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bacillus

bacillus

bacillus Sentence Examples

  • p. r; Sturgis, " A Soil Bacillus of the type of de Bary's B.

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  • Bacillus subtilis.

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  • The conditions which favour the vitality, growth and multiplication of the typhoid bacillus are the following: the soil should be pervious; it should be permeated with a sufficiency of decaying - preferably animal - organic matters; it should possess a certain amount of moisture, and be subject to a certain temperature.

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  • Given the bacillus, the questions arise, How is it disseminated?

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  • By 1876 the anthrax bacillus had been obtained in pure culture by Koch, and some other pathogenic bacteria had been observed in the tissues, but it was in the decade 1880-1890 that the most important discoveries were made in this field.

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  • By 1876 the anthrax bacillus had been obtained in pure culture by Koch, and some other pathogenic bacteria had been observed in the tissues, but it was in the decade 1880-1890 that the most important discoveries were made in this field.

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  • Of the lower animals, mice, rats, guinea-pigs, rabbits, squirrels and monkeys are susceptible to the bacillus; horses, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and cats are more or less resistant, but cats and dogs have been known to die of plague (Oporto, Daman, Cutch and Poona).

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  • - A plate-culture colony of a in more complex multispecies of Bacillus - Proteus (Hauser) cellular organisms. To - on the fifth day.

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  • bacillus, little rod or stick.

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  • About 1880 Pasteur first showed that Bacillus anthracis cultivated in chicken broth, with plenty of oxygen and at a temperature of 42-43° C., lost its virulence after a few " generations," and ceased to kill even the mouse; Toussaint and Chauveau confirmed, and others have extended the observations.

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  • In 1880, two years before Koch discovered the bacillus of tubercle, C. L.

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  • Only a single pathogenic species can withstand the short boiling to which milk is ordinarily treated in domestic management, and this is the anthrax bacillus containing spores.

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  • In 1880, two years before Koch discovered the bacillus of tubercle, C. L.

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  • Only a single pathogenic species can withstand the short boiling to which milk is ordinarily treated in domestic management, and this is the anthrax bacillus containing spores.

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  • Of the dry antiseptics iodoform is constantly used in septic or tuberculous wounds, and it appears to have an inhibitory action on Bacillus tuberculosis.

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  • By growing this bacillus in broth a toxin is formed which remains in solution and can be separated from the bacilli themselves by filtration.

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  • - Stages in the development of spores of Bacillus ramosus (Fraenkel), in the order and at the times given, in a hanging drop culture, under a very high power.

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  • Robertson has shown that the typhoid bacillus can grow very easily in certain soils, can persist in soils through the winter months, and when the soil is artificially fed, as may be done by a leaky drain or by access of filthy water from the surface, the microorganism will take on a fresh growth in the warm season.

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  • (2) By far the majority of the described species (over woo) fall into the three genera - Micro- coccus (about 400), Bacillus (about 200) and Bactridium (about 150), so that only a quarter or so of the forms are selected out by the other genera.

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  • those of Bacillus subtilis measure o.

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  • Resemblances also exist between the endospores and the spore-formations in the Saccharomycetes, and if Bacillus inflatus, B.

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  • Bacillus megaterium.

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  • - Curve of growth of a filament of Bacillus ramosus (Fraenkel), constructed from data such as in fig.

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  • By the discovery of the bacillus of tubercle, the physician has been enabled to piece together a long and varied list of maladies under several names, such as scrofula and lupus, many of them long suspected to be tuberculous, but now known to belong to the series.

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  • Glucose also undergoes fermentation into lactic acid in the presence of the lactic acid bacillus, and into butyric acid if the action of the preceding ferment be continued, or by other bacilli.

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  • Bacillus chauvaei ferments cane-sugar solutions in such a way that normal butyric acid, inactive lactic acid, carbon dioxide, and FIG.

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  • The report also considers it proved that the bacillus pestis multiplies in the stomach of a flea and may remain a considerable time within its host.

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  • Klein also prepares a new prophylactic from the dried organs of a guinea-pig, and one of the most interesting experiments is that of Strong (Archiv far Schiff sand tropische Hygiene, April, 1906), who uses for producing immunity in man a living virulent culture of the bacillus pestis.

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  • This disease depends upon the presence of a bacillus which grows rapidly at the back of the throat and in the airpassages specially of children, causing the formation of a membrane which, by plugging the windpipe, causes suffocation and death.

