How to use Bacillus in a sentence
Only a single pathogenic species can withstand the short boiling to which milk is ordinarily treated in domestic management, and this is the anthrax bacillus containing spores.
Of the lower animals, mice, rats, guinea-pigs, rabbits, squirrels and monkeys are susceptible to the bacillus; horses, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and cats are more or less resistant, but cats and dogs have been known to die of plague (Oporto, Daman, Cutch and Poona).
By growing this bacillus in broth a toxin is formed which remains in solution and can be separated from the bacilli themselves by filtration.
It is now known that the plague was caused by a bacillus transmitted by rat fleas.
Robertson has shown that the typhoid bacillus can grow very easily in certain soils, can persist in soils through the winter months, and when the soil is artificially fed, as may be done by a leaky drain or by access of filthy water from the surface, the microorganism will take on a fresh growth in the warm season.Advertisement
The report also considers it proved that the bacillus pestis multiplies in the stomach of a flea and may remain a considerable time within its host.
Klein also prepares a new prophylactic from the dried organs of a guinea-pig, and one of the most interesting experiments is that of Strong (Archiv far Schiff sand tropische Hygiene, April, 1906), who uses for producing immunity in man a living virulent culture of the bacillus pestis.
This disease depends upon the presence of a bacillus which grows rapidly at the back of the throat and in the airpassages specially of children, causing the formation of a membrane which, by plugging the windpipe, causes suffocation and death.
It may be diminished or its increase prevented by a diet from which red meat and meat extracts are excluded, by the use of the lactic acid bacillus, by the administration of laxatives and cholagogues to regulate the bowels, and by the use of iodides and nitrites.
This disease is due to the presence of large numbers of Bacillus solanacearum in the tubes through which water is conveyed to the leaves from the roots.Advertisement
All these terms, including the usual one of bacteria, are unsatisfactory; for " bacterium," " bacillus " and " micrococcus " have narrow technical meanings, and the other terms are too vague to be scientific. The most satisfactory designation is that proposed by Nageli in 1857, namely " schizomycetes," and it is by this term that they are usually known among botanists; the less exact term, however, is also used and is retained in this article since the science is commonly known as " bacteriology."
By 1876 the anthrax bacillus had been obtained in pure culture by Koch, and some other pathogenic bacteria had been observed in the tissues, but it was in the decade 1880-1890 that the most important discoveries were made in this field.
In the last decade of the 19th century the chief discoveries were of the bacillus of influenza (1892), of the bacillus of plague (1894) and of the bacillus of dysentery (1898).
The leprosy bacillus seems to have ' got rid of ' non-essential genes.
Of the dry antiseptics iodoform is constantly used in septic or tuberculous wounds, and it appears to have an inhibitory action on Bacillus tuberculosis.Advertisement
Their pneumonic nature has been amply substantiated in later times; they are now regarded simply as evidence of pneumonic reaction to the stimulus of the tubercle bacillus.
A definite bacillus to which the peculiarly fine flavour of certain butters is due, is said to be largely employed in pure cultures in American dairies, and in Denmark certain butters are said to keep fresh much longer owing to the use of pure cultures and the treatment employed to suppress the forms which cause rancidity.
Living in the soil are huge numbers of bacteria belonging to the genus bacillus.
The caseous necrosis of the implicated mass of lung tissue, and indeed of tubercles generally, is held to be, in great measure, the result of the necrotic influence of the secretions from the bacillus.
It is difficultly fermented by yeast, but readily by the lactic acid bacillus.Advertisement
It is especially desirable for hospital and ambulance staffs to be inoculated with a vaccine prepared from sterilized cultures of plague bacillus.
This is the case in the methods for staining the tubercle bacillus and also in Gram's method, the essential point in which latter is the treatment with a solution of iodine before decolorizing.
This, for example, is the case with the anthrax bacillus; although the effect of this organism in the living body indicates the production of toxins which diffuse for a distance around the bacteria.
Thus, to mention examples, diphtheria toxin produces inflammatory oedema which may be followed by necrosis; dead tubercle bacilli give rise to a tubercle-like nodule, &c. Furthermore, a bacillus may give rise to more than one toxic body, either as stages in one process of change or as distinct products.
In the case of diphtheria Sidney Martin obtained toxic albumoses in the spleen, which he considered were due to the digestive action of an enzyme formed by the bacillus in the membrane and absorbed into the circulation.Advertisement
In the lastmentioned disease even the local multiplication depends upon the presence of other bacteria, as the tetanus bacillus has practically no power of multiplying in the healthy tissues when introduced alone.
Many of the earlier methods of attenuation were devised in the case of the anthrax bacillus, an organism which is, however, somewhat exceptional as regards the relative stability of its virulence.
