.
Baden and Nassau (1836), Frankfort and Luxemburg (1842), joined the Prussian Zollverein, to which certain of the members of the Steuerverein also transferred themselves (Brunswick and Lippe, 1842).
Some of those who were discontented with this decision retired from the preliminary parliament, and a few of them, of republican sympathies, called the population of Upper Baden to arms. The rising was put down by the troops of Baden, but it did considerable injury by awakening the fears of the more moderate portion of the community.
She was supported by Bavaria, but on the other side were Prussia, Brunswick, Baden, Nassau, Meckleftburg and various other countries, besides the Hanseatic towns.
The king of Wurttemberg was forced to accede to it; and in Saxony, Baden and Rhenish Bavaria armed multitudes kept the sovereigns in.
Separate treaties of peace had been signed with Wurttemberg on the 1 3th, with Baden on the 17th and with Bavaria on the 22nd of August; treaties with Hesse-Darmstadt followed on the 3rd of September, with Saxe-Meiningen on the 8th of October and with Saxony on the 2 1st.
Essentially a German, not a Prussian, party, they were joined by the Nationalists from the annexed provinces of Hanover and Hesse; in 1871 they were greatly strengthened by the addition of the National representatives from the southern states; out of fourteen representatives from Baden twelve belonged to them, seventeen out of eighteen Wurttemberger, and a large majority of the Bavarians.
The other four are situated in Bavaria, Saxony, WUrttemberg and Baden.
In Baden, Wurttemberg and Hanover the railways were almost entirely the property of the state, but in all other parts public and private lines existed side by side, an arrangement which seemed to combine the disadvantages of both systems. In 1871 threequarters of the railway lines belonged to private companies, and the existence of these powerful private corporations, while they were defended by many of the Liberals, was, according to the national type of thought, something of an anomaly.
The conflict had already begun in Baden.
With the formation of the empire the conflict was transferred from Baden to Prussia, where there had been for thirty years absolute peace, a peace gained, indeed, by allowing to the Catholics complete freedom; the Prussian constitution ensured them absolute liberty in the management of ecclesiastical affairs; in the ministry for religion and education there was a separate department for Catholic affairs, and (owing to the influence of the great family of the Radziwills) they enjoyed considerable power at court.
Of these, one forbade ministers of religion from abusing ecclesiastical punishment; the second, which was the most important, introduced a law already adopted in Baden, that no one should be appointed to any office in the Church except a German, who must have received his education in a German gymnasium, have studied for three years in a German university, and have passed a state examination in philosophy, history, German literature and classics; all ecclesiastical seminaries were placed under the control of the state, and all seminaries for boys were forbidden.
These laws were all peculiar to Prussia, but similar legislation was carried out in Baden and in Hesse, where in 1871, after twenty-one years of office, the particularist and Conservative government of Dalwigk had come to an end and after the interval of a year been succeeded by a Liberal ministry.
With these exceptions absolute religious peace resulted; the Centre to a great extent succeeded to the position which the National Liberals formerly held; in Bavaria, in Baden, in Prussia they obtained a dominant position, and they became a government party.
In the state parliaments of Bavaria, Baden and Hesse their influence was very great.
Much has also been done in Prussia, in Brandenburg, in Bavaria, in Hanover, in Wurttemberg and in Baden, and collections of authorities have been made by competent scholars, of which the Geschichtsquellen der Provinz Sachsen und angrenzender Gebiete (Halle, 1870, f 01.), which extends to forty volumes, the smaller Scrip/ores rerum Prussicarum (Leipzig, 1861-1874), and the seventy-seven volumes of the Publikationen aus den koniglichen preussischen Slaatsarchiven, veranlasst und unterstutzt durch die konigliche Archivverwaltung (Leipzig, 1878, fol.), may be cited as examples.
Frederick, however, who was in Italy, harassed and afflicted, could do little to assert the imperial authority, and his enemy, Pope Innocent IV., bestowed the two duchies upon Hermann VI., margrave of Baden, whose wife, Gertrude, was a niece of the last of the Babenbergs.
The treaties of Utrecht, Rastadt and Baden had also re-established and strengthened the position of the Austrian monarchy in western Europe.
He had been married, in 1793, without his wishes being consulted, to the beautiful and amiable Princess Maria Louisa of Baden (Elizabeth Feodorovna), a political match which, as he regretfully confessed to his friend Frederick William of Prussia, had proved the misfortune of both; and he consoled himself in the traditional manner.