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  • It may be diminished or its increase prevented by a diet from which red meat and meat extracts are excluded, by the use of the lactic acid bacillus, by the administration of laxatives and cholagogues to regulate the bowels, and by the use of iodides and nitrites.

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  • This disease is due to the presence of large numbers of Bacillus solanacearum in the tubes through which water is conveyed to the leaves from the roots.

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  • All these terms, including the usual one of bacteria, are unsatisfactory; for " bacterium," " bacillus " and " micrococcus " have narrow technical meanings, and the other terms are too vague to be scientific. The most satisfactory designation is that proposed by Nageli in 1857, namely " schizomycetes," and it is by this term that they are usually known among botanists; the less exact term, however, is also used and is retained in this article since the science is commonly known as " bacteriology."

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  • He proceeded in the main on the assumption that the forms of bacteria as met with and described by him are practically constant, at any rate within limits which are not wide: observing that a minute spherical micrococcus or a rod-like bacillus regularly produced similar micrococci and bacilli respectively, he based his classification on what may be considered the constancy of forms which he called species and genera.

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  • - The various phases of germination of spores of Bacillus ramosus (Fraenkel), as actually observed in hanging drops under very high powers.

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  • only three or four times as long as broad (Bacterium), or longer (Bacillus); the biscuitshaped ones are Bacteria in the early stages of division.

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  • - Bacillus e nthracis.

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  • - Bacillus subtilis.

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  • A, Bacillus anthracis.

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  • - Stages in the formation of a colony of a variety of Bacillus (Proteus) vulgaris (Hauser), observed in a hanging drop. At I I A.M.

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  • A definite bacillus to which the peculiarly fine flavour of certain butters is due, is said to be largely employed in pure cultures in American dairies, and in Denmark certain butters are said to keep fresh much longer owing to the use of pure cultures and the treatment employed to suppress the forms which cause rancidity.

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  • In the last decade of the 19th century the chief discoveries were of the bacillus of influenza (1892), of the bacillus of plague (1894) and of the bacillus of dysentery (1898).

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  • All these terms, including the usual one of bacteria, are unsatisfactory; for " bacterium," " bacillus " and " micrococcus " have narrow technical meanings, and the other terms are too vague to be scientific. The most satisfactory designation is that proposed by Nageli in 1857, namely " schizomycetes," and it is by this term that they are usually known among botanists; the less exact term, however, is also used and is retained in this article since the science is commonly known as " bacteriology."

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  • - The various phases of germination of spores of Bacillus ramosus (Fraenkel), as actually observed in hanging drops under very high powers.

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  • only three or four times as long as broad (Bacterium), or longer (Bacillus); the biscuitshaped ones are Bacteria in the early stages of division.

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  • A definite bacillus to which the peculiarly fine flavour of certain butters is due, is said to be largely employed in pure cultures in American dairies, and in Denmark certain butters are said to keep fresh much longer owing to the use of pure cultures and the treatment employed to suppress the forms which cause rancidity.

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  • They were confirmed, but met with little acceptance in the scientific world, which was preoccupied with the claims of a subsequently discredited Bacillus malariae.

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  • Before the discovery of the bacillus of tubercle, scrofula and tuberculosis were regarded as two distinct diseases, and it was supposed that the scrofulous constitution could be distinguished from the tubercular.

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  • Quite irrespective of the nature of the anatomical lesion, the finding of the diphtheria bacillus on the part affected and the inoculability of this upon a suitable fresh soil are the sole means by which the diagnosis can be made certain.

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  • In the laboratory absolute soil dryness is as distinctly antagonistic to the vitality of the diphtheria bacillus as soil dampness is favourable.

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  • Fitz (Ber., 1878, 11, p. 52) found that the butyric fermentation of starch is aided by the direct addition of Bacillus subtilis.

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  • The melancholy incident illustrates several points of interest: (1) the correctness of the bacterial theory of causation, and the identity of the bacillus pestis as the cause; (2) the infectious character of the pneumonic type of disease; (3) its high fatality; (4) the difficulty of diagnosis.

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  • The path by which the bacillus enters the body varies.

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  • The bacillus is non-resistant and easily killed by heat and germicide substances, particularly acids.

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  • The bacillus has been demonstrated in the bodies of fleas, flies, bugs and ants.

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  • Bacillus subtilis, Cohn, and Spirillum undula, Ehrenb.