Shortly afterwards Widal and also Griinbaum showed that the serum of patients suffering from typhoid fever, even at an early stage of the disease, agglutinated the typhoid bacillus - a fact which laid the foundation of serum diagnosis.
Observations made on this property with respect to the anthrax bacillus at first gave the hope that it might explain variations in natural immunity.
Thus the serum of the white rat, which is immune to anthrax, kills the bacillus; whereas the serum of the guinea-pig, which is susceptible, has no such effect.
In the light of all the facts, however, especially those contains an opsonin which leads to phagocytosis of the bacillus, and the latter is then destroyed by the leucocytes.
The list of his works of fiction includes The Stolen Bacillus and other Stories (1895), The Wonderful Visit (1895), The Island of Doctor Moreau (1896), The Plattner Story and Others (1897), When the Sleeper Wakes (1899), The First Men in the Moon (1901), The Food of the Gods (1904), In the Days of the Comet (1906), The War in the Air (1908), Anne Veronica (1909), The History of Mr Polly (191 0).
Species of small size are found in southern Europe, one belonging to the genus Bacillus advancing as far north as the middle of France.
Where, therefore, there is animal pollution of any kind, more especially where there is human pollution, generally indicated by the presence of bacillus coli communis, purification is of supreme importance, and no process has yet been devised which, except at extravagant cost, supersedes for public supplies that of properly-conducted sand filtration.
With regard to the bacillary type, at first both organisms were considered to be identical, and the name bacillus dysenteriae was given to them; but later it was shown that these bacilli are different, both in regard to their cultural characteristics and also in that one (Shiga) gives out a soluble toxin, whilst the other has so far resisted all efforts to discover it.
In those cases due to Shiga's bacillus the ideal treatment has been put at our disposal by the preparation of a specific antitoxin; this has been given a trial in several grave epidemics of late, and may be said to be the most satisfactory treatment and offer the greatest hope of recovery.
Still later, in 1874, Dr Cohn, after the most exhaustive experiments and bacteriological research, realized that the disease was caused by a bacillus, and - nine years later - the name Bacillus alvei was given to it by Cheyne and Cheshire, whose views were in agreement with those of Dr Cohn.
When the disease attacks the larvae before they are sealed over Bacillus alvei is present, usually associated with Streptococcus apis, which latter imparts a sour smell to the dead brood.
Under these conditions Bacillus brandenburgiensis is found, although Bacillus alvei may also be present.
Many bacteria can be found within rice, and the most common bacteria associated with food poisoning from rice is called bacillus.
The causative agent is Aeromonas salmonicida a non-motile, Gram-negative aerobic bacillus, typically 1 µm x 2 µm.
B. fragilis is a Gram negative short bacillus which demonstrates pleomorphism.
Tetanus is caused by a Gram-positive bacillus, Clostridium tetani.
For example, genes from the bacterium bacillus thuringiensis produce a toxin that kills certain insects.
Those which require oxygen are called aerobes, e.g. Bacillus cereus.
The fact that the tubercle bacillus is to be found in the lesions of both has set at rest any misgiving on the subject, and put beyond dispute the fact that so-called scrofulous affections are simply local manifestations of tuberculosis.
A knowledge of the bacteriology of scrofulous affections of bone and joints, such as caries and gelatinous degeneration, has shown that they also are tubercular diseases - that is to say, diseases due to the presence locally of the tubercle bacillus.
The rapid diagnosis of diphtheria, by recognizing its bacillus, has enabled the practitioner of medicine to commence the treatment early, and it has also enabled the medical officer of health to step in and insist on the isolation of affected persons before the disease has had time to spread.
Fortunately Germany, which at the beginning of the century was delivered over to Brownism and vitalism and was deaf to Bichat, was rescued from this sort of barrenness by the brilliant experimental work of Claude Bernard and Pasteur in France - work which, as regards the attenuated virus, was a development of that of Edward Jenner, and indeed of Schwann, Robert Koch worthily following Pasteur with his work on the bacillus of anthrax and with his discovery of that of tuberculosis; and by the cellular doctrine and abundant labours in pathology of Virchow.
The typhoid organism was not found to be taken off from the decomposing masses of semi-liquid filth largely contaminated with a culture of bacillus typhosus; but, on the other hand, it was abundantly proved that it could grow over moist surfaces of stones, &c. Certain disease-producing organisms, such as the bacillus of tetanus and malignant oedema, appear to be universally distributed in soil, while others, as the bacillus typhosus and spirillum cholerae, appear to have only a local distribution.