Temporary diplomatic complications arose between Bavaria and Baden in connexion with Louis's favourite project of winning back the part then belonging to Baden of the old Palatinate, the land of his birth, which was always very dear to him.
On the 31st of October 1797 Gustavus married Frederica Dorothea, daughter of Charles Frederick, grand-duke of Baden, a marriage which might have led to a war with Russia but for the fanatical hatred of the French republic shared by the emperor Paul and Gustavus IV., which served as a bond of union between them.
From him descend both the Baden and the Oldenburg princely houses on the female side.
His motion that Baden should be included in the North German Confederation in January 1870 caused much embarrassment to Bismarck, but was not without effect in hastening the crisis of 1870.
It remained in the possession of the bishops till 1802, when by the treaty of Luneville it was ceded, with other lands of the bishopric on the right bank of the Rhine, to Baden.
In 1849 it was the scene of an engagement between the Prussians and the Baden revolutionists.
In 1849 the Baden revolutionaries seized Worms, but were overthrown by the Mecklenburgers and Prussians in May of that year.
The springs of Baden were known to the Romans, and the foundation of the town is referred to the emperor Hadrian by an inscription of somewhat doubtful authenticity.
From the 14th century down to the close of the 17th, Baden was the residence of the margraves, to whom it gave its name.
During the Thirty Years' War Baden suffered severely from the various combatants, but especially from the French, who pillaged it in 1643, and laid it in ashes in 1689.
Baden has a well-known cellular prison at Bruchsal, but separation is not imposed for more than four years and associated labour is carried out in another quarter of the prison.
In the vicinity, on the Schellenberg, the Bavarians and French were defeated by Marlborough and Prince Louis of Baden on the 2nd of July 1704.
He was employed to seize some agents of the English government in Baden in 1804, which led to the accusation that he was concerned in the arrest of the duc d'Enghien, an accusation against which he never ceased to protest.
When the Baden insurrection broke out, Sigel was a leader on the revolutionary side in the brief campaign of 1848, and then took refuge in Switzerland.
In the following year he returned to Baden and took a conspicuous part in the more serious operations of the second outbreak under General Louis Mieroslawski (1814-1878.) Sigel subsequently lived in Switzerland, England and the United States, whither he emigrated in 1852, the usual life of a political exile, working in turn as journalist and schoolmaster, and both at New York and St Louis, whither he removed in 1858, he conducted military journals.
Large quantities of wine are produced in Alsace-Lorraine, Baden and Wurttemberg, but the majority of these have little interest, inasmuch as they are used only for home consumption.
Among the wines, however, which are well known may be mentioned the Franconian growths, amongst which the celebrated Stein wine, which is grown at the foot of the citadel of the town of Wurzburg, and in the grand duchy of Baden the celebrated growths of Affenthal (red) and Markgrafler.
In 1803 the city was deprived of its imperial freedom and assigned to Baden, and in 1806 was transferred to Wurttemberg.
The waters in which chlorides form the purgative principle are those of Homburg, Kissingen, Wiesbaden and Baden Baden in Germany, and Bridge of Allan in Scotland.
In 1803, however, Charles Frederick, grand-duke of Baden, raised it anew and reconstituted it under the name of "RupertoCarola."
But a few weeks after his accession Turkey sustained a crushing defeat at Slankamen from the Austrians under Prince Louis of Baden and was driven from Hungary; during the four years of his reign disaster followed on disaster, and in 1695 Ahmed died, worn out by disease and sorrow.
The duchess of Baden was the granddaughter of Sophia, princess of Sweden, and the marriage of the crown prince thus effected a union between the Bernadotte dynasty and the ancient Swedish royal house of Vasa.
Several members of the Austrian imperial family have made Baden their summer residence and have built here beautiful villas.
Baden possesses several parks and is surrounded by lovely and interesting spots, of which the most frequented is the picturesque valley of the Helenenthal, which is traversed by the Schwechat.
Not far from Baden, the valley is crossed by the magnificent aqueduct of the Vienna waterworks.
The highest point in the neighbourhood of Baden is the peak of the Hoher Lindkogel (2825 ft.), popularly called the Eiserne Thor, which is ascended in about three hours.
The celebrity of Baden dates back to the days of the Romans, who knew it by the name of Thermae Pannonicae, and remains of their occupation still exist.