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  • The supposed constancy of forms in Cohn's species and genera received a shock when Lankester in 1873 pointed out that his Bacterium rubescens (since named Beggiatoa roseo-persicina, Zopf) passes through conditions which would have been described by most observers influenced by the current doctrine as so many separate " species " or even " genera," - that in fact forms known as Bacterium, Hicrococcus, Bacillus, Leptothrix, &c., occur as phases in one life-history.

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  • Bacillus typhi, Gaffky.

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  • In other words, animals vaccinated with the cultivated bacillus showed immunity from disease when reinoculated with the deadly wild form.

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  • The questions as to the causes and nature of the changes in the bacillus and in the host, as to the extent of immunity enjoyed by the latter, &c., are of the greatest interest and importance.

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  • Sporogenous rodlets cylindric, not altered in shape: - Bacillus (Cohn), non-motile; Bactrinium (Fischer), motile, with one polar flagellum (monotrichous); Bactrillum (Fischer), motile, with a terminal tuft of cilia (lophotrichous); Bactridium (Fischer), motile, with cilia all over the surface (peritrichous) .

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  • - A plate-culture of a bacillus which had been exposed for a period of four hours behind a zinc stencil-plate, in which the letters C and B were cut.

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  • Before the discovery of the bacillus of tubercle, scrofula and tuberculosis were regarded as two distinct diseases, and it was supposed that the scrofulous constitution could be distinguished from the tubercular.

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  • In the laboratory absolute soil dryness is as distinctly antagonistic to the vitality of the diphtheria bacillus as soil dampness is favourable.

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  • The melancholy incident illustrates several points of interest: (1) the correctness of the bacterial theory of causation, and the identity of the bacillus pestis as the cause; (2) the infectious character of the pneumonic type of disease; (3) its high fatality; (4) the difficulty of diagnosis.

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  • The path by which the bacillus enters the body varies.

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  • The bacillus has been demonstrated in the bodies of fleas, flies, bugs and ants.

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  • In other words, animals vaccinated with the cultivated bacillus showed immunity from disease when reinoculated with the deadly wild form.

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  • The questions as to the causes and nature of the changes in the bacillus and in the host, as to the extent of immunity enjoyed by the latter, &c., are of the greatest interest and importance.

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  • These are found to contain large numbers of a bacterium termed Bacillus radicicola or Pseudomonas radicicola.

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  • The lactic acid bacillus, always present in unboiled milk (to which the souring of milk is due), is easily destroyed by heat; but the bacillus mesentericus, often found in it, forms spores, which are not destroyed by ordinary boiling, and germinate when the milk is kept at a moderately warm temperature, producing a brisk fermentation whereby a large volume of gas is liberated.

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  • The lactic acid bacillus, always present in unboiled milk (to which the souring of milk is due), is easily destroyed by heat; but the bacillus mesentericus, often found in it, forms spores, which are not destroyed by ordinary boiling, and germinate when the milk is kept at a moderately warm temperature, producing a brisk fermentation whereby a large volume of gas is liberated.

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  • Their pneumonic nature has been amply substantiated in later times; they are now regarded simply as evidence of pneumonic reaction to the stimulus of the tubercle bacillus.

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  • The caseous necrosis of the implicated mass of lung tissue, and indeed of tubercles generally, is held to be, in great measure, the result of the necrotic influence of the secretions from the bacillus.

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  • It is difficultly fermented by yeast, but readily by the lactic acid bacillus.

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  • It is especially desirable for hospital and ambulance staffs to be inoculated with a vaccine prepared from sterilized cultures of plague bacillus.

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  • Endogenous spores of the hay bacillus.

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  • This is the case in the methods for staining the tubercle bacillus and also in Gram's method, the essential point in which latter is the treatment with a solution of iodine before decolorizing.

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  • the tubercle bacillus.

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  • This, for example, is the case with the anthrax bacillus; although the effect of this organism in the living body indicates the production of toxins which diffuse for a distance around the bacteria.

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  • Thus, to mention examples, diphtheria toxin produces inflammatory oedema which may be followed by necrosis; dead tubercle bacilli give rise to a tubercle-like nodule, &c. Furthermore, a bacillus may give rise to more than one toxic body, either as stages in one process of change or as distinct products.

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  • Many of them, probably also of proteid nature, are much more resistant to heat; thus the intracellular toxins of the tubercle bacillus retain certain of their effects even after exposure to ioo° C. Like the extracellular toxins they may be of remarkable potency; for example, fever is produced in the human subject by the injection into the blood of an extremely minute quantity of dead typhoid bacilli.