Since Metchnikoff's introduction (see Longevity) of the use of soured milk for dietetic purposes-the lactic acid bacillus destroying pathogenic bacteria in the intestine-a great impetus has been given to the multiplication of laboratory preparations containing 'cultures of the bacillus; and in recent years much benefit to health has, in certain cases, been derived from the discovery.
Plague is a specific infectious fever, caused by the bacillus pestis, which was identified in 1894 by Kitasato, and subsequently, but independently, by Yersin (see Parasitic Diseases).
The fourth isomer, formed by the action of Bacillus laevo-lacti on cane-sugar, resembles sarcolactic acid in every respect, except in its action on polarized light (see Stereoisomerism).
Bejo Zaden BV Male sterile radicchio rosso The barnase gene from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.
Bacillus species are well known in the food industry as spoilage organisms.
However, putting a culture containing millions of Bacillus anthracis spores into a form that makes an effective weapon is not easy.
Most often, the genetic modification in question is the incorporation of genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, or Bt for short.
Streptococcal and staphylococcal bacteria are the most common causes of lymphadenitis, although viruses, protozoa, rickettsiae, fungi, and the tuberculosis bacillus can also infect the lymph nodes.
It is caused by a bacterial microorganism, the tubercle bacillus or Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
The symptoms of diphtheria are caused by toxins produced by the diphtheria bacillus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae (from the Greek for "rubber membrane").
In fact, toxin production is related to infections of the bacillus itself with a particular bacteria virus called a phage (from bacteriophage, a virus that infects bacteria).
The diphtheria bacillus is Gram-positive which means it holds the dye after the slide is rinsed with alcohol.
Another laboratory test involves growing the diphtheria bacillus on a special material called Loeffler's medium.
The most common tuberculin skin test is the Mantoux test, which consists of injecting a small amount of protein from the TB bacillus into the forearm.
They were confirmed, but met with little acceptance in the scientific world, which was preoccupied with the claims of a subsequently discredited Bacillus malariae.
Fitz (Ber., 1878, 11, p. 52) found that the butyric fermentation of starch is aided by the direct addition of Bacillus subtilis.
The path by which the bacillus enters the body varies.
The bacillus is non-resistant and easily killed by heat and germicide substances, particularly acids.
The bacillus has been demonstrated in the bodies of fleas, flies, bugs and ants.
The supposed constancy of forms in Cohn's species and genera received a shock when Lankester in 1873 pointed out that his Bacterium rubescens (since named Beggiatoa roseo-persicina, Zopf) passes through conditions which would have been described by most observers influenced by the current doctrine as so many separate " species " or even " genera," - that in fact forms known as Bacterium, Hicrococcus, Bacillus, Leptothrix, &c., occur as phases in one life-history.
In other words, animals vaccinated with the cultivated bacillus showed immunity from disease when reinoculated with the deadly wild form.
The questions as to the causes and nature of the changes in the bacillus and in the host, as to the extent of immunity enjoyed by the latter, &c., are of the greatest interest and importance.
Only a few genera of bacteria such as Bacillus and Clostridium are capable of forming endospores.
The entire sequence of the genome of the bacillus mycobacterium leprae is now available to research scientists.
However, putting a culture containing millions of bacillus anthracis spores into a form that makes an effective weapon is not easy.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection caused by a germ called the tubercle bacillus or Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Bacillus amylobacter usually accompanies the lactic acid organism, and decomposes lactic and other higher acids with formation of butyric acid.
Before the discovery of the bacillus of tubercle, scrofula and tuberculosis were regarded as two distinct diseases, and it was supposed that the scrofulous constitution could be distinguished from the tubercular.
Quite irrespective of the nature of the anatomical lesion, the finding of the diphtheria bacillus on the part affected and the inoculability of this upon a suitable fresh soil are the sole means by which the diagnosis can be made certain.
By the discovery of the bacillus of tubercle, the physician has been enabled to piece together a long and varied list of maladies under several names, such as scrofula and lupus, many of them long suspected to be tuberculous, but now known to belong to the series.
These are found to contain large numbers of a bacterium termed Bacillus radicicola or Pseudomonas radicicola.
In the laboratory absolute soil dryness is as distinctly antagonistic to the vitality of the diphtheria bacillus as soil dampness is favourable.
Glucose also undergoes fermentation into lactic acid in the presence of the lactic acid bacillus, and into butyric acid if the action of the preceding ferment be continued, or by other bacilli.
The lactic acid bacillus, always present in unboiled milk (to which the souring of milk is due), is easily destroyed by heat; but the bacillus mesentericus, often found in it, forms spores, which are not destroyed by ordinary boiling, and germinate when the milk is kept at a moderately warm temperature, producing a brisk fermentation whereby a large volume of gas is liberated.
Given the bacillus, the questions arise, How is it disseminated?