This consent, however, was necessary, and a little later the representatives of some of the princes of the Empire met those of France at Baden, where, on the 7th of September 1714, the treaty of Baden, the last of the treaties included in the general peace of Utrecht, was signed.
In 1846 was the seat of a congress of the Liberal party of the Baden parliament; and in 1849 it was the scene of an encounter between the Prussians and the insurgents.
Karlsruhe takes its name from Karl Wilhelm, margrave of Baden, who, owing to disputes with the citizens of Durlach, erected here in 1715 a hunting seat, around which the town has been built.
Karlsruhe has several fine public squares, the principal of which are the Schlosspiatz, with Schwanthaler's statue of the grand duke Karl Friedrich in the centre, and market square (Marktplatz), with a fountain and a statue of Louis, grand duke of Baden.
The most noteworthy of these are the Evangelical town church, the burial-place of the margraves of Baden; the Christuskirche, and the Bernharduskirche.
In the southern and south-central part of the state, particularly in Orange county, there are many mineral springs, of which the best known are those at French Lick and West Baden.
There are many mineral springs in the state, and there are famous resorts at French Lick and West Baden in Orange county.
In the Baden insurrection Goeben served with distinction on the staff of Prince William, the future emperor.
The lands formerly comprised in the duchy of Franconia are now divided between the kingdoms of Bavaria and Wurttemberg, the grandduchies of Baden and Hesse, and the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau.
In the south it is cleft by the long narrow territory of Hohenzollern, belonging to Prussia; and it encloses six small enclaves of Baden and Hohenzollern, while it owns nine small exclaves within the limits of these two states.
Kehl, the tete-de-pont of Strassburg, and several villages are included within this enceinte, and three of the outworks lie on the right bank of the Rhine, in the territory of Baden.
In September, however, in concert with Gustav von Struve, he crossed the Rhine from Switzerland at the head of a band of volunteers, and proclaimed a republic in Baden.
By the Recess of 1803, which brought to his side Bavaria, Wurttemberg and Baden, he followed up the overwhelming tide of revolutionary ideas in.
In the first of these campaigns lie swept away the remnants of the old Roman-Germanic empire, and out of its shattered fragments created in southern Germany the vassal states of Bavaria, Baden, Wurttemberg, Hesse1805.
He found, however, a deliberate intention on the part of Austria to humble Prussia, and to degrade her from the position of an equal power, and also great jealousy of Prussia among the smaller German princes, many of whom owed their thrones to the Prussian soldiers, who, as in Saxony and Baden, had crushed the insurgents.
The pressure at home for completing the work of German unity was so strong that he could with difficulty resist it, and in 1870 he was much embarrassed by a request from Baden to be admitted to the confederation, which he had to refuse.
Prince Max von Baden had introduced a general amnesty for all political prisoners tho there was reluctance to let Luxemburg have her freedom.
His nephew Thomas (1512?-1564) was professor at Basel and minister in Baden, and left four distinguished sons of whom Johann Jakob (1540-1617) was a leader in the religious affairs of Basel.
It was recognized and protected first in Bavaria, thanks to the minister Freiherr Johann von Lutz, then in Saxony, Baden, Wurttemberg, Prussia, where it was the pretext for, if not the cause of, the Kulturkampf, and finally in Switzerland, especially at Geneva.
Mannheim is the seat of the central board for the navigation of the Rhine, of a high court of justice, and of the grand ducal commissioner for north Baden.
During the revolution in Baden in 1849 the town was for a time in the hands of the insurgents, and was afterwards occupied by the Prussians.
In Baden the general synod is presided over by the prelate (prelat), i.e.
It consists of (a) the "Epitome," (b) the "Solid Repetition and Declaration," each part comprising twelve articles; and was accepted by Saxony, Wurttemberg, Baden among other states, but rejected by Hesse, Nassau and Holstein.
At the beginning of the 19th century Baden was only a margraviate, with an area little exceeding 1300 sq.
The " Kulturkampf " raged in Baden, as in the rest of Germany; and here as elsewhere the government encouraged the formation of Old Catholic communities.
This category contains places located in the Kingdom of WÃƒ¼rttemberg, the Grand Duchy of Baden, the Prussian province of Hohenzollern, and the Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine.
Such demands as to retreat beyond the Vistula and Oder may be made to a Prince of Baden, but not to me!
I'll drive all his Wurttemberg, Baden, and Weimar relations out of Germany....