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  • In the case of diphtheria Sidney Martin obtained toxic albumoses in the spleen, which he considered were due to the digestive action of an enzyme formed by the bacillus in the membrane and absorbed into the circulation.

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  • In the lastmentioned disease even the local multiplication depends upon the presence of other bacteria, as the tetanus bacillus has practically no power of multiplying in the healthy tissues when introduced alone.

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  • Many of the earlier methods of attenuation were devised in the case of the anthrax bacillus, an organism which is, however, somewhat exceptional as regards the relative stability of its virulence.

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  • the serum of an animal immunized against the bacterium) was added to a fluid culture of this bacillus, growth formed a sediment instead of a uniform turbidity.

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  • Shortly afterwards Widal and also Griinbaum showed that the serum of patients suffering from typhoid fever, even at an early stage of the disease, agglutinated the typhoid bacillus - a fact which laid the foundation of serum diagnosis.

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  • coli, " meat-poisoning " due to Gartner's bacillus, and various other infections.

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  • Observations made on this property with respect to the anthrax bacillus at first gave the hope that it might explain variations in natural immunity.

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  • Thus the serum of the white rat, which is immune to anthrax, kills the bacillus; whereas the serum of the guinea-pig, which is susceptible, has no such effect.

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  • In the light of all the facts, however, especially those contains an opsonin which leads to phagocytosis of the bacillus, and the latter is then destroyed by the leucocytes.

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  • The list of his works of fiction includes The Stolen Bacillus and other Stories (1895), The Wonderful Visit (1895), The Island of Doctor Moreau (1896), The Plattner Story and Others (1897), When the Sleeper Wakes (1899), The First Men in the Moon (1901), The Food of the Gods (1904), In the Days of the Comet (1906), The War in the Air (1908), Anne Veronica (1909), The History of Mr Polly (191 0).

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  • Species of small size are found in southern Europe, one belonging to the genus Bacillus advancing as far north as the middle of France.

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  • Where, therefore, there is animal pollution of any kind, more especially where there is human pollution, generally indicated by the presence of bacillus coli communis, purification is of supreme importance, and no process has yet been devised which, except at extravagant cost, supersedes for public supplies that of properly-conducted sand filtration.

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  • With regard to the bacillary type, at first both organisms were considered to be identical, and the name bacillus dysenteriae was given to them; but later it was shown that these bacilli are different, both in regard to their cultural characteristics and also in that one (Shiga) gives out a soluble toxin, whilst the other has so far resisted all efforts to discover it.

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  • In those cases due to Shiga's bacillus the ideal treatment has been put at our disposal by the preparation of a specific antitoxin; this has been given a trial in several grave epidemics of late, and may be said to be the most satisfactory treatment and offer the greatest hope of recovery.

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  • Still later, in 1874, Dr Cohn, after the most exhaustive experiments and bacteriological research, realized that the disease was caused by a bacillus, and - nine years later - the name Bacillus alvei was given to it by Cheyne and Cheshire, whose views were in agreement with those of Dr Cohn.

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  • - Foul Brood (Bacillus alvei).

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  • two others in addition to Bacillus alvei playing an important part.

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  • These are Bacillus brandenburgiensis, Maassen (syn.

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  • When the disease attacks the larvae before they are sealed over Bacillus alvei is present, usually associated with Streptococcus apis, which latter imparts a sour smell to the dead brood.

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  • Under these conditions Bacillus brandenburgiensis is found, although Bacillus alvei may also be present.

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  • the cellulose membranes showed traces of subjection to butyric fermentation, such as is produced at the present day by Bacillus Amylobacter; he also claimed to have detected the organism itself.

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  • It is now known that the plague was caused by a bacillus transmitted by rat fleas.

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  • Many bacteria can be found within rice, and the most common bacteria associated with food poisoning from rice is called bacillus.

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  • The causative agent is Aeromonas salmonicida a non-motile, Gram-negative aerobic bacillus, typically 1 µm x 2 µm.

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  • B. fragilis is a Gram negative short bacillus which demonstrates pleomorphism.

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  • Tetanus is caused by a Gram-positive bacillus, Clostridium tetani.

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  • Two Gram positive cocci and one Gram positive bacillus.

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  • bacillus thuringiensis, to ward off crop pests.

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  • bacillus subtilis, was introduced into a subway station in New York City.

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  • bacillus anthracis to form spores makes it a difficult organism to control.

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  • bacillus cereus: rice, cereal products, cheese products.

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  • bacillus stearothermophilus Thermophilic species which grows at 65 °C; produces lipase and protease.

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  • bacillus thurensis, which is harmless to plants and animals, save of course mosquito larvae.

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  • The leprosy bacillus seems to have ' got rid of ' non-essential genes.

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  • For example, genes from the bacterium bacillus thuringiensis produce a toxin that kills certain insects.

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  • Living in the soil are huge numbers of bacteria belonging to the genus bacillus.

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  • bacillus time it has taken you to read this far, another 50 people will have been infected with the tubercle bacilli.

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  • Those which require oxygen are called aerobes, e.g. Bacillus cereus.

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  • bacillus cereus: rice, cereal products, cheese products.

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  • Only a few genera of bacteria such as Bacillus and Clostridium are capable of forming endospores.

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  • genus bacillus.

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  • genusy a few genera of bacteria such as Bacillus and Clostridium are capable of forming endospores.

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  • Predisposing factors: H. pylori infection: A gram negative spiral microaerophilic bacillus specific for human gastric mucosa.

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  • leprosy bacillus seems to have ' got rid of ' non-essential genes.

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  • Bacillus stearothermophilus Thermophilic species which grows at 65 °C; produces lipase and protease.

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  • motile bacteria, see the page on the genus Bacillus.

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  • The entire sequence of the genome of the bacillus mycobacterium leprae is now available to research scientists.

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  • radicchio rosso The barnase gene from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

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  • riboflavin derived from GM Bacillus subtilis using fermentation technology.

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  • However, putting a culture containing millions of bacillus anthracis spores into a form that makes an effective weapon is not easy.

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  • Absence of toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis pollen to black swallowtails under field conditions.

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  • Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection caused by a germ called the tubercle bacillus or Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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  • Bacillus amylobacter usually accompanies the lactic acid organism, and decomposes lactic and other higher acids with formation of butyric acid.

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  • Of the dry antiseptics iodoform is constantly used in septic or tuberculous wounds, and it appears to have an inhibitory action on Bacillus tuberculosis.

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  • They were confirmed, but met with little acceptance in the scientific world, which was preoccupied with the claims of a subsequently discredited Bacillus malariae.

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  • Glucose also undergoes fermentation into lactic acid in the presence of the lactic acid bacillus, and into butyric acid if the action of the preceding ferment be continued, or by other bacilli.

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  • Then followed Koch's great revelation in 1882 of the bacillus of tubercle (fig.

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  • The fact that the tubercle bacillus is to be found in the lesions of both has set at rest any misgiving on the subject, and put beyond dispute the fact that so-called scrofulous affections are simply local manifestations of tuberculosis.

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  • A knowledge of the bacteriology of scrofulous affections of bone and joints, such as caries and gelatinous degeneration, has shown that they also are tubercular diseases - that is to say, diseases due to the presence locally of the tubercle bacillus.

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  • Their pneumonic nature has been amply substantiated in later times; they are now regarded simply as evidence of pneumonic reaction to the stimulus of the tubercle bacillus.

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  • The caseous necrosis of the implicated mass of lung tissue, and indeed of tubercles generally, is held to be, in great measure, the result of the necrotic influence of the secretions from the bacillus.

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  • Quite irrespective of the nature of the anatomical lesion, the finding of the diphtheria bacillus on the part affected and the inoculability of this upon a suitable fresh soil are the sole means by which the diagnosis can be made certain.

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  • The rapid diagnosis of diphtheria, by recognizing its bacillus, has enabled the practitioner of medicine to commence the treatment early, and it has also enabled the medical officer of health to step in and insist on the isolation of affected persons before the disease has had time to spread.

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  • Fortunately Germany, which at the beginning of the century was delivered over to Brownism and vitalism and was deaf to Bichat, was rescued from this sort of barrenness by the brilliant experimental work of Claude Bernard and Pasteur in France - work which, as regards the attenuated virus, was a development of that of Edward Jenner, and indeed of Schwann, Robert Koch worthily following Pasteur with his work on the bacillus of anthrax and with his discovery of that of tuberculosis; and by the cellular doctrine and abundant labours in pathology of Virchow.

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  • By the discovery of the bacillus of tubercle, the physician has been enabled to piece together a long and varied list of maladies under several names, such as scrofula and lupus, many of them long suspected to be tuberculous, but now known to belong to the series.

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  • It is difficultly fermented by yeast, but readily by the lactic acid bacillus.

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  • These are found to contain large numbers of a bacterium termed Bacillus radicicola or Pseudomonas radicicola.

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  • Robertson has shown that the typhoid bacillus can grow very easily in certain soils, can persist in soils through the winter months, and when the soil is artificially fed, as may be done by a leaky drain or by access of filthy water from the surface, the microorganism will take on a fresh growth in the warm season.

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  • The typhoid organism was not found to be taken off from the decomposing masses of semi-liquid filth largely contaminated with a culture of bacillus typhosus; but, on the other hand, it was abundantly proved that it could grow over moist surfaces of stones, &c. Certain disease-producing organisms, such as the bacillus of tetanus and malignant oedema, appear to be universally distributed in soil, while others, as the bacillus typhosus and spirillum cholerae, appear to have only a local distribution.

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  • The conditions which favour the vitality, growth and multiplication of the typhoid bacillus are the following: the soil should be pervious; it should be permeated with a sufficiency of decaying - preferably animal - organic matters; it should possess a certain amount of moisture, and be subject to a certain temperature.

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  • Since Metchnikoff's introduction (see Longevity) of the use of soured milk for dietetic purposes-the lactic acid bacillus destroying pathogenic bacteria in the intestine-a great impetus has been given to the multiplication of laboratory preparations containing 'cultures of the bacillus; and in recent years much benefit to health has, in certain cases, been derived from the discovery.

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  • Fitz (Ber., 1878, 11, p. 52) found that the butyric fermentation of starch is aided by the direct addition of Bacillus subtilis.

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  • Plague is a specific infectious fever, caused by the bacillus pestis, which was identified in 1894 by Kitasato, and subsequently, but independently, by Yersin (see Parasitic Diseases).

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  • The bacillus is non-resistant and easily killed by heat and germicide substances, particularly acids.

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  • Of the lower animals, mice, rats, guinea-pigs, rabbits, squirrels and monkeys are susceptible to the bacillus; horses, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and cats are more or less resistant, but cats and dogs have been known to die of plague (Oporto, Daman, Cutch and Poona).

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  • Given the bacillus, the questions arise, How is it disseminated?

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  • The report also considers it proved that the bacillus pestis multiplies in the stomach of a flea and may remain a considerable time within its host.

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  • It is especially desirable for hospital and ambulance staffs to be inoculated with a vaccine prepared from sterilized cultures of plague bacillus.

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  • Klein also prepares a new prophylactic from the dried organs of a guinea-pig, and one of the most interesting experiments is that of Strong (Archiv far Schiff sand tropische Hygiene, April, 1906), who uses for producing immunity in man a living virulent culture of the bacillus pestis.

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  • This disease depends upon the presence of a bacillus which grows rapidly at the back of the throat and in the airpassages specially of children, causing the formation of a membrane which, by plugging the windpipe, causes suffocation and death.

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  • By growing this bacillus in broth a toxin is formed which remains in solution and can be separated from the bacilli themselves by filtration.

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  • It may be diminished or its increase prevented by a diet from which red meat and meat extracts are excluded, by the use of the lactic acid bacillus, by the administration of laxatives and cholagogues to regulate the bowels, and by the use of iodides and nitrites.

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  • This disease is due to the presence of large numbers of Bacillus solanacearum in the tubes through which water is conveyed to the leaves from the roots.

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  • Resemblances also exist between the endospores and the spore-formations in the Saccharomycetes, and if Bacillus inflatus, B.

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  • bacillus, little rod or stick.

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  • Bacillus subtilis, Cohn, and Spirillum undula, Ehrenb.

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  • He proceeded in the main on the assumption that the forms of bacteria as met with and described by him are practically constant, at any rate within limits which are not wide: observing that a minute spherical micrococcus or a rod-like bacillus regularly produced similar micrococci and bacilli respectively, he based his classification on what may be considered the constancy of forms which he called species and genera.

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  • The supposed constancy of forms in Cohn's species and genera received a shock when Lankester in 1873 pointed out that his Bacterium rubescens (since named Beggiatoa roseo-persicina, Zopf) passes through conditions which would have been described by most observers influenced by the current doctrine as so many separate " species " or even " genera," - that in fact forms known as Bacterium, Hicrococcus, Bacillus, Leptothrix, &c., occur as phases in one life-history.

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  • Bacillus typhi, Gaffky.

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  • About 1880 Pasteur first showed that Bacillus anthracis cultivated in chicken broth, with plenty of oxygen and at a temperature of 42-43° C., lost its virulence after a few " generations," and ceased to kill even the mouse; Toussaint and Chauveau confirmed, and others have extended the observations.

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  • Bacillus pyocyaneus (fig.

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  • Endogenous spores of the hay bacillus.

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  • Germination of the spore of the hay bacillus (B.

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  • Bacillus megaterium.

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  • - Bacillus e nthracis.

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  • - Curve of growth of a filament of Bacillus ramosus (Fraenkel), constructed from data such as in fig.

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  • those of Bacillus subtilis measure o.

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  • - Bacillus subtilis.

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  • - Stages in the development of spores of Bacillus ramosus (Fraenkel), in the order and at the times given, in a hanging drop culture, under a very high power.

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  • A, Bacillus anthracis.

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  • Bacillus subtilis.

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  • Sporogenous rodlets cylindric, not altered in shape: - Bacillus (Cohn), non-motile; Bactrinium (Fischer), motile, with one polar flagellum (monotrichous); Bactrillum (Fischer), motile, with a terminal tuft of cilia (lophotrichous); Bactridium (Fischer), motile, with cilia all over the surface (peritrichous) .

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  • (2) By far the majority of the described species (over woo) fall into the three genera - Micro- coccus (about 400), Bacillus (about 200) and Bactridium (about 150), so that only a quarter or so of the forms are selected out by the other genera.

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  • - Stages in the formation of a colony of a variety of Bacillus (Proteus) vulgaris (Hauser), observed in a hanging drop. At I I A.M.

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  • - A plate-culture of a bacillus which had been exposed for a period of four hours behind a zinc stencil-plate, in which the letters C and B were cut.

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  • Bacillus chauvaei ferments cane-sugar solutions in such a way that normal butyric acid, inactive lactic acid, carbon dioxide, and FIG.

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  • - A plate-culture colony of a in more complex multispecies of Bacillus - Proteus (Hauser) cellular organisms. To - on the fifth day.

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  • p. r; Sturgis, " A Soil Bacillus of the type of de Bary's B.

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  • In the last decade of the 19th century the chief discoveries were of the bacillus of influenza (1892), of the bacillus of plague (1894) and of the bacillus of dysentery (1898).

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  • This is the case in the methods for staining the tubercle bacillus and also in Gram's method, the essential point in which latter is the treatment with a solution of iodine before decolorizing.

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  • the tubercle bacillus.

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  • This, for example, is the case with the anthrax bacillus; although the effect of this organism in the living body indicates the production of toxins which diffuse for a distance around the bacteria.

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  • Thus, to mention examples, diphtheria toxin produces inflammatory oedema which may be followed by necrosis; dead tubercle bacilli give rise to a tubercle-like nodule, &c. Furthermore, a bacillus may give rise to more than one toxic body, either as stages in one process of change or as distinct products.

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  • Many of them, probably also of proteid nature, are much more resistant to heat; thus the intracellular toxins of the tubercle bacillus retain certain of their effects even after exposure to ioo° C. Like the extracellular toxins they may be of remarkable potency; for example, fever is produced in the human subject by the injection into the blood of an extremely minute quantity of dead typhoid bacilli.

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  • In the case of diphtheria Sidney Martin obtained toxic albumoses in the spleen, which he considered were due to the digestive action of an enzyme formed by the bacillus in the membrane and absorbed into the circulation.

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  • In the lastmentioned disease even the local multiplication depends upon the presence of other bacteria, as the tetanus bacillus has practically no power of multiplying in the healthy tissues when introduced alone.

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  • Many of the earlier methods of attenuation were devised in the case of the anthrax bacillus, an organism which is, however, somewhat exceptional as regards the relative stability of its virulence.

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  • the serum of an animal immunized against the bacterium) was added to a fluid culture of this bacillus, growth formed a sediment instead of a uniform turbidity.

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  • Shortly afterwards Widal and also Griinbaum showed that the serum of patients suffering from typhoid fever, even at an early stage of the disease, agglutinated the typhoid bacillus - a fact which laid the foundation of serum diagnosis.

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  • coli, " meat-poisoning " due to Gartner's bacillus, and various other infections.

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  • Observations made on this property with respect to the anthrax bacillus at first gave the hope that it might explain variations in natural immunity.

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  • Thus the serum of the white rat, which is immune to anthrax, kills the bacillus; whereas the serum of the guinea-pig, which is susceptible, has no such effect.

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  • In the light of all the facts, however, especially those contains an opsonin which leads to phagocytosis of the bacillus, and the latter is then destroyed by the leucocytes.

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  • The list of his works of fiction includes The Stolen Bacillus and other Stories (1895), The Wonderful Visit (1895), The Island of Doctor Moreau (1896), The Plattner Story and Others (1897), When the Sleeper Wakes (1899), The First Men in the Moon (1901), The Food of the Gods (1904), In the Days of the Comet (1906), The War in the Air (1908), Anne Veronica (1909), The History of Mr Polly (191 0).

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  • Species of small size are found in southern Europe, one belonging to the genus Bacillus advancing as far north as the middle of France.

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  • The fourth isomer, formed by the action of Bacillus laevo-lacti on cane-sugar, resembles sarcolactic acid in every respect, except in its action on polarized light (see Stereoisomerism).

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  • Where, therefore, there is animal pollution of any kind, more especially where there is human pollution, generally indicated by the presence of bacillus coli communis, purification is of supreme importance, and no process has yet been devised which, except at extravagant cost, supersedes for public supplies that of properly-conducted sand filtration.

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  • With regard to the bacillary type, at first both organisms were considered to be identical, and the name bacillus dysenteriae was given to them; but later it was shown that these bacilli are different, both in regard to their cultural characteristics and also in that one (Shiga) gives out a soluble toxin, whilst the other has so far resisted all efforts to discover it.

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  • In those cases due to Shiga's bacillus the ideal treatment has been put at our disposal by the preparation of a specific antitoxin; this has been given a trial in several grave epidemics of late, and may be said to be the most satisfactory treatment and offer the greatest hope of recovery.

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  • Still later, in 1874, Dr Cohn, after the most exhaustive experiments and bacteriological research, realized that the disease was caused by a bacillus, and - nine years later - the name Bacillus alvei was given to it by Cheyne and Cheshire, whose views were in agreement with those of Dr Cohn.

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  • - Foul Brood (Bacillus alvei).

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  • two others in addition to Bacillus alvei playing an important part.

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  • These are Bacillus brandenburgiensis, Maassen (syn.

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  • When the disease attacks the larvae before they are sealed over Bacillus alvei is present, usually associated with Streptococcus apis, which latter imparts a sour smell to the dead brood.

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  • Under these conditions Bacillus brandenburgiensis is found, although Bacillus alvei may also be present.

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  • the cellulose membranes showed traces of subjection to butyric fermentation, such as is produced at the present day by Bacillus Amylobacter; he also claimed to have detected the organism itself.

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  • Bejo Zaden BV Male sterile radicchio rosso The barnase gene from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

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  • FOOD SAFETY CLEARANCE Food safety clearance has been given to riboflavin derived from GM Bacillus subtilis using fermentation technology.

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  • Bacillus species are well known in the food industry as spoilage organisms.

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  • However, putting a culture containing millions of Bacillus anthracis spores into a form that makes an effective weapon is not easy.

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  • Absence of toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis pollen to black swallowtails under field conditions.

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  • Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection caused by a germ called the tubercle bacillus or Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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  • Most often, the genetic modification in question is the incorporation of genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, or Bt for short.

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  • Streptococcal and staphylococcal bacteria are the most common causes of lymphadenitis, although viruses, protozoa, rickettsiae, fungi, and the tuberculosis bacillus can also infect the lymph nodes.

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  • It is caused by a bacterial microorganism, the tubercle bacillus or Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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  • The symptoms of diphtheria are caused by toxins produced by the diphtheria bacillus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae (from the Greek for "rubber membrane").

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  • In fact, toxin production is related to infections of the bacillus itself with a particular bacteria virus called a phage (from bacteriophage, a virus that infects bacteria).

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  • The diphtheria bacillus is Gram-positive which means it holds the dye after the slide is rinsed with alcohol.

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  • Another laboratory test involves growing the diphtheria bacillus on a special material called Loeffler's medium.

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  • The most common tuberculin skin test is the Mantoux test, which consists of injecting a small amount of protein from the TB bacillus into the forearm.

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